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)’RcT„J) UKn[|

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‫ﺍﻝﻔﻬﺭﺱ‬
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‫ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻝﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬
‫‪11‬‬ ‫ﺘﻤﻬـﻴﺩ‬
‫‪15‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل ‪ -‬ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬
‫‪16‬‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪...‬‬ ‫‪1-1‬‬
‫‪20‬‬ ‫ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺒﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.....‬‬ ‫‪2-1‬‬
‫‪21‬‬ ‫ﺠﻤﻊ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.................‬‬ ‫‪3-1‬‬
‫‪21‬‬ ‫‪ 1-3-1‬ﺍﺴﺘﻁﻼﻉ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ‪..........................‬‬
‫‪22‬‬ ‫‪ 2-3-1‬ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪......................‬‬
‫‪25‬‬ ‫‪ 3-3-1‬ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺴﺭﻴﻌﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫‪29‬‬ ‫‪ 4-3-1‬ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﻭﺭ‪...................‬‬

‫‪37‬‬ ‫ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ ﺍﺴﺘﻁﻼﻉ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ‪.............‬‬ ‫‪4-1‬‬

‫‪39‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪ -‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫‪40‬‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺨل‪..............................‬‬ ‫‪1-2‬‬
‫‪41‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪........‬‬ ‫‪2-2‬‬
‫‪42‬‬ ‫‪ 1-2-2‬ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻨﻴﺔ‪-‬ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻤﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.........‬‬
‫‪54‬‬ ‫‪ 2-2-2‬ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺩﺍﻝﺔ‪.........................‬‬

‫‪60‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.......‬‬ ‫‪3-2‬‬


‫‪62‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪........‬‬ ‫‪4-2‬‬
‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼــﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒــﺔ ﻝﻸﻏــﺭﺍﺽ‬ ‫‪5-2‬‬
‫‪70‬‬ ‫ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‪...........................‬‬

‫‪5‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﻔﻬﺭﺱ‬
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‫ﺍﻝﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬ ‫‪1‬‬

‫‪70‬‬ ‫‪ 1-5-2‬ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺒﺭﻴﺔ‪.....................‬‬


‫‪72‬‬ ‫‪ 2-5-2‬ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻠﻴﺔ‪.......................‬‬

‫‪75‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ‪ -‬ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬


‫‪77‬‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺨل‪..............................‬‬ ‫‪1-3‬‬
‫‪78‬‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.........‬‬ ‫‪2-3‬‬
‫‪ 1-2-3‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘـﺔ‬
‫‪78‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ ﺒﺎﻝﻔﺭﻥ‪..........................‬‬
‫‪ 2-2-3‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘـﺔ‬
‫‪81‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﻭﺽ ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻲ‪..........................‬‬

‫‪83‬‬ ‫ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﺘﺭﺒﺭﻍ‪......................‬‬ ‫‪3-3‬‬


‫‪86‬‬ ‫‪ 1-3-3‬ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻜﺎﺯﺍﺠﺭﺍﻨﺩ‪............‬‬
‫‪91‬‬ ‫‪ 2-3-3‬ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺭﺍﻕ‪.............‬‬
‫‪ 3-3-3‬ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘـﺔ ﺠﻬـﺎﺯ ﻓﺎﺴـﻴﻠﻴﻴﻑ‬
‫‪96‬‬ ‫ﻝﻼﺨﺘﺭﺍﻕ‪................................‬‬
‫‪98‬‬ ‫‪ 4-3-3‬ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.........................‬‬

‫‪100‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪...............‬‬ ‫‪4-3‬‬


‫‪ 1-4-3‬ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﻝـﺩﻭﺭﻕ‬
‫‪101‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺝ )ﺍﻝﺒﻜﻨﻭﻤﻴﺘﺭ(‪......................‬‬

‫‪105‬‬ ‫ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪........................‬‬ ‫‪5-3‬‬


‫‪106‬‬ ‫‪ 1-5-3‬ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﻁﻊ‪.......‬‬
‫‪111‬‬ ‫‪ 2-5-3‬ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻐﻤﺭ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ‪.........‬‬
‫‪115‬‬ ‫‪ 3-5-3‬ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ‪....‬‬

‫‪117‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪..............‬‬ ‫‪6-3‬‬


‫‪123‬‬ ‫‪ 1-6-3‬ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﻨﺨﻴل ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻑ‪...‬‬

‫‪6‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﻔﻬﺭﺱ‬
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‫ﺍﻝﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬
‫‪126‬‬ ‫‪ 2-6-3‬ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻐﺴﻴل‪......‬‬

‫‪132‬‬ ‫ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪7-3‬‬


‫‪133‬‬ ‫‪ 1-7-3‬ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ ﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪...‬‬
‫‪134‬‬ ‫‪ 2-7-3‬ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻤﻌﻬﺩ ﻤﺎﺴﺎﺸﻭﺴﺘﺵ ﻝﻠﺘﻜﻨﻭﻝﻭﺠﻴﺎ‪......‬‬
‫‪ 3-7-3‬ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻴﺠﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﺤﺴـﺏ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬
‫‪135‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ‪.......................‬‬
‫‪ 4-7-3‬ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻁﺭﻕ ﻝﺘﺼـﻨﻴﻑ‬
‫‪138‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪....................................‬‬
‫‪147‬‬ ‫‪ 5-7-3‬ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺤﺩ ﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪............‬‬
‫‪154‬‬ ‫‪ 6-7-3‬ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﺭﻭﺴﻴﺔ‪...‬‬

‫‪165‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ ‪ -‬ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬


‫‪166‬‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺨل ‪.............................‬‬ ‫‪1-4‬‬
‫‪180‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪........‬‬ ‫‪2-4‬‬
‫ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ ﻭﺍﻝﻘـﺹ ﺜﻼﺜـﻲ‬ ‫‪3-4‬‬
‫‪185‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.....................‬‬
‫‪191‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﻼﻤﺤﺼﻭﺭ‪......‬‬ ‫‪4-4‬‬

‫‪195‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ – ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬


‫‪196‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ‪............‬‬ ‫‪1-5‬‬
‫‪197‬‬ ‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪..‬‬ ‫‪2-5‬‬
‫‪198‬‬ ‫‪ 1-2-5‬ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ‪...................‬‬
‫‪199‬‬ ‫‪ 2-2-5‬ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺒﺱ ﻭﺍﻝﺯﻤﺒﺭﻙ‪................‬‬

‫‪7‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﻔﻬﺭﺱ‬
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‫ﺍﻝﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬
‫‪200‬‬ ‫‪ 3-2-5‬ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻀﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ‪....‬‬
‫‪202‬‬ ‫‪ 4-2-5‬ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪....‬‬

‫‪202‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪...‬‬ ‫‪3-5‬‬

‫‪223‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺩﺱ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬


‫‪224‬‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺨل‪..............................‬‬ ‫‪1-6‬‬
‫ﻓﺤﺹ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻀـﻐﻁ‬ ‫‪2-6‬‬
‫‪228‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ‪.......................‬‬
‫ﻓﺤﺹ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻀـﻐﻁ‬ ‫‪3-6‬‬
‫‪231‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﺒﺕ‪........................‬‬

‫‪235‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺩﻤﻙ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬


‫‪236‬‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺨل‪..............................‬‬ ‫‪1-7‬‬
‫‪241‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﺩﻤﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ‪...........‬‬ ‫‪2-7‬‬

‫‪247‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻤﻥ‪ -‬ﻓﺤﺹ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻜﺎﻝﻴﻔﻭﺭﻨﻴﺎ )ﺴﻲ ﺒﻲ ﺁﺭ(‬


‫‪248‬‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺨل‪..............................‬‬ ‫‪1-8‬‬
‫‪255‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﺹ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺘﺤﻤل ﻜﺎﻝﻴﻔﻭﺭﻨﻴﺎ)‪(CBR‬‬ ‫‪2-8‬‬

‫‪263‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﺴﻊ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬


‫‪264‬‬ ‫ﻤﺩﺨل‪..............................‬‬ ‫‪1-9‬‬
‫ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫‪2-9‬‬
‫‪266‬‬ ‫ﺇﺤﻼل ﺍﻝﺭﻤل‪.......................‬‬
‫‪272‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﻲ‪...........‬‬ ‫‪3-9‬‬
‫‪279‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺒﺎﻝﺭﻴﺸﺔ‪..............‬‬ ‫‪4-9‬‬

‫‪8‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﻔﻬﺭﺱ‬
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‫ﺍﻝﺼﻔﺤﺔ‬

‫‪283‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤــــﻼﺤــــﻕ‬
‫‪284‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻝﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ‪.............................‬‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺤﻕ )‪(1‬‬
‫‪285‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﻷﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪............‬‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺤﻕ )‪(2‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﻝﺤﺩ ﺍﻷﺩﻨﻰ ﻝﻌﺩﺩ ﻭﻋﻤﻕ ﻨﻘﻁ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻜﺸﺎﻑ ﻤﻘﺎﺴـﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺤﻕ )‪(3‬‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﺴﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﺄﺴﻴﺱ ﻭﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺒﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﻠﻭﺒـﺔ‬
‫‪286‬‬ ‫ﻜﺤﺩ ﺃﺩﻨﻰ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﻜﻭﺩ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻨﻲ‪.....................‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻕ ﻨﻘـﻁ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻜﺸـﺎﻑ ﻤـﻥ ﻤﻨﺴـﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺤﻕ )‪(4‬‬
‫‪288‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺄﺴﻴﺱ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺭﻭﺴﻴﺔ‪................‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻗﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺨل ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺤﻭﺼـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺤﻕ )‪(5‬‬
‫‪289‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪..........‬‬
‫‪290‬‬ ‫‪ -‬ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺼﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺸﺎﺌﻌﺔ‪......................‬‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺤﻕ )‪(6‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﻴـﺔ )‪ (SI‬ﺍﻝﻤﺴـﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺤﻕ )‪(7‬‬
‫‪292‬‬ ‫ﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﺎ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.....................................‬‬

‫‪293‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺭﺱ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﺍﻭل‬


‫‪295‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺭﺱ ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل‬
‫‪298‬‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺭﺱ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﺎﺫﺝ‬
‫‪299‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ‬

‫‪9‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩ‬
‫)‪(Introduction‬‬

‫ﺃﻗﺩﻡ ﻝﻠﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﻝﺔ ﻝﻠﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻬﻨﺩﺴـﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻝﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﺭﺠﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻓﻤﺘﺨﺼﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﻭﺠﻪ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﻴﻌﻤل ﻓـﻲ ﻤﺠـﺎل‬
‫ﻲ‬
‫ﺏ ﺃﺒﻨﻴـ ‪‬ﺔ ﺃﻡ ﻓﻨـ ‪‬‬
‫ﺱ ﻁﺭﻕ‪ ،‬ﻤﺭﺍﻗـ ‪‬‬
‫ﺱ ﺃﺒﻨﻴ ‪‬ﺔ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﻡ ﻤﻬﻨﺩ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺸﻴﻴﺩ‪ ،‬ﻤﻬﻨﺩ ‪‬‬
‫ﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﻴﺒﺤﺙ ﻓﻲ ﻁﺭﻕ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺒﺭﻴـﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺤﻘﻠﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﻊ ﻓﻜﺭﺓ ﻤﻭﺠﺯﺓ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻬﺩﻑ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﻜل ﻓﺤﺹ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻫﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻝﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺃﺼﺒﺤﺕ ﺘﻠﻌﺒﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﻜﻤﺭﻓﻕ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻲ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺭﺍﻓﻕ ﺼﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺀﺍﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺤﺘـل ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﻤﺭﺘﺒﺔ ﻫﺎﻤﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻨﺩﺴﻭﻥ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺘﻨـﻭﻉ ﺃﺸـﻜﺎﻝﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺨﺼﺎﺌﺼﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻷﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺘﻨﺘﻘل ﺇﻝﻴﻪ‬
‫ﺃﺤﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺸﺄ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﺘﺩﻋﻲ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﻓﻴﺔ ﻝﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺘﻼﻓﻴﹰﺎ ﻝﻠﻤﺸﺎﻜل ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻗﺩ ﺘـﻨﺠﻡ‬
‫ﻋﻥ ﺇﻗﺎﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺸﺄ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻌﺭﻭﻓـﺔ ﺍﻝﺨﺼـﺎﺌﺹ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻝﻬﺒﻭﻁـﺎﺕ ﻏﻴـﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻤﻭﺡ ﺒﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻝﻬﺒﻭﻁﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻜﺎﻓﺌﺔ ﻝﻸﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻨﺸﺂﺕ ﻭﻤﺎ ﻴﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺘﺸﻘﻘﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻭﺏ‪ ،‬ﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﻤﻭﺭ ﻴﻤﻜـﻥ‬
‫ﺘﻼﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺒﻘﺔ ﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﺠﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺒﻠﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻡ ﻗﺩ ﺃﺜﺒﺘـﺕ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﻝﻎ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﻫﻅﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﻨﻔﺎﻗﻬﺎ ﻝﻤﻌﺎﻝﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻭﺏ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭﺓ ﺘﻔـﻭﻕ‬
‫ﻜﺜﻴﺭﹰﺍ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﻝﻎ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﹸﺘﻨﻔﻕ ﻤﻘﺎﺒل ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻭﻗـﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺴﺏ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪11‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻭﻨﺸﻴﺭ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﺜﺎل‪ ،‬ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻴﺭﺼﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺩﻭل ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻘﺩﻤﺔ ﻤﺎ ﻗﻴﻤﺘـﻪ ‪-0.1‬‬
‫‪ %2.0‬ﻤﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺃﻱ ﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﻷﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﻝﻤﻭﻗﻌﻪ ﻭﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺘﺩﻝل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﹸﺘﻌﻁﻰ ﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻨﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﻜﻤﻥ ﺨﺼﻭﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻭﻝﺔ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺘﻪ ﺒﻠﻐﺔ ﻴﻔﻬﻤﻬﺎ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺘﻤﻴﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻜﻨﺕ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻻ ﺃﺩﻋﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺄﻝﻴﻑ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﻁﺭﻕ ﺇﺠـﺭﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻤﻭﺭ ﻤﻌﺭﻭﻓﺔ ﻭﻤﺜﺒﺘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻜﻭﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠـﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻨﻨﻲ ﺤﺎﻭﻝﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻻﺒﺘﻌﺎﺩ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺠﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﻓﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﻁﺭﻕ‬
‫ﺕ ﻤﺎ ﻭﺴﻌﻨﻲ ﻝﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﺭﺽ ﻭﺍﻀـﺤﻴ‪‬ﻥ‬
‫ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻤﻠ ﹸ‬
‫ﻤﻊ ﻜل ﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﺯﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻭﺤﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺕ ﺨﻼل ﺇﻋﺩﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻜﺘﺏ ﺘـﻡ‬
‫ﺇﺜﺒﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻤـﻊ ﺍﻹﺸـﺎﺭﺓ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻝـﻨﺹ ﺇﻝـﻰ ﻤﺼـﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﺸﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﺭﺩﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﺒﺫﻜﺭ ﺭﻗﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺠﻊ ﺩﺍﺨل‬
‫ﻗﻭﺴﻴﻥ ﺒﺸﻜل ‪ / /‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﻜل ﺍﺴﺘﺸﻬﺎﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻗﺘﺒﺎﺱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭُﺃﻗﺭ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺒﺄﻥ ﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﻁﻠﺢ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻫﻲ ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﻨﻭﺍﻗﺼﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝـﻙ‬
‫ﻨﻅﺭﹰﺍ ﻝﻐﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻹﺠﻤﺎﻉ ﺤﻭل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‪ .‬ﻭﻝﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﺍﺠﺘﻬـﺩﺕ ﻝﻜـﻲ ﺘﻜـﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺼﻁﻠﺤﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ ﻭﺃﻗﺭﺏ ﻤﺎ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺼﻭﺍﺏ‪ .‬ﻓﻌﻠﻰ ﺴـﺒﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﺜـﺎل‪،‬‬
‫ﻴﺘﺭﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﺒﻌﺽ ﻤﺼﻁﻠﺢ )‪ (Borehole‬ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻱ ﺍﻝﻰ )ﺒﺌﺭ ﺍﺴﺘﻜﺸﺎﻑ(‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻴﺘﺭﺠﻤﻪ ﺍﻝﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻵﺨﺭ ﺇﻝﻰ )ﺒﺌﺭ ﺴﺒﺭﻴﺔ( ﺃﻭ )ﺠﺴ‪‬ﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺍﺨﺘـﺭﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺠﻤـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﺤﺘﻭﺍﺀﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ )ﺴﺒﺭ( ﻴﺠﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺃﻗﺭﺏ ﺇﻝـﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺼـﻭﺩ ﺒﻬـﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﺍﻝﺤﺎل ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﺼﻁﻠﺢ )‪ ،(Clay‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﻝﻠﺩﻻﻝـﺔ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺏ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ )ﻁﻴﻥ( ﻭﻓﻲ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ )ﻏﹸﻀـﺎﺭ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻗـﺩ ﺍﺴـﺘﻌﻤﻠﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻝـﻰ‬
‫ﻝﺸﻌﻭﺭﻱ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﻗﺭﺏ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺇﺤﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺭﺉ‪.‬‬

‫‪12‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩ‬
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‫ﻭﺃﺸﻴﺭ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻨﻨﻲ ﺤﺎﻭﻝﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺠﻌﻠﻪ ﻤﻘﺘﺼﺭﹰﺍ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻬﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻨﺩﺱ ﻭﻓﻨﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ ﻤـﻥ ﻁـﺭﻕ ﻭﺃﺴـﺎﻝﻴﺏ ﺇﺠـﺭﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺒﺭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺤﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﺒﺘﻌﺩﹰﺍ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺨـﻭﺽ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﺎﺼـﻴل‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻝﻬﺩﻑ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﺘﺫﻜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻨﺩﺱ ﻭﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻔﻨـﻲ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﻬﻨﺩﺴﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻲ ﻝﻠﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺅﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜـﺫﻝﻙ ﺇﺨـﺭﺍﺝ‬
‫ل ﺘﻌﻭ‪‬ﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻪ ﻭﻴﺘﻘﻨـﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻨﺩﺱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻔﻨﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺩﺍﺌﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻲ ﻝﻌﻤ ٍ‬
‫ﺩﻭﻥ ﻓﻬﻡ ﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤل ﻝﻤﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﻝﻬﺩﻑ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﺃﻤﺭ ﻗـﺎﺌﻡ ﺒـﻴﻥ ﺒﻌـﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻔﻨﻴﻴﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺴﺘﻁﺎﻉ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻌﻤل ﺃﻥ ﻴﺤﻘﻕ ﻫـﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻬـﺩﻑ – ﻭﻝـﻭ‬
‫ﺠﺯﺌﻴﹰﺎ – ﻓﺴﺄﻋﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻬﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺒﺫل ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠﻠﻪ ﻤﺜﻤﺭﹰﺍ ﻭﻤﻔﻴﺩﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺨﺘﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺒﺠﺯﻴل ﺍﻝﺸﻜﺭ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺩﻜﺘﻭﺭ ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﺍﺸﺘﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ‬
‫ﻝﻠﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﻔﻠﺴﻁﻴﻨﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﻋﻤﺎﺭ )ﺒﻜﺩﺍﺭ(‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺸﺠﻊ ﻭﺘﺒﻨـﻰ‬
‫ﻨﺸﺭﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻤﻌﺘﺒﺭﹰﺍ ﺇﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﹰﺍ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺸﺎﺭﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻠﺱ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺠﻬﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺨﺩﻤـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺘﻨﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺇﻋﻤﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺘﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻔﻠﺴﻁﻴﻨﻲ ﺒﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﻗﻁﺎﻋﺎﺘﻪ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺒﺎﻝﺸﻜﺭ ﻝﻜل ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺸﺠﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﻜﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺴﺎﻫﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺩﻗﻴﻘﻪ ﻭﺇﺨﺭﺍﺠـﻪ ﻭﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌـﺔ‬
‫ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺸﻜﺭ ﺃﻗﺩﻤﻪ ﺴﻠﻔﹰﺎ ﻝﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺴﻴﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺒﺘﺼـﺤﻴﺢ ﻝﺨﻁـﺄ ﺃﻭ ﻫﻔـﻭﺓ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ ﻝﻔﻜﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺒﻨﺼﻴﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻨﻭﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﺭﻴﺩﻱ‪ :‬ﻨﺎﺒﻠﺱ –‬
‫ﻓﻠﺴﻁﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ ﺒﺭﻴﺩ )‪ (1874‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻌﻨﻭﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﻝﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪hcl@zaytona.com‬‬

‫ﺴﺎﻤﻲ ﺃﺤﻤــﺩ ﺤﺠــﺎﻭﻱ‬


‫ﻨﺎﺒﻠﺱ ﻓﻲ ‪ 15‬ﻜﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ ‪2003‬‬

‫‪13‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


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‫ﺍﺴﺘﻁﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﻝﻐﻭﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺩﺃﺏ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻵﻭﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺸﻜل ﻤﻠﺤﻭﻅ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺒﺸﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺌﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺠﻨﺒﻴﺔ )……‪ (1,2,3‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻝﻸﺭﻗﺎﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺒﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻴﻌﺞ ﺒﺎﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻤﻜﺘﻭﺒﺔ ﺒﻤﻌﻅﻤﻬـﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺍﻋﺘﺩﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻲ )‪ ، (.... ،3،2،1‬ﺭﺃﻴـﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻭﺭﺩ‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻤﺎ ﻗﺭﺃﺘﻪ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻝﺼﺤﻑ ﻝﺘﺒﺭﻴﺭ ﻤﺎ ﺫﻫﺒﺕ ﺇﻝﻴﻪ‪:‬‬
‫" ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺴﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻬﺩ ﺍﻝﻭﻝﻴﺩ ﺒﻥ ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﻠﻙ ﺘﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻤﹰﺎ ﻴﻭﻨﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻌﺭﺍﻕ‬
‫ﻓﺎﺭﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﺼﺭ ﻗﺒﻁﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻜﹼﻠﻑ ﺍﻝﻭﻝﻴﺩ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﺴﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺒﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﺘﻭﺤﻴـﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻭﻫﻡ‪ :‬ﺃﺒﻭ ﺜﺎﺒﺕ ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻥ ﺒﻥ ﺴﻌﺩ ﺍﻝﺨﺒﻴﺭ ﺒﺎﻝﻴﻭﻨﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺼﺎﻝﺢ ﺒـﻥ ﻋﺒـﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺭﺤﻤﻥ ﻜﺎﺘﺏ ﺍﻝﺤﺠﺎﺝ ﺒﻥ ﻴﻭﺴﻑ ﺍﻝﺜﻘﻔﻲ ﺍﻝﺨﺒﻴﺭ ﺒﺎﻝﻔﺎﺭﺴـﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺒـﻥ ﻴﺭﺒـﻭﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻔﺯﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﻝﺨﺒﻴﺭ ﺒﺎﻝﻘﺒﻁﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺨﺘﺯﻝﻭﺍ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﻭﻑ ﺃﻓﻘﻴﹰﺎ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﻭﺍﻀﺢ ﻤﻥ ﻜﺘـﺎﺏ‬
‫)ﺘﻠﺨﻴﺹ ﺃﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﺤﺴﺎﺏ( ﻝﺤﺴﻥ ﺒﻥ ﻤﺤﻤﺩ ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻲ)ﺍﻝﻘﺭﻥ ﺍﻝﺨـﺎﻤﺱ ﺍﻝﻬﺠـﺭﻱ(‬
‫ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﻁ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﻗﻲ )‪ . (... ،3،2،1‬ﻭﺭﺃﻯ ﺍﻝﻔﺎﻁﻤﻴﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻬﺩﻫﻡ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻭﻀﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻓﻘﻲ ﻝﻸﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﻴﺄﺨﺫ ﺤﻴﺯﹰﺍ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﻌﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﺤﺴﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﺒﺘﻜﺭﻭﺍ ﺍﻝﺨﻁ ﺍﻝﻐﺒـﺎﺭﻱ‬
‫)‪ (1,2,3,….‬ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺸﺎﻉ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻐﺭﺏ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺴ ‪‬ﻤﻰ ﺍﻝﻘﻠﻘﺸـﻨﺩﻱ‬
‫ﻁﺎﻥ ﻋﺭﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﺃﺼﻴﻼﻥ"‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﺨﻁ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﺎﻗﻲ ﺒﺎﻝﺨﻁ ﺍﻝﻬﻨﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺨ ﹼ‬

‫‪14‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


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‫‪15‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل – ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬
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‫ﺍﻝﺒـﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل‬

‫ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴــﺔ‬

‫‪ 1-1‬ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬

‫‪ 2-1‬ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺒﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬

‫‪ 3-1‬ﺠﻤﻊ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬

‫‪ 1-3-1‬ﺍﺴﺘﻁﻼﻉ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬

‫ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫‪2-3-1‬‬

‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺴﺭﻴﻌﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫‪3-3-1‬‬

