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Form 5 Biology

Chapter 14 Inheritance

Objective Questions

1 Figure 1 shows the crossbreeding between a tall plant (pure stock) and a short plant (pure
stock) for the pea plant, which is carried out by Gregor Mendel.
Parent : Tall × Short

First generation : F1

Second generation: F2
Figure 1

What is the phenotype ratio of the progenies that are produced in F1 and F2?
Ratio of tall to short
F1 F2
A 1:1 2:1
B 3:1 All short
C All tall 3:1
D All tall All tall

2 A child has the O blood group. His father has the B blood group. What is the blood group
that the mother may have?
A AB or O C B or O
B A, B or O D O only

In a plant, the allele for the red flower and white flower are equally dominant. Its
heterozygote allele shows the pink flower. What is the phenotype ratio if two plants with
pink flowers are cross-bred?
A 1 red : 1 white
B 1 red : 1 pink : 1 white
C 1 red : 2 pink : 1 white
D 1 white : 3 red

3 Two pure stock parents of a pea plant – tall (T) with flowers coloured (W), and short (t)
with white flowers (w) are cross-breed. The F1 generation that is produced is
subsequently cross-bred among themselves. What is the probable genotype that is
obtained in the F2 generation?
A 3 C 9
B 4 D 16

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Questions 5 and 6 are based on Figure 2, which shows a dihybrid cross-breed for a certain
plant.

Parent : TTMM × TTMM

First generation : F1

Key: T = tall M = red flower m = white flower


Figure 2

4 Which of the following genotypes will produce a plant that is tall and has red flowers?
I TtMm
II ttMm
III TTMM
IV Ttmm
A III only
B I and III only
C III and IV only
D I, II and III only

5 Which of the following is/are the expected characteristics for the progenies in the first
generation?
I All are tall and have red flowers
II All are short and have white flowers
III Some are tall with red flowers, and some are tall with white flowers
IV All are tall and have white flowers
A I only
B III only
C I and IV only
D II, III and IV only

6 The DNA in the chromosome functions to


A carry out the replication process
B reduce chromosomal mutation
C store genetic material
D synthesise pentose sugar

7 The part of the DNA that stores genetic material is known as


A phosphate group
B chromatin
C gene
D deoxyribose

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8 Figure 3 shows the structure of a nucleotide in a DNA molecule.

Figure 3

Among units K, L and M, which is the sugar, nitrogenous base and phosphate?
Sugar Nitrogenous base Phosphate
A K L M
B L M K
C M K L
D M L K

9 Which of the following human hormones is the first hormone produced through genetic
engineering in the bacteria cell?
A Oestrogen
B Thyroxine
C Insulin
D Testosterone

10 The characteristics of the Law of Mendel I are


I each characteristic is controlled by pairs
II each member from a pair of alleles can randomly combine with a member from
another pair of alleles
III the ratio resulting from this cross-breeding is 3 recessive : 1 dominant
IV only one of the allele pairs are found in a sole gamete
A II and III only
B I and IV only
C I, III and IV only
D I, II and III only

11 Figure 4 shows the homologous chromosomes that carry alleles Q, q and R, r.

Figure 4
The gametes that can be produced are

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I III

II IV

A I only C II and III only


B IV only D I, II and III only

12 Which of the following is the possible chromosome in the human sperm?


I 22 + X III 22 + Y
II 44 + Y IV 44 + XY
A I only C I and II only
B IV only D I and III only

13 Which of the following forms the backbone of the nucleotide chain?


I Deoxyribose sugar
II Nitrogenous base
III Phosphate
IV DNA molecule
A IV only C II and III only
B I, II and III only D I and III only

14 An allele is a gene that influences similar characteristics and is located on the same locus
in the
I nucleus III chromosome
II chromatid IV nitrogenous base
A III only
B II and III only
C I, II and III only
D I, III and IV only

15 Cross-breeding can help farmers by


I producing new clones that are of high quality
II increasing crop yield
III producing high quality crop
IV strengthening crop resistance towards diseases
A III only
B I, II and III only
C II, III and IV only
D I, II, II and IV

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Structured Questions

1 Figure 1 shows the cross-breeding between two plants with the same phenotype.

Plant A Plant B
Parent : Tall with sweet fruits × Tall with sweet fruits

F1 : 9 Tall with sweet fruits, 3 tall with sour fruits, 3 short with sweet
fruits, 1 short with sour fruits

Key: T = Height M = Taste


Figure 1

(a) Write the characteristics that are controlled by


(i) the dominant gene:
(ii) the recessive gene:

(b) Write the genotype for plant A and plant B.


(i) A: (ii) B:

(c) List the genotypes for all types of gamete that may be produced by the parent.

(d) (i) How will you be able to show that the phenotype ratio in the first generation is 9
: 3 : 3 : 1?
(ii) Show the method stated in d(i).
Gamete TM Tm tM tm
TM TTMM TTMm TtMm TtMm
Tm TTMm TTmm TtMm Ttmm
tM TtMM TtMm TtMM ttMm
Tm TtMm Ttmm ttMm ttmm

9 Tall with sweet fruits : 3 tall with sour fruits : 3 short with sweet
fruits : 1 short with sour fruits

(e) What is the phenotype for the progenies in the first generation if plant A is
homozygote?

2 Figure 2 below shows karyotype of a patient suffering from a heredity disease. Study the
figure carefully and answer the following questions.

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Figure 2

(a) (i) Name the heredity disease that the patient is suffering from.
(ii) Give a reason for your answer.
(iii) State the genotype for this patient.

(b) What is the genotype of a male and a female?

(c) (i) What is the sex of the patient?


(ii) Give a reason for your answer based on the karyotype shown.

(d) Draw a schematic diagram to show how the sex chromosome determines the sex of
a child.

Essay Question

(a) Differentiate between:


(i) phenotype and genotype
(ii) homozygote and heterozygote
(iii) dominant gene and recessive gene

(b) Explain with the help of a genetic diagram,


(i) how a father that has the A blood group and a mother that has the B blood group,
can produce a child that has the O blood group.
(ii) why is it that the probability of getting a son or a daughter is the same.

Answers

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Objective Questions
1 C 9 B
2 B 10 C
3 C 11 B
4 C 12 D
5 B 13 D
6 A 14 D
7 C 15 A
8 C 16 C

Structured Question
1 (a) (i) Tall, sweet fruits
(ii) Short, sour fruits

(b) (i) TM, Tm


(ii) tM, tm

(c) TM Tm tM and tm

(d) (i) By using the Punnett square


(ii)
Gamete TM Tm tM tm
TM TTMM TTMm TtMM TtMm
Tm TTMm TTmm TtMm Ttmm
tM TtMM TtMm ttMM ttMm
tm TtMm Ttmm ttMm ttmm

9 tall and have : 3 tall and have : 3 short and have : 1 short and have
sweet fruits our fruits sweet fruits sour fruits

(e) All are tall with sweet fruits

2 (a) (i) Down’s syndrome


(ii) There are 47 chromosomes and not 46 chromosomes. There are more than one
chromosome-21
(iii) 45 + XX

(b) Male: 44 + XY
Female: 44 + XX

(c) (i) Female


(ii) There are XX sex chromosomes
Parent : Mother × Father
44 + XX 44 + XY

Gamete : 22 + X 22 + X 22 + Y
(d)

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Child : 44 + XX 44 + XY
(daughter) (son)
Essay Question

(a) (i) The phenotype is a physical or physiological characteristic of an organism, while


the genotype is the genetic composition in the cell of an organism.

(ii) The homozygote is an organism that has two similar alleles, for example TT or tt,
while the heterozygote is an organism that has two different alleles, for example Tt.

(iii) The dominant gene is the gene that always displays its characteristics, whether in a
homozygote or heterozygote pair, while the recessive gene is the gene that can only
display its effect when in a homozygote pairing.

(b) (i) • To get a child that has the O blood group, the child must obtain a recessive allele Lo
from its mother and father.
• As such, the A blood group in the father must be heterozygote that is AO.
• The mother also has the B blood group that is heterozygote that is BO.

Example of genetic cross-breeding

Father × Mother
B blood group
Parent : A blood group
Genotype : AO BO

Gamete : A O B O

Fertilisation :

Child
genotype : AB AO BO OO
Blood group : AB A B O

(ii) • The sperm produced by the testis has 22 autosomes and one sex chromosome,
which is either the X chromosome or Y chromosome.

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• If the sperm that contains the X chromosome fertilises the ovum that only carries
the X chromosome therefore, the zygote that is produced will contain two X
chromosomes, namely a girl.
• If the sperm that contains the Y chromosome fertilises the ovum therefore, the
zygote that is produced will contain the XY chromosome, namely a boy.
• Fertilisation occurs randomly and the sperm that carries the X chromosome or Y
chromosome has the same probability therefore, the probability to get a son or
daughter is the same.

Phenotype : Father Mother


Genotype : XY XX

Gamete : X Y X X

F1 genotype : XX XX XY XY

Phenotype : Girl Boy


Ratio : 1 1