Anda di halaman 1dari 19

JURNAL FARMAKOGNOSI

Efek Ekstrak Daun Jambu Biji Daging Buah Putih


danJambu Biji Daging Buah Merah Sebagai Antidiare

Oleh :

Nama : ADHITYA GILANG RAMADHAN

FARMASI KELAS : B

NIM : 10613160

UNIVERSITAS ISLAM INDONESIA

YOGYAKARTA

2010/2010
I Ketut Adnyana, dkk Efek Ekstrak Daun Jambu Biji

Efek Ekstrak Daun Jambu Biji Daging Buah Putih dan


Jambu Biji Daging Buah Merah Sebagai Antidiare

I Ketut Adnyana*, Elin Yulinah, Joseph I. Sigit, Neng Fisheri K., Muhamad Insanu

Unit Bidang Ilmu Farmakologi-Toksikologi, Departemen Farmasi, Institut Teknologi


Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung 40132

(Diterima 10 Maret 2004, disetujui 28 April 2004)

Abstrak
Telah duji aktivitas antibakteri (penyebab diare) ekstrak etanol daun jambu biji daging buah
putih dan jambu biji daging buah merah (Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae) terhadap bakteri
Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, dan Salmonella typhi dan uji
antidiare dengan metode proteksi terhadap diare imbasan-minyak jarak dan metode transit
intestinal pada mencit. Ekstrak etanol daun jambu biji daging buah putih memiliki
kemampuan hambat bakteri yang lebih besar daripada jambu biji daging buah merah (KHM
terhadap Escherichia coli (60 mg/ml vs >100 mg/ml), Shigella dysenteriae (30 mg/ml vs 70
mg/ml), Shigella flexneri (40 mg/ml vs 60 mg/ml), dan Salmonella typhi (40 mg/ml vs 60
mg/ml). Tidak terdapat perbedaan bermakna pada konsistensi feses, berat total feses, waktu
munculnya diare, lamanya diare, dan kecepatan transit usus untuk kedua ekstrak uji
dibandingkan dengan kelompok kontrol. Frekuensi defekasi mencit yang diberi ekstrak
etanol daun jambu biji daging buah putih 150 mg/kg bb pada menit ke180-240
menunjukkan perbedaan bermakna dibanding kelompok kontrol (p<0,05).

Kata kunci : aktivitas antibakteri, metode transit intestinal, ekstrak etanol jambu biji
daging buah merah, ekstrak etanol jambu biji daging buah putih

Abstract
Antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts of white guava and red guava (Psidium guajava
L., Myrtaceae) leaves against Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, and
Salmonella typhi and antidiarrheal activity against minyak jarak-induced diarrhe and
intestinal transit time method in Swiss webster mice had been tested. The ethanol extracts
of white guava leaves showed stronger antibacterial activity than that of ethanol extracts of
red guava leaves against Escherichia coli (MIC of 60 mg/ml vs >100 mg/ml), Shigella
dysenteriae (MIC of 30 mg/ml vs 70 mg/ml), Shigella flexneri (MIC of 40 mg/ml vs 60
mg/ml), and Salmonella typhi (MIC of 40 mg/ml vs 60 mg/ml). There was no significant
differences in increased stool consistency, stool weight, onset and diarrhea duration, and
intestinal transit time in mice treated by both extracts compared to those of control group.
Frequency of defecacy of mice administered by ethanol extracts of white guava at a dose
of 150 mg/kg bw at minute 180-240 showed significantly different compared to that of
control group (p<0,05).

Key words : antibacterial activity, intestinal transit time method, ethanol extracts of red
and white guava leaves
19 – Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia, Vol. XXIX, No.1, 2004
I Ketut Adnyana, dkk Efek Ekstrak Daun Jambu Biji

Pendahuluan
Diare adalah defekasi yang sering dalam sehari dengan feses yang lembek atau cair,
terjadi karena chymus yang melewati usus kecil dengan cepat, kemudian feses
melewati usus besar dengan cepat pula sehingga tidak cukup waktu untuk absorpsi,
hal ini menyebabkan dehidrasi dan ketidakseimbangan elektrolit. Dehidrasi adalah
suatu keadaan kekurangan cairan, kekurangan kalium (hipokalemia) dan
adakalanya acidosis (darah menjadi asam), yang tidak jarang berakhir dengan
shock dan kematian. Keadaan ini sangat berbahaya terutama bagi bayi dan anak-
anak kecil, karena mereka memiliki cadangan cairan intrasel yang lebih sedikit
sedangkan cairan ekstra-selnya lebih mudah lepas daripada orang dewasa.

