# Hal 1 General Fundamental Occurrence of electricity

Current, Voltage & Resistance Current Potential difference VS Current Voltage Potential difference VS Voltage Resistance Conductor Insulator & Resistor Current voltage and resistance relation Series and paralel circuit Paralel current circuit Series paralel circuit

Hukum ohm Ohm’s law characteristic Determining current Determining Resistance Determining voltage Voltage drop

Kkirchhoff’s law Kkirchhoff’s current law Kkirchhoff’s voltage law

Power and watt Electric power A mount of electric power

Summery for basic electrical To understand easily formula of electrical Troubleshooting methods in circuit

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Check for ground condition in parallel circuit

Umum - Fundamental - Kejadian listrik Lancar, Tegangan & Tahanan - Lancar - Potensi perbedaan VS Lancar - Tegangan - Potensi VS perbedaan Tegangan - Perlawanan - Konduktor Insulator & Resistor - Tegangan Lancar dan resistensi hubungan - Seri dan paralel sirkuit - Arus Paralel - Seri rangkaian paralel Hukum ohm - Ohm karakteristik hukum - Menentukan arus - Menentukan Resistensi - Menentukan tegangan - Tegangan drop Kkirchhoff Hukum - Kkirchhoff's saat ini hukum - Kkirchhoff's tegangan hukum Power dan watt - Tenaga listrik - Sebuah gunung daya listrik Musim panas untuk dasar listrik - Untuk memahami dengan mudah rumus listrik - Mengatasi Masalah metode dalam rangkaian - Periksa kondisi tanah di dalam rangkaian paralel Hal2 Substance, element, atom Fundamental Everything in the universe is made up of matter. Matter can be defined as anything that occupies space or has mass. Matter can be found in the form of solids, liquids, and gases. However, these states are subject to relative temperature. Water is usually found in liquid form. Yet water can be readily changed to solid or a vapor form by changing its temperature. Matter can also be described by color, taste, and aridness, but these are only observable characteristics. They may not truly identify a substance. To truly identify a substance, the substance must be broken down into its smallest parts. The substance must be described in term of its atomic structure. Only then can it truly be defined and it's behavioral characteristic identified. A substance has been broken down to its purest form when breaking it down further it down further will change its atomic characteristics. This form is called

no longer split. - Atom : It is material that can no longer split. no nature of material.

Atom makes of following element again, and the structure is with figure.

Protons located in the nucleus of an atom, are the positive (+) charged particles.

Neutrons also in the nucleus, have no electric charge and are electrically neutral.

Electrons are the particles that orbit the nucleus and have a negative (-) charge.

Electrons move or flow from atom to atom because it is possible for an atom to gain or lose electrons in certain circumstances. Electrons that have been driven from an atom are called free electrons. The loss of one electron means the atom has an extra proton, which results in a more positive charge than negative. Positively charged atoms attract free electrons to replace the ones that were lost. If an atom gains an extra electron, it will have a more negative charge. The atom will repel other Negatively charged particles and will easily give up this extra electron if it is attracted away by a positively charged atom. To understand this better, think of a line of cars in traffic on a highway. When one car turns off, an opening is available. When an opening is available, another car, wanting in, sees it and is attracted to it and fills it in. This movement or flow of free electrons from one atom to another is electrical current or electricity. Karakteristik molekul dan atom • • Melekul : adalah bagian terkecil dari materi yang tidak dapat dipecah lagi. Atom : adalah materi yang tidak bisa lagi dipecah. tidak memiliki sifat zat. Atom merupakan penyusun unsur berikutnya, struktur atom seperti terlihat pada gambar.

Proton terletak dalam inti atom, dan merupakan partikel bermuatan positif (+).

Neutron juga berada dalam inti, tidak memiliki muatan listrik (netral). Elektron adalah partikel yang mengelilingi inti dan bermuatan negatif (-). Elektron bergerak dari atom ke atom ,karena itu mungkin sekali bagi atom untuk mendapatkan atau kehilangan elektron dalam keadaan tertentu. Elektron yang telah terlempar dari atom disebut elektron bebas. dengan hilangnya satu elektron berarti atom memiliki kelebihan proton, sehingga menghasilkan muatan yang lebih positif. Atom yang bermuatan positif akan menarik elektron bebas untuk menggantikan elektron yang hilang. Jika atom mengaalami kelebihan elektron , akan memiliki muatan yang lebih negatif. Atom akan membuang partikel bermuatan negatif lainnya dan dengan mudah akan memberikan kelebihan elektron ini jika tertarik oleh atom bermuatan positif. Untuk memahami hal ini lebih baik, pikirkan garis mobil di lalu lintas di jalan raya. Ketika satu mobil mati, membuka tersedia. Ketika membuka tersedia, mobil lain, ingin masuk, melihat dan tertarik untuk itu dan mengisinya masuk Gerakan atau aliran elektron bebas dari satu atom yang lain adalah arus listrik atau listrik. Hal 4

Ionization

The number of electrons and protons that make a particular atom are usually equal in number. This equal number creates a canceling effect between the negative and positive charge. The atomic structure of each element can be described as having a fixed number of electrons in orbit. Usually, an atom remains in its normal state unless energy is added by some exterior force such as heat, friction, or bombardment by other electrons. When energy is added to an atom, the atom becomes excited. If the exterior force is of sufficient strength, electrons in the atoms outer rings or orbits can leave their orbit. How tightly bound these outer electrons are to an atom depends on the element and the number of electrons in the outer orbit. If electrons leave the outer orbit, the atom becomes out of balance electrically. Ionisasi Jumlah elektron dan proton dalam atom biasanya memiliki jumlah yang sama. kesamaan jumlah ini menghasilkan efek tolak menolak antara muatan negatif dan positif. Struktur atom dari setiap elemen dapat digambarkan memiliki jumlah elektron tetap di orbit. Biasanya, atom tetap dalam keadaan normal kecuali energi ditambahkan oleh kekuatan luar seperti panas, gesekan, atau penembakan oleh elektron lain. Ketika energi ini ditambahkan ke atom, atom menjadi terpicu. Jika gaya eksterior cukup kuat, elektron pada cincin luar atom atau orbit dapat meninggalkan orbitnya. Seberapa kuat elektron terluar ini terikat tergantung pada elemen dan jumlah elektron di orbit luar. Jika elektron meninggalkan orbit luar, atom menjadi tidak seimbang secara elektrik. Hal 5

When the electron leaves the outer orbit. The atom becomes ionized. An atom that loses an electron from its outer orbit has more protons. The atom becomes a positive ion and displays positive charged characteristics. When an atom gains an extra electron, it becomes a negative ion. Negative ions display negatively charged characteristics.