‫ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﻭﺭ‬ ‫‪4-3-1‬‬

‫‪ 4-1‬ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ ﺍﺴﺘﻁﻼﻉ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬

‫‪15‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل – ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬
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‫ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤـﺎﺕ ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴـــﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒــﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل‬

‫)‪(Preliminary Information‬‬

‫‪ 1-1‬ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬

‫)‪(Nature and Basic Constituents of Soil‬‬

‫ﺘﺸﻜﻠﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻨﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﻌﻬﺎ ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻝﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻭﺍﻤـل‬
‫ﺍﻝﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺸﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺭ ﺍﻝﺴـﻨﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻨﺘﻴﺠـﺔ‬
‫ﻝﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺘﻜﻭﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺘـﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺍﻝﻌﻤـﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺯﻤﻨﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻹﻨﺴﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻨﺸﺎﻁﻪ ﺍﻝﻴﻭﻤﻲ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺌﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﻻﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻰ ﻤﻼﻴﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﻨﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﻴﺼل ﺍﻝﻰ ﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﺨﻼل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻔﺘـﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻁﻭﻴﻠـﺔ‬
‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﻌﺭﻀﺔ ﻝﻠﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴـﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺘﺸﻜل ﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺭﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﺔ ﻜﺎﻝﺭﻴﺎﺡ ﻭﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻭﺘﻘﻠﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺘﻠﻌـﺏ ﺩﻭﺭﹰﺍ‬
‫ﻻ ﻴﺴﺘﻬﺎﻥ ﺒﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻴﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﻝﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻭﺍﻤل ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻝﻴﺴﺕ ﺃﻗل‬
‫ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻜﺎﻝﺯﻻﺯل ﻭﺍﻝﺒﺭﺍﻜﻴﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﻌﺎﻤـل ﻤﻌﻬـﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻨـﺩﺱ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺯﻫﺎ ﺒﺜﻼﺙ ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﻠﺒﺔ )‪،(Solid particles‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ )‪،(Voids‬‬
‫‪ -3‬ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ )‪ (Water‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻬﻭﺍﺀ )‪ (Air‬ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻤﻨﻔﺭﺩﻴﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﻴﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪16‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل – ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻭﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل )‪ (1-1‬ﺍﻝﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -S‬ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬

‫‪ -W‬ﻤﺎﺀ‬

‫‪ -A‬ﻫﻭﺍﺀ‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪(1-1‬‬

‫ﻭﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺘﺤﺘـﻭﻱ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﻋﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﺒﻠﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﻌﺩﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺼـﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﺴﻤﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺭﺍﻏﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺒﻌﺔ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﹰﺎ‬

‫‪17‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل – ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫)‪ ،(Partially saturated‬ﻭﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻤﺘﻠﺊ ﻓﺭﺍﻏﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻤـﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺸـﺒﻌﺔ ﺘﻤﺎﻤـﹰﺎ‬


‫)‪.(Fully saturated‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﹰﺎ ﺒﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺼـﻠﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴـﺙ‬
‫ﺘﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻏﻠﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻤﻴﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ‪:‬‬
‫‪.1‬ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻤﺎﺴﻜﺔ )‪ -(Non-cohesive soil‬ﻭﻫـﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﺍﻝﺘـﻲ ﻻ‬
‫ﺘﺘﻤﺎﺴﻙ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺨﺸﻨﺔ ﻭﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺘﻔﺘﺕ ﺍﻝﺼـﺨﻭﺭ ﺒﻔﻌـل ﻋﻭﺍﻤـل‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺭﻴﺔ )‪ .(Erosion‬ﻭﻴﻔﺘﻘﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﺍﻝـﻰ ﺨﺎﺼـﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨـﺔ‬
‫)‪ (Plasticity‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻤﺎﺴﻙ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ )‪ ،(Cohesion‬ﻭﺃﻤﺎ ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻏﻴـﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻤﺎﺴﻜﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﺍﻷﺤﺠﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ )‪ (Boulders‬ﻭﺍﻝﺩﺒﺵ )‪ ،(Cobbles‬ﻭﻴﺯﻴﺩ ﻤﻘﺎﺴﻬﺎ ﻋـﻥ‬
‫‪60‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻰ )‪ (Gravel‬ﻭﺃﺸﻜﺎﻝﻪ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻰ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻋﻡ )‪ (Fine‬ﻭﺃﺒﻌﺎﺩﻩ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ ‪2‬ﻭ‪6‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻰ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻝﻨﻌﻭﻤـﺔ )‪ (Medium‬ﻭﺃﺒﻌـﺎﺩﻩ ﺘﺘـﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫‪-‬‬
‫‪6‬ﻭ‪20‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭﹰﺍ‪،‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻰ ﺍﻝﺨﺸﻥ )‪ (Coarse‬ﻭﺃﺒﻌﺎﺩﻩ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ ‪20‬ﻭ‪ 60‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺠـ – ﺍﻝﺭﻤل )‪ (Sand‬ﻭﺃﺸﻜﺎﻝﻪ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﻝﺭﻤل ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻋﻡ ﻭﺃﺒﻌﺎﺩﻩ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ ‪ 0.06‬ﻭ ‪ 0.20‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭ‪،‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﻝﺭﻤل ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻝﻨﻌﻭﻤﺔ ﻭﺃﺒﻌﺎﺩﻩ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ ‪ 0.20‬ﻭ ‪ 0.60‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭ‪،‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﻝﺭﻤل ﺍﻝﺨﺸﻥ ﻭﺃﺒﻌﺎﺩﻩ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ‪ 0.60‬ﻭ ‪ 2.00‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻤﺎﺴﻜﺔ )‪ -(Cohesive soil‬ﻭﺘﺘﻤﻴﺯ ﺒﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﺎﺴﻙ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﺒﺎﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﻴﻘل ﻤﻘﺎﺴﻬﺎ ﻋﻥ ‪0.06‬‬
‫ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻘﺴﻡ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫‪18‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل – ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬
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‫ﺍﻝﻁﻤﻲ )‪ (Silt‬ﻭﻴﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻤﻘﺎﺱ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺘﻪ ﺒﻴﻥ ‪ 0.002‬ﻭ ‪ 0.060‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭ‪،‬‬ ‫•‬


‫ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ )‪ (Clay‬ﻭﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻴﻘل ﻤﻘﺎﺴﻬﺎ ﻋﻥ ‪ 0.002‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫•‬
‫ﻼ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻐﺎﻝﺒﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺩﺭ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﻨﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭﺓ ﻤﻨﻔﺼ ﹰ‬
‫ﻼ )ﻁـﻴﻥ‬
‫ﻤﺎ ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻠﻴﻁ ‪ :‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ ﻤﺨﻠﻭﻁﹰﺎ ﺒﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﺭﻤل ﻤـﺜ ﹰ‬
‫ﺭﻤﻠﻲ‪ ،(Sandy clay -‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺭﻤل ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻠﻭﻁ ﺒﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﻁـﻴﻥ )ﺭﻤـل ﻁﻴﻨـﻲ –‬
‫‪ ،(Clayey sand‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻁـﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻠﻭﻁ ﺒﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﻁﻤﻲ )ﻁـﻴﻥ ﻁﻤﻴـﻲ‪Silty -‬‬
‫‪ ،(clay‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺨﻠﻴﻁﹰﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﻤل ﻭﺍﻝﻁﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ ﺍﺼﻁﻠﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺴـﻤﻴﺘﻪ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻝﻁﻔﺎل )‪.(Loam‬‬

‫‪ 2-1‬ﺃﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺒﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒــﺔ‬


‫)‪(Purposes of Laboratory Soil Testing‬‬

‫‪19‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل – ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬
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‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﺩﻴﻬﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ ﻴﻬﺩﻑ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺼﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻓﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﻌﻁﻲ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺼﺔ ﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻫـﺫﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﻨﻰ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺸﺄ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺴﺎﺴﺎﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻠﺨﻴﺹ ﺍﻷﻫﺩﺍﻑ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺩﻗﻴﻕ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺘـﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﺤﻤـﺎل‬
‫)‪ (Strength requirements‬ﻭﻗﻭﺓ ﺘﺤﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﻝﻠﻀﻐﻁ )‪.(Bearing capacity‬‬
‫‪ .3‬ﺍﻝﺘﻨﺒﺅ ﺒﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻝﻬﺒﻭﻁ )‪ (Settlement‬ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺴﻴﺤﺼل ﻝﻠﻤﺒﻨﻰ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺄﻜـﺩ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﻋﺩﻡ ﺤﺼﻭل ﺍﻝﻬﺒﻭﻁ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻜﺎﻓﺊ )‪ (Differential settlement‬ﺒﻴﻥ ﻨﻘـﺎﻁ‬
‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .4‬ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ )‪ – (Ground water‬ﺇﻥ ﻭﺠﺩﺕ‪ -‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴـﻠﻭﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻤﻨﺴﻭﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻋﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﻀﹰﺎ ﻤﻊ ﺭﺒﻁ‬
‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺒﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻝﺯﻤﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .5‬ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﺩﻯ ﺍﺤﺘﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ )‪ (Sulphates‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴـﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫)‪ (Chlorides‬ﺃﻭ ﻜﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻤﻌﹰﺎ ﻝﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺩﻡ ﻀـﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﺴـﺘﻌﻤﺎل‬
‫ﺍﻹﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻭﻡ ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ )‪.(Sulphate resisting cement‬‬
‫‪ .6‬ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﺩﻯ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻴﻁﺔ )ﻤﻴـﺎﻩ ﺍﻷﻤﻁـﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺜﻠـﻭﺝ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ……ﺍﻝﺦ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .7‬ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺘﺴﺘﻠﺯﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﻌﻬﺎ ﺒﺤﺫﺭ ﻜﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻠﻭﺱ ﺍﻝﻬﺎﺒﻁـﺔ )‪ (Loess or collapsing soil‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺘﻔﺨـﺔ ﺃﻭ –‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻤﺩﺩﺓ‪ (Swelling or expansive soil) -‬ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﻤﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻨﺸﻴﺭ ﺨﺘﺎﻤﹰﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻭﻗﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﺠﻬﺩ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴـﺘﻡ ﺒـﺫﻝﻬﺎ ﺨـﻼل ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﺴﺘﻁﻼﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺘﺤﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ )‪ ،(Site investigation‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ‬

‫‪20‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل – ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬
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‫ﻼ ﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺘﻘﺎﺱ ﺒﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺒـﺫﻝﻬﺎ‬


‫ﺘﻔﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﺘﺤﻠﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺩ ﻅﻬﻭﺭ ﺨﻠل ﻤﻌﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺒﻨﻰ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻨﺸﺄ ﺒﺴـﺒﺏ ﻋـﺩﻡ ﺇﺠـﺭﺍﺀ ﻤﺜـل ﻫـﺫﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﺠـﻤـﻊ ﻋﻴﻨـﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ )‪(Soil Sampling‬‬ ‫‪3-1‬‬

‫‪ 1-3-1‬ﺍﺴﺘﻁﻼﻉ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ )‪(Site Investigation‬‬


‫ﺘﻨﺩﺭﺝ ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺠﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ ﻀـﻤﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺴﻌﺔ ﺘﺩﻋﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﻁﻼﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺘﺤﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﻤل ﻜﺒﻴـﺭ ﻴﺸـﻤل ﻋـﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﺭﺘﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‪-:‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﻋـﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗـﻊ‬ ‫–‬ ‫‪-1‬ﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻴﺔ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬
‫ﻭﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﻴﻁ ﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜل ﻤﺨﻁﻁ ﺍﻻﺭﺽ ﻭﻤﺨﻁﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﻅﻴﻤـﻲ ﻭﺃﻱ‬
‫ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻋﻥ ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻨـﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺠـﺎﻭﺭﺓ ﻭﺨﻁـﻭﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻤﺩﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﻝﻠﺨﺩﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﺠﻤﻌﻬﺎ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺨﻁﻭﺓ ﺘﺘﻠﻭ ﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺘﻤﺜل ﺒﺯﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﺃﻭﻝﻴـﺔ‬ ‫–‬ ‫‪-2‬ﺯﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬
‫ﻝﻠﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﻜﻠﻪ ﻭﻁﻭﺒﻭﻏﺭﺍﻓﻴﺘﻪ ﻭﺠﻴﻭﻝﻭﺠﻴﺘـﻪ ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫـﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﺘﺴﺒﻕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻤﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﺯﻡ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﻁﻭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺨﻼل ﻫـﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺨﻁـﻭﺓ ﻴﺠـﺭﻱ‬ ‫‪– (Site‬‬ ‫‪-3‬ﺍﺴﺘﻜﺸﺎﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ )‪exploration‬‬
‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻵﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺴﺒﺭﻴﺔ )‪ (Boreholes‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺤﻔﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴـﺔ‬
‫)‪ (Trial pits‬ﺃﻭ ﻜﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﹰﺍ ﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ‪.‬‬

‫‪21‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل – ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬
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‫ﻭﺒﻤﺎ ﺃﻨﻨﺎ ﺒﺼﺩﺩ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺙ ﻋﻥ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻨﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﺒﺘﻔﺼﻴل ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻝﻠﺨﻁـﻭﺓ‬
‫ﻼ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﻁـﻭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺜﺔ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻤ ﹰﺎ ﺒﺄﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻜﺜﺭ ﺘﻔﺼﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ ﻭﻋﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﻁﻼﻉ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﻜﻜل ﻤﻤﻜﻥ ﺒـﺎﻝﺭﺠﻭﻉ ﺍﻝـﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠـﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ‪.1*/3،2،1/‬‬

‫‪ 2-3-1‬ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ) ‪(Types of Soil Samples‬‬


‫ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺒﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺅﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻌﺭﻓـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻤﻬﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﺭﻴﻕ ﺘﺤﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻴﻡ ﻝﻤﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻝﺤﻔﺭ ﺤﺴـﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻁﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻓﻕ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺨﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﺭﻴﺎﺕ ) ‪ (Site investigation plan‬ﻭﻜـﺫﻝﻙ‬
‫ﻤﺩﻯ ﺘﻤﺜﻴل ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻝﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺃﺨﺫﺕ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺤﻔﻅﻬﺎ ﻭﻨﻘﻠﻬﺎ ﻝﻠﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ ﺒﺸﻜل ﺴﻠﻴﻡ ﻴﺤﺎﻓﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺼﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻝﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺭﺝ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻵﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺴﺒﺭﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺤﻔﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴـﺘﻡ‬ ‫‪– (Undisturbed‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ )‪samples‬‬
‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺠﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﺤﺩﺍﺙ ﺨﻠﺨﻠﺔ ﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﻤﺜـل‬
‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺁﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﻔﺭ )‪ (Drilling rig‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻵﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺴﺒﺭﻴﺔ ﺩﺍﺨل‬
‫ـﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ‬
‫ـﻁﺔ ﺍﻝـ‬
‫ـﺔ )‪ (Tube samplers‬ﺒﻭﺍﺴـ‬
‫ـﻁﻭﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﺨﺎﺼـ‬
‫ـﺏ ﺃﺴـ‬
‫ﺃﻨﺎﺒﻴـ‬
‫)‪ (Rotation‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﺃﺨﺫ ﻫـﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨـﻭﻉ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﻔﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﻜل ﻗﻁﻊ ﺃﻭ ﻜﺘل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺘﺭﻜﻴﺒﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ )‪ (Block samples‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﻤﻭﻀﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل )‪.(2-1‬‬

‫*‪ 1‬ﺍﻻﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﻘﻭﺴﻴﻥ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺭﻗﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻤﺜﺒﺘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺎﺌﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ‬

‫‪22‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل – ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬
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‫ﻭﻨﺸﻴﺭ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻌﻨﺎﻴﺔ ﺒﺘﻐﻠﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺴـﻠﻴﻤﺔ ﻓـﻭﺭ ﺍﺴـﺘﺨﺭﺍﺠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻝﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺼﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻫﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﺭﻴﺜﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻨﻘﻠﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﻝﻠﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻐﻠﻴﻑ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﺸﻤﻊ )‪ (Wax‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺒـﺭﺍﻓﻴﻥ )‪(Paraffin‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﻠﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤﻼﻥ ﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺽ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺘﺫﻭﻴﺒﻬﻤﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻨﺼﺢ ﺒﻠﻑ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻘﻁﻌﺔ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻘﻤﺎﺵ ﺍﻝﺨﻔﻴﻑ )ﻤﺜل ﺍﻝﻘﻤﺎﺵ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺨ ‪‬ﺭﻡ( ﻭﻴﺠـﺭﻱ ﺼـﺏ ﺍﻝﺒـﺭﺍﻓﻴﻥ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﻀﻤﻥ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺘﻌﺭﻀﻬﺎ ﻝﻠﺠـﻭ‬ ‫–‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺘﺠﻤﺩ ﺒﺴﺭﻋﺔ‬ ‫–‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺸﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺌل‬
‫ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺽ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ ﻓﻬﻭ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﺒﺘﺭﻜﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﻭﻭﻀﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ )‪ (Shear‬ﻭﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﻝﻼﻤﺤﺼﻭﺭ )‪ (Unconfied compression‬ﻭﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺜﻼﺜﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺤـﺎﻭﺭ‬
‫)‪ (Triaxial test‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻀــﺎﻏﻁ )‪ (Consolidation‬ﻭﺍﻝﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴــﺔ )‪(Permeability‬‬
‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻴـﺘﻡ‬ ‫‪– (Disturbed‬‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻠﺨﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ )‪samples‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﻤﺎ ﺒﻁﺭﻕ ﻴﺩﻭﻴﺔ ﺴﻬﻠﺔ ﻭﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺒﺴﻴﻁﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﻔﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻝﺴﺒﺭ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌـﻲ ﺒﻭﺍﺴـﻁﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺜﻘﺎﺏ )‪ (Auger‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺴﺒﺭ ﺒﺎﻝﺩﻕ )‪ (Percussion‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺤﻔﺭ ﺒﺎﺴـﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺒﺎﻝﻤـﺎﺀ‬
‫)‪ (Wash boring‬ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﺤﻔﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺒﻌﺔ ﻷﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺠﻤـﻊ ﻋﻴﻨـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺽ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻭ ﺃﺨـﺫ ﻓﻜـﺭﺓ ﺃﻭﻝﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺴﺭﻴﻌﺔ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﻬل ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺴﺭﻴﻊ ﺒـﺎﻝﻨﻅﺭ‬
‫ﻭﻭﺼﻔﻬﺎ )‪ ،(Visual description‬ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺘﻠﺯﻡ ﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺃﻫﻡ‬

‫‪23‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل – ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬
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‫ﺸﻜل )‪ – (2-1‬ﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬


‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺩﺴﺭ )ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺯ(‬
‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺩﺴﺭ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﻁﻊ‬

‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ) ‪Physical‬‬


‫‪ (and chemical properties‬ﻤﺜل ﻤﺤﺘـﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒـﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌـﻲ ) ‪Natural‬‬
‫‪ (moisture content‬ﻭﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﺘﺭﺒﺭﻍ )‪ (Atterberg limits‬ﻝﻠﺴـﻴﻭﻝﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﻨﻜﻤﺎﺵ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒـﻲ )‪ (Gradation‬ﻭﺍﻝـﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨـﻭﻋﻲ ) ‪Specific‬‬
‫‪ (gravity‬ﻭﻜــﺫﻝﻙ ﻤﺤﺘــﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘــﺎﺕ )‪ (Sulphate content‬ﻭﺍﻝﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴــﺩ‬
‫ﻷﺱ ﺍﻝﻬﻴــﺩﺭﻭﺠﻴﻨﻲ )‪ (PH value‬ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫــﺎ ﻤــﻥ‬
‫)‪ (Chloride content‬ﻭﺍ ُ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻻ ﻴﺴﺘﺩﻋﻲ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺅﻫﺎ ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺒل ﺘﺭﻙ ﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﺸﻜﺎﻝﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻨﺸﻴﺭ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺘﻴﻥ‪:‬‬

‫‪24‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل – ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬
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‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻰ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺒﺎﻝﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻴﺴـﺘﺤﻴل ﺍﺴـﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ‬
‫ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﺤﺩﺍﺙ ﺨﻠل ﻤﻌﻴﻥ‪ -‬ﻤﻬﻤﺎ ﺼﻐﹶﺭ‪ -‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺒﻬـﺎ‪ ،‬ﻤﻬﻤـﺎ‬
‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺩﻗﺔ ﺍﻷﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪ :‬ﺇﻥ ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺠﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻀﻁﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴـﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ‪ ،‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺅﻫﺎ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺨﻠﺨﻠﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺘﺸﻜﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﺸﻜل ﺍﻝﻤﻼﺌﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺃﻤﺭ ﺒﺩﻴﻬﻲ ﻝﻜﻥ ﻻ ﻀﺭﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻝﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻝﻠﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺒﺎﻋﺘﺒـﺎﺭﻩ ‪‬ﻴﻌﻨـﻰ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺨﻴﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺤﺘﻰ ﻻ ﻨﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺴﻭﻤﺔ ﺃﺼ ﹰ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻨﻨﺎ ﻨﺤﻴل ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﺘﻡ ﺒﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺘﺤﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬
‫ﻭﺘﻔﺎﺼﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺏ ﻭﺍﻝﻜﻭﺩﺍﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺨﺼﺼﺔ ‪/9،5،3،2،1/‬‬
‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪ 3-3-1‬ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺴﺭﻴﻌﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒــﺔ‬


‫)‪(Quick Tests for Soil Identification‬‬
‫ﺫﻜﺭ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺴﺒﻕ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺒﺎﻹﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﻴـﺎﻡ ﺒﺘﺼـﻨﻴﻔﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺩﺌﻲ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭ )‪ ،(Visual description‬ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺨـﻼل‬
‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺴﺭﻴﻌﺔ ﻭﺒﺴﻴﻁﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺅﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ‪ .‬ﻭﻝﻠﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺘﺩﺭﺠﻬﺎ ﻭﺸﻜﻠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻭﻝﻭﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺒﻨﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻫﻡ ﺍﻝﺩﻻﺌل ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻁـﻼﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﻜﻡ ﺍﻷﻗﺭﺏ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺩﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ )‪ (1-1‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﺍﻝﺴﺭﻴﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨـﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﻤـﻊ‬
‫ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺇﻋﻁﺎﺌﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻭﺼﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻝﺒﺩﺀ ﺒﻔﺤﺼﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (2-1‬ﺍﻝﻤﺜﺒﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻜﻭﺩ ﺍﻷﺭﺩﻨﻲ ﻻﺴﺘﻁﻼﻉ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗـﻊ ‪/1/‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﻭﺼﻑ ﻝﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﻭﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻴﺯ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﻤﻲ‬

‫‪25‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل – ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬
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‫ﻭﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ ﻓﻴﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺴﺭﻴﻌﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺅﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﺠﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ ﻭﺼﻑ ﻝﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ‪: /3،1/‬‬
‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ – (1-1‬ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻨﻅﺭ‬
‫ﹸﺘﻼﺤﻅ ﺒﺎﻝﻨﻅﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺩﻱ‪ .‬ﻋﺩﻡ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﺘل ﺍﻝﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻰ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭﻴﺔ‬
‫‪.1‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ ﻴﺩل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺩﻡ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪(Gravel and gravelly soil‬‬
‫ﻤﻌﻅﻡ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻅﺎﻫﺭﺓ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺭﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﺍﻝﻤﻼﻤﺴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺭﻤل ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺼﺎﺒﻊ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﺭﻤل ﻭﺍﻝﺤﺼﻰ‪ .‬ﻋﺩﻡ‬ ‫‪.2‬‬
‫)‪(Sand and sandy soils‬‬
‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﺘل ﺍﻝﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﻴﺩل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻏﻴﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺭﻭﺍﺴﺏ ﺭﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻼﻤﺴﺔ‪ .‬ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﺸﻜﻴﻠﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻁﻤﻲ )‪(Silt‬‬ ‫‪.3‬‬
‫ﺇﻝﻰ ﺨﻴﻭﻁ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺭﻁﺒﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ )ﻝﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ(‬
‫‪‬ﻴﺸﻜل ﺇﻝﻰ ﺨﻴﻭﻁ ﺒﺴﻬﻭﻝﺔ‪ ،‬ﻴﺘﻘﻠﺹ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﺠﻑ‪.‬‬ ‫‪.4‬‬
‫)‪(Medium plastic clay‬‬
‫‪‬ﻴﺸﻜل ﺇﻝﻰ ﺨﻴﻭﻁ ﺒﺴﻬﻭﻝﺔ‪ ،‬ﻴﺘﻘﻠﺹ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﺠﻑ‪ .‬ﻴﺒﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ )ﻝﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﻋﺎﻝﻴﺔ(‬
‫‪.5‬‬
‫ﺸﺤﻤﻴﹰﺎ )‪.(Fatty‬‬ ‫)‪(Highly plastic clay‬‬