Telah diketahui oleh masyarakat umum bahwa ekstrak daun jambu biji memiliki
khasiat sebagai antidiare. Jambu biji (Psidium guajava) memiliki varietas antara
lain yang berdaging-buah warna putih dan yang berwarna merah. Mengingat
bahaya-bahaya yang ditimbulkan oleh diare, maka penelitian mencari ekstrak daun
jambu biji yang lebih efektif sangat penting untuk mencapai sasaran penanganan
diare.
Dalam penelitian ini efektivitas ekstrak daun jambu biji daging buah putih
dibandingkan dengan yang berwarna merah sebagai antidiare, berdasarkan
aktivitas antimikroba, konsistensi feses, berat feses, waktu diare, dan uji waktu
lintas usus.

Percobaan
Bahan
Ekstrak daun jambu biji daging buah putih, ekstrak daun jambu biji daging buah
merah, nutrien agar (Difco), NaCl 0,9 % b/v, cakram kertas, kapas berlemak,
kertas alumunium, suspensi 5 % norit dalam gom acacia 50 %, loperamid BPFI,
tetrasiklin BPFI, mencit jantan, dan bakteri penginfeksi penyebab diare:
Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri dan Salmonella typhi.
Alat
Cawan petri, spektrofotometer Spektronik Bausch & Lomb, kuvet, alat suntik,
jarum oral mencit, seperangkat alat bedah, dan kandang metabolisme hewan.
Prosedur :
Pengumpulan, determinasi dan ekstraksi bahan
Daun jambu biji daging buah merah dan daun jambu biji daging buah putih yang
diperoleh dari pasar dideterminasi di Departemen Biologi FMIPA-ITB. Simplisia
yang diperoleh kemudian diekstraksi dengan cara refluks (etanol 95%, selama 2
jam).

Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia, Vol. XXIX, No.1, 2004 - 20


I Ketut Adnyana, dkk Efek Ekstrak Daun Jambu Biji

Pembuatan media untuk bakteri


Media nutrient agar dibuat dengan cara mencampur 23 g nutrient agar dengan
1000 ml air suling dan dididihkan sampai melarut sempurna, dimasukkan ke dalam
botol untuk disterilisasi dengan autoklaf. Nutrient broth sebanyak 8 g dicampurkan
ke dalam 1000 ml air dan dididihkan sebelum digunakan dan distrerilisasi dengan
autoklaf.

Pembuatan suspensi bakteri


Suspensi bakteri dalam media cair setelah diinkubasi selama 18-24 jam pada suhu
37°C dikocok menggunakan pengocok vortex, kepekatan suspensi bakteri diatur
sehingga jika diukur dengan menggunakan spektrofotometer Spektronik pada
panjang gelombang 530 nm memberikan transmitansi sebesar 25%.

Pengujian aktivitas antibakteri


Aktivitas antibakteri diuji dengan metode difusi agar menggunakan cakram kertas
dan metode pengenceran agar. (i) Metode difusi agar dilakukan dengan cara
mencampur sebanyak 50 µl masing-masing suspensi bakteri ke dalam 15 ml media
agar yang telah di cairkan dalam cawan petri steril dan kemudian dibiarkan
menjadi padat. Cakram kertas dengan diameter 6 mm diletakkan pada permukaan
media padat. Pada cakram diteteskan 20 µl masing-masing zat uji kemudian
dibarkan selama 30 menit pada suhu kamar sebelum dimasukkan ke inkubator 37°
C. (ii) Pengujian dengan metode pengenceran agar dilakukan dengan cara mele-
takkan 0,5 ml ekstrak uji pada cawan petri ditambah 14,5 ml media agar hangat
yang masih cair, dibiarkan mendingin, lalu digoreskan suspensi bakteri uji ke atas
permukaan agar.
Metode proteksi terhadap diare oleh Minyak jarak
Hewan percobaan berupa mencit putih jantan Swiss Webster sehat dengan bobot
20-25 g dan memiliki feses normal dikelompokkan secara acak menjadi 9
kelompok. Mencit dipuasakan selama satu jam sebelum percobaan dimulai, tiap
kelompok diberi sediaan per oral 0,5 ml/20 g bb, kemudian ditempatkan di dalam
bejana individual yang beralaskan kertas saring pengamatan yang terlebih dahulu
dikeringkan dan ditimbang. Satu jam setelah perlakuan, tiap mencit kecuali dari
kelompok normal diberi 0,75 ml minyak jarak. Respon tiap mencit diamati selang
30 menit sampai 4 jam, dan pada 5 jam setelah pemberian minyak jarak, meliputi
waktu terjadinya diare, frekuensi diare, konsistensi dan jumlah atau bobot feses
serta jangka waktu berlangsungnya diare.

Metode transit intestinal


Hewan percobaan berupa mencit putih Swiss Webster jantan dewasa sehat dengan
berat 20-25 g dipuasakan selama lebih kurang 18 jam namun tetap diberi minuman.
dikelompokkan secara acak ke dalam 8 kelompok. Pemberian ekstrak uji, pembawa

21 – Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia, Vol. XXIX, No.1, 2004


I Ketut Adnyana, dkk Efek Ekstrak Daun Jambu Biji

atau pembanding diberikan pada saat t = 0. Setelah t = 45 menit, mencit diberi


suspensi norit sebanyak 0,1 ml/10 g secara oral. Pada t = 65 menit, mencit
dikorbankan secara dislokasi tulang leher. Usus mencit dikeluarkan secara hati-hati
jangan sampai terenggang. Panjang seluruh usus dan bagian usus yang yang
dilalui marker norit mulai dari pilorus sampai ujung akhir (berwarna hitam) diukur
dari masing-masing hewan kemudian dihitung perbandingan jarak yang ditempuh
marker terhadap panjang usus keseluruhan.

Hasil dan Pembahasan


Hasil percobaan in vitro menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak etanol jambu biji daging
buah putih memiliki konsentrasi hambat minimum (KHM) 40 mg/ml terhadap
bakteri Shigella flexneri, 30 mg/ml terhadap bakteri Shigella dysenteriae, 40 mg/ml
terhadap Escherichia coli, dan 60 mg/ml terhadap bakteri Salmonella typhi.

Tabel 1 Aktivitas ekstrak terhadap pertumbuhan Shigella dysentriae, Shigella flexneri, S.


typhi, E. coli
Pertumbuhan bakteri
Konsentrasi
Kelompok Shigella Shigella
(mg/ml)
dysentriae flexneri S. typhi E. coli
10
+ + + +
20 + + + +
30 – + + +
Ekstrak etanol 40 – – – +
jambu biji 50 – – – +
daging buah 60 – – – –
putih 70 – – – –
80 – – – –
90 – – – –
100 – – – –
10 + + + +
20 + + + +
30 + + + +
Ekstrak etanol 40 + + + +
jambu biji 50 + + + +
daging buah 60 + – – +
merah 70 – – – +
80 – – – +
90 – – – +
100 – – – +

Keterangan: n = 5, + = ada pertumbuhan, – = tidak ada pertumbuhan.

Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia, Vol. XXIX, No.1, 2004 - 22


I Ketut Adnyana, dkk Efek Ekstrak Daun Jambu Biji

Ekstrak etanol jambu biji daging buah merah memiliki KHM 50 mg/ml terhadap bakteri
Shigella flexneri, 40 mg/ml terhadap bakteri Shigella dysenteriae, 40 mg/ml terhadap
Escherichia coli, dan tidak terdapat hambatan hingga konsentrasi 100 mg/ml terhadap
bakteri Salmonella typhi (Tabel 1).

Ekstrak etanol jambu biji daging buah putih memiliki aktivitas lebih kuat terhadap
Salmonella typhi dibandingkan dengan ekstrak etanol jambu biji daging buah
merah, dengan demikian ekstrak etanol jambu biji daging buah putih dapat lebih
manjur untuk mengobati diare yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Salmonella typhi.

Percobaan in vivo menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak jambu biji daging buah merah 150
mg/kg bobot badan mampu menekan frekuensi defekasi yang berbeda secara
bermakna dari kontrol positif, namun pada dosis 300 mg/kg bobot badan dan 600
mg/kg bobot badan tidak menekan frekuensi defekasi secara berarti (p<0,05). Hal
ini diperkirakan karena konsentrasi ekstrak yang kental sehingga mempengaruhi
fisiologis hewan uji yang mengakibatkan efek obat tidak begitu terlihat. Pengaruh
serupa juga terjadi pada konsistensi feses, pada dosis 150 mg/kg bobot badan
mampu meningkatkan konsistensi sehingga feses tidak berada dalam keadaan cair
pada menit ke-210. Tidak terdapat perbedaan bermakna pada waktu diare, lama
diare, berat total feses, dan transit usus.

6
Fr ekue nsi D efekasi

5
4
3
2
1
0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Waktu Pengamatan (menit)

Kontrol Normal Loperamid


JP 150 mg/kg bb JP 300 mg/kg bb JP 600 mg/kg
Gambar 1 Profil frekuensi defekasi kelompok ekstrak etanol daun jambu biji daging
buah putih.
Keterangan : JP = Ekstrak etanol daun jambu biji daging buah putih,
n = 5(p<0,05)

Ekstrak daun jambu biji daging buah merah 150, 300, dan 600 mg/kg bobot badan
tidak menunjukkan terjadinya penekanan frekuensi defekasi pada mencit diare
yang diinduksi dengan minyak jarak. Ekstrak uji juga tidak memberikan perbedaan
bermakna pada konsistensi feses, waktu diare, lama diare, berat total feses pada
mencit diare dan waktu transit usus pada mencit normal.
23 – Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia, Vol. XXIX, No.1, 2004
I Ketut Adnyana, dkk Efek Ekstrak Daun Jambu Biji

Frekuens i Def ekas i


4

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Waktu Pengamatan (menit)

Kontrol Normal Loperamid


JP 150 mg/kg bb JP 300 mg/kg bb JP 600 mg/kg bb
Gambar 2 Profil frekuensi defekasi kelompok ekstrak etanol daun jambu biji daging buah putih
Keterangan : JP = Ekstrak etanol daun jambu biji daging buah putih, n = 5(p<0,05)

4
Konsis tensi

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Waktu Pengamatan (menit)
Kontrol Normal Loperamid
JM 150 mg/kg bb JM 300 mg/kg bb JM 600 mg/kg bb
Gambar 3 Profil konsistensi feses kelompok ekstrak etanol daun jambu biji daging buah merah
Keterangan : JM = Ekstrak etanol daun jambu biji daging buah merah, n = 5 (p<0,05),
0 = tidak defekasi, 1 = keras, 2 = keras lembek, 3 = lembek keras, 4 =
berair masih berbentuk masa, 5 = berair tidak berbentuk masa.

Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia, Vol. XXIX, No.1, 2004 - 24


I Ketut Adnyana, dkk Efek Ekstrak Daun Jambu Biji

6
5

K onsistensi
4
3
2
1
0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Waktu Pengamatan (menit)
Kontrol Normal Loperamid
JP 150 mg/kg bb JP 300 mg/kg bb JP 600 mg/kg bb

Gambar 4 Profil konsistensi feses kelompok ekstrak etanol daun jambu biji daging buah putih
Keterangan : JP = Ekstrak etanol daun jambu biji daging buah putih, n = 5 (p<0,05),
0= tidak defekasi, 1 = keras, 2 = keras lembek, 3 = lembek keras, 4=berair
masih berbentuk masa, 5 = berair tidak berbentuk masa.

0,8
Ra tio (X/Y)

0,6
JM 300 mg/kg bb
JM 150 mg/kg bb

JM 600 mg/kg bb

JP 600 mg/kg bb
JP 150 mg/kg bb

JP 300 mg/kg bb

0,4
L operam id
Norma l

0,2

0
1

Kelompok

Gambar 5. Grafik ratio panjang usus kelompok ekstrak etanol daun jambu biji daging buah merah
dan ekstrak etanol daun jambu biji daging buah putih.
Keterangan : x = panjang usus yang dilalui norit, y = panjang usus mencit, JP = ek-
strak etanol jambu biji daging buah putih, JM = ekstrak etanol jambu
biji daging buah merah.