Ketika elektron meninggalkan orbit terluar. Atom itu menjadi terionisasi. Sebuah atom yang kehilangan elektron dari orbit terluarnya memiliki kelebihan proton. Atom tersebut menjadi ion positif dan menampilkan karakteristik muatan positif. Ketika atom mendapatkan ekstra elektron, maka akan menjadi ion negatif. Ion negatif menampilkan karakteristik muatan negatif.

Hal 6 Electrostatic Field

The field or force surrounding a charged body is called the electrostatic field or dielectric field. The field can exhibit a positive or negative charge depending on a gain or loss of electrons. Two charged masses are shown in Figure. Lines represent the electrostatic fields of opposite polarity and the attractive force existing between the masses. In Figure, two charged masses are shown with like polarities. A repulsive force exists the charged masses due to the electrostatic fields. The field strongest very close to charged body. The field strength diminishes at a distance inversely proportional to the square of the distance. Medan elektrostatik Wilayah atau ruang lingkup muatan disebut medan elektrostatik atau medan dielektrik. Medan dapat berupa muatan positif atau negatif tergantung pada penambahan atau kehilangan elektron. Dua muatan berbeda diperlihatkan pada Gambar. Garis merupakan medan elektrostatik dari polaritas yang berlawanan dan terjadi tarik menarik ada di antara 2 muatan tersebut. Pada Gambar, dua muatan ditampilkan seperti polaritas. Sebuah gaya tolak menolak ada pada kedua muatan yang sama. Medan menjadi sangat kuat jika kedua muatan didekatkan. Kekuatan Medan berkurang pada jarak yang berbanding terbalik dengan kuadrat jarak.

Hal 7

When two electrostatic fields are joined together, the electrons flow from the mass with an excess of electrons to the mass that has a need of electrons flow from the mass with excess of electrons. Figure illustrates this principle. The excess electrons flow from the body that is negatively charged to the positively charged body that has electron deficiency. This transfer of electrons can be accomplished by touching the two bodies together or by connecting them with a material that supports the flow of electrons between the two bodies. This connecting material is known as a conductor because it conducts electricity.

Ketika dua Medan elektrostatik disambungkan, elektron akan mengalir dari atom yang kelebihan elektron ke atom yang memiliki kekurangan elektron. Gambar di atas mengilustrasikan prinsip ini. Elektron mengalir dari benda yang memiliki muatan negatif menuju benda yang bermuatan positif (kekurangan elektron). Transfer elektron ini dapat dicapai dengan menyentuh dua benda bersama-sama atau dengan menghubungkan dengan bahan yang mendukung aliran elektron antara dua benda. Bahan ini dikenal sebagai konduktor karena bersifat mengalirkan listrik.

Hal 8

Electron Movement

The actual flow of current through the circuit is based on the principles you have just learned. As you saw earlier, normal atoms have an equal number of protons and electrons. This makes the atom electrically neutral. However, it is possible for an atom to gain or lose electrons. If normal atom loses one electron that means the atom has an extra proton. Since there are more positive charges than negative ones, the atom has a positive charge. In case an atom gains an extra proton, the atom will have a negative charge. The outermost orbital electrons are sometimes held very loosely to the nucleus like a distant planet may be to the Sun.

Collisions may occur, which result in some electrons being driven from their normal path and drifting through the material lattice. These are called free electrons. Some atoms gain or lose electrons more easily than others. The ones that do are the conductors. Copper atoms, for example, give up electrons very easily. The atoms in materials such as plastic or rubber do not give up electrons at all, which makes them excellent insulators.

Current

- Since free electrons are all negatively charged, they will all repel one another. If there is a surplus of electrons in one area and a shortage in another, electrons will flow toward the shortage - then try to get away from each other. When this movement happens, a flow or current of electrons is created. The current continues until the electrons have spread themselves out evenly. - Current can be described as the rate of electron flow. A measure of the amount of electron flow, like a water pipe. The larger pipe is greater capacity to carry flow. This meaning is that current flow much if electron's number moves much, so that water wheel's moving becomes lively in picture below.

Conclusively, electron's transfer is flowing of current, and can speak current intensity by electrons the transfer amount. Current represent: The ampere is expressed using the letter I.

The ampere describes the rate of flow of electrons past any given point in a circuit. Current unit: A (Ampere)

Arus - Ketika elektron bebas semua bermuatan negatif, mereka semua akan tolak menolak satu sama lain. Jika ada kelebihan elektron dalam satu area dan kekurangan di area yang lain, elektron akan mengalir ke arah yang kekurangan - kemudian mencoba menjauh satu sama lain. Ketika gerakan ini terjadi, aliran atau arus elektron terjadi. Arus elektron terus terjadi sampai merata. - Arus dapat digambarkan sebagai laju aliran elektron. Ukuran jumlah aliran elektron, seperti air yang mengalir dalam pipa air. Semakin besar pipa, semakin besar kapasitas untuk membawa arus. Ini berarti adalah bahwa arus besar jika jumlah elektron yang bergerak banyak, sehingga baling baling air (beban) menjadi bergerak . seperti tampak pada gambar animasi di atas. Jadi, transfer elektron adala aliran arus, dan dapat dikatakan intensitas arus tergantung dari jumlah transfer elektron. Representasi Arus : Ampere diekspresikan dengan menggunakan huruf I. Ampere menggambarkan tingkat aliran elektron melewati suatu titik tertentu dalam rangkaian. Unit Arus : A (Ampere)

Hal 10 Potential and potential difference VS. Current

Let's talk about more detail through water for the current. When a battery is connected to a lamp, it's light up. The current flow mean is because deference of potential between + and -. This is because current flows through the lamp, this meaning is electron moving "-" to "+" so, that lamp "On".

Then how and why current flows?

Let's talking a water wheel in the water tank as above. If no electronic current flows, the lamp will not light up and if there is no water flow, the water wheel does not turn either.

Then, when will water flow in the example shown above? When the water tank A and B are at the same water level water does not flow and the water wheel does not turn. When there is water level difference between the two tanks, water flow from tank at higher level to the tank at lower level since water is to flow from high to low level by nature. As a result, the water wheel turns. It is same with electricity. If there is potential difference, current flows from high to low level. When is no potential difference current will not flow. If there is potential difference, current flows from higher potential to low one.

As a result The current is electric power. If transfer of free electron is much, it is meaning that electric power is big therefore heat generator a lot.

When connect by wire between ＋ charge body and - charge body, electrons are moving and neutralized. At this time, heat generate by electron's transfer. This heat occurrence function says that is 3 function of current. - Heat function If current passes, heat happens. Ex) cigar lighter, electric stove etc - Magnetism function If current passes, self-discipline happens around wire. Ex) solenoid - Chemistry function: EX) battery.

Let's talk about in the vehicle battery for current flow. The source of the electrical energy, the battery, contains two terminals, positive and negative. From our explanation of positive and negative charges, we can say that the atoms at the positive terminal contain more protons than electrons. This gives the positive terminal a positive charge. On the other side, atoms at the negative terminal have more electrons than protons. As a result, that terminal has a negative charge. The negative terminal has a tremendous supply of free electrons. All these electrons, confined to a small area, are repelling each other trying to get away

Potensial, beda potensial dan Arus Mari kita bicara lebih detail tentang arus menggunakan analogi air. Ketika baterai terhubung ke lampu, lampu menyala. Aliran arus disebabkan karena perbedaan potensial antara + dan -. Lampu menyala karena arus mengalir melalui lampu, berarti elektron yang bergerak dari "-" ke "+" sehingga lampu "On". Lalu mengapa dan bagaimana arus mengalir? Mari kita berbicara tentang baling baling air dalam tangki air seperti gambar di atas. Jika tidak ada arus mengalir, lampu tidak akan menyala dan jika tidak ada aliran air, baling baling air tidak memutar. Lalu, kapan air akan mengalir? (dalam ilustrasi yang ditunjukkan di atas) Ketika tangki air A dan B memiliki permukaan air yang sama, air tidak mengalir dan baling baling tidak berputar. Ketika ada perbedaan ketinggian air antara dua tangki, air mengalir dari tangki yang memiliki permukaan air lebih tinggi ke tangki yang ketinggian airnya lebih rendah, karena secara alami air mengalir dari tempat tinggi ke rendah. Akibatnya, roda air berubah. Hal ini sama dengan listrik. Jika ada perbedaan potensial, arus mengalir dari potensial tinggi ke potensial rendah. Ketika tidak ada perbedaan potensial arus tidak akan mengalir. Jika ada perbedaan potensial, arus mengalir dari potensial yang lebih tinggi ke rendah. Menghasilkan Arus = tenaga listrik. Jika transfer elektron bebas besar, berarti tenaga listrik besar oleh

karena itu generator menjadi panas. Bila benda bermuatan + dan negatif dihubungkan dengan kawat, elektron bergerak dan dinetralisir. Pada saat ini, panas dihasilkan oleh perpindahan elektron. Terjadinya panas dapat difungsikan. 3 fungsi arus. - Fungsi pemanas Jika arus mengalir,terjadi panas. contoh penyulut rokok, kompor listrik dll - Fungsi Magnetik contoh solenoida - Fungsi Kimia: contoh baterai. Mari kita bahas tentang baterai kendaraan berkaitan dengan aliran arus. Sumber energi listrik, baterai, memiliki dua terminal, positif dan negatif. Dari penjelasan di atas tentang muatan positif dan negatif, kita dapat mengatakan bahwa atom di terminal positif mengandung proton lebih banyak daripada elektron. Hal ini memberikan terminal positif muatan positif. Di sisi lain, atom di terminal negatif memiliki lebih banyak elektron daripada proton. Akibatnya, terminal menjadi bermuatan negatif. Terminal negatif memiliki banyak pasokan elektron bebas. Semua elektron, memenuhi area yang sempit/ kecil, sehingga satu sama lain saling tolsk menolak dan berusaha untuk saling menjauh.

Hal 11

Summary for current

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Electrical current is the flow of electrons If transfer of electron is much, mean that current pass much Though there is potential difference, current passes when connected between high and low potential If transfer of free electron is much, heats generate,therefore, electric wire bunt out that is done because so much current passed. Quantity of current can explain by quantity of water that passes a pipe. Current passes much to some actuator means that amount of electric power is strong.

Ringkasan untuk saat ini - Arus listrik adalah aliran elektron - Jika transfer elektron banyak, berarti yang lulus saat ini banyak - Meskipun ada perbedaan potensial, arus lewat ketika terhubung antara tinggi dan potensi rendah - Transfer Jika elektron bebas jauh, panas menghasilkan, karena itu, listrik bunt kawat keluar yang dilakukan karena begitu banyak saat ini berlalu. - Jumlah arus dapat menjelaskan dengan kuantitas air yang melewati pipa. - Lancar melewati banyak untuk aktuator beberapa berarti bahwa jumlah tenaga listrik yang kuat. Hal 12 Voltage

If different electrical nature connects other two charged bodies by wire, current passes, because it is difference of electric potential between two charged bodies that current passage. - It is known that this electrical difference is electric potential. - Because there is electric potential difference, occur electromotive force. The volt (V) is the electrical unit used to express the amount of electrical pressure present, or the amount of electrical force produced by chemical action inside the battery.

Symbol: E Voltage unit: V 1 volt: When 1 coulomb's electric charge moves to charged body and work 1joule, for two point charged bodies between potential differences.

E = W (joule) / Q(coulombs) Volt W: Electric power Q: Electric charge amount

1volt : 0.001 1volt : 1,000? 1? : 1,000 v

Tegangan Jika sifat listrik yang berbeda dihubungkan oleh kawat, arus mengalir, karena ada perbedaan potensial listrik antara dua bagian benda bermuatan maka arus mengalir. - Hal ini diketahui bahwa perbedaan kelistrikan adalah potensial listrik. - Karena ada beda potensial listrik, terjadi gaya gerak listrik. Volt (V) adalah Satuan listrik yang digunakan untuk menyatakan jumlah tekanan listrik, atau jumlah tenaga listrik yang dihasilkan oleh reaksi kimia dalam baterai. Satuan Tegangan : V 1 volt : Ketika muatan listrik 1 coulomb bergerak ke benda bermuatan dan 1 joule bekerja, pada dua titik benda bermuatan.. V = W (Joule) / Q (coulomb) Volt Hal 13 Potential & Potential Difference VS. Voltage Voltage can be expressed by potential and potential difference. Figure explains how these are related to each other, referring to water tank. When the two water tanks are connected by pipe, water will flow from the tank of higher water level to the tank of lower level. The water level has been measured with reference to ground. Similarly, potential is measured related to certain standard level, which is called earth or ground, and the potential of earth (ground) is taken as 0 (V). Usually the physical earth is taken as the ground but in the case of automobiles the negative (-) terminal of battery is taken as the ground. The water level of the lower tank is taken as the reference (water level "0"). In case of the battery, 12 volts means the potential difference between the two terminals of the battery. If open valve in above Figure, because position of water is different, water is flowed water tank "A" to water tank "B". But, if it is no difference position (or pressure), water does not flow even if opened valve. That is, if difference of pressure becomes same, current means stagnant. Therefore, because it is no flowing of current, actuator is not working, and there is no heat occurrence by current. If, so difference pressure of the between tank "A" and "B", pipe is burst and heat occurrence. Meaning positive is 12volts and negative means that is 0volt in Battery of passenger car. Thus, difference of electrical potential is 12 in battery of passenger car. This meaning positive (+) is 12 volts and negative (-) means 0volt.

Hal 14 If closed switch in circuit, because current is passed, lamp may become "ON" Voltage of each position according to ON or OFF switch, become different in below figure. It is same with as follow. Although voltage between E and F are 12volts because resistance is infinity before switch closed, switch if do closed resistance because to 0 ohm's become 0 volt. And, current passes when switch closed, at this time, voltage between D and A become 0 volts because resistance is 0. Also, while current is flowing, voltage between C and D are 12volt, however, switch off if is done become nothing volt. As a result, important is thing while flowing current, voltage between "B" and "C" are 12volt, and voltage between "D" and "A" are become 0 volts. Jika kita menutup saklar , arus akan mengalir, lampu menjadi "ON" Kondisi tegangan berbeda menurut keadaan saklar, perbedaan diperlihatkan dalam ilustrasi di atas.Hal ini dapat dijelaskan sebagai berikut. Meskipun tegangan antara E dan F adalah 12 volts karena resistansi

Semua material memiliki struktur atom berbeda. Oleh karena itu, daerah pergerakan elektron bebas dalam bervariasi untuk semua jenis material. Jadi, meskipun jumlah elektron sama, jumlah elektron, yang dapat melewati ruang sempit per satuan waktu, dapat berubah. Dan, ketika luas daerah menjadi besar pada bahan yang sama, elektron dapat bergerak semakin luas. Hal 17

Expression of resistance : R In addition, if transfer distance of electron is long, it takes much time for electron to move in the passageway. Therefore, the amount of electron that moves within unit time can be decreased. This means that there are many electric resistances. Also, if temperature of most material rises, motions of atom liveliness get worn out. Therefore, these atoms can be obstacle to free electrons of their movement. So, electric resistance of material increases temperature rises on the whole. Ekspresi perlawanan: R In addition, if transfer distance of electron is long, it takes much time for electron to move in the passageway. Therefore, the amount of electron that moves within unit time can be decreased. This means that there are many electric resistances. Also, if temperature of most material rises, motions of atom liveliness get worn out. Therefore, these atoms can be obstacle to free electrons of their movement. So, electric resistance of material increases temperature rises on the whole. Selain itu, jika jarak perpindahan elektron panjang, dibutuhkan banyak waktu oleh elektron untuk bergerak. Oleh karena itu, jumlah elektron yang bergerak dalam satuan waktu

dapat berkurang. Ini berarti bahwa ada banyak resistensi/ hambatan listrik. Juga, jika suhu bahan naik, gerak atom juga menurun. Oleh karena itu, atom tersebut dapat menjadi hambatan bagi gerakan elektron bebas. Jadi, resistansi listrik suatu bahan naik, jika suhu meningkat secara keseluruhan. Hal 18 Conductor, insulator and resistor If electrical current flows easily through a material, that material is called a conductor. Metals such as copper, silver, gold, aluminum, and steel are used as paths in automobiles because they are good conductors. Copper is used almost exclusively in wires because of its durability and cost. The opposite of a conductor is an insulator. Insulators do not allow current to flow through them. Glass, plastic, rubber, and ceramics are good insulating materials. The plastic coating on the outside of a wire is an example of an insulator. When free electron moves on conductor interior, some electrons collide with atoms and part of kinetic energy emits as light or heat. Thereby, generator heat called Joule heat. The generator heat is proportional with square of current and in size of resistance. Joule heat = Square of current x Resistance Utensils that to use Joule heat. - Electric stove - Electric iron - Lamps - Etc.

