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Digital Video Principles

Introduction
Video Terminology
Video standards
The FCC has approved 18 different scan rates in the US.
NTSC
NTSC - J
PAL
PAL - M
SECAM
PAL is sharper, NTSC has less flicker
Progressive vs. Interlaced
Progressive
Interlaced
Frame rates
24 fps
25 fps
30 fps
60 fields / second
Video formats
DV
MiniDV
DVCPro-25
DVCAM
SD
DVCPro-50
Betacam SX
Betacam SP
DigiBetacam
HD
HDV
DVCPro-HD (100)
HD
Image size
DV - NTSC
DV - PAL
SD
HD
HDV
What is aspect ratio
Ratio of width to height
Aspect ratios
What is letterboxing?
What is pillar box?
Video outputs
Analog
Composite
S-Video
Digital Video Principles
Component
Digital
Firewire
SDI
SD
HD
Digital Audio
Tape formats
VHS - analog
DV - digital
MiniDV
DVCAM
DVCPRO-25
DVCPro-50
DVCPRO-HD (100)
HDV
Betacam SX
Betacam SP
DigiBetacam
HD
Other high-end formats, such as D-1 and D-5
Video as Digital Data
Data rates
Storage requirements
Color sampling
Image compression
Working with Timecode
24 fps Video
What is 24 fps?
Shooting 24 fps?
Popular 24 fps formats
Capturing 24 fps video
Converting 24 fps video
Color and Video
What is white-balancing and how does it work?
Color Spaces
What is "color space?"
Principal color spaces
How to read scopes
When and why to use scopes
Waveform
Vectorscope
RGB Parade
Color bars
What these are
How to use them
How to read them on a scope
Digital Video Principles
How to set color bars on a scope
Computer Graphics vs. Video Graphics
Full-screen, Action Safe & Title Safe
Fixed resolution -- default is 72 dpi
Progressive vs interlaced
Color spaces -- RGB vs YUV
Color sampling: 4:4:4 vs. 4:1:1
White vs. superwhite
square vs. non-square pixels (NTSC vs PAL)
Conclusion
Digital Audio
Sample rate
Sample rate determines the frequency response of the audio
how does sampling/digital capture work?
Popular sample rates:
Bit depth
Bit depth determines the dynamic range of audio -- the distance between the softest and loudest
passages
Common bit-depths:
Waveforms
Reading waveforms
Editing waveforms
Why are audio meters important?
Anything over zero causes digital distortion
Reference tone levels
Why use a reference tone?
Standard tone settings
Setting appropriate audio levels
Closing summary and good-bye