25 – Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia, Vol. XXIX, No.1, 2004


I Ketut Adnyana, dkk Efek Ekstrak Daun Jambu Biji

Kesimpulan
Ekstrak etanol daun jambu biji daging buah putih dan ekstrak etanol daun jambu
biji daging buah merah menghambat pertumbuhan Shigella dysenteriae masing-
masing pada konsentrasi 40 mg/ml dan 50 mg/ml, terhadap Shigella flexneri
masing-masing pada konsentrasi 30 mg/ml dan 40 mg/ml, terhadap Escherichia
coli masing-masing pada konsentrasi 40 mg/ml, dan terhadap Salmonella typhi
hanya ekstrak etanol daun jambu biji daging buah putih pada konsentrasi 60 mg/ml.
Ekstrak etanol daun jambu biji daging buah putih menunjukkan aktivitas
antibakteri yang lebih kuat dibandingkan ekstrak etanol daun jambu biji daging
buah merah. Kedua ekstrak uji tidak menunjukkan perbedaan efek yang bermakna
terhadap konsistensi feses, berat total feses, waktu munculnya diare, lamanya diare,
dan transit usus. Frekuensi defekasi ekstrak etanol daun jambu biji daging buah
putih 150 mg/kg bb pada menit ke-180 sampai 240 berbeda bermakna
dibandingkan dengan kelompok kontrol (p<0,05).

Daftar Pustaka
1. Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia, 1977, Materia Medika Indonesia,
Jakarta, 130–131, 134–136, 141–145.
2. Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia, 1989, Materia Medika Indonesia
ed. 5, Jakarta.
3. Ditjen POM, 1995, Farmakope Indonesia, ed. 4, Depkes RI, 896.
4. Guyton, A.C., 1990, Fisiologi Manusia dan Mekanisme Penyakit, terjema-
han P. Andrianto, ed 3, BCG, Jakarta, 573–583, 601–603, 605–606.
5. Hartarto, B., 1983, Uji Efek Infus Daun Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), Kayu
Caesalpinia sappan (Caesalpiniaceae), Buah dan Kulit Buah Punica
granatum (Punicacae) sebagai Antidiare pada Mencit Putih Swiss-webster
dan sebagai Antibakteri, Tugas Akhir Sarjana Farmasi, Jurusan Farmasi,
Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Institut Teknologi Bandung,
Bandung, 13–17, 22–23.
6. Suryawati, S., Santoso, B. (Eds.), 1993, Penapisan Farmakologi Pengujian
Fitokimia dan Pengujian Klinik, Yayasan Pengembangan Obat Bahan Alam
Phytomedica, Jakarta, 19–21.
7. Muscthler, E., 1991, Dinamika Obat, terjemahan M. B. Widianto dan A. S.
Ranti, Penerbit ITB, Bandung, 542–544.
8. Syamsuhidayat, Sugati, S., dan Hutapea, J.R., 1991, Inventaris Tanaman O-
bat Indonesia, jil. 1, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Departemen
Kesehatan, Jakarta, 188–189, 484–485, 366, 466, 476.
9. Tjay, T. dan Rahardja, K., 1986, Obat-Obat Penting, Pangeran Jayakarta,
Jakarta, 195-198.

Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia, Vol. XXIX, No.1, 2004 - 26


I Ketut Adnyana, dkk Efek Ekstrak Daun Jambu Biji

10. Tortora, G., Nicholas, J. and Anagnostakos, P., 1990, Principles of Anatomy
and Physiology, New York; Harpen&Row Publishers, 772, 763,765,771–773.
11. Zuniarto, A.A., 1994, Uji Antidiare Infus Kulit Buah Delima Pada Tikus
Putih Jantan Balur Wistar, Bandung; Tugas Akhir Sarjana Farmasi, Jurusan
Farmasi, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Institut Teknologi
Bandung, 21–26.

27 – Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia, Vol. XXIX, No.1, 2004


Chapter 2 task in english
I Ketut Adnyana, et al Guava Leaf Extract Effects

Effect Guava Leaf Extract and White Meat Fruit


Guava Fruit Meat Red As antidiarrheal
I Ketut Adnyana *, Elin Yulinah, Joseph I. Sigit, Neng Fisheri K., Mohammed
Insanu

Sciences Unit of Pharmacology-Toxicology, Department of Pharmacy, Institute of


Technology
Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung 40132

(Received March 10, 2004, approved 28 April 2004)

Abstract
Duji has antibacterial activity (causes diarrhea) ethanol extract of guava leaves
seed pulp
white and red pulp guava (Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae)
against bacteria
Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, and Salmonella
typhi and test
antidiarrheal with methods of protection against diarrhea imbasan-castor oil and
transit method
intestinal tract in mice. The ethanol extract of guava leaves and white fruit flesh
have
inhibitory ability of bacteria that is greater than guava pulp
red (MIC
against Escherichia coli (60 mg / ml vs.> 100 mg / ml), Shigella dysenteriae (30
mg / ml vs 70
mg / ml), Shigella flexneri (40 mg / ml vs. 60 mg / ml), and Salmonella typhi (40
mg / ml vs 60
mg / ml). There were no significant differences in stool consistency, the total weight
Stool, time
the emergence of diarrhea, duration of diarrhea, and intestinal transit speed for the
second extract
test
compared with the control group. The frequency of defecation of mice fed
extract
ethanol guava leaf white pulp 150 mg / kg bw in minutes ke180-240
shows significant differences compared to the control group (p <0.05).
Keywords: antibacterial activity, intestinal transit method, ethanol extract
guava
red pulp, ethanol extract of guava fruit flesh white

Abstract
Antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts of white and red Guava Guava
(Psidium guajava
L., Myrtaceae) leaves against Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella
flexneri, and
Salmonella typhi and antidiarrheal activity against castor oil-induced
diarrhe and
intestinal transit time method in Swiss Webster mice Had been tested. The
ethanol extracts
of white Guava leaves showed stronger antibacterial activity Than That of
ethanol extracts of
Guava red leaves against Escherichia coli (MIC of 60 mg / ml vs.> 100 mg / ml),
Shigella
dysenteriae (MIC of 30 mg / ml vs. 70 mg / ml), Shigella flexneri (MIC of 40 mg / ml
vs 60
mg / ml), and Salmonella typhi (MIC of 40 mg / ml vs. 60 mg / ml). There was no
significant
Increased differences in stool consistency, stool weight, and diarrhea onset
duration, and
intestinal transit time in mice treated by both extracts compared to those of
control group.
Frequency of defecacy of mice administered by ethanol extracts of white Guava
at a dose
of 150 mg / kg bw minute at 180-240 showed significantly different compared to
That of
control group (p <0.05).

Key words: antibacterial activity, intestinal transit time method, ethanol


extracts of red
Guava leaves and white
19 - Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia, Vol. XXIX, No.1, 2004

I Ketut Adnyana, et al Guava Leaf Extract Effects


Preliminary
Diarrhea is a frequent defecation in a day with a soft stool or
liquid,
occurred because of the small intestine chymus passing through quickly, then feces
through the colon too quickly so as not enough time to
absorption,
this led to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Dehydration
is
a state of dehydration, potassium deficiency (hypokalemia) and
sometimes acidosis (blood becomes acidic), which not infrequently ends with
shock and death. The situation is very dangerous especially for infants and young
small children, because they have reserves of less intracellular fluid
while the extra fluid off-cells are more easily than adults.

It has been known by the general public that guava leaf extracts have
efficacy as an antidiarrheal. Guava (Psidium guajava) has a variety
between
other fleshy-fruit-colored white and red. Remember
hazards caused by diarrhea, then research to find extracts
leaf
more effective guava is very important to achieve target
handling
diarrhea.
In this study the effectiveness of guava leaf extract of white pulp
compared to the red as an antidiarrheal, based on
antimicrobial activity, stool consistency, stool weight, time, diarrhea, and test
time
cross the gut.

Experiment
Material
Guava leaf extract of white pulp, guava leaf extract of the fruit flesh
red, nutrient agar (Difco), NaCl 0.9% w / v, discs of paper, cotton
fatty,
aluminum foil, a suspension of 5% Norit in 50% Acacia gum, loperamid BPFI,
tetracycline BPFI, male mice, and bacteria that cause diarrhea:
Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri and Salmonella
typhi.

Tool
Petri dish, Bausch & Lomb spectrophotometer Spektronik, kuvet, syringes,
oral needle mice, a set of surgical tools, and animal metabolism cage.
Procedure:
Collection, determination and extraction of materials
Guava leaf red pulp and guava leaves and white fruit flesh
obtained from market determined in the Department of Biological Science, State-of
ITB.Crude drug
obtained and then extracted by reflux (95% ethanol, for 2
hours).

Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia, Vol. XXIX, No.1, 2004-20

I Ketut Adnyana, et al Guava Leaf Extract Effects

Preparation of media for bacterial


Nutrient media to be prepared by mixing 23 g nutrient for the
1000 ml of distilled water and boiled until perfectly dissolved, incorporated into
bottles to be sterilized by autoclave. Nutrient broth 8 g
mixed
in 1000 ml water and boiled before use and distrerilisasi
with
autoclave.

Preparation of bacterial suspension


Suspension of bacteria in liquid media after incubation for 18-24 h at
temperature
37 ° C shaken using a vortex shaker, the concentrat ion of bacteria suspension is set
so that if measured using the spectrophotometer Spektronik
wavelength of 530 nm gives 25% transmittance.

Tests for antibacterial activity


Antibacterial activity was tested by using disc diffusion method for
paper
and methods for dilution. (I) the agar diffusion method was done by
mixing of 50 mL of each bacterial suspension into 15 ml of media
for that has been thawed in a sterile petri dish and then allowed
becomes solid. Paper discs with a diameter of 6 mm placed on the surface
solid media. On disc dropwise 20 mL of each test substance and then
dibarkan for 30 minutes at room temperature before inserting it into an incubator 37 °
C. (Ii) dilution method for testing is done by let-
0.5 ml extract would not test on Petri dishes plus 14.5 ml of warm jelly media
that is still liquid, allowed to cool, then streaked to the test bacterial suspension
top surface of jelly.

Methods of protection against diarrhea by Castor oil


Animal experiments in the form of a white male Swiss Webster mice were healthy with
the weight
20-25 g and had normal stools were randomly grouped into 9
group. Mice fasted for one hour before the experiment started, each
dosage group were given orally 0.5 ml/20 g body weight, then placed in
individual vessel which repose the first observation of filter paper
first
dried and weighed. One hour after treatment, each mice except
of
normal group were given 0.75 ml of castor oil. The response of each mouse was
observed
hose
30 minutes to 4 hours, and at 5 hours after administration of castor oil,
cover
time of occurrence of diarrhea, frequency of diarrhea, the consistency and the number
or weight
Stool
and the period duration of diarrhea.

Intestinal transit method


Animal experiments in the form of white Swiss Webster mice were healthy adult males
with
weight 20-25 g fasted for approximately 18 hours but still be
beverages.
randomly divided into 8 groups. The extract tested, the carrier

21 - Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia, Vol. XXIX, No.1, 2004

I Ketut Adnyana, et al Guava Leaf Extract Effects

or comparison is given at t = 0. After t = 45 min, mice


be given
Norit suspension of 0.1 ml/10 g orally. At t = 65 min, mice
sacrificed by dislocation of cervical vertebrae. Intestine of mice issued
careful do not wide apart. The total length of intestine and the bowel which
Norit marker traversed starting from the pylorus to the tip end (black)
be measured from each animal and then calculated the ratio of distance
traveled marker of total intestinal length.

Results and Discussion


Results In vitro experiments showed that ethanol extract of guava meat
white fruit has a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 40 mg / ml against
bacterium Shigella flexneri, 30 mg / ml against bacteria Shigella dysenteriae, 40
mg / ml
against Escherichia coli, and 60 mg / ml against Salmonella typhi bacteria.

Tabel 1 Aktivitas ekstrak terhadap pertumbuhan Shigella dysentriae, Shigella flexneri, S.


typhi, E. coli
Pertumbuhan bakteri
Konsentrasi
Kelompok Shigella Shigella
(mg/ml)
dysentriae flexneri S. typhi E. coli
10
+ + + +
20 + + + +
30 – + + +
Ekstrak etanol 40 – – – +
jambu biji 50 – – – +
daging buah 60 – – – –
putih 70 – – – –
80 – – – –
90 – – – –
100 – – – –
10 + + + +
20 + + + +
30 + + + +
Ekstrak etanol 40 + + + +
jambu biji 50 + + + +
daging buah 60 + – – +
merah 70 – – – +
80 – – – +
90 – – – +
100 – – – +
Keterangan: n = 5, + = ada pertumbuhan, – = tidak ada pertumbuhan.

Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia, Vol. XXIX, No.1, 2004-22

I Ketut Adnyana, et al Guava Leaf Extract Effects

Ethanol extract of guava red fruit flesh has a MIC 50 mg / ml against


bacteria
Shigella flexneri, 40 mg / ml of the bacterium Shigella dysenteriae, 40 mg / ml
against
Escherichia coli, and there are no barriers to the concentration of 100 mg / ml
against
bacterium Salmonella typhi (Table 1).

Ethanol extract of guava pulp and white has a stronger activity


against
Salmonella typhi compared with the ethanol extract of guava meat
fruit
red, thus the ethanol extract of guava fruit flesh can be white
more
efficacious for treating diarrhea caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi.

Experiments in vivo showed that the extract of guava fruit flesh red 150
mg / kg body weight can reduce the frequency of defecation different
significantly from the positive control, but at a dose of 300 mg / kg body weight and
600
mg / kg body weight did not significantly reduce the frequency of defecation (p <0.05).
This
This is expected because the viscous extract concentration thus affecting
test animals that cause physiological effects of drugs are not so visible.
Influence
is also common in stool consistency, at a dose of 150 mg / kg body weight
able to improve the consistency so that feces are not in a liquid state
at minute 210. There were no significant differences at the time of diarrhea, duration of
diarrhea, total fecal weight and intestinal transit.

(Tabel & image in indonesia)


Figure 1 Profile of the frequency of defecation and the ethanol extract of guava leaves
meat
white fruit.
Description: JP = ethanol extract of guava leaves
white pulp,
n = 5 (p <0.05)

Guava leaf extract red fruit flesh 150, 300, and 600 mg / kg body weight
showed no suppression of defecation frequency in mice diarrhea
induced by castor oil. Test extract also did not provide
differences
significantly on the consistency of stool, diarrhea time, duration of diarrhea, total fecal
weight
on
mice diarrhea and intestinal transit time in normal mice.

23 - Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia, Vol. XXIX, No.1, 2004

I Ketut Adnyana, et al Guava Leaf Extract Effects

(Tabel & image in indonesia)

Figure 2 Profile of the frequency of defecation and the ethanol extract of guava leaves
white flesh
Description: JP = ethanol extract of guava leaves
fruit flesh is white, n = 5 (p <0.05)

(Tabel & image in indonesia)

100 150 200 250 300 350 400


Observation time (minutes)
Normal Loperamid

(Tabel & image in indonesia)

Figure 3 Profile of stool consistency group ethanol extract of guava leaves


red pulp
Description: JM = ethanol extract of guava leaves
red fruit flesh, n = 5 (p <0.05),
0 = no defecation, 1 = hard, 2 = hard soft, 3 = soft hard, 4 =
still form the watery, 5 = watery unformed future.

Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia, Vol. XXIX, No.1, 2004-24


I Ketut Adnyana, et al Guava Leaf Extract Effects

(Tabel & image in indonesia)

Figure 4 Profile of stool consistency group of the ethanol extract of guava leaves
white flesh
Description: JP = ethanol extract of guava leaves
fruit flesh is white, n = 5 (p <0.05),
0 = no defecation, 1 = hard, 2 = hard soft, 3 = soft hard, 4 = watery
still a time, 5 = watery unformed future.

Figure 5. Graph the length ratio intestinal ethanol extract of guava leaves group
seeds of red pulp
and ethanol extract of leaves of guava pulp
white.
Description: x = length of intestine traversed Norit, y = length of the intestine of mice, JP
= Ek-
strak ethanol guava fruit flesh is white, JM = ethanol extract of guava
seeds of red pulp.

25 - Acta Pharmaceutica Indonesia, Vol. XXIX, No.1, 2004

I Ketut Adnyana, et al Guava Leaf Extract Effects

Conclusion
The ethanol extract of guava leaves and white fruit flesh ethanol extract of guava leaves
seeds inhibited the growth of red pulp each Shigella dysenteriae
each at a concentration of 40 mg / ml and 50 mg / ml, against Shigella flexneri
respectively at a concentration of 30 mg / ml and 40 mg / ml, against Escherichia
coli respectively at a concentration of 40 mg / ml, and against Salmonella
typhi
only the ethanol extract of guava leaves and white pulp at a concentration of 60
mg / ml.
The ethanol extract of guava leaves and white fruit flesh showed activity
antibacterial that is more powerful than the ethanol extract of guava leaves meat
red fruit. Second test extract showed no significant difference in effect
against the consistency of feces, the total weight of feces, diarrhea rise time, duration
diarrhea,
and intestinal transit. The frequency of defecation and the ethanol extract of guava leaves
meat
fruit
white 150 mg / kg bw at minute 180 to 240 were significantly different
compared with the control group (p <0.05).