Konduktor, isolator dan resistor Jika arus listrik dengan mudah melalui suatu bahan, bahan tersebut disebut konduktor. Logam seperti tembaga, perak, emas, aluminium, dan baja digunakan sebagai penghubung/kabel dikarenakan mereka konduktor yang baik. Tembaga digunakan hampir secara umum untuk bahan kabel karena daya tahan dan biaya. Kebalikan dari konduktor adalah isolator. Islator tidak bisa dialiri arus. Kaca, plastik, karet, dan keramik baik untuk bahan isolasi. Lapisan plastik di bagian luar kabel merupakan contoh isolator. Ketika elektron bebas bergerak dalam konduktor, beberapa elektron bertabrakan dengan atom dan memancarkan energi kinetik sebagai cahaya atau panas. Dengan demikian, menimbulkan panas disebut panas Joule. Panas yang dihasilkan sebanding dengan kuadrat arus dan dalam satuan resistensi. Joule panas = Kuadrat arus x tahanan Peralatan yang menggunakan panas Joule. - Kompor Listrik - Seterika - Lampu - Dll Hal 19

A measurE of the amount of electron flow. Like a water pipe, the larger the pipe the greater the capacity to carry flow. Measured in amperes, or ‘amps’ (A) Current, Voltage, and Resistance relation A measure of the potential of a source to supply electromotive force (EMF), or electrical pressure. Measured in volt A measure of the oppotition to current flow in a circuit measured in ohms.

Current, voltage, and resistance determine how electricity will behave in a circuit. These three characteristics are closely related. When one changes, it immediately causes one or both of the others to change as well. The relationships between current, voltage, and resistance can be expressed with a set of mathematical formulas. The formulas are part of a set of rules called Ohm's Law. These rules can be used to explain or predict the behavior of electricity in all types of circuits. Ukuran dari jumlah arus elektron. Seperti pipa air, semakin besar pipa, semakin besar kapasitas untuk membawa arus. Diukur dalam ampere, atau 'amp' (A) Saat ini, Tegangan, dan hubungan Perlawanan Ukuran potensi untuk memasok sumber gaya gerak listrik (EMF), atau tekanan listrik. Diukur dalam volt Ukuran oppotition untuk aliran arus dalam sebuah sirkuit yang diukur dalam ohm.² Arus, tegangan, dan hambatan akan menentukan bagaimana berperilaku listrik dalam rangkaian. Ketiga karakteristik tersebut erat kaitannya. Ketika terjadi satu perubahan pada salah satu , akan menyebabkan salah satu atau kedua parameter lain ikut berubah. Hubungan antara arus, tegangan, dan tahanan dapat dinyatakan dengan rumus Matematika. Rumus tersebut merupakan bagian aturan yang disebut Hukum Ohm. Aturan-aturan ini dapat digunakan untuk menjelaskan atau memprediksi perilaku listrik di semua jenis rangkaian. Hal 20

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Hal22

Hal23

Current, Voltage and Resistance summary. Voltage - If there is electric potential, electron's transfer is begun. - Thus, flowing of current is begun. - If voltage is high, electrons transfer much have. - Thus, The flowing of current becomes much. Current - Current is transfer amount of free electron. - Current operates electric actuators - If voltage is high, current flow much. But, overheat if flowing of current exceeds. - Resistance disturbs flowing of current. Thus, if resistance is high, flowing of current is decreased. - If current passes excessively, heat occurrence. - A magnetic field occurs around wiring that when current passes. Resistance - Resistance disturbs of free electron flowing. Thus, disturb flowing of current. - If there is much resistances, electricity actuator of 100% does not operate. Because, It is current 100% does not pass. - Resistance is started aging or degradation of wiring in wire harness. - Electricity problem is begun from resistance in a car. They are contact resistance of connector, disconnect of connector, poor ground. Ringkasan Arus, Tegangan dan Hambatan Tegangan - Jika ada potensial listrik, akan terjadi perpindahan elektron. Sehingga arus mulai mengalir.

- Jika tegangan tinggi, elektron yang berpindah banyak, dengan demikian, arus yang mengalir menjadi besar Arus Arus adalah jumlah elektron bebas yang bergerak. Arus mengoperasikan aktuator/ beban listrik Jika tegangan tinggi, arus yang mengalir besar. Tapi, akan menjadi panas jika arus yang mengalir terlalu besar. Hambatan menghalangi aliran arus. Jadi, jika resistensi tinggi, aliran arus akan menurun. Sebuah medan magnet terjadi di sekitar kawat yang dilewati arus. Hambatan Tahanan menghalangi aliran elektron bebas. Jika resistansi besar, aktuator listrik sebesar tidak beroperasi 100%. Karena, aliran arus tidak 100% . Hal24 Series circuit Basically, an automobile uses DC (Direct Current) electric source, but electric circuit is consist of series current circuit, parallel current circuit, and series/parallel current circuit. Therefore, the major electric circuit of automobile is series/parallel circuit. Series circuit A typical complete circuit contains an energy supply, circuit protection, a load, some kind of control, and a path. When a conductor connects all of these components end-to-end, the result is called a series circuit. When batteries are connected in series (end-to-end), the total output voltage equals the sum of all the individual battery voltages. Although this set-up provides a higher output voltage, their combined capacity to supply current is the same as that of a single cell. Seri sirkuit Pada dasarnya, sebuah mobil menggunakan sumber listrik DC (Direct Current), rangkaian listrik terdiri dari rangkaian seri , paralel, dan kombinasi. Oleh karena itu, kebanyakan rangkaian listrik mobil adalah rangkaian kombinasi. Rangkaian Seri Ciri Rangkaian lengkap adalah terdapat sumber energi, proteksi rangkaian, beban, beberapa jenis kontrol, konduktor. Bila suatu konduktor menghubungkan seluruh komponen ini ujung bertemu ujung, hasilnya disebut rangkaian seri. Ketika baterai dihubungkan secara seri (end-to-end), tegangan output total sama dengan jumlah dari semua tegangan masing masing baterai..

Meskipun set-up ini memberikan tegangan output yang lebih tinggi, kapasitas arus gabungan mereka sama dengan satu sel. Hal25 Namely, resistance or power source is connecting method is linked by series, and circuit composition that is linked to resistance is same with Figure below. Several resistances of connection of resistance compose by series, become in one resistance form. E = I R = I (R1 + R2) In this formula, (R1 + R2) says that is equivalence resistance or combined resistance and combined resistance increases is many if there is much resistances. However, value of current is decrease relatively. * To calculation total resistance in series circuit Total resistance "R" = Sum of all resistances of circuit (R1 + R2 ------ R9) There are common characteristics to all Series circuit : Summary for direct current - There is a single path for current. - The same amount of current flows through every component. - An open at any point prevents current flow. - At series connection of resistance, total resistance increases connect resistance. - Total resistance increases, flowing current decreases in circuit. - Flowing current is always same in series circuit even if measure in any place. Resistor atau sumber tegangan dihubungkan seri, komposisi rangkaian resistor yang dihubungkan seri seperti gambar di atas. Beberapa resistor dari rangkaian seri, menjadi satu hambatan. V = I. R = I (R1 + R2) Dalam rumus ini, (R1 + R2) menyatakan gabungan resistor dan akan meningkat jika ada banyak resistor. Namun, nilai arus menurun secara relatif sesuai dengan jumlah nilai resistansi. * Perhitungan resistansi total dalam rangkaian seri Resistansi Total "Jumlah R" = penjumlahan semua nilai resistensi dari rangkaian (R1 + R2 --- dst) There are common characteristics to all Series circuit : Summary for direct current - There is a single path for current. - The same amount of current flows through every component. - An open at any point prevents current flow. - At series connection of resistance, total resistance increases connect resistance. - Total resistance increases, flowing current decreases in circuit. - Flowing current is always same in series circuit even if measure in any place. karakteristik umum untuk rangkaian Seri: - Ada sebuah jalur tunggal untuk arus. - Jumlah arus sama pada setiap komponen. - jika terbuka di salah satu titik akan memutus aliran arus. - Pada sambungan hambatan seri, meningkatkan tahanan total. - Meningkatnya tahanan Total, menurunkan arus yang mengalir dalam rangkaian.

- arus yang mengalir selalu sama dalam rangkaian seri jika diukur di titik manapun. Hal26 Hal27 To calculate both end voltage of resistance in D.C circuit. --- 1 - What is the total resistance in below circuit? - What is the current in below circuit? - What are the individual voltages of E1, E2, E3 in picture below? Untuk menghitung tegangan Pada masing masing resistor dalam rangkaian DC. --- 1 - Berapa total tahanan dalam rangkaian? - Berapakah arus dalam rangkaian diatas? - Berapa tegangan V1, V2, V3 pada gambar di atas? Hal28 Hal29 Series circuit Moving charges give rise to a current "I" whose strength is measured in ampere. The direction of flow and magnitude of direct current are independent of time. Direction of current flow and measurement Current flowing from positive pole to negative pole outside current source is designated as positive(in reality, the electronic travel from the negative to the positive pole). An ampere meter in the current path measures current flow. : Voltage is measured by a voltmeter connected in shunt. - Voltage measurement in direct current circuit. : Parallel connected voltage meter. - Current measurement in direct current circuit. : Series connected voltage meter. Rangkaian seri perpindahan muatan menimbulkan arus "I" diukur dalam satuan Ampere. Arah aliran dan besarnya arus searah tidak tergantung terhadap waktu. Arah aliran arus dan pengukuran Arus yang mengalir dari kutub positif ke kutub negatif di luar sumber arus ditetapkan positif (pada kenyataannya, perjalanan elektronik dari negatif ke kutub positif). Sebuah ampere meter berfungsi mengukur arus. : Ampere meter dihubungkan secara seri. Pengukuran Tegangan dalam rangkaian arus searah. : Volt meter dihubungkan secara paralel. Hal 30 Parallel current circuit (Parallel circuit)

In a parallel circuit, there is more than one path for current to flow. Each current path is called a branch. Branches are connected to one common positive and one common negative terminal; therefore, the voltage applied to each branch is the same. When batteries of the same voltage are connected in parallel, the total output voltage is the same as for any single battery. However, since current flows from all the batteries simultaneously, this arrangement will supply a larger current. The illumination system in an instrument cluster is a good example of a parallel circuit. If one lamp burns out or is removed the others will still work. Rangkaian Parallel Pada rangkaian paralel, ada lebih dari satu jalur aliran arus. Setiap jalur arus disebut cabang. Cabang terhubung menjadi satu di terminal positif dan di terminal negatif, sehingga tegangan untuk setiap cabang sama. Ketika baterai dengan tegangan yang sama terhubung secara paralel, tegangan output total sama dengan masing masing baterai. Namun, arus mengalir dari semua baterai secara bersamaan, pengaturan ini akan memberikan arus yang lebih besar. Sistem instalasi rumah adalah contoh yang rangkaian paralel. Jika salah satu lampu mati ,lampu yang lain akan tetap menyala. Hal 31 Hal32 > When impressed electromotive force in below circuit that formula of "I1 = E/R1, I2 = E/R2, I3 = E/R3" is formed. > Also, whole current I is same with sum of current that each 3 lamp consumes in circuit > When each switch did "ON", to each light bulb flowing current I1 = E/R1 I2 = E/R2 I3 = E/R3 * I = I1 + I2 + I3 = E/R1 + E/R2 + E/R3 = E (1/R1 + 1/R2 +1/R3) (A) > There are two common characteristics to all parallel circuits: - The total current in the circuit equals the sum of the branch currents. Therefore, resistance values of current according to addition or delete change. - An open in one branch affects only the load in that branch; other branches continue to operate normally. Current in parallel circuit is different according to point that measure. That is, when measure current in above circuit of right hand side. A point current = (I 1+I 2+I 3) = B point current If connect batteries by parallel circuit, voltage are fixed, but current consumes becomes more per time > Ketika Gaya elektromotif diberikan ke rangkaia, maka "I1 = V/R1, I2 = V/R2, I3 = V/R3"

> Arus total I sama dengan jumlah arus yang mengalir pada setiap lampu > Ketika saklar di "ON"kan, pada setiap bola lampu mengalir arus I1 = V/R1 I2 = V/R2 I3 = V/R3 * I = I1 + I2 + I3 = V/R1 + V/R2 + V/R3 = V (1/R1 + 1/R2 +1 / R3) (A) > Karakteristik umum untuk rangkaian paralel: - Arus total dalam rangkaian sama dengan jumlah arus cabang. Nilai resistansi berubah berdasarkan penambahan atau pengurangan resistor . - Jika diputuskan di salah satu cabang hanya mempengaruhi beban di cabang itu; cabang lain terus beroperasi secara normal. Arus di sirkuit paralel berbeda di setiap titik pengukuran. Yaitu, ketika mengukur arus dalam rangkaian di atas dari sisi kanan. Arus di titik A = (I 1 + I 2 + I3) = Arus B Jika baterai terhubung secara paralel, tegangan tetap, namun arus yang dikonsumsi menjadi lebih besar tiap waktu Hal33 Hal34 Series - Parallel Circuit A series-parallel circuit combines both series and parallel circuits, along with their respective characteristics. The first step in analyzing a series-parallel is to break the circuit down to its simplest form. Then analyze only the particular series or parallel circuit characteristics that apply to that component. That is, composition of car circuit belongs to series-parallel circuit as circuit that series and parallel are mixed. 1) Equivalent circuit of figure "A" is circuit that series and parallel are mixed, and figure "B" R1.2 is combined resistance value of R1+R2 of figure "A" that figure "B" circuit diagram computation combined resistance of parallel resistance R1 R2 of figure "A" and represent by equivalent circuit of series 2) Because current I is increased according as parallel resistance increases in this circuit, can be represent by total resistance of I=/R1,2 + R3. 3) Whole combined resistance "R" of this circuit - Combined resistance of between a and b = (R1 x R2) / (R1 + R2) ohm R1,2 - Combined resistance of between a and c= R1,2 + R3 ohm ---------R (Combined resistance) 4) Whole circuit current I - I = E / R(Combined resistance ) = E / ( R1 R2 / R1 + R2) + R3 5) Current of circuit - I1 = R2 / R1 + R2 X I (A) - I2 = R2 / R1 + R2 X I (A) - I3 = I = I1 + I2 (A) 6) Voltage - E3 = R3 I3 = R3 I - E1 = E2 so E = E1 + E3 = E2 + E3 (Volt)

Rangkaian Kombinasi Sebuah rangkaian kombinasi adalah gabungan rangkaian seri dan rangkaian paralel. Langkah pertama dalam menganalisa rangkaian kombinasi adalah membuat rangkaian ke bentuk yang paling sederhana. Baru kemudian menganalisa rangkaian yang sudah disederhanakan tadi. Komposisi rangkaian kombinasi memiliki bagian rangkaian seri dan paralel. 1. Rangkaian ekuivalen "A" adalah rangkaian kombinasi, dan Rp pada gambar "B" adalah gabungan nilai resistansi R1 + R2 dari gambar "A" artinya Rp pada gambar diagram rangkaian "B"merupakan perhitungan rangkaian R1 dan R2 yang terangkai paralel pada gambar “A” 2. Resistansi total I =// R1R 2 + R3. 3. Kombinasi Resistansi "R" dari rangkaian ini Gabungan paralel = (R1 x R2) / (R1 + R2) Jika semua R di jumlahkan maka penjumlahannya mengikuti aturan masing masing sesuai jenis rangkaiannya. Maka secara keseluruhan R = (R1 x R2) / (R1 + R2)+R3 4. Arus total I = V/R tot  V / (R1 x R2) / (R1 + R2)+R3 5. Arus pada rangkaian • I1 = V1/R1 • I2 = V2/R2 • I = I1 + I2 (A) 6. Tegangan • V 1 = I x Rp • V2 = I x R3 • V = V1 + V2 7. I = I1 + I2 (A Hal35 Hal 36 Ohm's Law characteristic Any operating electrical circuits must have three factors, voltage, current, and resistance. Their relationship can be described by Ohm's Law statement: "The amount of current that will flow in any circuit is directly proportional to voltage and inversely proportional to resistance." In other words, as voltage goes up, current goes up, but as resistance goes up current goes down. Karakteristik Hukum Ohm Setiap operasi rangkaian listrik harus memiliki tiga faktor, tegangan, arus, dan resistansi. Hubungan ketiganya bisa digambarkan dengan pernyataan Hukum Ohm:

"Jumlah arus yang akan mengalir dalam setiap rangkaian berbanding lurus dengan tegangan dan berbanding terbalik dengan hambatan. " Dengan kata lain, jika tegangan naik, arus naik. Tetapi jika resistensi naik, arus turun Ohm's Law is the basis for electrical troubleshooting. Taken as a statement, Ohm's Law expresses the characteristics that govern electrical behaviors in a circuit. However, Ohm's Law can also be expressed as an equation. Using this equation, calculating a specific value for any three electrical factors is possible: - How much current, if voltage and resistance are known. - How much voltage, if current and resistance are known. - How much resistance, if voltage and current are known. Hukum Ohm adalah dasar untuk mengatasi masalah listrik. Hukum Ohm menyatakan karakteristik yang mengatur perilaku listrik dalam rangkaian. Hukum Ohm juga dapat dinyatakan sebagai suatu persamaan. Dengan menggunakan persamaan ini, memungkinkan untuk menghitung nilai spesifik untuk ketiga faktor listrik tersebut: - Berapa besar arus, jika tegangan dan tahanan diketahui. - Berapa Tegangan, jika arus dan resistensi diketahui. - Berapa Resistensi, jika tegangan dan arus diketahui Hal37 When you know any two values, you can use Ohm's Law equation to calculate the third value. As, previously discussed, single letters of the alphabet are used to represent current, voltage, and resistance; current by the letter I for intensity; voltage by either V or an E for electromotive force; and resistance by the letter R. E=IxR E : Voltage I : Current R : Resistance Ohm's Law circle A handy memory tool is the Ohm's Law circle. If you hold your finger over the letter of the unknown value, the correct formula stands out. For example, to solve for I, place your finger over that letter and the correct formula is seen to be: I = E / R or I = E / R Cover E with your finger to see that the formula is: E=IxR Cover R with your finger to see that the formula is: R = E /I or R = E / I It's only necessary to remember that the E is always on top. The order of the other two letters makes no difference. Bila Anda mengetahui ada dua nilai, Anda dapat menggunakan persamaan Hukum Ohm untuk menghitung nilai yang lain. Seperti, yang telah dijelaskan sebelumnya, huruf abjad tunggal

digunakan untuk mewakili arus, tegangan, dan resistensi, Arus oleh huruf I (dari kata Intensity); tegangan dengan V atau E untuk gaya gerak listrik, dan hambatan dengan huruf R. V=IxR V : Tegangan I : Arus R : Hambatan Segitiga Hukum Ohm Segitiga Hukum Ohm digunakan untuk mempermudah mengingat rumus. Jika Anda meng klik bagian yang akan dihitung, rumus yang benar akan muncul. Misalnya, untuk menghitung Arus, klik mouse diatas huruf I maka akan terlihat: I=V/R Klik V maka akan terlihat: V=IxR Klik V maka akan terlihat: R=V/I yang perlu di ingat adalah V selalu di atas. Urutan dua huruf dibawahnya boleh terbalik. Hal38 Determining Current The circuit on the right shows the values of the voltage and the resistance. To determine the current, we merely substitute the unknown value into the formula: Hal39 According to the Ohm's law, when the voltage increases, so does the current. To prove this, let's look at the same circuit we just did, but only this time we'll double the voltage. We still use the same formula as before. Hal40 Notice that when the voltage doubles, the current also doubles. We expect this because current is DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL to voltage as Ohm's Law states. That statement also says that current is INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL to resistance. So, let's find out. Again, using the same circuit, only this time we'll double the resistance. Thus, when the resistance is doubled, the current is reduced to half its former value. Menentukan Arus Rangkaian di atas menunjukkan nilai tegangan dan hambatan. Untuk menentukan arus, kita hanya memasukkan nilai yang diketahui ke dalam rumus Hal39

Menurut hukum Ohm, ketika tegangan meningkat, Arus juga akan meningkat. Untuk membuktikan ini, mari kita lihat rangkaian yang sama baru saja kita hitung, tetapi tegangan dinaikkan. Kita masih menggunakan rumus yang sama seperti sebelumnya. Hal40 Perhatikan bahwa ketika tegangan naik, arus juga naik. Hal ini karena arus berbanding lurus dengan tegangan seperti yang dinyatakan dalam Hukum Ohm. Pernyataan itu juga mengatakan bahwa arus berbanding terbalik dengan resistensi. Jadi, mari kita cari tahu. Sekali lagi, menggunakan rangkaian yang sama, hanya saja kali ini kita akan menaikkan hambatanmenjadi 2 kali lipat. Jadi, ketika hambatan dinaikkan dua kali lipat, Arus dikurangi menjadi setengah dari nilai sebelumnya. Hal41 Determining Resistance Using the Ohm's Law circle, place your finger over the R and we can see the formula is: R=E/I Therefore, to find the resistance in the circuit on the right, we apply the values we know. To calculate, divide 3 into 12 and the answer is 4W. Hal42 Determining Voltage The formula to determine voltage is the easiest of the three. Voltage = current times the resistance. The circuit shows us there is 2 amps of current and 3 ohms of resistance. Hal43 Voltage Drop 1 The voltage removed from the circuit by the load (light bulb, motor, incorrect wire size, etc.) is called the voltage drop. The total voltage lost must equal the voltage applied. The amount of this loss can be calculated by using the formula we studied, V = I x R. In practical terms, if you have a simple circuit that consists of a source (the battery) and a load (a lamp), the voltage drop across the lamp is determined by the amount of current times the resistance of the lamp. Menentukan Resistansi Menggunakan segi tiga Hukum Ohm, klik di atas R dan kita dapat melihat rumusnya adalah: R=V/I

Oleh karena itu, untuk menemukan resistensi pada rangkaian di atas, memasukkan nilai-nilai yang diketahui ke dalam rumus. Untuk menghitung, bagilah 3 dari 12 maka jawabannya adalah 4W. Hal42 Menentukan Tegangan Rumus untuk menentukan tegangan merupakan yang paling mudah dari ketiganya. Tegangan = Arus x Hambatan. Rangkaian tersebut menunjukkan ada 4 Amp arus dan 3 Ohm resistensi. Hal43 Jatuh Tegangan 1 tegangan yang diambil oleh beban (Bola lampu, motor, ukuran kawat yang salah, dll) disebut drop tegangan/ jatuh tegangan. Tegangan total harus sama dengan tegangan yang gunakan. Jumlah kerugian ini dapat dihitung dengan menggunakan rumus yang kita pelajari, V = I x R. Secara praktis, jika Anda memiliki rangkaian sederhana yang terdiri dari sumber (Baterai) dan beban (lampu), penurunan tegangan pada lampu ditentukan oleh jumlah perkalian arus dan hambatan lampu. Hal44 Voltage drop 2 If current flows in the load (resistance) of circuit, voltage drops as much as impressed electromotive force in the load (resistance). In other word, exhausted voltage is same with impressed voltage in resistance. When switch turned "ON" in below circuit. As 12volt's voltage are supplied to this circuit and lamp is operated, current that consume in lamp passed. At this time, the voltage drop as much impressed volt in both side of the lamp between "+" and "-". This is voltage drop. By the way, if there is some contact resistance in S/W contact point, flowing current and lamp voltage drop as much S/W contact point resistance to lamp. Thus, it means that the current and voltage drop caused by the contact resistance of S/W are moved from lamp to S/W contact point. If summarize, when actuator (lamp, motor, solenoid, etc) operates, must be happen to actuator. Jatuh Tegangan 2 Jika arus mengalir pada beban (resistensi) rangkaian, drop tegangan / jatuh tegangan sebanyak gaya gerak listrik pada beban (resistansi). Dengan kata lain, tegangan yang digunakan sama dengan tegangan yang digunakan dalam resistor. Ketika saklar di "ON" kan. tegangan 12volt dipasok untuk rangkaian ini dan lampu menyala, arus yang melalui lampu.