‫‪ -1‬ﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﺝ – ﻗﺎﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺴﻊ )‪: (Reaction to shaking – Dilatancy‬‬


‫ﺘﺯﺍل ﻤﻥ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗـﻡ )‪ .(40‬ﺘﺅﺨـﺫ‬
‫ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺒﺴﻴﻁﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﺒﺔ ﺤﺠﻤﻬﺎ ﺤﻭﺍﻝﻲ ‪ 8200‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻭﺘﻭﻀـﻊ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺭﺍﺤﺔ ﺍﻝﻴﺩ ﻭﺘﻤﺯﺝ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜﺘﻠـﺔ ﻤﺎﺌﻌـﺔ )ﻭﻝﻴﺴـﺕ‬
‫ﻝﺯﺠﺔ(‪ .‬ﹸﺘﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﻴﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻩ ﺃﻓﻘﻲ ﻭﻴﻼﺤﻅ ﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻅﻬﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﺃﺼﺒﺢ ﻝﻬﺎ ﻝﻤﻌﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻨﺩ ﻋﺼﺭﻫﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺼﺎﺒﻊ ﺍﺨﺘﻔﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﻠﻤﻌـﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺴﻁﺤﻬﺎ ﻭﺒﺩﺃﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻘﻕ ﺜﻡ ﺘﻔﺘﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺫﺍ ﺩﻝﻴل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﻤـﻲ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻀﻭﻱ )‪ ،(Non-organic silt‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻝﻡ ﻴﻁﺭﺃ ﺃﻱ ﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻅﻬـﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻓﻬﺫﺍ ﺩﻝﻴل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻁﻴﻥ ﻝﺩﻥ )‪.(Plastic clay‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﻗﻭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ )‪:(Dry strength‬‬

‫‪26‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل – ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬
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‫ﹸﺘﺯﺍل ﻤﻥ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ .(40‬ﺘﺸـﻜل‬
‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺃﻀﻴﻑ ﺇﻝﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﻜل ﻗﺎﻝﺏ ﻴـﺘﻡ ﺘﺠﻔﻴﻔـﻪ‬
‫ﺘﻤﺎﻤﹰﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺒﺘﺭﻜﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺸﻤﺱ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻬﻭﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻗﺴـﺎﻭﺓ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨـﺔ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻝﻀﻐﻁ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻓﺭﻜﻬﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺼﺎﺒﻊ‪ .‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻗﺴﺎﻭﺓ ﻋﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻝـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺠﻔﺎﻑ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻁﻴﻥ ﻋﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ )‪ ،(Highly plastic clay‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﺴـﺎﻭﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻀﻌﻴﻔﺔ ﻓﻬﻲ ﻁﻤﻲ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻋﻀﻭﻱ )‪ ،(Non- organic silt‬ﺘﺘﻬﺸﻡ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻓﺭﻜﻬـﺎ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻀﻐﻁ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻼﺤﻅ ﺃﻥ ﻝﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﻤل ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻋﻡ ﺍﻝﻁﻤﻴـﻲ )‪(Fine silty sand‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻁﻤﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﻘﺴﺎﻭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﻔﺎﻑ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -3‬ﺍﻝﻘﻭﺍﻡ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ )‪: (Consistency near plastic limit‬‬


‫ﹸﺘﺯﺍل ﻤﻥ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ .(40‬ﹸﺘﺸـﻜل‬
‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒﻲ ﻴﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﻤﻜﻌﺒﹰﺎ ﻁﻭل ﻀﻠﻌﻪ ‪ 10‬ﻤﻠﻴﻤﺘﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺭﻁﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻀﺎﻑ ﺇﻝﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﻠﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺨﻴﻭﻁ ﻗﻁﺭﻫـﺎ ‪ 3‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘـﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻴـﺘﻡ‬
‫ﺘﺸﻜﻴل ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﻴﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﻁﺢ ﺃﻤﻠﺱ ﺃﻭ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺭﺍﺤﺘﻲ ﺍﻝﻴﺩ‪ .‬ﻴﻌﺎﺩ ﻋﺠـﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺘﺤﻭﻴل ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺨﻴﻭﻁ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﺭﺘﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻨﻘـﺹ ﺘـﺩﺭﻴﺠﻲ ﻓـﻲ ﻤﺤﺘـﻭﻯ‬
‫ﺭﻁﻭﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺘﺼﻠﺒﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺘﻔﻘﺩ ﻝﺩﻭﻨﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺘﻔﺘﺕ ﻋﻨـﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﺒﻠـﻎ ﻤﺤﺘـﻭﻯ‬
‫ﺭﻁﻭﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩﺕ ﻤﺘﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺨﻴﻭﻁ )‪ (Toughness‬ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻗﺘﺭﺍﺏ‬
‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺭﻁﻭﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺯﺩﺍﺩﺕ ﺼﻼﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﻠﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﻔﺘﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻥ ﺫﻝﻙ‬
‫ﻼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺤﺘﻭﺍﺌﻬﺎ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻋﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ‪ .‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺒﺩﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻀﻌﻔﹰﺎ ﻋﻨـﺩﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺩﻝﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺭﻁﻭﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﻤﺴﺎﻭﻴﹰﺎ ﻝﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﻭﻨﻘﺼﹰﺎ ﺴﺭﻴﻌﹰﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻤﺎﺴﻙ ﺍﻝﻜﺘـل‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﻘل ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺭﻁﻭﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺫﺍ ﺩﻝﻴل ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨـﺔ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ ﻤﻨﺨﻔﺽ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ )‪ (Low plastic clay‬ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻀﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻤـﻭﺍﺩ ﻤﺜـل‬
‫ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻜﺎﺅﻭﻝﻴﻥ )‪.(Kaolin‬‬

‫‪27‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل – ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬
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‫ﻭﻴﻼﺤﻅ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤـﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﻀـﻭﻴﺔ ﻴﻜـﻭﻥ‬


‫ﻀﻌﻴﻔﹰﺎ ﻭﻝﻪ ﻤﻠﻤﺱ ﺍﺴﻔﻨﺠﻲ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -4‬ﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺴﺏ )ﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺸﺎﺭ( )‪: (Dispersion test‬‬
‫ﺘﺅﺨﺫ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )ﺤﻭﺍﻝﻲ ‪100-50‬ﻏﺭﺍﻡ( ﻭﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻨﺒﻭﺏ ﺯﺠـﺎﺠﻲ‬
‫ﺃﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﻲ )‪ (Jar‬ﺒﺩﺍﺨﻠﻪ ﻤﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﻤﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺘﺘﺭﺴﺏ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻗﻌﺭ ﺍﻷﻨﺒﻭﺏ ﺨﻼل ‪ 15‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺴﺎﻋﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﺃﻭ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻷﻴـﺎﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﻐﺎﻝﺒﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺘﺭﺴﺒﻬﺎ ﻴﺴﺘﻐﺭﻕ ﺴﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻁﻭﺍ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﻝﻠﻜﺸﻑ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﻤل‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﻻ ﺘﺴﺘﻐﺭﻕ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺘﻪ ﺃﻜﺜـﺭ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺘﻴﻥ ﻝﺘﺘﺭﺴﺏ ﻓﻲ ﻗﻌﺭ ﺍﻷﻨﺒﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻭﺼﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻤﺎﺴﻜﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﻗﻭﺍﻤﻬﺎ )‪ (Consistency‬ﺒﺄﻨﻬـﺎ ﻗﺎﺴـﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪ (Hard‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺘﺸﻭﻫﺕ ﺒﺴﻬﻭﻝﺔ ﺒﻅﻔﺭ ﺇﺒﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻴﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺼـﻠﺩﺓ ﺠـﺩﹰﺍ )‪ (Very stiff‬ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺴﻬﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻭﻩ ﺒﻅﻔﺭ ﺍﻹﺒﻬﺎﻡ ﻝﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺼﻌﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺭﺍﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺼـﻠﺩﺓ )‪ (Stiff‬ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺘﺸﻭﻫﺕ ﺒﺴﻬﻭﻝﺔ ﺒﻅﻔﺭ ﺍﻹﺒﻬﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﺍﺴﺨﺔ )‪ (Medium stiff‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺨﺘﺭﺍﻗﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﻋﺩﺓ ﺴﻨﺘﻤﺘﺭﺍﺕ ﺒﺎﻹﺒﻬﺎﻡ ﺒﺒﺫل ﺠﻬﺩ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‪ ،‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﺔ )‪ (Soft‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬
‫ﺍﺨﺘﺭﺍﻗﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻹﺒﻬﺎﻡ ﻋﺩﺓ ﺴﻨﺘﻤﺘﺭﺍﺕ ﺒﺴﻬﻭﻝﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﺔ ﺠـﺩﹰﺍ )‪ (Very soft‬ﺍﻝﺘـﻲ‬
‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺨﺘﺭﺍﻗﻬﺎ ﻋﺩﺓ ﺴﻨﺘﻤﺘﺭﺍﺕ ﺒﻘﺒﻀﺔ ﺍﻝﻴﺩ ﺒﺴﻬﻭﻝﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ 4-1-3‬ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﻭﺭ )‪(Identification of rocks‬‬

‫‪28‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل – ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬
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‫َﹸﺘﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻡ ﻤﺼﺎﺩﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺤﻔﺭ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﺍﻝﺼــﺨﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺭﻴــﺔ )‪ (Igneous rocks‬ﻭﻤﻨﻬــﺎ ﺍﻝﺠﺭﺍﻨﻴــﺕ )‪(Granite‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺩﻴﻭﺭﺍﻴﺕ )‪ (Diorite‬ﻭﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﺭﺍﻴﺕ ﻭﺍﻝـﺩﻴﺎﺒﻴﺯ )‪(Dolorite and diabase‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺠﺎﺒﺭﻭ )‪ (Gabro‬ﻭﺍﻝﺒﺎﺯﻝﺕ )‪ (Basalt‬ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺩﺴﺎﻴﺕ )‪ (Andesite‬ﻭﺍﻝﺭﻤﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺒﺭﻜﺎﻨﻲ )‪.(Volcanic ash‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﺍﻝﺼﺨﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺤﻭﻝﺔ )‪ (Metamorphic rocks‬ﻭﻤﻨﻬـﺎ ﺍﻝﻨـﺎﻴﺱ )‪(Gneiss‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺸﺴﺕ )‪ (Schist‬ﻭﺍﻻﺭﺩﻭﺍﺯ )‪ (Slate‬ﻭﺍﻝﺭﺨﺎﻡ )‪ (Marble‬ﻭﺍﻝﻜﻭﺍﺭﺘﺯﺍﻴﺕ‬
‫)‪.(Quartzite‬‬
‫‪ -3‬ﺍﻝﺼﺨﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺭﺴﻭﺒﻴﺔ )‪ (Sedimentary rocks‬ﻭ ﹸﺘﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻝﻰ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﺼﺨﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺠﻴﺭﻴﺔ )‪ (Calcareous rocks‬ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﺎﺸﻴﺭ )‪(Chalk‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺤﺠﺭ ﺍﻝﺠﻴﺭﻱ )‪،(Limestone‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺠﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﺎﺸﻴﺭﻱ )‪،(Putty chalk‬‬
‫ﺕ‪ .‬ﺍﻝﻁﻔﺔ )‪،(Tufa‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻭﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﻴﺭﻱ )‪،(Marl‬‬
‫ﺙ‪ .‬ﺍﻝ ‪‬‬
‫ﺤ ‪‬ﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺼﺩﻓﻲ )‪،(Shell marl‬‬
‫ﺝ‪ .‬ﺍﻝ ‪‬‬
‫ﺡ‪ .‬ﺍﻝﺼﺨﻭﺭﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻴﺔ )‪ (Arenaceous rocks‬ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺤﺠﺭ ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻲ‬
‫)‪،(Sandstone‬‬
‫ﺥ‪ .‬ﺍﻝﺼﻭ‪‬ﺍﻥ )‪،(Chert‬‬
‫ﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻝﺤﺠﺭ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻲ )‪،(Mudstone‬‬
‫ﺫ‪ .‬ﺍﻝﺼﺨﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺼﻔﺤﻴﺔ )‪.(Shale‬‬

‫ﻭﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﺍﻭل )‪ (5-1) ،(4-1) ،(3-1‬ﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬


‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺘﺤﻭﻝﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺭﺴﻭﺒﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺍﻝﻲ ‪./1/‬‬

‫‪29‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل – ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬
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‫‪30‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل – ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬
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‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ – (2-1‬ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﻝﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﻭﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻬﺎ‬


‫ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﻗﻭﺍﻤﻬﺎ ﻭﺨﻭﺍﺹ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺠﻡ ﻭﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ‬

‫ﺨﻭﺍﺹ ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﻗﻭﺍﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﺼﻨﺎﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻭﺼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻭﺼﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺼﻨﺎﻑ‬

‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺩﻯ ﻭﺍﺴﻊ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺯﻴﺩ ﻗﻁﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﻥ)‪ (200‬ﻤﻠﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺠﻼﻤﻴﺩ‬
‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺇﺤﺩﺍﺙ ﺘﺸﻭﻩ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﺴﻬﻭﻝﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ‬
‫ﻤﻘﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺒﻜﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻓﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﻜل‬ ‫ﺠﻴﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﻜﻜﺔ ﺠﺩﹰﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻀﻐﻁ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻹﺼﺒﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺒﻘﺒﻀﺔ ﺍﻝﻴﺩ‬
‫ﻤﻘﺎﺱ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻗﻁﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ )‪( 200‬ﻭ)‪ (60‬ﻤﻠﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺩﺒﺵ‬

‫ﺨﺸﻨﺔ ﻋﺩﻴﻤـــــﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻤــــﺎﺴـــﻙ‬


‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺇﻤﺎ ﻤﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﻭﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺇﺤﺩﺍﺙ ﺘﺸﻭﻩ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﻘﺒﻀﺔ ﺍﻝﻴﺩ ﻭﻝﻜﻥ‬

‫ﻏﻴـــــﺭ ﻝـــــــــﺩﻨﻪ‬
‫ﻤﻘﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻨﺎﻗﺼﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺭﺩﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﻝﻴﺱ ﺒﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﻘﺩﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﻬﻭﻝﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻔﻜﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻔﻜﻜﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻗﻁﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ )‪(60‬ﻭ)‪(2‬ﻤﻠﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﻨﻘﺼﻬﺎ ﻤﻘﺎﺱ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬ ‫ﺠﺩﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺤﻔﺭﻫﺎ ﺒﺴﻬﻭﻝﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﺠﺎﺭﻭﻑ‬

‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺤﻔﺭﻫﺎ ﺒﺴﻬﻭﻝﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﺠﺎﺭﻭﻑ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯﻫﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻌﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺭﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻗﻁﺭﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (2‬ﻭ)‪ (0.06‬ﻤﻠﻡ‪ ،‬ﺫﺍﺕ ﺨﺎﺼﻴﺔ ﺘﻤﺎﺴﻙ ﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩﺓ ﻭﻫﻲ‬

‫ﻁﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻁﺒﺎﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﻌﻭل ﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﻜﻬﺎ ﺤﺘﻰ ﻴﺘﺴﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﺤﺎﻝﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﺩﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﺎﺴﻙ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﺠﻑ‪ .‬ﺘﺼﻨﻑ ﺇﻤﺎ ﺠﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺭﻤل‬
‫ﻜﺜﻴﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺠﺭﻓﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻴﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺃﻭ ﺭﺩﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻝﺭﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺘﻅﻤﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺨﺸﻨﺔ‪،‬‬

‫ﺘﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺁﻝﻴﺎﺕ ﺜﻘﻴﻠﺔ ﻝﺘﻔﻜﻴﻜﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻜﺜﻴﻔﺔ ﺠﺩﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺘﻨﻜﺴﺭ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻋﺩﺓ ﻗﻁﻊ ﻤﺘﻌﺩﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﻁﺢ ﻋﻨﺩ‬


‫ﻤﺘﺸﻘﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﺸﻭﻩ ﺒﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ ﺒﻅﻔﺭ ﺍﺒﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻴﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻘﻕ‬

‫ﺘﺘﺸﻭﻩ ﺒﺴﻬﻭﻝﺔ ﺒﻅﻔﺭ ﺇﺒﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻴﺩ‪ .‬ﺇﻻ ﺍﻥ‬


‫ﺨﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻘﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺼﻠﺩﺓ ﺠﺩﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻴﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﻗﻁﺭﻫﺎ ﻤﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (0.06‬ﻭ)‪(0.002‬‬
‫ﺍﺨﺘﺭﺍﻗﻬﺎ ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﺠﻬﺩﹰﺍ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﹰﺍ‬

‫ﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﻭﻤﺘﻤﺎﺴﻜﺔ‬
‫ﻤﻠﻡ‪ .‬ﻴﺼﻌﺏ ﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯﻫﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻌﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺭﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﺒﻠﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﻭﺴﻊ‬

‫ﺍﻝﻁﻤــــﻲ‬

‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺘﺘﺸﻭﻩ ﺒﺴﻬﻭﻝﺔ ﺒﻅﻔﺭ ﺍﺒﻬﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻴﺩ‪ .‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﻜل ﻁﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺭﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻤﺘﻭﺍﺯﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﻭﺍﺯﻴﺔ‬ ‫)‪ (Dilatancy‬ﺘﺠﻑ ﺒﺴﺭﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﺘﺘﺤﻭل ﺍﻝﻜﺘل ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻤﺎﺴﻜﺔ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺭﻗﺎﺌﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺨﺘﺭﺍﻗﻬﺎ ﻋﺩﺓ ﺴﻨﺘﻤﺘﺭﺍﺕ ﺒﺎﻹﺒﻬﺎﻡ ﺒﺒﺫل ﺠﻬﺩ‬ ‫ﺼﻠﺩﺓ ﺭﺍﺴﺨﺔ‬
‫ﻝﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺴﻴﺏ ﻴﻘل ﺴﻤﻜﻬﺎ ﻋﻥ )‪ (6‬ﻤﻠﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻰ ﻤﺴﺤﻭﻕ ﻨﺎﻋﻡ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻓﺭﻜﻬﺎ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺼﺎﺒﻊ‪.‬‬
‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬

‫ﻁﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﻭﺍﻝﻭﺍﻥ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺨﺘﺭﺍﻗﻬﺎ ﻋﺩﺓ ﺴﻨﺘﻤﺘﺭﺍﺕ ﺒﺎﻹﺒﻬﺎﻡ‬
‫ﻁﺒﺎﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻴﺯﻴﺩ ﺴﻤﻙ ﻜل ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻥ )‪ (6‬ﻤﻠﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺒﺴﻬﻭﻝﺔ‬

‫ﻤﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻴﻘل ﺤﺠﻤﻬﺎ ﻋﻥ )‪ (0.002‬ﻤﻠﻡ‪ ،‬ﻴﺼﻌﺏ‬

‫ﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯﻫﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻌﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺭﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻜﺴﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻜﺘل ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﻝﻜﻥ ﻻ‬


‫ﺍﻝﻁــــــــﻴﻥ‬

‫ﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﻭﻤﺘﻤﺎﺴﻜﺔ‬
‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺨﺘﺭﺍﻗﻬﺎ ﻋﺩﺓ ﺴﻨﺘﻤﺘﺭﺍﺕ ﺒﻘﺒﻀﺔ ﺍﻝﻴﺩ‬
‫ﻁﺭﻴﺔ ﺠﺩﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﺤﻭﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻤﺴﺤﻭﻕ ﻨﺎﻋﻡ‪ ،‬ﺘﺘﻔﺘﺕ ﺒﻔﻌل ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﺫﺍﺕ ﻤﻠﻤﺱ‬
‫ﺒﺴﻬﻭﻝﺔ‬

‫ﻋﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻨﺎﻋﻡ ﻭﻝﺩﻥ‪ ،‬ﻏﻴﺭ ﻗﺎﺒﻠﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﻭﺴﻊ‪ ،‬ﺘﻠﺘﺼﻕ ﺒﺎﻷﺼﺎﺒﻊ ﻭﺘﺠﻑ ﺒﺒﻁﺀ‪،‬‬

‫ﺘﺘﻘﻠﺹ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﺠﻑ ﻭﻴﺼﺤﺏ ﺫﻝﻙ ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺘﺸﻘﻘﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﻝﻴﺎﻑ ﻤﻨﻀﻐﻁﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﺒل‬


‫ﻋﻀﻭﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺭﺍﺴﺦ ﺃﺴﻔﻨﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﻋﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﻝﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺒﻠﻭﻥ ﺃﺴﻭﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺒﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﺙ‬
‫ﻝﻼﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺤﺩ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﻭﺒﻪ ﻓﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ‬

‫‪31‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل – ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ – (3-1‬ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺭﻴﺔ‬


‫ﻓﻭﻕ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻋﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻤﻀﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺔ‬

‫ﺼﺨﻭﺭ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﻥ ﺘﻘﻊ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻔﺎﺘﺤﺔ‬


‫ﺼﺨﻭﺭ ﺩﺍﻜﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻠﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺼﺨﻭﺭ ﺩﺍﻜﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻠﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺼﺨﻭﺭ ﻓﺎﺘﺤﺔ ﺍﻝﻠﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺩﺍﻜﻨﺔ‬

‫ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻠﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﹰﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭ ﻭﺍﻝﻔﻠﺩﺴﺒﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻴﻜﺎ ﻭﻜﺜﻴﺭ‬


‫ﺨﺸﻥ ﺠﺩﹰﺍ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺩﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﺎ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﻠﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺘﺎﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺘﻪ‬
‫‪60‬ﻤﻠﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺒﺠﻤﺎﺘﻴﺕ‬

‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻴﻘل ﻋﻥ )‪ (50‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﺨﺸﻨﹰﺎ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺤﺩ ﻴﺴﻤﺢ ﺒﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻔﺭﺩﺓ ﻋﻥ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺼﺨﺭ ﺨﺸﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﻠﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺼﺨﺭ ﺩﺍﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﻠﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﺎﻝﺒﹰﺎ ﺃﺨﻀﺭ ﻤﻊ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺼﺨﺭ ﺫﻭ ﻝﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺩﺍﻜﻥ ﺫﻭ ﻨﺴﻴﺞ‬

‫)ﺃﺨﻀﺭ ﻗﺎﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﺴﻭﺩ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻭ ﻨﺴﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﻼﺠﻴﻭﻜﻠﻴﺯ )ﺤﻭﺍﻝﻲ ‪60‬‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭ‬ ‫ﺼﺨﺭ ﻓﺎﺘﺢ ﺍﻝﻠﻭﻥ ﺫﻭ ﻨﺴﻴﺞ ﻴﺘﻤﻴﺯ ﺒﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺘﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺨﺸﻥ‬

‫ﻤﺘﺒﻠـــــــــــــــﻭﺭ‬

‫ﺠــــــﻭﻓـــــــــﻲ‬
‫ﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ‪ .‬ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻭﻝﻴﻔﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻻﻭﺭﺠﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺌﺔ( ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻻﻭﺠﻴﺕ ﻤﻊ ﻗﻠﻴل‬ ‫ﺘﻘل ﻋﻥ )‪ (20‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﻓﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭ ﺘﺯﻴﺩ ﻋﻥ )‪ (20‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﻓﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻔﻠﺩﺴﺒﺎﺭ ﻭﻤﻥ‬

‫ﺒﻭﻓﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﺍﻝﻔﻠﺩﺴﺒﺎﺭ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻤﺜﻠﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﻭﻝﻴﻔﻴﻥ ﻭﻴﻌﻁﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﺇﺤﺴﺎﺴﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻔﻠﺩﺴﺒﺎﺭ ﻭﺍﻝﻬﻭﺭﻨﺒﻠﻨﺩ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺍﻨﻴﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫‪2‬ﻤﻠﻡ‬

‫ﺍﻝﺒﺭﻴﺩﻭﺘﺎﻴﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺒﺄﻨﻪ ﻜﺜﻴﻑ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﺒﺭﻭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺩﻴﻭﺭﺍﻴﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺎﻻ ﻴﻘل ﻉ )‪ (50‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﺫﺍ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﺒﻠﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻋﺩﺴﺔ ﻤﻜﺒﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻔﺭﺩﺓ ﻗﺩ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬

‫ﺼﺨﺭ ﺫﻭ ﻝﻭﻥ ﺃﺨﻀﺭ ﺭﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺃﺴﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺼﻌﺒﹰﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻋﻤﻭﻤﹰﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺫﺍ ﻤﻠﻤﺱ ﺼﺎﺒﻭﻨﻲ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺼﺨﺭ ﺫﻭ ﻝﻭﻥ ﺩﺍﻜﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﺎﻝﺒ ﹰﺎ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬

‫ﺸﻤﻌﻲ‪،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺫﺍ ﺘﻭﺍﺼﻑ ﻁﺒﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﻀﺭ ﺫﺍ ﻨﺴﻴﺞ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ‪ .‬ﻗﺩ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺸﺎﺒﻪ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻅﻬﺭﻩ ﺍﻝﺩﻴﻭﺭﺍﻴﺕ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﺸﻭﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻴﺸﺎﺒﻪ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻅﻬﺭﻩ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺍﻨﻴﺕ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﻠﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺼﻐﺭ ﺒﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻭﻤﻥ‬
‫ﻤﺘﺼﺎﻝﺏ ﺒﻌﺭﻭﻕ ﻤﻌﺩﻨﻴﺔ ﻝﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻔﺭﺩﺓ ﺼﻌﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻌﻁﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﻠﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺼﻐﺭ ﺒﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺘﻪ‬ ‫‪0.06‬ﻤﻠﻡ‬
‫ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﻜﺭﻭﻏﺭﺍﻨﻴﺕ‬
‫ﻤﺨﻁﻁﺔ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﺴﺭﺒﻨﺘﻴﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﺍﺤﺴﺎﺴ ﹰﺎ ﺒﺄﻨﻪ ﻜﺜﻴﻑ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻴﻜﺭﻭﺩﻴﻭﺭﺍﺕ‬

‫ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﺭﺍﻴﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺎﻻ ﻴﻘل ﻉ )‪ (50‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﺫﺍ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﺒﻠﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﻋﺩﺴﺔ ﻤﻜﺒﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺼﺨﻭﺭ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻓﺠﻭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﺼﺨﺭ ﺃﺴﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻠﻭﻥ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻨﻀﺭﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﺼﺨﺭ ﺫﻭ ﻝﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺩﺍﻜﻥ )ﺫﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﻤﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺭﻤﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﺭﺩﻱ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺩ‬ ‫ﺼﺨﺭ ﻓﺎﺘﺢ ﺍﻝﻠﻭﻥ )ﻏﺎﻝﺒﹰﺎ ﺫﻭ ﻝﻭﻥ ﺒﻨﻲ‬

‫ﻤﺘﺒﻠﻭﺭ ‪ /‬ﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ‬
‫ﻴﺘﺤﻭل ﺍﻝﻰ ﺃﺤﻤﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺨﻀﺭﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﺭﺽ‬ ‫ﻅﻼل ﺭﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺭﺠﻭﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺨﻁﻁ ﹰﺎ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﺭﻴﻭﻻﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻋﻡ‬

‫ﻝﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻝﺘﺠﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﺎﻝﺒﹰﺎ ﻤﺎﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺨﻀﺭﺍﺀ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻏﺎﻝﺒ ﹰﺎ ﻤﺎﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﺫﺍ‬ ‫ﺼﺨﺭ ﻓﺎﺘﺢ ﺍﻝﻠﻭﻥ ﺫﻭ ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﺠﺩﹰﺍ ﻭﺫﻭ ﻓﺠﻭﺍﺕ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﻤﻥ‬

‫ﺒﺭﻜــــــــﺎﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻓﺠﻭﺍﺕ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﻝﻭﺯﻴ ﹰﺎ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺯﻝﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺠﻭﺍﺕ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﻝﻭﺯﻱ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﻻﻨﺩﺴﻴﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﺯﺠﺎﺝ ﺍﻝﺒﺭﻜﺎﻨﻲ)ﺍﻝﺤﺠﺭ ﺍﻝﺨﻔﺎﻑ(‬

‫ﺼﺨﺭ ﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﺍﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻠﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﻠﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻭ ﻻ ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻁﻼﻗﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﺫﻭ ﻝﻭﻥ ﺍﺴﻭﺩ ﻭﺫﻭ ﺒﺭﻴﻕ‬

‫ﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻭ ﺼﺩﻉ ﻤﺤﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ﻭﻤﻥ ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﻻﻭﺒﺴﻴﺩﻴﺎﻥ‬


‫ﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ‬

‫ﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ‬
‫ﺼﺨﺭ ﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﺍﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻠﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﻠﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻭ ﻻ ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻁﻼﻗﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﺫﻭ ﻝﻭﻥ ﺍﺴﻭﺩ ﺃﻭ ﺒﻨﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺭﻤﺎﺩﻱ‪،‬‬

‫ﻭﻫﻭ ﺫﻭ ﻤﻅﻬﺭ ﻗﺎﺘﻡ ﺍﻭ ﺸﻤﻌﻲ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺘﻪ ﺤﺠﺭ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺭ )ﺍﻝﺒﺘﺸﺴﺘﻭﻥ(‬

‫‪32‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل – ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬
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‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ -(4-1‬ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺤﻭﻝﺔ‬


‫ﻜﺘﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺼﻔﺎﺌﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻴﺞ‬
‫ﻤﻘﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻤﻌﺩﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻤﻭﺯﻋﺔ ﻋﺸـﻭﺍﺌﻴ ﹰﺎ )ﺤﺒﻴﺒـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻴﺒﺩﻭ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﺨﻠﻴﻁ ﹰﺎ ﻤﻌﻘﺩﹰﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺸﺴﺕ ﻤﺘﺤﻭل‪ ،‬ﻭﻨﺎﻴﺱ ﻤﺘﺤـﻭل‪ ،‬ﻭﺼـﺨﺭ‬
‫ﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺨﺸﻨﺔ(‪ .‬ﻭﺍﺫﺍ ﺍﺤﺘﻭﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ ﺼﻔﺎﺌﺤﻲ ﻓﺎﻨﻪ ﻴﻜـﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﺭﻱ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻤﺘﺤﻭل‪ ،‬ﺘﻤﻴل ﺍﻝﺼﻔﺎﺌﺢ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻅﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻤﻜـﻥ ﺭﺅﻴﺘﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺭ ﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺼﻨﻑ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﺒﺼﻔﺔ ﺍﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻁﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺸﻭﻓﺔ ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻨﻴ ﹰﺎ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﺎﺘﻴﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺘﺤﻭل ﺤﺭﺍﺭﻱ ﻤﺼﺤﻭﺏ ﺒﺘﺩﺍﺨل ﻨﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺒﺼﻔﺔ ﻋﺎﻤﺔ ﺍﻗـﻭﻯ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﺍﻷﻡ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻤﺜﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﻬﻭﺭﻨﻔﻠﺱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ )‪ (50‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﺎﻝﺴﻴﺕ )ﻴﺘﻔﺎﻋـل‬ ‫ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﻓﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻔﻠﺩﺴﺒﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋـﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺒﺸﺩﺓ ﻤﻊ ﺤﺎﻤﺽ ﺍﻝﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻔﻑ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـﻭ ﻋﻤﻭﻤـ ﹰﺎ ﻓـﺎﺘﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻁﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﻤﺘﺒﺎﺩﻝﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭ ﻓﺎﺘﺢ ﺍﻝﻠﻭﻥ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﻓﻠﺩﺴﺒﺎﺭ ﻤﻊ ﻁﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺩﺍﻜﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻠﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻭ ﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻤﺜﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﺭﺨﺎﻡ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻠﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﻴﻭﺘﺎﻴﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻬﻭﺭﻨﺒﻠﻨﺩ‪ .‬ﻫﺫﺍ ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺭﺅﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴـﺏ ﺍﻝﺼـﻔﺎﺌﺤﻲ‬ ‫ﺨﺸﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻻ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﺫﺍ ﺍﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﻭﻤﺎﻴﺕ ﺒﺩ ﹰ‬ ‫ﺒﻭﻀﻭﺡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻁﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺸﻭﻓﺔ ﻤﻴﺩﺍﻨﻴ ﹰﺎ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻤﺜﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻴﺱ‪.‬‬ ‫)‪ (2‬ﻤﻠﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻜﺎﻝﺴﻴﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﻴﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﻭﻤﺎﻴﺕ ﻤﻊ ﺤﺎﻤﺽ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻔـﻑ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﺭﺨﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﻭﻤﻴﺘﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﺨﺸﻭﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺨﺸﻨﺔ ﻭﻫﻭ ﺫﻭ ﻨﺴﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﺒﺼﻔﺔ ﺍﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻠﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﺼﻔﺎﺌﺤﻴﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﻜﺎ‬
‫ﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻭﻏﺎﻝﺒ ﹰﺎ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺨﻁﻁ ﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺍﻨﻪ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺼـﺤﻭﺒ ﹰﺎ ﺒـﺎﻝﺘﺤﻭل‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺍﺯﻴﺔ ﺍﻭ ﺸﺒﻪ ﻤﺘﻭﺍﺯﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﺼﻔﺎﺌﺤﻲ ﺘﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭ ﻭﻏﺎﻝﺒ ﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻨﻁﺎﻕ ﺍﻻﻗﻠﻴﻤﻲ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻤﺜﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﺠﺭﺍﻨﻭﻻﻴﺕ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺘﻤﻭﺠﻴ ﹰﺎ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻤﺜﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﺸﺴﺕ‪.‬‬

‫ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﺒﺼﻔﺔ ﺍﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻜﻭﺍﺭﺘﺯ )‪ (95‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺌﺔ‬


‫ﻤﻭﺯﻋﺔ ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻌ ﹰﺎ ﻋﺸﻭﺍﺌﻴ ﹰﺎ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺠﻌل ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻴﺞ ﻴﻤﻴل ﻷﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﻴ ﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻤﻔﻠﻁﺤﺔ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻨﺎﻋﻤـﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻘـﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﺫﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻤﺜﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﻜﻭﺍﺭﺘﺯﺍﻴﺕ )ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺘﺎ ﻜﻭﺍﺭﺘﺯﺍﻴﺕ(‪.‬‬ ‫ﺸﻜل ﻤﻭﺸﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﻭ ﺍﺒﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻨﺯﻉ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﻤﻔﻀﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻏﺎﻝﺒ ﹰﺎ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺨﺸﻭﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻘﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻝﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺒﻠﹼﻭﺭﺍﺕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ ﺘﻜﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ‬
‫)‪ (0.06‬ﻤﻠﻡ‬
‫ﻤﻅﻬﺭﹰﺍ ﻤﻨﻘﻁ ﹰﺎ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻤﺜﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﻔﻼﻴﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺠﺩﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﻨﺯﻉ ﻨﺤﻭ ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﺎﺕ ﻤﻔﻀﻠﺔ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻨﻔﺼل ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﺒﺴﻬﻭﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺼـﻔﺎﺌﺢ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻤﺜﻠﺘﻪ ﺍﻻﺭﺩﻭﺍﺯ‪.‬‬

‫‪33‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل – ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬
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‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (5-1‬ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺭﺴﻭﺒﻴﺔ‬

‫ﺭﻭﺍﺴﺏ ﻜﻴﻤﺎﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻀﻭﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺭﻭﺍﺴﺏ ﺒﺭﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﺘﺎﺘﻴﺔ ﻁﺒﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﺴﺏ ﻓﺘﺎﺘﻴﺔ ﻁﺒﻘﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺒﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻜﺘﻠﻴﺔ‪ /‬ﻁﺒﻘﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻁﺒﻘﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻏﺎﻝﺒ ﹰﺎ ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻴﺞ ﺍﻝﺭﺴﻭﺒﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺼﺨﻭﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﺭﺒﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺒﻠﻭﺭﻴـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻴﻤﻜـﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻴﻘـل ﻋـﻥ)‪(50‬‬ ‫ﺸﻅﺎﻴﺎ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻝﺼـﺨﺭ ﻭﺍﻝﻔﻠﺩﺴـﺒﺎﺭ ﻭﻤﻌـﺎﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ‬
‫ﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻴﺞ ﺍﻝﺭﺴﻭﺒﻲ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺍﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﺘﺎﺘﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒـﺎﺕ ﻤـﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺃﺨﺭىﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻴﻘل ﻋﻥ ‪ %50‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺒﺭﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ‪ .‬ﻫﺫﺍ ﻭﻴﺘﻜـﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﺭﺒﻭﻨﺎﺕ )ﺘﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﻭﺭﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻤـﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻤـﻥ ﻤﻌـﺎﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺤﺎﻤﺽ ﺍﻝﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻔﻑ(‬
‫ﺯﺍﻭ‪‬ﻴﺔ ﺍﻭ ﻗﻁﻊ ﻤﻥ ﺼـﺨﻭﺭ‬
‫ﻨﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻨـﺎﺀ ﺫﻱ ﺤﺒﻴﺒـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺼﺨﺭ ﻤﺘﺒﻠﻭﺭ ﺫﻭ ﻤﺫﺍﻕ ﻤﻠﺤﻲ ﻗﺩ ﻴﺨﺩﺵ ﺒﻅﻔـﺭ ﺍﻻﺼـﺒﻊ‪ :‬ﺍﻝﻬﺎﻝﻴـﺕ )ﻤﻠـﺢ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﻤﻥ ‪-:‬‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ‬
‫ﺼﺨﺭﻱ(‬ ‫ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻤﺴﺘﺩﻴﺭﺓ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫‪.1‬‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺘﺩﻴﺭﺓ ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒ ﹰﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻨﺴﻴﺞ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺼﺨﺭ ﻤﺘﺒﻠﻭﺭ ﻗﺩ ﻴﺨﺩﺵ ﺒﻅﻔﺭ ﺍﻻﺼﺒﻊ ﻭﺘﺘﺤﻭل ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻤـﺎﺩﺓ ﺒﻴﻀـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻨﻌﻡ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺃﻨﻌﻡ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﻜﺎﻝﺴﻲ‪-‬‬
‫ﻁﺒﺎﺸﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﺤﺘﺭﺍﻗﻬﺎ ﻝﺒﻀﻊ ﺩﻗﺎﺌﻕ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺠﻠﻭﻤﺭﺍﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻜﻭﻨﺠﻠﺭﻭﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺭﻭﺩﺍﻴﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺠﺒﺱ ﺼﺨﺭ ﻤﺘﺒﻠﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻋﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻠﻭﻥ ﺇﻝﻲ ﺍﺒﻴﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺜﻴﺭﹰﺍ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻜـﻭﻥ ﻝﻭﻨـﻪ ﺍﺯﺭﻕ‬ ‫ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺯﺍﻭﻴـﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫‪.2‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺯﺍﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﺨﺸﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻫﺘ ﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﻜﺜﺭ ﺼﻼﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺠـﺒﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـﻭ ﺫﻭ ﺜﻼﺜـﺔ ﺸـﻘﻭﻕ ﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗـﺩﺓ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻨﻌﻡ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺸﺒﻪ ﺯﺍﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻨﺩﻫﻴﺩﺭﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺭﻴﺸﻴﺎ ﺍﻝﺒﺭﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻨﻌﻡ ‪ :‬ﺍﻝﺒﺭﻴﺸﻴﺎ‬ ‫‪ 2‬ﻤﻠﻡ‬

‫‪34‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل – ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬
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‫ﺼﺨﺭ ﺫﻭ ﻝﻭﻥ ﺍﺴﻭﺩ ﺍﻭ ﺒﻨﻲ ﻤﺴﻭﺩ‪ ،‬ﺫﻭ ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻨﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﺼـﻐﻴﺭﺓ)‪ (1.9-1.8‬ﻗـﺩ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﺍﺴﺎﺴـﺎ ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﻤﻥ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺭﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻝﻪ ﺒﺭﻴﻕ ﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ ﻭﻤﻜﺴﺭ ﻤﺤﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﻴﻨﻜﺴﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﻜل ﻗﻁﻊ ﻤﻜﻌﺒـﺔ‬ ‫ـﺨﺭﻴﺔ‬
‫ـﺔ ﻭﺼـ‬
‫ـﻅﺎﻴﺎ ﻤﻌﺩﻨﻴـ‬
‫ﺸـ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺎﺕ ﻤﻌﺩﻨﻲ ﻭﺼﺨﺭﻱ‬ ‫‪.1‬‬
‫ﺨﺸﻨﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺯﺍﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ﺒﺤﺠﻡ ﺤﺒﻴﺒـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺒﺼــﻔﺔ ﺍﺴﺎﺴــﻴﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫ﻤﻨﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻤﺽ ﺍﻝﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻔﻑ ﻭﻝﻜﻥ ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺒﺒﻁﺀ ﻓﻘﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﻏﺎﺯ ﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﺍﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﻁﺢ ﺍﻝﺭﻗﺎﻗﺔ‪،‬‬
‫‪-‬‬

‫‪-‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺼﺨﺭ ﻤﺘﺒﻠﻭﺭ ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻜﺭﺒﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻏﻨﻴﺴﻴﻭﻡ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺘﺯﻴﺩ ﻋﻥ )‪ (90‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﻴﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﺒﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻏﻤﺭ ﺭﻗﺎﻗﺔ‬

‫ﻭﻴﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﺒﺒﻁﺀ ﺒﺘﺴﺨﻴﻥ ﺤﺎﻤﺽ ﺍﻝﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﻙ‪.‬‬


‫ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺭﻤل ﻓﻲ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺒﻴﺒـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﺠﺭ ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻲ‬
‫ﺼﺨﺭ ﺍﺴﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻠﻭﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺫﻭ ﻅﻼل ﺭﻤﺎﺩﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻭ ﻤﻜﺴـﺭ ﻤﺤـﺎﺭﻱ ﻤﺘﻤﻴـﺯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻭ‬

‫ﺍﻝﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻔﻑ‪.‬‬

‫ﺼﺨﺭ ﻤﺘﺒﻠﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻗﺩ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﺼﻔﺭ ﺍﻝﻠﻭﻥ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﺩ ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻴﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺤﻭ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﻤﻊ ﺤﺎﻤﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻔﻑ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﺒﺎﻝﺘﺴﺨﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻨﻌﻡ‪:‬‬ ‫)‪ (95‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤـﺭﻭ‬ ‫‪.2‬‬

‫ﺼﺨﺭ ﻤﺘﺒﻠﻭﺭ ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻜﺭﺒﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻜﺎﻝﺴﻴﻭﻡ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺘﺯﻴﺩ ﻋﻥ )‪ (90‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻴﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﺒﺸﺩﺓ ﻤﻊ ﺤﺎﻤﺽ‬
‫ﺤﻭﺍﻑ ﺤﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺨﺩﺵ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﺒﻤﻁﻭﺍﺓ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻅﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﺎﺭﻏـﺔ‬
‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻝﻠﺼﺨﺭ ﻨﻔﺱ ﻤﻅﻬﺭ ﻭﺼﻼﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻅﺭﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻ ﺍﻨﻪ ﺫﻭ ﻤﻜﺴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﻭ ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒ ﹰﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ـﻔﻠﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻭ ﻤﻤﻠ ـﻭﺀﺓ ﺒﺎﺴـ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺼﻭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻁﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻴﻤﺎﻭﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﻝﻜـﻭﺍﺭﺘﺯ‪-‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺠﺭ ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬
‫ـﺭﻭ‬
‫ـﺔ ﻤـ‬
‫)‪ (75‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺌـ‬ ‫‪.3‬‬
‫ـﻥ‬
‫ـﺔ ﻤـ‬
‫ﻭ)‪ (25‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺌـ‬

‫ﺍﻝﺭﻤل ﺍﻝﺠﻴﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺠﺭ ﺍﻝﺠﻴﺭﻱ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﻝﻭﻤﻴﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻔﺘــﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼــﺨﺭﻱ‬

‫ﺍﻝﺤﺠﺭ ﺍﻝﺠﻴﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻓﻠﺩﺴﺒﺎﺭ )ﻋﻤﻭﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬
‫ـﺔ(‪،‬‬
‫ـﺎﺕ ﺯﺍﻭﻴـ‬
‫ﺫﺍ ﺤﺒﻴﺒـ‬
‫ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﺎﺭﻏـﺔ‬
‫ـﻔﻠﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻭ ﻤﻤﻠ ـﻭﺀﺓ ﺒﺎﺴـ‬
‫ﻜﻴﻤﺎﻭﻱ ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﺭﻜﻭﺯ‬
‫)‪ (75‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤـﺭﻭ‬ ‫‪.4‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﺘﺎﺕ ﺼﺨﺭﻱ ﻭﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻓﺘﺎﺘﻴﺔ ﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺠﺭ ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻲ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻲ‬ ‫‪0.06‬ﻤﻠﻡ‬

‫‪35‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل – ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬
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‫ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺸﻅﺎﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻁﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻻ ﻴﻘل‬


‫ـﻲ‬
‫ـﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻁﻤـ‬
‫ـﻨﻔﺱ ﺤﺒﻴﺒـ‬
‫ﺒـ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺠﻴﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻋﻥ ‪ 50‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻀﻤﻥ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻨﺎﻋﻡ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺸﺩﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻪ ﻤﻠﻤﺱ ﺨﺸﻥ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ‪0.02‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﻌﻭﻤﺔ ﻗﺩ ﻻ ﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﺩﺍﺌﻤ ﹰﺎ‬ ‫ﻼ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﻠﻴ ُﹰ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﻡ‬
‫ﺸﻜل ﺍﻝﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻭ ﺍﻝﺸﻅﺎﻴﺎ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﺠﺭ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻲ‪ :‬ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻴﺩﻭﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺠﺎﻨﺴ ﹰﺎ ﻭﻨﺎﻋﻡ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻝﻪ‬
‫ﻤﻠﻤﺱ ﺨﺸﻥ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻨﺎﻋﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺠﺭ ﺍﻝﻭﺤﻠﻲ‪ :‬ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻝﻠﺼﺨﺭ‬
‫ﻁﻔﺔ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻁﺒﺎﺸﻴﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﻔﺱ ﻤﻅﻬﺭ ﻭﻤﻠﻤﺱ ﺍﻝﺤﺠـﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻭﺤﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻ ﺍﻨﻪ ﻴﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﻤـﻊ‬
‫ﺤــﺎﻤﺽ ﺍﻝﻬﻴــﺩﺭﻭﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻔﻑ‪ .‬ﺍﻝﺤﺠـﺭ ﺍﻝـﻭﺤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺠﺩﹰﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺠﻴﺭﻱ ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻤـﺎ ﻻ ﻴﻘـل‬
‫ﻋﻥ )‪ (50‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺠﺩﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻴﺱ ﻝﻪ ﻤﻠﻤـﺱ‬
‫ﻨﺎﻋﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﺨﺭ ﺭﻗﺎﺌﻘﻴـ ﹰﺎ ﻭ‪/‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻜﺎﻝﺴﻲ‬ ‫ﺴﻬل ﺍﻻﻨﺸﻁﺎﺭ ﻭﻗﺩ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺫﺍ‬
‫ﻁﻔﺔ ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺠﺩﹰﺍ‬ ‫ﻝﻴﻭﺘﺎﻴﺕ‬ ‫ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺍﻭ ﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺠﺩﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﻁﻔﺎل‬

‫‪36‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل – ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ ﺍﺴﺘﻁﻼﻉ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ )‪(Site investigation report‬‬ ‫‪4-1‬‬


‫ﺒﻌﺩ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﻗﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻨﺩﺱ ﺍﻝﺠﻴﻭﺘﻘﻨﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﺹ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ ﺒﺘﻘﻴـﻴﻡ‬
‫ﺸﺎﻤل ﻝﻠﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻭﺍﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻜﺘﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻀﻭﺀ ﺫﻝﻙ ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭﹰﺍ ﻴﻘﺩﻤـﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻰ ﺼﺎﺤﺏ ﺍﻝﻌﻤل ﻝﺘﺘﻡ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻨﻪ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﻨﻰ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺸﺄ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﺃﻫﻡ ﺍﻝﺒﻨﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ ﺍﺴﺘﻁﻼﻉ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻬﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﺫﻜﺭ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺠﻬﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻗﺎﻤﺕ ﺒﺎﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﻭﺍﻝﻐﺭﺽ ﺍﻝﺩﺍﻋﻲ ﻝﺫﻝﻙ‪،‬‬ ‫–‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺩﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺴﺭﺩ ﻤﺨﺘﺼﺭ ﻝﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺒﺎﻝﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﻝﻭﻗﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺘﻤـﺕ ﻓﻴـﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻭﺼﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻝﻪ ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫–‬ ‫‪ -2‬ﻭﺼﻑ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻝﻠﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬
‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻷﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎﻭﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﺸﺠﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺃﻨﺎﺒﻴـﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻴـﺎﻩ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎﺭﻱ…ﺍﻝﺦ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﺃﻴﺔ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل‬
‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻲ ﻝﻸﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺠﻭﺍﺭ )ﺇﻥ ﻭﺠﺩﺕ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻴﻬـﺎ‬ ‫–‬ ‫‪ -3‬ﺍﻝﺠﻴﻭﻝﻭﺠﻴﺎ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﻔﺭ ﻤﻊ ﺃﻴﺔ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺠﺏ ﻝﻔﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺒﺎﻩ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺒﻨﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻴﺔ ﻅﻭﺍﻫﺭ ﺠﻴﻭﻝﻭﺠﻴﺔ ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ ﻜﺎﻝﺘﺸـﻘﻘﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺼـﺩﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻴﻨـﺎﺒﻴﻊ )‪(Cracks, faults, springs‬‬
‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺼﻑ ﻋﺎﻡ ﻝﻁﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻀﻤﻥ‬ ‫–‬ ‫ﺤ ﹶﻔﺭ‬
‫‪ -4‬ﻭﺼﻑ ﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝ ‪‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻕ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺤﻔﺭ ﺇﻝﻴﻪ ﻤﻊ ﺇﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻋﻥ ﻤﻨﺴﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫)ﺇﻥ ﻭﺠﺩﺕ(‪ .‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻔﻴﺩ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺇﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﻤﻘﺎﻁﻊ ﺠﻴﻭﻝﻭﺠﻴﺔ ﻝﻶﺒـﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺴـﺒﺭﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺘﺒﻴﻥ ﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﻁﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﻤﻨﺎﺴﻴﺒﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪37‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل – ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩﻴﺔ‬
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‫ﻭﺼﻑ ﻤﺨﺘﺼﺭ ﻝﻠﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻝﺘـﻲ ﺃﺠﺭﻴـﺕ‬ ‫–‬ ‫‪ -5‬ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺒﺭﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺩﻭﻥ ﺘﻔﺎﺼﻴل ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻤﻊ ﺠﺩﺍﻭل ﺒﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -6‬ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ‪ -‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻗﻠﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻠﺨﻴﺹ ﺍﻝﻨﺘـﺎﺌﺞ ﺒﺸـﻜل‬
‫ﻭﺍﻀﺢ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ﺍﻷﻤﺜل ﻝﻠﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﻭﻓﻘـﹰﺎ ﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﻭﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻕ ﺍﻷﻤﺜل ﻝﻠﺘﺄﺴـﻴﺱ ﻭﻗـﺩﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺘﺤﻤل ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﺨﻼﺼﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﻜل ﻨﻘـﺎﻁ ﻤﺨﺘﺼـﺭﺓ‬ ‫–‬ ‫‪ -7‬ﺍﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻭﺼﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻝﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻨﺩﺱ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺴﻴﻁﻠﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻫﻡ ﻤـﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻪ‪.‬‬

‫‪38‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
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‫ﺍﻝﺒــﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨـﻲ‬

‫ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒــــﺔ‬
‫ﻝﻸﻏـﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨـﺸــﺎﺌﻴــــﺔ‬

‫ﻤﺩﺨل‬ ‫‪1-2‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫‪2-2‬‬
‫‪ 1-2-2‬ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻨﻴﺔ – ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻤﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫‪ 2-2-2‬ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺩﺍﻝﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫‪3-2‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫‪4-2‬‬
‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪5-2‬‬
‫‪ 1-5-2‬ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺒﺭﻴﺔ‬
‫‪ 2-5-2‬ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻠﻴﺔ‬

‫‪39‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
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‫ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﻝﻸﻏـﺭﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒـﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨـﻲ‬


‫ﺍﻹﻨﺸـﺎﺌﻴـﺔ‬

‫‪(Soil Properties for‬‬


‫)‪Construction Purposes‬‬

‫‪ 1-2‬ﻤﺩﺨــل )‪(Introduction‬‬
‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻘﺴﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﻓﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴـﺔ ) ‪Physical‬‬
‫‪ (properties‬ﻭﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻴــﺔ )‪ (Mechanical properties‬ﻭﺃﺨــﺭﻯ ﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴــﺔ‬
‫)‪ .(Chemical properties‬ﻭﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺍﺨﺘﻠﻔﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺘﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﺸﺄ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺁﺨﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﻤﻬﻤـﺔ ﻭﻀـﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻝﻠﺤﻜﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺠﺭﻱ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﺒـﺭ‬
‫ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺨﺭﻭﺝ ﺒﺘﻭﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﺘﻜﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺼﻭﺩ ﺒﺎﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻭ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﺨﺼـﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘـﺔ‬
‫ﺒﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻜﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ )‪(Natural moisture content‬‬
‫ﻭﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ )‪ (Liquid limit‬ﻭﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨـﺔ )‪ (Plastic limit‬ﻭﻜـﺫﻝﻙ ﺍﻝـﻭﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ )‪ (Specific gravity‬ﻭﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ )‪ (Density‬ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏـﺎﺕ ) ‪Voids‬‬
‫‪ (ratio‬ﻭﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﺒﻊ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ )‪ (Degree of saturation‬ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻴﻘﺼﺩ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﺴﻠﻭﻜﻬﺎ ﺘﺤﺕ‬
‫ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎل‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﻘﺹ )‪ (Shear strength‬ﻭﻗﻭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﺎﺴﻙ ﺒـﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺘﻬﺎ )‪ (Cohesion‬ﻭﺯﺍﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻜﺎﻙ ﺍﻝﺩﺍﺨﻠﻲ )‪(Angle of internal friction‬‬

‫‪40‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ـﺩﻤﻙ )‪(Compaction‬‬
‫ـﻐﺎﻁ )‪ (Compressive strength‬ﻭﺍﻝـ‬
‫ـﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﻀـ‬
‫ﻭﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤـ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ )‪ (Consolidation‬ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻴﻘﺼﺩ ﺒﻬﺎ ﻤﺎ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻴﻪ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻗـﺩ‬
‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻝﻬﺎ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺴﻠﺒﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ ) ‪Sulphate‬‬
‫‪ (content‬ﻭﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ )‪ (Chloride content‬ﻭﺍﻝﺸـﻭﺍﺌﺏ ﺍﻝﻌﻀـﻭﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪ (Organic impurities‬ﻭﺍﻻﻤـﻼﺡ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺒﻠـﺔ ﻝﻠـﺫﻭﺒﺎﻥ )‪(Total soluble salts‬‬
‫ﻭﺤﺎﻤﻀﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺴﻁ )‪ (Acidity or alkalinity of environment‬ﺍﻝﺘـﻲ‬
‫ﻴﺩل ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺭﻗﻡ ﺍﻝﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﺠﻴﻨﻲ )‪ (PH value‬ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺫﻜﺭﺕ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺠﺭﺍﺅﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ )‪ (Undisturbed‬ﺃﻭ ﻤﺨﻠﺨﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ )‪ (Disturbed‬ﻜﻤـﺎ ﺴـﺒﻕ ﻋﻨـﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺙ ﻋﻥ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﻤﺎ ﺴﻴﺭﺩ ﻻﺤﻘﹰﺎ ﻋﻨـﺩ ﺍﻝﻭﻗـﻭﻑ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻔﺎﺼﻴل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫‪ 2-2‬ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ )‪(Physical properties of soil‬‬

‫ﻝﺘﺴﻬﻴل ﻓﻬﻡ ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻨﺘﺫﻜﺭ ﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﻋﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬


‫ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒـﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼـﻠﺒﺔ )‪(Solid particles‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ )‪ (Voids‬ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺃﻭ ﻜﻼﻫﻤﺎ ﺩﺍﺨل ﻫﺫﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ )ﺍﻨﻅﺭ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ‪.(1-1‬‬

‫ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻜﻤﺎ ﺫﻜﺭﻨﺎ ﺴﺎﺒﻘﹰﺎ ﺠﺎﻓﺔ )‪ (Dry‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻓﺭﺍﻏﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻤﻠﻴﺌﺔ ﺒـﺎﻝﻬﻭﺍﺀ‬
‫ﻭﺤﺩﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﺸﺒﻌﺔ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﹰﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ )‪ (Partially saturated‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺘﻘﺎﺴﻡ ﺍﻝﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﻤـﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻓﺭﺍﻏﺎﺘﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﺸﺒﻌﺔ ﺘﻤﺎﻤﹰﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻤـﺎﺀ )‪ (Fully saturated‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻤـﻸ ﺍﻝﻤـﺎﺀ ﻜـل‬

‫‪41‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻓﺭﺍﻏﺎﺘﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﻁﻠﻕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻡ ﺍﻝﺭﻭﺴﻲ ﻨﻴﻜﻭﻻﻱ ﻏﻴﺭﺴﻴﻔﺎﻨﻭﻑ )‪(N.Gersevanov‬‬


‫ﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺤل )‪ (Three phase soil‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘـﻲ ﺘﺤﺘـﻭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﻠﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺜﻨﺎﺌﻴـﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺤـل ) ‪Two‬‬
‫‪ (phase soil‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﻭﻨـﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴـﻴﺔ ﻓﻘـﻁ‬
‫)ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﻭﻤﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﻭﻫﻭﺍﺀ(‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل )‪ (1-2‬ﺃﺩﻨـﺎﻩ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ ﺍﻝﻤﻔﺎﻫﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﻓـﻲ ﻓﻬـﻡ ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻔـﺎﺕ ﻭﻤﻌـﺎﻨﻲ ﺃﻫـﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺴﻴﻠﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﺭﺍﻀﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪ 1-2-2‬ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗـﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻨﻴـﺔ – ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻤﻴـﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬


‫)‪(Weight – volume relationships‬‬

‫‪ -1‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ )‪ (Water or moisture content‬ﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﻨﺴـﺒﺔ ﺒـﻴﻥ ﻭﺯﻥ‬


‫ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﻤﻌﺒﺭﹰﺍ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫‪Mw‬‬
‫=‪W‬‬ ‫)‪x100 (1-2‬‬ ‫)‪(%‬‬
‫‪Ms‬‬

‫ﻭﻴﻘﺎﺱ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺹ )‪ (Drying oven‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ ‪˚ 110-105‬‬
‫ﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﻭﺯﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺒل ﻭﺒﻌﺩ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﻋﻨـﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﺜﺒـﺕ ﻭﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺒﻌﺩ ﻤﺭﻭﺭ ‪ 24‬ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﺤﺩﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒـﺎﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﻫـﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ‪.‬‬

‫‪42‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ (1-2‬ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬


‫ﻤﺸﺒﻌﺔ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﹰﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ )ﺜﻼﺜﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺤل(‬ ‫ﺃ‪-‬‬
‫ﻤﺸﺒﻌﺔ ﺘﻤﺎﻤﹰﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ )ﺜﻨﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺤل – ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﻭﻤﺎﺀ(‬ ‫ﺏ‪-‬‬
‫ﺠـ ‪ -‬ﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺠﺎﻓﺔ )ﺜﻨﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺤل – ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﻭﻫﻭﺍﺀ(‬
‫‪(A – Air, S- Solids, W- Water, V- Volume, M – Mass).‬‬

‫‪43‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ -2‬ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﺒﻊ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ )‪ (Degree of saturation‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ‬


‫ﻓﻲ ﻓﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻲ ﻝﻠﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ‪:‬‬

‫‪Vw‬‬
‫)‪(2-2‬‬ ‫= ‪Sr‬‬ ‫‪x100‬‬ ‫)‪(%‬‬
‫‪Vv‬‬

‫ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﺒﻊ ﺼﻔﺭﹰﺍ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨـﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓـﺔ )‪ (Sr = 0‬ﻭ ‪ % 100‬ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨـﺎﺕ‬


‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺒﻌﺔ ﺘﻤﺎﻤﹰﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ )‪.(Sr = 100 %‬‬

‫‪ -3‬ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ )‪ (Voids ratio‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ‬


‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻝﺼﻠﺏ )ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﻠﺒﺔ(‪:‬‬

‫‪Vv‬‬
‫)‪(3-2‬‬ ‫=‪e‬‬
‫‪Vs‬‬

‫ﻭﺘﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻀﻤﻥ ﻨﻁﺎﻕ ﻭﺍﺴﻊ‪ .‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺘﻐﻴـﺭ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ‪ 0.2‬ﺍﻝﻰ ‪ 1.5‬ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻤﻌﺩﻨﻴـﺔ )‪،(Mineral soils‬‬
‫ﻭﻤﻥ ‪ 2‬ﺍﻝﻰ ‪ 12‬ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﻋﻀـﻭﻴﺔ ) ‪Mineral – organic‬‬
‫‪ ./4/ (soils‬ﻭﻝﻜﻥ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﺸﻴﻭﻋﹰﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻫـﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜـﻭﻥ )‪ (e < 1‬ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻤﻭﻜــﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ )‪ (e >1‬ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒــﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻠﺨﻠــﺔ )‪ (Loose‬ﻏﻴــﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻀــﺎﻏﻁﺔ‬
‫)‪ .(Unconsolidated‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻴﻜـﻭﻥ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻝﻀـﺭﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﺘﺨـﺎﺫ‬
‫ﺍﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻝﺘﺤﺴﻴﻥ ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﺘﻘﻭﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻗﺒل ﺇﻗﺎﻤﺔ ﺃﻱ ﻤﻨﺸﺄ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪44‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ -4‬ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻤﻴ‪‬ﺔ )‪ (Porosity‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺠـﻭﺩﺓ ﻓـﻲ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪:‬‬

‫‪Vv‬‬
‫)‪(4-2‬‬ ‫=‪n‬‬
‫‪V‬‬

‫ﻭﺘﺭﺘﺒﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻤﻴﺔ )‪ (n‬ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ )‪ (e‬ﺒﺎﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫‪n‬‬
‫=‪e‬‬ ‫)‪(5-2‬‬
‫‪1− n‬‬

‫‪e‬‬
‫)‪(6-2‬‬ ‫=‪n‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪1+ e‬‬

‫‪ -5‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻬﻭﺍﺀ )‪ (Air Content‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻓﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪:‬‬

‫‪VA‬‬
‫)‪(7-2‬‬ ‫=‪A‬‬
‫‪V‬‬

‫‪ -6‬ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ )‪ (Bulk density‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺤﺠﻤﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻲ‪:‬‬

‫‪M‬‬
‫)‪(8-2‬‬ ‫=‪ρ‬‬
‫‪V‬‬

‫‪45‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻭﺘﻘﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺒﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ ﻜﻴﻠﻭﻏﺭﺍﻡ‪ /‬ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ )‪ (Kg/m³‬ﺃﻭ ﻏﺭﺍﻡ ‪ /‬ﺴﻨﺘﻤﺘﺭ‬


‫ﻤﻜﻌﺏ )‪ = (g/cm³‬ﻁﻥ ‪ /‬ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ )‪ .(t/m³‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﺭﻤﺯ ﻝﻬﺎ ﺒـ‬
‫)‪ (ρw‬ﻭﻗﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ ‪ 1‬ﻏﻡ ‪/‬ﺴﻡ‪ 1000 = 3‬ﻜﻐﻡ ‪ /‬ﻡ‪.3‬‬

‫‪ -7‬ﻭﺯﻥ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻡ )‪ (Unit weight‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻲ )ﻗﻭﺓ(‬
‫ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪W M.g‬‬
‫)‪(9-2‬‬ ‫=‪γ‬‬ ‫=‬
‫‪V‬‬ ‫‪V‬‬

‫ﻝﻔﻬﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﻠﺔ )‪ (M‬ﻭﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ )‪ (W‬ﻨﺘﺫﻜﺭ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﻨﻴﻭﺘﻥ‬


‫‪F=M.a‬‬
‫ﺤﻴﺙ ‪ – M‬ﺍﻝﻜﺘﻠﺔ ﻭ – ‪ a‬ﺍﻝﺘﺴﺎﺭﻉ‪.‬‬
‫ﻝﻭ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺩﻝﻨﺎ ﺍﻝﺘﺴﺎﺭﻉ )‪ (a‬ﺒﺘﺴﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﺫﺒﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺭﻀﻴﺔ )‪ (g‬ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺒﺭﻨﺎ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﻗﻭﺓ )ﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ ﺠـﺫﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺭﺽ ﻝﻠﺠﺴﻡ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ‪ F = W‬ﻨﺤﺼل ﻋﻠﻰ‪:‬‬
‫‪W=M.g‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ )‪ (ρ‬ﻭﻭﺯﻥ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻡ )‪ (γ‬ﻓﻬﻲ‪:‬‬

‫)‪(10-2‬‬ ‫‪γ=ρ.g‬‬

‫‪ -8‬ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﻝﻠﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﻠﺒﺔ )‪(Specific gravity of solid particles‬‬


‫ﻭﻴﻌﺭ‪‬ﻑ ﺒﺄﻨﻪ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻜﺘﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻭﺯﻥ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤـﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺘﺸﻐل ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻡ‪:‬‬

‫‪Ms‬‬
‫)‪(11-2‬‬ ‫= ‪Gs‬‬
‫‪Vs ρ w‬‬

‫‪46‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ )‪ ،(e‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼـﻠﺒﺔ ﻤﺴـﺎﻭﻴﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﻴﺴﺎﻭﻱ )‪ (e‬ﻭﺤﺩﺓ )ﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝـﺔ ‪ .(3-2‬ﻋﻨـﺩﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻜﺘﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﻤﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ )‪) (Gs.ρw‬ﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ ‪ .(11-2‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﺘﻌﺭﻴـﻑ‬
‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻜﺘﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻤﺴـﺎﻭﻴﺔ )‪) (W.Gs.ρw‬ﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝـﺔ ‪،(1-2‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ )‪.(WGs‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﻨﺎ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻭﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﻜﺘل )ﺍﻨﻅﺭ ﺸﻜل ‪ 1-2‬ﺃ(‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻨﻪ ﻴﻤﻜﻨﻨـﺎ ﺍﺸـﺘﻘﺎﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﺒﻊ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ‬


‫‪W.G s‬‬
‫)‪(12-2‬‬ ‫= ‪Sr‬‬
‫‪e‬‬

‫ﻭﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ )‪ ،(Sr = 1‬ﺃﻱ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺸﺒﻌﺔ ﺘﻤﺎﻤﹰﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻨﺤﺼل‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ‪:‬‬
‫)‪(13-2‬‬ ‫‪e = W.G s‬‬

‫ﻭﻨﺤﺼل ﻋﻠﻰ‪:‬‬

‫) ‪G s (1 + W‬‬
‫)‪(14-2‬‬ ‫=‪ρ‬‬ ‫‪ρw‬‬
‫‪1+ e‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ‪ ،‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ )‪:(12-2‬‬

‫)‪(G s + S r .e‬‬
‫)‪(15-2‬‬ ‫=‪ρ‬‬ ‫‪ρw‬‬
‫‪1+ e‬‬

‫‪47‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻭﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ )‪ ،(Sr = 1‬ﺃﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺒﻌﺔ‪:‬‬

‫)‪(G s + e‬‬
‫)‪(16-2‬‬ ‫= ‪ρ sat‬‬ ‫‪ρw‬‬
‫‪1+ e‬‬

‫ﻭﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ )‪ ،(Sr = 0‬ﺃﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ‪:‬‬

‫‪Gs‬‬
‫)‪(17-2‬‬ ‫= ‪ρd‬‬ ‫‪ρw‬‬
‫‪1+ e‬‬

‫ﻭﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻤﻤﺎﺜﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻨﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻥ ﻭﺯﻥ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻡ‪:‬‬

‫) ‪G s (1 + W‬‬
‫)‪/14-2‬ﺃ(‬ ‫=‪γ‬‬ ‫‪γw‬‬
‫‪1+ e‬‬

‫)‪G s (1 + S r .e‬‬
‫)‪/15-2‬ﺃ(‬ ‫=‪γ‬‬ ‫‪γw‬‬
‫‪1+ e‬‬

‫)‪( G s + e‬‬
‫)‪/16-2‬ﺃ(‬ ‫= ‪γ sat‬‬ ‫‪γw‬‬
‫‪1+ e‬‬

‫‪Gs‬‬
‫= ‪γd‬‬ ‫‪γw‬‬
‫)‪/17-2‬ﺃ(‬ ‫‪1+ e‬‬

‫ﺤﻴﺙ ‪ γw‬ﻫﻲ ﻭﺯﻥ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻡ ﻝﻠﻤﺎﺀ )‪ 9.8 = γw‬ﻜﻴﻠﻭ ﻨﻴﻭﺘﻥ‪/‬ﻡ‪.(3‬‬

‫ﻭﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺸﺒﻌﺔ ﺘﻤﺎﻤﹰﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻌﻴﺔ )‪ ،(In-situ‬ﻓﺈﻥ‬


‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﻁﺎﻓﻲ )‪ (Buoyant unit weight‬ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ ﻝـ‪:‬‬

‫‪48‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪γ ′ = γ sat − γ w‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺼﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻝـ‪:‬‬

‫)‪(G s − 1‬‬
‫)‪(18-2‬‬ ‫= ‪γ′‬‬ ‫‪γw‬‬
‫‪1+ e‬‬

‫ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (1-2‬ﺃﺩﻨﺎﻩ ﻤﺜﺎل ﻝﻠﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻨﻴﺔ – ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻤﻴﺔ )ﺍﻝﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴـﺔ(‬


‫ﻷﻨﻤﺎﻁ ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ‪./3/‬‬

‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (1-2‬ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻷﻨﻤﺎﻁ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬


‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ‬
‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫)ﻏﻡ‪/‬ﺴﻡ‪(3‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫)‪(W‬‬
‫‪ρ‬‬ ‫‪ρd‬‬ ‫)‪(e‬‬ ‫)‪(n‬‬
‫)‪(%‬‬
‫‪1.89‬‬ ‫‪1.43‬‬ ‫‪32‬‬ ‫‪0.85‬‬ ‫‪0.46‬‬ ‫ﺭﻤل ﻤﺘﺠﺎﻨﺱ‪ ،‬ﻤﺨﻠﺨل‬
‫‪2.09‬‬ ‫‪1.75‬‬ ‫‪19‬‬ ‫‪0.51‬‬ ‫‪0.34‬‬ ‫ﺭﻤل ﻤﺘﺠﺎﻨﺱ‪ ،‬ﻜﺜﻴﻑ‬
‫‪1.99‬‬ ‫‪1.59‬‬ ‫‪25‬‬ ‫‪0.67‬‬ ‫‪0.40‬‬ ‫ﺭﻤل ﻤﺘﺩﺭﺝ‪ ،‬ﻤﺨﻠﺨل‬
‫‪2.16‬‬ ‫‪1.86‬‬ ‫‪16‬‬ ‫‪0.43‬‬ ‫‪0.30‬‬ ‫ﺭﻤل ﻤﺘﺩﺭﺝ‪ ،‬ﻜﺜﻴﻑ‬
‫‪1.86‬‬ ‫‪1.36‬‬ ‫‪21‬‬ ‫‪0.99‬‬ ‫‪0.50‬‬ ‫ﻁﻤﻲ )ﻝﻭﺱ( )‪(Loess‬‬
‫ﻁﻴﻥ ﻁﺭﻱ ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﺍﻝﻘﻠﻴل‬
‫‪1.58‬‬ ‫‪0.93‬‬ ‫‪70‬‬ ‫‪1.90‬‬ ‫‪0.66‬‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻁﻴﻥ ﻁﺭﻱ ﺸﺩﻴﺩ‬
‫‪1.43‬‬ ‫‪0.68‬‬ ‫‪110‬‬ ‫‪3.0‬‬ ‫‪0.75‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ‬

‫‪49‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺃﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﻤﺤﻠﻭﻝﺔ‬

‫ﻤﺜـﺎل )‪ – (1‬ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺘﺯﻥ ﺒﺤﺎﻝﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ ‪ 2290‬ﻏﺭﺍﻤﹰﺎ ﻭﺤﺠﻤﻬـﺎ‬


‫‪ 0.00115‬ﻡ‪ .3‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻥ ﺃﺼﺒﺢ ﻭﺯﻨﻬـﺎ ‪ 2035‬ﻏﺭﺍﻤـﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ )‪ ،(ρ‬ﻭﺯﻥ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻡ )‪ ،(γ‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒـﺔ )‪ ،(W‬ﻨﺴـﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ )‪ ،(e‬ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻤﻴﺔ )‪ ،(n‬ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﺒﻊ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ )‪ (Sr‬ﻭﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻬﻭﺍﺀ )‪(A‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﻠﻤﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﻝﻠﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﻠﺒﺔ )‪.2.68 = (Gs‬‬
‫‪/‬ﻤﻘﺘﺒﺱ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺠﻊ‪./5‬‬

‫ﺍﻝﺤـل ‪:‬‬
‫‪M‬‬ ‫‪2.290‬‬
‫=‪ρ‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪= 1990 kg/m³ = 1.99 g/cm³‬‬
‫‪W 1.15x10 −3‬‬

‫‪M‬‬
‫=‪γ‬‬ ‫‪g = 1990 x 9.8 = 19500 N/m³ = 19.5 KN/ m³‬‬
‫‪V‬‬

‫‪M w 2290 − 2035‬‬


‫=‪W‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪= 0.125 or 12.5 %.‬‬
‫‪Ms‬‬ ‫‪2035‬‬

‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ )‪ (e‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ )‪(14-2‬‬


‫) ‪G s (1 + W‬‬
‫=‪ρ‬‬ ‫‪ρw‬‬
‫‪1+ e‬‬

‫ﻨﻌﻭ‪‬ﺽ‪،‬‬

‫)‪2.68(1 + 0.125‬‬
‫= ‪1990‬‬ ‫‪1000‬‬
‫‪1+ e‬‬

‫‪50‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ‪،‬‬

‫‪1000‬‬
‫‪e = (2.68x1.25x‬‬ ‫‪) − 1 = 0.52‬‬
‫‪1990‬‬

‫‪e‬‬ ‫‪0.52‬‬
‫=‪n‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪= 0.34 = 34%‬‬
‫‪1 + e 1 + 0.52‬‬

‫‪WG s 0.125x 2.68‬‬


‫= ‪Sr‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪= 0.645 = 64.5%‬‬
‫‪e‬‬ ‫‪0.52‬‬

‫‪A = n (1 − S r ) = 0.34(1 − 0.645) = 0.121 = 12.1%‬‬

‫‪51‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻤﺜـﺎل )‪ – (2‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒـﺔ )‪ (W‬ﻝﻌﻴﻨـﺔ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ‪% 27‬‬


‫ﻭﻜﺜﺎﻓﺘﻬﺎ )‪ 1.97 (ρ‬ﻏﻡ‪/‬ﺴﻡ‪ .3‬ﺍﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓـﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ )‪ (ρd‬ﻭﻨﺴـﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ )‪ (e‬ﻭﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﻝﻠﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﻠﺒﺔ )‪ .(Gs‬ﻭﺍﺤﺴﺏ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓـﺔ‬
‫)‪ (ρ‬ﻝﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻨﻔﺱ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﻭﻝﻜﻥ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺩﺭﺠـﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺸـﺒﻊ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻤﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ ‪/ % 90‬ﻤﻘﺘﺒﺱ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺠﻊ ‪./16‬‬

‫ﺍﻝﺤل ‪ :‬ﺒﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻨﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺤﺠﻤﻬﺎ ﻤﺴﺎﻭﻴﹰﺎ ﻝﻤﺘـﺭ ﻤﻜﻌـﺏ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻭﻨﺭﺴﻡ ﻤﺨﻁﻁ ﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )‪ (Soil –phase diagram‬ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﺢ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺸﻜل )‪.(2-2‬‬

‫ﻤﺎﺀ‬
‫‪Vw=Vv‬‬ ‫‪Mw‬‬
‫‪W‬‬

‫‪V=1m³‬‬
‫ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬
‫‪Vs‬‬ ‫‪Ms‬‬
‫‪S‬‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪(2-2‬‬

‫‪Mw‬‬
‫=‪W‬‬ ‫‪= 0.27 or 27 %‬‬
‫‪Ms‬‬

‫‪∴ Mw = 0.27 Ms‬‬

‫‪ρ = Mw + Ms = 1970 kg/m³‬‬

‫‪52‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪∴ 0.27 Ms + Ms = 1970 ⇒ Ms = 1550 kg.‬‬

‫ﻭﺒﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻡ ﻗﺩ ﺍﻋ ﹸﺘﺒﺭ ﻤﺴﺎﻭﻴﹰﺎ ﻝﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ‪ ،‬ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫‪ρd = 1550 kg/m³‬‬

‫‪∴ Mw = 0.27 x 1550 = 420 kg‬‬

‫‪Mw‬‬ ‫‪420‬‬
‫= ‪Vw‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪= 0.420 m³‬‬
‫‪ρw‬‬ ‫‪1000‬‬

‫‪∴ Vs = 1 – 0.420 = 0.580 m³‬‬

‫‪Vv 0.420‬‬
‫=‪e‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪= 0.724‬‬
‫‪Vs 0.580‬‬
‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ )‪ (11-2‬ﻨﺠﺩ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﻝﻠﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﻠﺒﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫‪Ms‬‬ ‫‪1550‬‬
‫= ‪Gs‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪= 2.68‬‬
‫‪Vs ρ w 0.580 x1000‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﻤﺸﺒﻌﺔ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ‪% 90‬‬
‫‪Mw = 420 x 0.9 = 378 kg,‬‬

‫‪Ms = 1550 kg,‬‬

‫‪MA = 0‬‬

‫‪∴ Mw + Ms +MA = 378 + 1550 + 0 = 1928 kg/m³‬‬

‫‪).‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻡ ﻤﺴﺎﻭ ﻝﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ( ‪∴ ρ = 1928 kg/m³‬‬

‫‪53‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ 2-2-2‬ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺩﺍﻝﹼـﺔ )‪(Index properties‬‬

‫ﺴﺒﻕ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﺭﻀﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻷﻭل ﺒﻌﻀﹰﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﺒﺴﻴﻁﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻁﺭﻕ ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻜﻤﺎ ﺫﻜﺭﻨﺎ ﺒﻤﺜﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺨﻁﻭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻰ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻻ ﺒﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺘﺒﻌﻬﺎ ﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﺘﻘﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁـﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﺨﺼـﺎﺌﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﻘﻊ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺩﺍﻝﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﻀﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺩﺍﻝﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻗﺴﻤﻴﻥ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﻴﻥ ﻫﻤﺎ‪:‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒـﺎﺕ‬ ‫)‪– (Grain properties‬‬ ‫‪ -1‬ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﺸﻜل ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻤﻨﻔﺼل‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﺒﻁ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺒـﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺸـﻜل‬
‫ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻝﺫﺍ ﻓﻤـﻥ ﺍﻝﺴـﻬل ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻷﻴﺔ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺴـﻠﻴﻤﺔ ﻜﺎﻨـﺕ ﺃﻡ ﻤﺨﻠﺨﻠـﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﺩﺭﺱ ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ‬
‫)‪ (Particle size distribution‬ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﻤﻨﺎﺨل ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ )‪(Standard sieves‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻤﻲ ﺒﺎﻝﻬﻴـﺩﺭﻭﻤﻴﺘﺭ )‪ (Hydrometer analysis‬ﻝﻠﺤﺒﻴﺒـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻋﻤـﺔ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﻤـﻲ )‪ (Silt‬ﻭﺍﻝﻁـﻴﻥ )‪ ،(Clay‬ﻭﻫﻤـﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺘﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﺸﻴﻭﻋﹰﺎ ﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺽ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻘﻭﺍﻡ )‪ – (Consistency properties‬ﻭﺘﻌﺒـﺭ ﻋﻨﻬـﺎ ﺍﻝﺤـﺩﻭﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻭﻓﺔ ﺒﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺃﺘﺭﺒﺭﻍ )‪ (Atterberg limits‬ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻡ ﺍﻝﺴـﻭﻴﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺃﺘﺭﺒﺭﻍ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﻭل ﻤﻥ ﺃﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻴﻬﺎ ﺴﻨﺔ ‪ ،1911‬ﻭﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﻫﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴـﻴﻭﻝﺔ )‪ (Liquid Limit - LL‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺘﺘﺤـﻭل‬ ‫•‬

‫ﻋﻨﺩﻩ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ‪،‬‬

‫‪54‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ )‪ (Plastic Limit - PL‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺘﻔﻘﺩ ﻋﻨـﺩﻩ‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺒﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﺠﺎﻓﺔ ﻨﺴﺒﻴﹰﺎ ﻻ ﺘﺴﻤﺢ ﺒﺘﺸﻜﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺨﻴﻭﻁ‪،‬‬
‫ﺤﺩ ﺍﻻﻨﻜﻤﺎﺵ )‪ (Shrinkage Limit - SL‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺘﻨﺘﻘل‬ ‫•‬

‫ﻋﻨﺩﻩ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻝﺼﻠﺒﺔ )‪ (Semi-solid state‬ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻝـﺔ ﺍﻝﺼـﻠﺒﺔ‬


‫)‪،(Solid state‬‬
‫ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ )‪ (Plasticity Index - PI‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﻌﺩﺩﻱ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻲ ﺤـﺩ‬ ‫•‬

‫ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ ﻭﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪:‬‬

‫)‪(19-2‬‬ ‫‪PI = LL − PL‬‬

‫ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ )‪ (Liquidity Index – LI‬ﻭﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺩﻯ ﻗﺎﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ‬ ‫•‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺸﻜﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻴﺠﺎﺩﻩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ‪:‬‬

‫‪W − PL‬‬
‫)‪(20-2‬‬ ‫= ‪LI‬‬
‫‪PI‬‬

‫ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻘﻭﺍﻡ )‪ (Consistency Index – Ic‬ﻭﺘﻌﺒﺭ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫•‬

‫‪LL − W‬‬
‫)‪(21-2‬‬ ‫= ‪Ic‬‬
‫‪PI‬‬

‫ﻭﻴﺭﺘﺒﻁ ﺩﻝﻴﻼ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ )‪ (LI‬ﻭﺍﻝﻘﻭﺍﻡ )‪ (Ic‬ﺒﺎﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ‪:‬‬

‫)‪(22-2‬‬ ‫‪I c = 1 − LI‬‬

‫‪55‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻭﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل )‪ (3-2‬ﺍﻝﺘﻤﺜﻴل ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺎﻨﻲ ﻝﻠﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬


‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻭﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﻜﻴﻑ ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺃﺘﺭﺒﺭﻍ‪ ،‬ﻭﺨﺼﻭﺼﹰﺎ ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﺴـﻴﻭﻝﺔ )‪ ،(LI‬ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﻜﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻭﺍﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺨـﻼل ﺍﻝﺠـﺩﻭل )‪ (2-2‬ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺘﻤـﺩ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺭﻭﺴﻴﺔ ‪./4/‬‬
‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪(2-2‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﻁﻔﺎل ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻁﻔﺎل‬
‫)‪(Sandy loams‬‬ ‫)‪(Clays and Loams‬‬
‫‪LI<1‬‬ ‫‪Hard‬‬ ‫ﺼﻠﺏ‬ ‫)‪LI<0 (W<PL‬‬ ‫‪Hard‬‬ ‫ﺼﻠﺏ‬
‫‪0≤LI≤1‬‬ ‫‪Plastic‬‬ ‫ﻝﺩﻥ‬ ‫‪LI=0.0-0.25‬‬ ‫‪Semi-hard‬‬ ‫ﺸﺒﻪ ﺼﻠﺏ‬
‫‪LI=0.25-0.50‬‬ ‫‪Stiff-plastic‬‬ ‫ﺼﻠﺩ ﻝﺩﻥ‬
‫‪LI=0.50-0.75‬‬ ‫‪Soft –plastic‬‬ ‫ﻁﺭﻱ ﻝﺩﻥ‬
‫‪LI>1‬‬ ‫‪Liquid‬‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺌل‬
‫‪LI=0.75-1.0‬‬ ‫‪Liquid-plastic‬‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺌل ﻝﺩﻥ‬
‫‪LI>1‬‬ ‫‪Liquid‬‬ ‫ﺴﺎﺌل‬

‫‪56‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ (3-2‬ﺍﻝﺘﻤﺜﻴل ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺎﻨﻲ ﻝﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺃﺘﺭﺒﺭﻍ‬

‫ﻤﺜــﺎل ﺘﻭﻀﻴﺤـﻲ‬
‫ﺠﺭﻯ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺩﺍﻝﺔ )‪ (Index properties‬ﻝﻌﻴﻨﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )ﺃ(‬
‫ﻭ )ﺏ( ﻭﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ )ﺏ(‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ )ﺃ(‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼﻴﺔ‬
‫‪0.34‬‬ ‫‪0.62‬‬ ‫ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ )‪(LL‬‬
‫‪0.19‬‬ ‫‪0.26‬‬ ‫ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ )‪(PL‬‬
‫‪% 25‬‬ ‫‪% 38‬‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ )‪(W‬‬
‫‪2.67‬‬ ‫‪2.72‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﻝﻠﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ )‪(Gs‬‬
‫‪1.00‬‬ ‫‪1.00‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﺒﻊ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ )‪(Sr‬‬

‫‪57‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻱ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺘﻴﻥ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃ ‪‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ؟‬
‫‪ -2‬ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﺒﺔ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ؟‬
‫‪ -3‬ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ؟‬
‫‪/‬ﻤﻘﺘﺒﺱ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺠﻊ ‪./16‬‬ ‫‪ -4‬ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ؟‬

‫ﺍﻝﺤل ‪ (1) :‬ﺴﺒﻕ ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ )‪ (PI‬ﺒﺄﻨﻪ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﻌﺩﺩﻱ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻲ ﺤﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ ﻭﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ )ﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ ‪ .(19-2‬ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻔـﻪ ﺒﺄﻨـﻪ ﻤﺠـﺎل‬
‫ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﻝﺩﻨﺔ )ﺸﻜل ‪ .(3-2‬ﻭﻜﻠﻤـﺎ ﻜـﺎﻥ ﻫـﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎل ﻜﺒﻴﺭﹰﺍ )ﺃﻱ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻕ ﺒﻴﻥ ‪ LL‬ﻭ ‪ ،(PL‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻴـﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ )ﺃ(‬


‫‪PI = LL – PL = 0.62 – 0.26 = 0.36‬‬
‫ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ )ﺏ(‬
‫‪PI = 0.34 – 0.19 = 0.15‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ )ﺃ( ﺃﻜﺒﺭ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (2‬ﻨﻔﺭﺽ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺴﺎﻭﻴﹰﺎ ﻝﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻭﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﺒﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻝﺘﻴﻥ‬
‫= ‪ ،1‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﺸﺒﻌﺘﺎﻥ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺩﻫﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺨﻁﻁ ﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺸﺎﺒﻬﹰﺎ‬
‫ﺘﻤﺎﻤﹰﺎ ﻝﻠﻤﺨﻁﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل )‪.(2-2‬‬

‫‪58‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ )ﺏ(‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ )ﺃ(‬


‫‪Mw‬‬ ‫‪Mw‬‬
‫=‪W‬‬ ‫‪= 0.38 or 38 %‬‬ ‫=‪W‬‬ ‫‪= 0.25 or 25 %‬‬
‫‪Ms‬‬ ‫‪Ms‬‬
‫‪∴Mw = 0.38 Ms‬‬ ‫‪∴Mw = 0.25 Ms‬‬

‫‪∴ Vw ρw = 0.38 ρw Gs Vs‬‬ ‫‪∴ Vw ρw = 0.25 ρw Gs Vs‬‬

‫‪∴ Vw = 0.38 x 2.72 x Vs = 1.03 Vs‬‬ ‫‪∴ Vw = 0.25 x 2.67 x Vs = 0.67 Vs‬‬

‫‪Vw +Vs = 1‬‬ ‫‪Vw +Vs = 1‬‬

‫‪∴2.03 Vs = 1‬‬ ‫‪∴1.67 Vs =1‬‬

‫‪⇒ Vs = 0.5 , Vw = 0.5‬‬ ‫‪⇒ Vs = 0.6 , Vw = 0.4‬‬

‫‪∴Ms = 0.5 x 1000 x 2.72 = 1360 kg‬‬ ‫‪∴Ms = 0.6 x 1000 x 2.67 = 1600 kg‬‬
‫‪Mw = 0.5 x 1000 = 500 kg‬‬ ‫‪Mw = 0.4 x 1000 = 400 kg‬‬
‫‪∴ ρ = 1360 + 500 = 1860 kg/m³‬‬ ‫‪∴ ρ = 1600 + 400 = 2000 kg/m³‬‬

‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ )ﺏ( ﺃﻜﺒﺭ‪.‬‬


‫)‪ (3‬ﺒﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻡ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻩ ﻤﺴﺎﻭﻴﹰﺎ ﻝﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻝﺘﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ‬
‫)‪ (Ms‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺘﻀﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ ﺃﻥ )‪ (Ms‬ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ )ﺏ(‬
‫ﺃﻜﺒﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺎﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ ﻝﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (4‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ ‪:‬‬
‫‪Vv 0.5‬‬
‫= ‪ e‬ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ )ﺃ(‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪= 1 .0‬‬
‫‪Vs 0.5‬‬

‫‪Vv 0.4‬‬
‫= ‪ e‬ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ )ﺏ(‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪= 0.67‬‬
‫‪Vs 0.6‬‬

‫ﺇﺫﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ )ﺃ( ﺃﻜﺒﺭ‪.‬‬

‫‪59‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ 3-2‬ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬


‫)‪(Mechanical properties of soil‬‬

‫ﺫﻜﺭﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻬﻴﺩ ﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺼﻭﺩ ﺒﺎﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬


‫ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﻭ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﺒﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﺤﻤـﺎل‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻌﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﻨﻰ ﻓﻭﻗﻬﺎ‬
‫)‪ (Superstructure‬ﻓﺈﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﻨﻀﻐﻁ ﻭﺘﺘﺭﺍﺹ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺘﻬـﺎ ﺃﻜﺜـﺭ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺤﺴـﺎﺏ‬
‫ـﺎﻏﻁ‬
‫ـﺩﻋﻰ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﻀـ‬
‫ـﻲ ﺘـ‬
‫ـﺔ ﺍﻝﺘـ‬
‫ـﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴـ‬
‫ـﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـ‬
‫ـﻭﺩﺓ ﻓﻴﻬـ‬
‫ـﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺠـ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏـ‬
‫)‪.(Consolidation‬‬
‫ﻭﺒﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﻭﻴﺘﻨـﺎﻗﺹ ﻤـﻊ‬
‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺤﻤل ﺍﻝﻀﺎﻏﻁ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﺘﻼﺸﻰ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﻤﻊ ﺍﺯﺩﻴـﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﻤل ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻭﺩﻱ ﻫﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺘﺒﺩﺃ ﺒﺎﻻﻨﺯﻻﻕ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻓﻭﻕ ﺍﻻﺨـﺭﻯ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﺤﺼل ﻤﺎ ﻴﺩﻋﻰ ﺒﺎﻝﻘﺹ )‪ .(Shear‬ﻭﺃﻤﺎ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﺼل ﺍﺫﺍ ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺕ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺤﻤل‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻭ ﺍﻻﻨﻬﻴﺎﺭ )‪ .(Failure‬ﻭﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺸـﻜل‬
‫)‪ (4-2‬ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺤل ﺍﻝﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻻﺠﻬـﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﻤـﻭﺩﻱ‬
‫)‪ (Vertical stress‬ﻭﺘﺸﻭﻩ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )‪.(Deformation‬‬
‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺘﺒﺭﺯ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻔﻴﻀﺔ ﻝﺨﺼـﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﻀـﺎﻏﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻝﻠﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻁﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻝﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻬﺒﻭﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻲ ﻝﻠﻤﺒﻨﻰ ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻅﺎﻫﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻬﺒﻭﻁ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝـﺯﻤﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻜـﺫﻝﻙ ﺍﻝﺤـﺎل ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴـﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻤﻜﹼﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻝﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﻗـﺩﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺘﺤﻤل ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻗﻭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﺎﺴﻙ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ )‪ (Cohesion‬ﻭﺯﺍﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻜﺎﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺩﺍﺨﻠﻲ )‪ ،(Angle of internal friction‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻗﻴﻡ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻷﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺃﺨـﺭﻯ‬
‫ﻤﺜل ﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻀﻐﻭﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻨﺒﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ )‪ (Lateral earth pressure‬ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫‪60‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺍﻝﺠﺩﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﻨﺩﺓ ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ ﺍﺘـﺯﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺤـﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺍﺒﻴـﺔ ) ‪Slope stability‬‬


‫‪ (analysis‬ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻨﻜﺘﻔﻲ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺒﺸﺭﺡ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺼﻭﺩ ﺒﺎﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻋﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻴﺘﻭﺍﺼل ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺭﻯﺀ ﻤﻊ ﺘﻔﺎﺼﻴل ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺤﻴﻥ ﻨﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻔﺼـﻭل ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺩﻤـﺔ‬
‫ﻝﻠﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺠﺭﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ ﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺃﻫﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ‪.‬‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ (4-2‬ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺘﺸﻭﻩ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻻﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻭﺩﻱ‬

‫‪61‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ 4-2‬ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌـﺹ ﺍﻝﻜﻴﻤﻴـﺎﺌﻴـﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒــﺔ‬


‫)‪(Chemical properties of soil‬‬

‫ﺘﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻤﺎ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻴﻪ ﺍﻻﺨﻴـﺭﺓ ﻤـﻥ ﻤـﻭﺍﺩ ﻴﺴـﺒﺏ‬
‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩﻫﺎ ﺃﻀﺭﺍﺭﹰﺍ ﻝﻼﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﻤﻭﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﻨﻰ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺸـﺄ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻼﻤﺴـﺔ ﻤـﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜل ﺍﻻﺴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺒﺎﺸﻜﺎﻝﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺠﺩﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﺒﻭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻷﻨﺎﺒﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﻴﺔ ﺃﺠﺯﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻤﺘﻼﻤﺴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻴﻁﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ ﻋﺭﺽ ﻤﻭﺠﺯ ﻷﻫﻡ ﺍﻝﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘـﻲ ﺘﺘﻌﻠـﻕ ﺒﺎﻝﺨﺼـﺎﺌﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -1‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ )‪:(Sulphate content‬‬


‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﺍﺌﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻭﺍﺠﺩ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺸـﻜل‬
‫ﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﻭﺩﻴﻭﻡ )‪ (Sodium sulphate – Na2SO4‬ﻭﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘـﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻐﻨﻴﺴـﻴﻭﻡ‬
‫)‪ .(Magnesium sulphate – MgSO4‬ﻭﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻜﺎﻝﺴـﻴﻭﻡ ) ‪Calcium‬‬
‫‪ (sulphate – CaSO4‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﻜل ﺠﺒﺱ )‪ ،(Gypsum‬ﻭﻝﻜﻨﻬﺎ ﺒﻁﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻝﺫﻭﺒﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻌﺒﺭ ﻋﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻴﺠـﺎﺩ‬
‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺜﺎﻝﺙ ﺃﻜﺴﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻴﺕ )‪ (Sulphur trioxide – SO3‬ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﻜﻤﻥ ﺨﻁﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﺍﺌﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻬﺎﺠﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﻝﻠﺨﺭﺴـﺎﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻴﺔ ﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﺍﻷﺴﻤﻨﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﻭﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻝﻭﻤﻴﻨﺎﺕ )‪ (Aluminate compounds‬ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﺴﺒﺏ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺘﺒﻠﻭﺭ ﻝﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺘﻤﺩﺩ‪ ،‬ﺘﻨﺸﺄ ﻋﻨـﻪ ﺍﺠﻬـﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻀـﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺘﺘﺴﺒﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺘﺸﻘﻘﺎﺕ ﻭﺘﻔﺘﺕ‪ .‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘـﻲ‬

‫‪62‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
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‫ﺘﺤﻴﻁ ﺒﺎﻻﻨﺎﺒﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺩﻨﻴـﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﻤـﻭﺭﺓ ﻴـﺅﺩﻱ ﺍﻝـﻰ ﺼـﺩﺃ ﻫـﺫﻩ ﺍﻻﻨﺎﺒﻴـﺏ‬


‫)‪ ،(Corrosion‬ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﺴﺒﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺍﻝﺘﺴﺭﺏ )‪.(Leakage‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻔﻴﺩ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﻀﺭﺭ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻗﺩ ﻴـﻨﺠﻡ‬
‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻻﺘﺨﺎﺫ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﺯﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﺎﺕ ﻤﻀﺎﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﻻﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻭﻡ‬
‫ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ )‪ (Sulphate resisting cement‬ﺃﻭ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺨﻠﻁﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻀﻤﻴﻥ ﺃﻫﻡ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻡ ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫﻫﺎ ﻝﻤﻭﺍﺠﻬﺔ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻠﺨﺹ ﺍﻝﺼﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻥ ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺔ ﺒﺤـﻭﺙ ﺍﻝﺒﻨـﺎﺀ ﻓـﻲ ﺒﺭﻴﻁﺎﻨﻴـﺎ‬
‫)‪ ،/14/ (Building Research Establishment‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﻠﺨـﺹ ﻗـﺎﻡ ﻤﻬﻨـﺩﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻤﺭﺱ ﻡ‪.‬ﺘﻭﻤﻠﻴﻨﺴﻭﻥ )‪ (M.Tomlinson‬ﺒﺸﺭﺤﻪ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﺯﻡ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺘﻭﺼﻴﺎﺕ ﺒﺨﺼﻭﺹ ﺍﻻﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﻭﻜﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﻝﻠﻤﺘﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (3-2‬ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻓﻕ ‪./5/‬‬
‫ﻭﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل )‪ ،(3-2‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﻻ ﻴﻌﻨـﻲ ﺒﺎﻝﻀـﺭﻭﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻻﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻭﻡ ﻝﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺒل ﻗﺩ ﻴ‪‬ﻜﺘﻔﻰ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻻﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﺒﻭﺭﺘﻼﻨـﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺩﻱ )‪ (Normal Portland Cement‬ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﺩﻴﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜﻤﻴ ‪‬ﺔ ﺩﻨﻴﺎ ﻝﻼﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﻠﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻻﺴـﻤﻨﺕ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺨﻠﻁﺔ )‪ .(Water cement ratio – W/C‬ﻭﻴﻼﺤﻅ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺠـﺩﻭل ﻜـﺫﻝﻙ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻀﺎﺩﺓ ﻝﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻨﺴـﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻴـﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻤﻭﻗﻌﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻝﻼﺴﺎﺴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -2‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ )‪:(Organic matter content‬‬


‫ﺘﺘﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻗﺩ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺘﻨﻭﻋﹰﺎ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﹰﺍ ﺘﺒﻌـﹰﺎ ﻝﺘﻨـﻭﻉ‬
‫ﻤﺼﺎﺩﺭﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺘﺘﺸـﻜل ﻤـﻥ ﻤﺨﻠﻔـﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﻴﻭﺍﻨـﺎﺕ‬

‫‪63‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
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‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺯﺍﺭﻉ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻤﺎ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﻓﻬـﻭ‬
‫ﺴﻠﺒﻲ ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻠﺨﻴﺼﻪ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ ‪:/6/‬‬
‫ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﺘﺤﻤل ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫•‬
‫ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﺯﺩﻴﺎﺩ ﺍﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫•‬
‫ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﺯﺩﻴﺎﺩ ﺍﺤﺘﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻔﺎﺥ )‪ (Swelling‬ﻭﺍﻝـﺘﻘﻠﺹ )‪(Shrinkage‬‬ ‫•‬
‫ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻐﺎﺯ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﻝﻬﺒﻭﻁ ﻓـﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫•‬
‫)‪ ،(Immediate settlement‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻗﺩ ﻴﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺩﻗﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﺸـﺘﻘﺎﻕ ﻤﻌـﺎﻤﻼﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ )‪ (Consolidation coefficients‬ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺒﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻐﺎﺯ ﻴﻤﻜﻨﻪ ﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻡ ﻤﻐﻠﻭﻁﺔ ﻝﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ‬ ‫•‬
‫ﺍﻝﻘﺹ‪،‬‬
‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﻤﺼﺤﻭﺒﹰﺎ ﺒﺤﺎﻤﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺴﻁ )ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻤﻨﺨﻔﻀـﺔ‬ ‫•‬
‫ﻝﻠﺭﻗﻡ ﺍﻝﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﺠﻴﻨﻲ ‪ ،(PH‬ﻭﺃﺤﻴﺎﻨﹰﺎ ﺒﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻷﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻝﺘﺜﺒﻴﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻕ‬ ‫•‬
‫ﻝﻪ ﺃﺜﺭ ﻀﺎﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﻤﻤﺎ ﺘﻘﺩﻡ‪ ،‬ﺘﺒﺭﺯ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﺘﻘﺭﻴـﺭ ﻤـﺎ‬
‫ﻴﻠﺯﻡ ﺍﺘﺨﺎﺫﻩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -3‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﺩ )‪:(Chloride content‬‬


‫ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺒﺤﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻗﺩ ﺘﻌﺭﻀﺕ ﻝﻤﻴـﺎﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻼﺤﻅ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺤﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺸﺭﻕ ﺍﻷﻭﺴـﻁ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺭﻜﻴـﺯ ﻤﻠـﺢ‬

‫‪64‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
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‫ﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﺼﻭﺩﻴﻭﻡ )‪ (NaCl‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﻫﻭ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯﻩ ﻓﻲ‬


‫ﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺭ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯﹰﺍ ﻋﺎﻝﻴﹰﺎ ﻝﻠﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﺩ ﻗﺩ ﻴﺼﺎﺩﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺼﺨﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻔﺫﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻻ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﺍﺘﺼﺎل ﺒﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺭ ‪./12،6/‬‬
‫ﻭﻻ ﻴﺘﻔﺎﻋل ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﺩ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻻﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﺤﺎل ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘـﺎﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻝﻜﻥ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﻩ ﻴﻘﺘﺼﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺩﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻗﺩ ﻴﺼل ﺍﻝﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺃﻫﻤﻬﺎ ﺤﺩﻴـﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺴﻠﻴﺢ )‪ ،(Steel reinforcement‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺼﺩﺃ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻻﺠـﺯﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻤﻤـﺎ‬
‫ﻴﺘﺴﺒﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻠﺤﺔ ﻭﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻘﻘﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺠﺯﺍﺌﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﺠﺩﺭ ﺍﻻﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﺩﺍﺕ ﻗﺩ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﺎﺴـﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻝﻠﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻝﺭﻤل ﻭﺍﻝﺭﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺨﺸﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ‪ .‬ﻭﻭﺼﻭﻝﻬﺎ ﻝﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﺴـﻠﻴﺢ ﻝـﻴﺱ‬
‫ﻤﻘﺼﻭﺭﹰﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺘﻭﻝﻰ ﻋﻨﺎﻴﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺸﺂﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻘﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻁﻕ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺤﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻨﺸﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺒﺭﻴﻁﺎﻨﻴﺔ )‪ (BS 8110‬ﺘﺤـﺩﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﺴـﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺼـﻭﻯ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻤﻭﺡ ﺒﻬﺎ ﻝﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﺩ )‪ (% 0.4‬ﻝﻼﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﺒﻭﺭﺘﻼﻨـﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﻌـﺎﺩﻱ ﻭ‬
‫)‪ (% 0.2‬ﻝﻼﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻭﻡ ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -4‬ﺤﺎﻤﻀﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺴﻁ )‪:(Acidity or alkalinity – PH value‬‬


‫ﺘﺅﺜﺭ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺤﺎﻤﻀﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﹰﺍ ﺴﻠﺒﻴﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻁﻤﻭﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺭﺽ‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻝﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻤﻀﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﻌﺘﺩل ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻤﻀﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻴﺅﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺇﻝﻰ ﺼﺩﺃ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻥ ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻔﺴﺭ ﻀﺭﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻤﻀﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺴـﻠﺤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻨﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺍﺒﻁ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﻗﻡ ﺍﻝﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﺠﻴﻨﻲ )‪ (PH‬ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ‬
‫ﻴﻠﺯﻡ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﺭﻗﻡ ﺍﻝﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﺠﻴﻨﻲ ﺤﻴﺜﻤﺎ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺜﺒﺕ ﺃﻨـﻪ‬
‫ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻗﻡ ﺍﻝﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﺠﻴﻨﻲ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪ 4.3‬ﻤﻊ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻋﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﺩل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺤﺎﻤﺽ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﻴﻙ )‪.(H2SO4‬‬

‫‪65‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ – (3-2‬ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺜﺭﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﺔ ﻭﺴﺒل ﻤﻭﺍﺠﻬﺘﻬﺎ‬


‫ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺘﺭﺤﺔ )‪(Recommended precautions‬‬ ‫ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﻭﺘﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ )‪ (SO3‬ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺒﻭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻗﻴﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﻭﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺴﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫)‪ (SO3‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ *‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻘﺒﻭ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﻫل‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻭﺘﺎﺩ )‪(cap‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺼﻨﻊ )ﺃﻭﺘﺎﺩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻤﺤﺎﻝﻴل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻌﺒ‪‬ﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻁﻭﺏ‬ ‫‪ 1:2‬ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬ ‫)‪(%‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﻨﺎﺒﻴﺏ‬ ‫‪000‬ﺍﻝﺦ(‬ ‫)ﻏﻡ‪/‬ﻝﺘﺭ(‬ ‫)ﺠﺯﺀ ﻝﻜل‬
‫‪(100000‬‬
‫‪7‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺃ‪-‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻻﻭﺘﺎﺩ ﻓﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺃ‪-‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﺎﺴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃ‪-‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﺎﺴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻻﺘﻭﺠــﺩ ﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁــﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫>‪0.2‬‬ ‫>‪30‬‬
‫ﻤﻨﺴﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻭﻕ ﻤﻨﺴﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻭﻕ ﻤﻨﺴﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬
‫ـﻤﻨﺕ‬
‫ـﺘﻌﻤل ﺍﺴــ‬
‫ﻴﺴــ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴــﺔ‪ ،‬ﻴﺴــﺘﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺍﺤﺘﻴﺎﻁـﺎﺕ‬
‫ـﺎﺩﻱ ≤‬
‫ـﺩﻱ ﻋـ‬
‫ﺒﻭﺭﺘﻼﻨـ‬ ‫ﺍﺴــﻤﻨﺕ ﺒﻭﺭﺘﻼﻨــﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‬
‫‪330‬ﻜﻐـــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ≤ ‪310‬ﻜﻐﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫ـﺕ‬
‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨـــــ‬
‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪0.55‬‬ ‫ـﻥ‬
‫ـل ﻤـ‬
‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗـ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺎﺴــﺎﺕ ﻤﻼﻤﺴــﺔ‬
‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻻﻭﺘـﺎﺩ‬ ‫‪0.55‬‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻤﻨﺴﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻝﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬
‫ـﺕ‬
‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨـــــ‬
‫ﻤﻼﻤﺴــﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﻨﺴــﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‪،‬ﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﺍﺴﻤﻨﺕ‬
‫ـﺔ‬
‫ـﺎﺕ ﻤﻌﻠﺭﻀـ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺴﺎﺴـ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻝﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺭﺘﻼﻨﺩﻱ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ≤‬
‫ﻝﻀﻐﻁ ﻤﺎﺀ ﺨـﺎﺭﺠﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ـﻤﻨﺕ‬
‫ـﺘﻌﻤل ﺍﺴــ‬
‫ﻴﺴــ‬ ‫‪310‬ﻜﻐـــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬
‫ـﻤﻨﺕ‬
‫ـﺘﻌﻤل ﺍﺴــ‬
‫ﻴﺴــ‬
‫ﺒﻭﺭﺘﻼﻨﺩﻱ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ≤‬ ‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪0.55‬‬
‫ﺒﻭﺭﺘﻼﻨﺩﻱ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ≤‬
‫‪370‬ﻜﻐـــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬
‫‪370‬ﻜﻐـــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪0.55‬‬
‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤـﻥ ‪0.55‬‬
‫ـﺘﻌﻤﺎل‬
‫ـﻥ ﺍﺴــ‬
‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜــ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺴﻔﻠﺕ ﻝﻠﻌﺯل‬
‫ﺃ‪-‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻻﻭﺘﺎﺩ ﻓﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺃ‪-‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻨﺎﺼـﺭ‬ ‫ﺃ‪-‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﺎﺴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃ‪-‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻨﺎﺼـﺭ‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪0.5-0.2‬‬ ‫‪120-30‬‬
‫ﻤﻨﺴﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﻓـﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻭﻕ ﻤﻨﺴﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ـﺎ **‬
‫ـﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻜﻠﻬـ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺴـ‬
‫ـﻤﻨﺕ‬
‫ـﺘﻌﻤل ﺍﺴــ‬
‫ﻴﺴــ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺴﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴــﺔ‪ ،‬ﻴﺴــﺘﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻓﻭﻕ ﻤﻨﺴـﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻴـﺎﻩ‬
‫ـﺎﺩﻱ ≤‬
‫ـﺩﻱ ﻋـ‬
‫ﺒﻭﺭﺘﻼﻨـ‬ ‫ـﻤﻨﺕ‬
‫ـﺘﻌﻤل ﺍﺴــ‬
‫ﻴﺴــ‬ ‫ﺍﺴــﻤﻨﺕ ﺒﻭﺭﺘﻼﻨــﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴــﺔ‪ ،‬ﻴﺴــﺘﻌﻤل‬
‫‪370‬ﻜﻐـــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫ـﺎﺩﻱ ≤‬
‫ـﺩﻱ ﻋـ‬
‫ﺒﻭﺭﺘﻼﻨـ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ≤ ‪330‬ﻜﻐﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺴــﻤﻨﺕ ﺒﻭﺭﺘﻼﻨــﺩﻱ‬
‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪0.50‬‬ ‫‪370‬ﻜﻐـــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫ـﻥ‬
‫ـل ﻤـ‬
‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗـ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ≤ ‪310‬ﻜﻐﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬
‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻻﻭﺘـﺎﺩ‬ ‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪0.50‬‬ ‫‪0.50‬‬ ‫ـﻥ‬‫ـل ﻤـ‬
‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗـ‬
‫ـﺕ‬
‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨـــــ‬
‫ﻤﻼﻤﺴــﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﻨﺴــﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫‪0.50‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺴﺎﺴــﺎﺕ ﻤﻼﻤﺴــﺔ‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻐﻴـــﺭ ﻝﻠﻤﻴـــﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺭﻀﺔ ﻝﻀﻐﻁ ﻤـﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻝﻠﻤﻨﺴﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻝﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻤﻼﻤﺴــﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﻨﺴــﻭﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‪،‬ﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﺍﺴﻤﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺨــﺎﺭﺠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻴﺴــﺘﻌﻤل‬
‫ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴــﺔ‪ ،‬ﻴﺴــﺘﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻐﻴـــﺭ ﻝﻠﻤﻴـــﺎﻩ‬
‫ﺒﻭﺭﺘﻼﻨﺩﻱ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ≤‬ ‫ﺍﺴــﻤﻨﺕ ﺒﻭﺭﺘﻼﻨــﺩﻱ‬
‫ﺍﺴــﻤﻨﺕ ﺒﻭﺭﺘﻼﻨــﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‪،‬ﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﺍﺴﻤﻨﺕ‬
‫‪380‬ﻜﻐـــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ≤‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ≤‬ ‫ﺒﻭﺭﺘﻼﻨﺩﻱ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ≤‬
‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪0.50‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫‪380‬ﻜﻐـــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬

‫‪66‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺍﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻡ ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪0.50‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫‪350‬ﻜﻐـــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫‪350‬ﻜﻐـــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬


‫≤ ‪340‬ﻜﻐــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻡ ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪0.50‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪0.50‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪0.50‬‬ ‫≤ ‪340‬ﻜﻐــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻡ ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻡ ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤـﻥ ‪0.50‬‬ ‫≤ ‪310‬ﻜﻐــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫≤ ‪310‬ﻜﻐــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬
‫ـﺘﻌﻤﺎل‬
‫ـﻥ ﺍﺴــ‬
‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜــ‬ ‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪0.50‬‬ ‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪0.50‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺴﻔﻠﺕ ﻝﻠﻌﺯل‬
‫ﺃ‪-‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻻﻭﺘﺎﺩ ﻓﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺃ‪-‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻨﺎﺼـﺭ‬ ‫ﺃ‪-‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﺎﺴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃ‪-‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻨﺎﺼـﺭ‬ ‫‪3.1-1.9‬‬ ‫‪1.0-0.5‬‬ ‫‪250-120‬‬
‫ﻤﻨﺴﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﻓـﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻭﻕ ﻤﻨﺴﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﻓـﻭﻕ‬
‫ـﻤﻨﺕ‬
‫ـﺘﻌﻤل ﺍﺴــ‬
‫ﻴﺴــ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺴﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴــﺔ‪ ،‬ﻴﺴــﺘﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺴﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ـﺎﺩﻱ ≤‬
‫ـﺩﻱ ﻋـ‬
‫ﺒﻭﺭﺘﻼﻨـ‬ ‫ـﻤﻨﺕ‬
‫ـﺘﻌﻤل ﺍﺴــ‬
‫ﻴﺴــ‬ ‫ﺍﺴــﻤﻨﺕ ﺒﻭﺭﺘﻼﻨــﺩﻱ‬ ‫ـﻤﻨﺕ‬
‫ـﺘﻌﻤل ﺍﺴــ‬
‫ﻴﺴــ‬
‫‪400‬ﻜﻐـــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫ـﺎﺩﻱ ≤‬
‫ـﺩﻱ ﻋـ‬
‫ﺒﻭﺭﺘﻼﻨـ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ≤ ‪350‬ﻜﻐﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫ـﺎﺩﻱ ≤‬
‫ـﺩﻱ ﻋـ‬
‫ﺒﻭﺭﺘﻼﻨـ‬
‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪0.50‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫‪400‬ﻜﻐـــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫ـﻥ‬
‫ـل ﻤـ‬
‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗـ‬ ‫‪380‬ﻜﻐـــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬
‫ﺍﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻡ ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪0.50‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫‪0.50‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﻤﻘـﺎﻭﻡ‬ ‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪0.50‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫≤ ‪350‬ﻜﻐــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻡ ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘــــــﺎﺕ ≤‬ ‫ﺍﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻡ ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪0.50‬‬ ‫≤ ‪350‬ﻜﻐــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫‪340‬ﻜﻐـــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫≤ ‪340‬ﻜﻐــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬
‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻻﻭﺘـﺎﺩ‬ ‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪0.50‬‬ ‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪0.50‬‬ ‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪0.50‬‬
‫ﻤﻼﻤﺴــﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﻨﺴــﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ‬ ‫ـﺕ‬
‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨـــــ‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻝﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺭﻀﺔ ﻝﻀﻐﻁ ﻤـﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺎﺴــﺎﺕ ﻤﻼﻤﺴــﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻼﻤﺴــﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﻨﺴــﻭﺏ‬
‫ﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﺍﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺨــﺎﺭﺠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻴﺴــﺘﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻤﻨﺴﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻝﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻐﻴـــﺭ ﻝﻠﻤﻴـــﺎﻩ‬
‫ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘــــــﺎﺕ ≤‬ ‫ﺍﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻡ ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴــﺔ‪ ،‬ﻴﺴــﺘﻌﻤل‬ ‫ـﺘﻌﻤل‬
‫ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‪،‬ﻴﺴــــ‬
‫‪390‬ﻜﻐـــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫≤ ‪380‬ﻜﻐــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻡ ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺍﺴـــﻤﻨﺕ ﻤﻘـــﺎﻭﻡ‬
‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ‬ ‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤـﻥ ‪0.50‬‬ ‫≤ ‪350‬ﻜﻐــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘــــــﺎﺕ ≤‬
‫‪) 0.50‬ﻷﻭﺘﺎﺩ ﺍﻻﺭﺘﻜﺎﺯ‬ ‫ـﺘﻌﻤﺎل‬
‫ـﻥ ﺍﺴــ‬
‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜــ‬ ‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪0.50‬‬ ‫‪350‬ﻜﻐـــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬
‫ﻓﻘﻁ(***‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﻔﻠﺕ ﻝﻠﻌﺯل‬ ‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪0.50‬‬

‫ﺃ‪-‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻻﻭﺘﺎﺩ ﻓﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺃ‪-‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﺎﺴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃ‪-‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﺎﺴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃ‪-‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻨﺎﺼـﺭ‬ ‫‪5.6-3.1‬‬ ‫‪2.0-1.0‬‬ ‫‪500-250‬‬
‫ﻤﻨﺴﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻭﻕ ﻤﻨﺴـﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻴـﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻭﻕ ﻤﻨﺴﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﻓـﻭﻕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺩﺍﺌﻤ ﹰﺎ ﺒﻌﻴﺩﺓ ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺠﺎﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴــﺔ‪ ،‬ﻴﺴــﺘﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺴﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺘﺭﺸﺢ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻴﺴـﺘﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺌﻤﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﺍﺴـﻤﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺴــﻤﻨﺕ ﺒﻭﺭﺘﻼﻨــﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﺍﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﻤﻘـﺎﻭﻡ‬
‫ﺍﺴــﻤﻨﺕ ﺒﻭﺭﺘﻼﻨــﺩﻱ‬ ‫ـﺎﺩﻱ ≤‬
‫ـﺩﻱ ﻋـ‬
‫ﺒﻭﺭﺘﻼﻨـ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ≤ ‪400‬ﻜﻐﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘــــــﺎﺕ ≤‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ≤ ‪400‬ﻜﻐﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫‪400‬ﻜﻐـــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫ـﻥ‬
‫ـل ﻤـ‬
‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗـ‬ ‫‪380‬ﻜﻐـــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬
‫ـﻥ‬
‫ـل ﻤـ‬
‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗـ‬ ‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ‪ 0.45‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫‪0.45‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﻤﻘـﺎﻭﻡ‬ ‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪0.45‬‬
‫‪ 0.45‬ﺃﻭﺍﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﻤﻘـﺎﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻡ ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘــــــﺎﺕ ≤‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘــــــﺎﺕ ≤‬ ‫≤ ‪350‬ﻜﻐــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫‪350‬ﻜﻐـــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﻤﻼﻤﺴــﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﻨﺴــﻭﺏ‬
‫‪350‬ﻜﻐـــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪0.45‬‬ ‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪0.45‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻝﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪0.45‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪-‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﺎﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ـﺕ‬
‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨـــــ‬ ‫ﻴﺴــﺘﻌﻤل ﺩﺭﻉ ﻤــﻥ‬
‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻼﻤﺴــﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﻨﺴــﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺎﺴــﺎﺕ ﻤﻼﻤﺴــﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺩﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺒﻼﺴـﺘﻴﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺯﻴﺩ ﻋـﻥ ‪300‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻝﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻤﻨﺴﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻝﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻭﻕ ﺍﻻﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻭﻡ‬
‫ﺠـﺯﺀ ﻝﻜـل ‪100000‬‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻀﺭﻭﺭﻱ ﺘﺤﺩﻴـﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻀﺭﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘــــــﺎﺕ ≤‬
‫ﻋﺩﻭﺍﻨﻲ‪ .‬ﻴﻠﺯﻡ ﺍﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻜﺎﺘﻴﻭﻨــﺎﺕ ﻝﺘﻘﺭﻴــﺭ‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﺎﺘﻴﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﻝﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ‬ ‫‪390‬ﻜﻐـــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬

‫‪67‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻤﺜل ﺍﻻﺴـﻤﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻡ‬ ‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪0.40‬‬
‫ﻋـــﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤـــﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﻋــﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤــﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﻋــﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤــﺔ‬
‫ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘـــﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺴـﺘﻌﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺭﻉ‬
‫ﻝﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺘـﺩ ﻭﻴﻌﺘﻤـﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﻔﻠﺕ ﻝﻠﻌﺯل‬
‫ﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﺴـﻤﻨﺕ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻜﺎﺘﻴﻭﻨﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺃ‪-‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻻﻭﺘﺎﺩ ﻓﻭﻕ‬ ‫ﺃ‪-‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﺎﺴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃ‪-‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﺎﺴـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺃ‪-‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨـــﺕ‬ ‫‪5.6‬‬ ‫<‬ ‫‪2.0‬‬ ‫<‬
‫ﻤﻨﺴﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴـﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻭﻕ ﻤﻨﺴـﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻴـﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻭﻕ ﻤﻨﺴﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻨﺎﺼــــﺭ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺩﺍﺌﻤ ﹰﺎ ﺒﻌﻴﺩﺓ ﻋﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺠﺎﻓـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴــﺔ‪ ،‬ﻴﺴــﺘﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻜﻠﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺘﺭﺸﺢ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻴﺴـﺘﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺌﻤﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﺍﺴـﻤﻨﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺴــﻤﻨﺕ ﺒﻭﺭﺘﻼﻨــﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻓﻭﻕ ﻤﻨﺴـﻭﺏ‬
‫ﺍﺴــﻤﻨﺕ ﺒﻭﺭﺘﻼﻨــﺩﻱ‬ ‫ـﺎﺩﻱ ≤‬
‫ـﺩﻱ ﻋـ‬
‫ﺒﻭﺭﺘﻼﻨـ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ≤ ‪400‬ﻜﻐﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ≤ ‪400‬ﻜﻐﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫‪400‬ﻜﻐـــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫ـﻥ‬
‫ـل ﻤـ‬
‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗـ‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﺍﺴﻤﻨﺕ‬
‫ـﻥ‬
‫ـل ﻤـ‬
‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗـ‬ ‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ‪ 0.45‬ﺃﻭ‬ ‫‪0.40‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﻤﻘـﺎﻭﻡ‬ ‫ـﺎﻭﻡ‬
‫ﻤﻘـــــ‬
‫‪ 0.45‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻡ ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘــــــﺎﺕ ≤‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘــﺎﺕ ≤‬
‫ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘــــــﺎﺕ ≤‬ ‫≤ ‪350‬ﻜﻐــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫‪350‬ﻜﻐـــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫‪390‬ﻜﻐﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬
‫‪350‬ﻜﻐـــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪0.45‬‬ ‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪0.40‬‬ ‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل‬
‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪0.45‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪-‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﺎﺴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ـﺕ‬
‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨـــــ‬ ‫ﻤﻥ ‪0.40‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻤﻼﻤﺴــﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﻨﺴــﻭﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﺎﺴــﺎﺕ ﻤﻼﻤﺴــﺔ‬ ‫ـﺕ‬
‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨـ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺯﻴﺩ ﻋـﻥ ‪300‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻝﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻤﻨﺴﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻝﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ـﺎﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺴـــ‬
‫ﺠـﺯﺀ ﻝﻜـل ‪100000‬‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﺍﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﻤﻘـﺎﻭﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴــﺔ‪ ،‬ﻴﺴــﺘﻌﻤل‬ ‫ـﺔ‬
‫ﻤﻼﻤﺴــــ‬
‫ﻋﺩﻭﺍﻨﻲ‪ .‬ﻴﻠﺯﻡ ﺍﺠﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘــــــﺎﺕ ≤‬ ‫ﺍﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻡ ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻝﻠﻤﻨﺴــــﻭﺏ‬
‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻤﺜل ﺍﻻﺴـﻤﻨﺕ‬ ‫‪390‬ﻜﻐـــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫≤ ‪390‬ﻜﻐــﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻝﻠﻤﻴـﺎﻩ‬
‫ﻋـــﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤـــﺔ‬ ‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗــل ﻤــﻥ‬ ‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗــل ﻤــﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‪،‬ﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤ‬
‫ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘـــﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺭﻉ‬ ‫‪0.40‬ﻭﻴــﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﻌــﺯل‬ ‫‪0.40‬ﻭﻴــﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﻌــﺯل‬ ‫ل ﺩﺭﻉ ﻤـــﻥ‬
‫ﻝﺤﻤﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺘـﺩ ﻭﻴﻌﺘﻤـﺩ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻻﺴــــﻔﻠﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻻﺴــــﻔﻠﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌـــﺩﻥ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺴـــﻤﻨﺕ ﻋﻠـــﻰ‬ ‫ﺒﻼﺴﺘﻴﻙ‬ ‫ﺒﻼﺴﺘﻴﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﻼﺴﺘﻴﻙ ﻓﻭﻕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻜﺎﺘﻴﻭﻨﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴــــﻤﻨﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻘـــــﺎﻭﻡ‬
‫ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘــﺎﺕ ≤‬
‫‪390‬ﻜﻐﻡ‪/‬ﻡ‪ 3‬ﻭ‬
‫‪ W/C‬ﺃﻗل‬
‫ﻤﻥ ‪0.40‬‬

‫ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺠﺩﻭل )‪: (3-2‬‬

‫‪68‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫)*( – ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻻﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل ﺃﻋﻼﻩ ﺼﺎﻝﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺨﻠﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺴـﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﺨﻭﺍﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻐﻴﻠﻴﺔ )‪ (Workability‬ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻝﻠﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﺔ ﻤﺴﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺼﺏ ﻭﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺎﺴﺎﺕ )ﺍﻝﻘﻭﺍﻡ ‪ Slump‬ﻤﻥ ‪ 24-10‬ﻤﻠﻡ(‪،‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻝﻠﻌﻨﺎﺼﺭ ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻗﻴﻘﺔ )ﻗﻭﺍﻡ ﻤﻥ ‪ 75-50‬ﻤﻠﻡ(‪،‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻝﻸﻭﺘﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺒﻭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ )ﻗﻭﺍﻡ ‪ 100‬ﻤﻠﻡ(‪.‬‬
‫)**( – ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﻻﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻭﻡ ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻭﺴﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻤﻀﻴﺔ )‪.(PH ≥ 6‬‬
‫)***(‪ -‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﻻﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﻋﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﻭﺴﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻤﻀﻴﺔ ﺤﻴـﺙ‬
‫)‪ (PH ≥ 3.5‬ﻭﻻ ﻴﺠﻭﺯ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺃﻴﺔ ﺍﻀﺎﻓﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻤﻬﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻨﻭﻋﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻤﻊ ﺍﻻﺴﻤﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻭﻡ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﻝﻠﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫‪ 5-2‬ﻓﺤﻭﺼــﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﻝﻸﻏـﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨـﺸــﺎﺌﻴـﺔ‬

‫‪69‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫)‪(Soil Testing for Construction Purposes‬‬

‫ﻭﺭﺩ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺘﻘﺩﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﺭﺍﺽ ﺃﻫـﻡ ﺨﺼـﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‪ ،‬ﺫﻜـﺭ ﻤﻌﻅـﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺠﺭﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ ﻝﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺼﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ ﺤﺼﺭ ﻷﻫﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺒﺭﻴﺔ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻝﺤﻘﻠﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻤﻊ ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﻜﻭﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺴﻨﺸﻴﺭ ﺒﺸﻜل ﺃﺴﺎﺴـﻲ ﺍﻝـﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻘـﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﺒﺭﻴﻁﺎﻨﻴـﺔ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼـﺔ‬
‫ﺒﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻷﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻝﻬﻨﺩﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻨﻴـﺔ )‪ ،/10/ (BS 1377‬ﻭﻤﻘـﺎﻴﻴﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﺭﻜﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ )‪ ،/11/ (ASTM‬ﻭﻫﻤﺎ ﺍﻻﻜﺜﺭ ﺸﻴﻭﻋﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻻ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﻊ ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﻘـﺎﻴﻴﺱ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﻴﺭﻜﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻁـﺭﻕ )‪ /12/ (AASHTO‬ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼـﺔ ﺒـﺈﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺒﻌـﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺨﺼﻭﺼﹰﺎ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺠﺭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻕ‪.‬‬

‫‪ 1-5-2‬ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺒﺭﻴﺔ )‪(Laboratory tests‬‬


‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻘﺴﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )‪ (Soil classification tests‬ﻭﺃﻫﻤﻬﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪-‬‬


‫‪BS 1377 Test No. 1‬‬
‫‪ASTM D-2216‬‬
‫‪Moisture content‬‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫‪-1‬‬
‫‪BS 1377 Test No. 2‬‬
‫‪ASTM D-423‬‬ ‫)‪Liquid Limit (LL‬‬ ‫ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ‬ ‫‪-2‬‬
‫‪AASHTO T-89‬‬
‫‪BS 1377 Test No. 3‬‬
‫‪ASTM D-424‬‬ ‫)‪Plastic Limit (PL‬‬ ‫ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ‬ ‫‪-3‬‬
‫‪AASHTO T-90‬‬
‫‪BS 1377 Test No. 5‬‬ ‫‪Shrinkage Limit‬‬
‫‪ASTM D-427‬‬ ‫)‪(SL‬‬
‫ﺤﺩ ﺍﻻﻨﻜﻤﺎﺵ‬ ‫‪-4‬‬

‫‪70‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬-‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‬
___________________________________________________________________

BS 1377 Test No. 6


Specific gravity ‫ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ‬ -5
ASTM D-854
BS 1377 Test No. 7
Sieve analysis ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ‬ -6
ASTM D-422
‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﻘل‬
Percent finer
ASTM D-1140 sieve 75 micron 75 ‫ﻤﻘﺎﺴﻬﺎ ﻋﻥ‬ -7
(sieve # 200)
‫ﻤﻴﻜﺭﻭﻥ‬
Dry preparation ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻑ‬
BS 1377 , ASTM D-421 -8
of samples ‫ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬
BS 1377, ASTM D- Wet preparation ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﺏ‬
-9
2217 of samples ‫ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ‬
:‫( ﻭﺃﻫﻤﻬﺎ‬Soil strength tests) ‫)ﺏ( – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﻭﺓ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
ASTM D-3080 Direct shear ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬ -1
BS 1377 Test No. 21 Triaxial ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺒﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻀﻐﻁ‬
-2
ASTM D-2850 compression ‫ﺜﻼﺜﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ‬
BS 1377, ASTM D- Unconfied
‫ﺍﻝﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﻼﻤﺤﺼﻭﺭ‬ -3
2166 compression
BS 1377 Test No. 17 One-dimensional
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ‬ -4
ASTM D-2435 consolidation
BS 1377 Test No. 16 California
ASTM D-1883 Bearing Ratio - ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺘﺤﻤل ﻜﺎﻝﻴﻔﻭﺭﻨﻴﺎ‬ -5
AASHTO T-193 CBR
:‫( ﻭﺃﻫﻤﻬﺎ‬Compaction tests) ‫)ﺠـ( – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺩﻤﻙ‬
BS 1377 Test No. 12
Standard Proctor ‫ﺍﻝﺩﻤﻙ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﻲ‬
ASTM D-698 -1
AASHTO T-90
test (‫)ﺒﺭﻭﻜﺘﻭﺭ‬
BS 1377 Test No.13
Modified
ASTM D-1557
compaction
‫ل‬‫ﺍﻝﺩﻤﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺩ‬ -2
AASHTO T-180

:(Permeability tests) ‫)ﺩ( – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ‬


ASTM D-2325, D-2434

71 ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫)ﻫـ( – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻜﻴﻤﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ )‪ (Chemical tests‬ﻭﺃﻫﻤﻬﺎ‪:‬‬


‫‪Organic matter‬‬
‫‪BS 1377 Test No.8‬‬
‫‪content‬‬
‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪-1‬‬
‫‪BS 1377 Test No. 9‬‬ ‫‪Sulphate content‬‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪-2‬‬
‫‪Sulphate content‬‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﺭﻴﺘﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ‬
‫‪BS 1377 Test No.10‬‬ ‫‪-3‬‬
‫‪in groundwater‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﺭﻗﻡ‬
‫‪BS 1377 Test No. 11‬‬ ‫‪PH value‬‬ ‫‪-4‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﺠﻴﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻭﺭﻴﺩ ﻓﻲ‬
‫‪BS 812‬‬ ‫‪Chloride content‬‬ ‫‪-5‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬

‫‪ 2-5-2‬ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻠﻴﺔ )‪(Field tests‬‬


‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻠﺨﻴﺹ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﺸﻴﻭﻋﹰﺎ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‪:‬‬

‫)ﺃ( – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻠﻴﺔ )‪ (Field density tests‬ﻭﺃﻫﻤﻬﺎ‪:‬‬


‫‪BS 1377 Test No. 15‬‬
‫‪Field density by sand‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫‪ASTM D-1556‬‬ ‫‪-1‬‬
‫‪AASHTO T-191‬‬
‫‪replacement method‬‬ ‫ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺩﺍل ﺍﻝﺭﻤل‬
‫‪ASTM D-2167‬‬ ‫‪Field density by rubber‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫‪-2‬‬
‫‪AASHTO T-205‬‬ ‫‪balloon method‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﻝﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﺎﻁﻲ‬
‫‪ASTM D-2922‬‬ ‫‪Field density by nuclear‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬
‫‪-3‬‬
‫‪AASHTO T-238‬‬ ‫‪methods‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﺫﺭﻴﺔ‬

‫ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻝﺭﻴﺸﺔ )‪(Vane shear test‬‬ ‫–‬ ‫)ﺏ(‬


‫‪BS 1377 Test No. 18 , ASTM D-2573‬‬

‫‪72‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫)ﺠـ( – ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﻲ )‪(Standard Penetration Test - SPT‬‬


‫‪BS 1377 Test No. 19 , ASTM D-1568‬‬
‫)ﺩ( – ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻠﻴﺔ )‪BS 5930 (Field permeability test‬‬
‫)ﻫـ( – ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻤﻴل )‪(Load bearing test‬‬
‫‪BS 5930 , ASTM D-1194, 1195‬‬

‫ﻭﺴﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﺎﺼﻴل ﺍﻝﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﺔ ﻷﻫﻡ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺫﻜﺭﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻔﺼﻭل ﺍﻝﻼﺤﻘﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪.‬‬

‫‪73‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪-‬ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪74‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻻﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺍﻝﺒــﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝـﺙ‬

‫ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼـﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒــﺔ‬

‫‪ 1-3‬ﻤﺩﺨل‬

‫‪ 2-3‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬

‫‪ 1-2-3‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ ﺒﺎﻝﻔﺭﻥ‬

‫‪ 2-2-3‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﻭﺽ ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻲ‬

‫‪ 3-3‬ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺃﺘﺭﺒﺭﻍ‬

‫‪ 1-3-3‬ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻜﺎﺯﺍﻏﺭﺍﻨﺩ‬

‫‪ 2-3-3‬ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺭﺍﻕ‬

‫‪ 3-3-3‬ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻓﺎﺴﻴﻠﻴﻴﻑ ﻝﻼﺨﺘﺭﺍﻕ‬

‫‪ 4-3-3‬ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬

‫‪ 4-3‬ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬

‫‪ 1-4-3‬ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﺩﻭﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺝ )ﺍﻝﺒﻜﻨﻭﻤﻴﺘﺭ(‬

‫‪ 5-3‬ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬

‫‪75‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ 1-5-3‬ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﻁﻊ‬

‫‪ 2-5-3‬ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻐﻤﺭ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ‬

‫‪ 3-5-3‬ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ‬

‫‪ 6-3‬ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬

‫‪ 1-6-3‬ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﻨﺨﻴل ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻑ‬

‫‪ 2-6-3‬ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻐﺴل‬

‫‪ 7-3‬ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬

‫‪ 1-7-3‬ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ ﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬

‫‪ 2-7-3‬ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻤﻌﻬﺩ ﻤﺎﺴﺎﺸﻭﺴﺘﺱ ﻝﻠﺘﻜﻨﻭﻝﻭﺠﻴﺎ ﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬

‫‪ 3-7-3‬ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻴﺠﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬

‫‪ 4-7-3‬ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻁﺭﻕ ﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬

‫‪ 5-7-3‬ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺤﺩ ﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬

‫‪ 6-7-3‬ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﺭﻭﺴﻴﺔ‬

‫‪76‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼـﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴـﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒــﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ‬

‫) ‪(Soil Classification Tests‬‬

‫‪ 1-3‬ﻤﺩﺨـل )‪(Introduction‬‬
‫ﺴﻨﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻷﻫﻡ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼـﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼـﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻘﺼﺩ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺒﻨﺘﻴﺠﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﻻﺌل‪ ،‬ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ –‬
‫ﻤﻨﻔﺭﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺠﺘﻤﻌﺔ – ﻓﻲ ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻭﻋﻬﺎ ﻭﺒﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻬﺩﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻲ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻨﺴﻌﻰ ﺇﻝﻴﻪ ﻫﻨـﺎ ﻫـﻭ ﻋـﺭﺽ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘـﺔ ﺍﻝﺴـﻠﻴﻤﺔ ﻹﺠـﺭﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻨﻘل ﺍﻝﺤﺭﻓﻲ ﻝﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﻤﻨﺼـﻭﺹ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻝﻜـﻭﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜل ﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴـﺔ ﻝﻠﻔﺤﻭﺼـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ )‪ (ASTM‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻤﻘـﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﺒﺭﻴﻁﺎﻨﻴـﺔ )‪ ،(BS‬ﺃﻭ ﻤﻘـﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﺠﻤﻌﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻁﺭﻕ )‪ (AASHTO‬ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺠﺭﺕ ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻝﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺭﻫـﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻨﻨـﺎ‬
‫ﺴﻨﺤﺎﻭل ﺃﻥ ﻨﺠﻌل ﻋﺭﺽ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﺭﻭﻨﺔ ﻭﺃﻗﺭﺏ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴ‪‬ﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﺒﺄﻨﻪ‬
‫ﺴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺇﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﻜل ﻓﺤﺹ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﻜﻡ‬
‫ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀﻩ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺴﺘﺘﻡ ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻨﻭﺍﺤﻲ ﺍﻝﺨﻼﻑ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻋﻨـﺩﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻴﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻏﻡ ﺃﻥ ﻁﺭﻕ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﻤﻌﺭﻭﻓـﺔ ﻭﺘﺤﻜﻤﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ﺘﺘﺸﺎﺒﻪ ﻤﻌﻅﻤﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺃﻨﻨﺎ ﺴﻨﺘﺼﺭﻑ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺯ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺇﺨﻼل ﺃﻭ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻝﻤﺎ ﻫـﻭ ﺜﺎﺒـﺕ‬
‫ﻭﻤﺤﺩﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻝﻠﺘﺴﻬﻴل ﻭﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﻭﺽ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﺎﺼﻴل ﺍﻝﺯﺍﺌﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺒﺨﺼﻭﺹ ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﻜـل ﻓﺤـﺹ‪،‬‬
‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺴﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﺫﻜﺭ ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﻭﺼﻑ ﺘﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ ﻝﻬـﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ‬

‫‪77‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺤﻴﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﻝﺫﻝﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﻁﻠﻕ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻨﺩﺱ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻨﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻁﺎﻝﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻡ ﺠﻤﻬﻭﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻠﻡ ﺒﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﻭﺘﻔﺎﺼﻴﻠﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪ 2-3‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬


‫)‪(Water or Moisture Content‬‬

‫ﻴ‪‬ﻌﺭ‪‬ﻑ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻪ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺼﻠﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻭ ‪‬ﻴﻌ ‪‬ﺒﺭ ﻋﻥ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒـﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻴﺎﻀﻴﺔ )‪.(1-2‬‬
‫ﻭﺴﻨﻌﺭﺽ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ ﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺘﻴﻥ ﻝﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ 1-2-3‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ ﺒﺎﻝﻔﺭﻥ‬


‫)‪(Oven-drying method‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ )‪:(Standard references‬‬


‫‪- BS 1377‬‬
‫‪-ASTM D-2216.‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ )‪:(Equipment‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻝﻤﻨﻴﻭﻡ ) ‪(Moisture cans‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺭﻥ ﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ ﻤـﻊ ﻀـﺎﺒﻁ ﻝﻠﺤـﺭﺍﺭﺓ ) ‪Thermostatically controlled‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪.‬‬
‫‪(drying oven‬‬
‫ﻤﻴﺯﺍﻥ ﺩﻗﻴﻕ )‪(Balance‬‬ ‫ﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﺎﺀ ﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ )ﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ( )‪.(Desiccator‬‬ ‫ﺙ‪.‬‬

‫‪78‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫)‪ (3‬ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ )‪:(Procedure‬‬


‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻠﺨﻴﺹ ﺍﻝﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻹﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﺘﺅﺨﺫ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺩ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺭﻁﻭﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﺤﻴـﺙ ﻴﻜـﻭﻥ ﻭﺯﻨﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﻤﺴﺎﻭﻴﹰﺎ ﺤﻭﺍﻝﻲ )‪ (30‬ﻏﺭﺍﻤﹰﺎ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ‪ (500) ،‬ﻏﺭﺍﻡ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻌﻭﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ)‪ (3‬ﻜﻴﻠﻭﻏﺭﺍﻤﺎﺕ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺨﺸﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﺘﺅﺨﺫ ﻋﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻝﻤﻨﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻔﻬﺎ ﻭﺘﺠﻔﻴﻔﻬﺎ ﺠﻴﺩﹰﺍ ﻭﺘـﻭﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺒﺩﻗﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻏﻁﺎﺌﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻴﻜﻥ ﻭﺯﻨﻬﺎ )‪.(m1‬‬
‫‪ -3‬ﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﺒﺔ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻭﺯﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﺒﹰﺎ ﻝﻠﻤـﺫﻜﻭﺭ‬
‫ﺃﻋﻼﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﺒﺔ ﻤﻐﻁﺎﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﺩﺍﺨﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻴﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ )‪.(m2‬‬
‫‪ -4‬ﻴﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻝﻐﻁﺎﺀ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﺒﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺃﺨﺫ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ )‪ (m2‬ﺜﻡ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﺩﺨﺎل ﺍﻝﻌﻠﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﺒﻤﺎ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻴﻪ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻓﺭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ ﻭﺍﻝﻐﻁﺎﺀ ﺒﺠﺎﻨﺒﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜـﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻥ ﺒﺤﺩﻭﺩ )‪ (110-105‬ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺘﺭﻙ ﻤﺩﺓ‬
‫‪ 24‬ﺴﺎﻋﺔ )ﺃﻨﻅﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ ‪.(2‬‬
‫‪ -5‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻨﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ‪ ،‬ﺘﻐﻠﻕ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﺒﺔ ﻭﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﻭﺯﻨﻬﺎ ﺒﻤﺎ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻴـﻪ‬
‫ﺒﻌﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺒﺭﺩ ﻝﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻋـﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﻔﻴـﻑ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝـﻴﻜﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ )‪.(m3‬‬

‫)‪ (4‬ﺍﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ )‪:(Calculations‬‬


‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‪:‬‬

‫‪m2 − m3‬‬
‫)‪(1-3‬‬ ‫=‪W‬‬ ‫)‪(%‬‬
‫‪m 3 − m1‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ )‪ (1-3‬ﻤﺜﺎ ﹰ‬

‫‪79‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫)‪ (5‬ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺎﺕ )‪:(Notes‬‬


‫‪ -1‬ﺘﺠﺭﻱ ﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺜﻼﺙ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﻷﺨﺫ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﻝﻠﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻭﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻻ ﺘﺯﻴﺩ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﻱ ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺘـﻴﻥ ﻋـﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻘﻠﻴل ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ﺒـ ‪24‬ﺴﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ ﻤﻨﺘﻬﻴﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺜﺒﺕ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻥ ﻭﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺹ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺄﻜﺩ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺒﺈﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻥ ﻭﺘﻭﺯﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺜﻡ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺘﻬﺎ ﻝﻠﻔﺭﻥ ﻋﺩ‪‬ﺓ ﻤـﺭﺍﺕ ﺤﺘـﻰ ﻴﺜﺒـﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -3‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻗﺎﺒﻠﺔ ﻝﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺠﻔﻴﻔﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ )‪ (110-105‬ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﺜﺎل ﺫﻝﻙ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘـﻲ‬
‫ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﺍﻝﺠﺒﺱ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻤﺜل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺨﻔﺽ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻥ ﻭﺇﻁﺎﻝـﺔ ﻓﺘـﺭﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ‪.‬‬

‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ )‪(1-3‬‬
‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ )ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻭﻝﺔ(‬
‫‪17‬‬ ‫‪16‬‬ ‫‪15‬‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ ﺍﻝﻭﻋﺎﺀ‬
‫‪59.20‬‬ ‫‪60.12‬‬ ‫‪53.45‬‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﺒﺔ ‪ +‬ﺍﻝﻭﻋﺎﺀ )ﻏﻡ(‬
‫‪52.90‬‬ ‫‪53.28‬‬ ‫‪48.10‬‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ ‪ +‬ﺍﻝﻭﻋﺎﺀ )ﻏﻡ(‬
‫‪4.30‬‬ ‫‪6.84‬‬ ‫‪5.35‬‬ ‫)ﻏﻡ(‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ‬
‫‪15.84‬‬ ‫‪15.98‬‬ ‫‪15.95‬‬ ‫)ﻏﻡ(‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻭﻋﺎﺀ‬
‫‪37.06‬‬ ‫‪37.30‬‬ ‫‪32.15‬‬ ‫)ﻏﻡ(‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫‪17.00‬‬ ‫‪18.34‬‬ ‫‪16.64‬‬ ‫)‪(%‬‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‬
‫‪17.33‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬

‫‪80‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ 2-2-3‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﻭﺽ ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻲ‬


‫)‪(Sand – Bath Method‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ )‪:(Standard reference‬‬


‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪BS 1377.‬‬

‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ )‪:(Equipment‬‬


‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﻋﻠﺏ ﻤﻌﺩﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻐﻁﺎﺀ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻋﻤـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭﻋﻴـﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤـﺔ‬
‫ﻝﻠﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺨﺸﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﻤﻴﺯﺍﻥ ﺩﻗﻴﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺕ‪ .‬ﺤﻭﺽ ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﺭﻤل ﻨﻅﻴﻑ ﻝﻌﻤﻕ ﻻ ﻴﻘل ﻋﻥ ‪25‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺙ‪ .‬ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﻝﺘﺴﺨﻴﻥ ﺤﻭﺽ ﺍﻝﺭﻤل )ﺴـﺨﺎﻥ ﻜﻬﺭﺒـﺎﺌﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻋـﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺒﻭﺘﻭﺠﺎﺯ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺝ‪ .‬ﺴﻜﻴﻥ ﻭﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (3‬ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ )‪:(Procedure‬‬


‫‪-1‬ﻴ‪‬ﺅﺨﺫ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺩﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻭﻋﺎﺀ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻔﻪ ﻭﺘﺠﻔﻴﻔﻪ ﺠﻴﺩﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻴﻜﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ )‪.(m1‬‬
‫‪-2‬ﺘﹸﺅﺨﺫ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻭﻋﺎﺀ ﻭﻴ‪‬ﺅﺨﺫ ﻭﺯﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻴﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ‬
‫)‪.(m2‬‬
‫‪-3‬ﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻭﻋﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺭﻤل ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺨﