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PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

OF URETEROLITHIASIS

PREDISPOSING
PRECIPITATING
FACTORS
FACTORS

Supersaturation of urinary substances such as


calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, and uric acid

Nucleation

Accumulation of substances

Stone formation

Blockage of passage of urine

Increase urine in the kidney

Stone descends from the kidney to the ureter

Aggregation occurs to form larger stones


Blockage of the ureter

Increase pressure in the ureter

Uretral walls became severely stretched

Loses its ability to undergo peristaltic contractions

Slowing of the passage of urine Scarring of the ureteral walls


CM

Lower abdominal pain Abdominal spasm Bleeding of the walls

Hematuria Painful urination

Urinary tract infection Increase stasis of urine in bladder


CM
sense of urgency
Destruction of normal functioning of the kidney Accumulation of urine
substances
CM
weakness renal failure Nucleation
fatigue
Bladder stone formation

Decrease urine output


Decrease production of erythropoietin

Decrease production of RBC no balance in blood component production


Anemia abnormalities in the WBC and platelet function

Decrease oxygenation to the organs Bruising and increase susceptibility to infection

multiple organ failure entrance of pathongens to the blood

pathogens streams to the body system

multiple organ infection

increased sympathetic nervous system activity related to dysfunction of


autonomic nervous system

increased activity of rennin angiotensin aldosterone system resulting to


extracellular fluid volume and increase systemic vascular resistance

increased renal reabsorption of sodium, chloride, and water related to a genetic


variation in the pathways by which kidneys can handle

resistance to insulin action which may be a common fluid volume overload


CM
factor link type 2 DM and obesity
Edema
increase cardiac workload
increase viscosity of blood
hypertension

cardiac failure
DEATH

LEGEND

The Cross symbolizes possible death

The line with 2 arrows pointing upward/downward indicates as a result to a


possible or futuristic effects, complications, manifestations or resulting
problems and diseases. Not manifested yet by the patient.

Rounded rectangle indicates the actual condition, diseases, complications


the patient is experiencing.

That would lead to …………..

Predisposing/ precipitating factors of the said condition.