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Summary of Principles in Language Teaching

Provided by Dr. Bill Flick, Director of ESL at Auburn

Grammar- Audio-Lingual
Direct Method Silent Way Suggestopedia
Translation Method
1. Goals Read literature Communication. Communication. Self- Everyday
in L2. Develop Think in L2. Automaticity by expression of Comm. Tap Ss
mind. Learn Direct Ss; mental powers
grammar, association in learning new independence by desuggesting
vocabulary, and L2 without habits. from T. barriers to
culture. translation. learning.
2. Role of the Traditional. T T-centered. T-centered. T T as S must trust and
teacher/studen is the authority. T directs. provides model facilitator, respect T as
t Ss learn from of L2 for resource, authority. Ss
the T. imitation. provides what adopt childlike
Ss need. roles once they
feel secure.
3. Teaching/ Translation. Associate L2 New grammar Ss guided to Relaxing
Learning Deductive and meaning and vocabulary discover the atmosphere,
Process? study of directly in real through structure of music, activate
grammar. context. dialogues. L2. Initial whole brain +
Memorize Use L2 only. Drills. focus on peripheral
vocabulary. Inductive Inductive accurate learning.
grammar. grammar. pronunciation Reception then
Syllabus based Learning is . activation phase.
on topics/ habit formation.
4. Nature of T to S. Both initiate T-directed. T active, but T/S and S/S
student/teache interaction. S/S in drills. mostly silent. interaction from
r interaction Some S/S S/S beginning.
interaction. interaction
5. How are N.A. N.A. N.A. Positive Focus on
students’ feelings confidence and
feelings encouraged, sense of security
dealt with? also S/S via suggestions.
6. View of Literary Spoken Language as Language Communication
language/ language over language over system of expresses the as a 2-phase
culture? spoken written. patterns/units. spirit of a process:
language. Simple to culture. language +
complex. extra- linguistic
7. What Vocabulary/ Vocabulary over Structure Pronunciation Vocabulary.
language grammar. grammar. important. & intonation. Explicit but
skills are Reading/writin Focus on Listen-speak- Structure. minimal
emphasized? g. communication. read- Oral before grammar.
write. written. Language use
over linguistic
8. Role of the L1 in Not used. L1 habits Used to form L1 used in
native classroom. interfere sounds in L2 translation of
language? Two-way with L2. Avoid and for dialogues. As
translation. L1. feedback. course proceeds,
Otherwise not L1 reduced.
9. How does Written Use of language Discrete point Continuous In-class
evaluation translations. (interview). testing for observation. performance.
occur? Apply grammar accuracy. Ss develop
rules. their own
10. Treatment T supplies Self-correction. Avoid errors by Self- No overt
of errors? correct answer. overlearning. correction; correction
peer Modelled
correction. correctly.
11. Associated Moses Francois Gouin, Charles Fries Caleb Georgi Lozanov
with whom? Charles Berlitz Gattegno
Community Total Physical Communicative
Natural Approach
Language Learning Response Language Teaching
1. Goals Communication. Communication. Communicative Communication in
Promote Learning L1= competence. Facilitate social context.
nondefensive learning L2. acquisition by Appropriacy.
learning. providing Functional
comprehensible input competence.
2. Role of the Counselor/client. As Director. T provides T as facilitator. Primary Facilitator. Manager of
teacher/student? S assumes more model of L2 for responsibility is with S. learning activities.
responsibility, imitation. Later role Promotes
becomes independent reversal. communication among
of T. Ss.
3. Teaching/ Security, aggression, Comprehension Comprehension before Ss learn to
Learning attention, reflection, before production. production. Developing communicate by
Process retention, Modelling by T model approximates L2 negotiating meaning in
discrimination. Ss followed by (L1, . . . L2). Gradual real context.
initiate speech in L1, performance. emergence of speech. Activities include
T supplies L2. Task oriented. information gap,
choice, feedback.
4. Nature of Changes over time. T speaks, Ss S-centered. Both T arranges tasks for
student/teacher Importance placed on respond initiate interaction. S/S communication. S/S
interaction? cooperative nonverbally. Later, interaction in pair and interaction.
relationship between Ss verbalize. small group activities.
T/S and S/S.
5. How are S viewed as whole Ss have fun in a Affective factors over Ss are motivated to
students’ person, no separation nonstressful cognitive factors. learn thru usefulness
feelings dealt of intellect and situation. Optimal learner has low of language functions.
with? feelings. T affective filter.
"understands” Ss.
6. View of Language for Spoken over Language as a tool for Language in social
language/ developing critical written. communication. context, for
culture? thinking. Culture Language function over communication.
integrated with linguistic form.
7. What skills Ss determine syllabus Grammar and Vocabulary over Function over form.
are emphasized? by what they what to vocabulary (initially grammar. Function over Discourse and
say. via imperatives). form. Comprehension–e sociolinguistic
Comprehension earlyproduction–s competence + all 4
precedes speech emergence. skills.
8. Role of L1? Used in the Not used. L1 can be used in Generally not used.
beginning, less in preproduction
later stages. (comprehension)
9. How does Integrative tests. By observation. Communicative Communicative tests.
evaluation Self-evaluation. effectiveness. Fluency Fluency and accuracy.
occur? over accuracy. Task
10. Treatment of Nonthreatening. Unobtrusive No error correction No error correction
errors? Correction by correction. unless errors interfere unless errors interfere
modelling. with communication. with communication.
11. Associated Charles Curran James Asher Tracy Terrell, Stephen Various.
with whom? Krashen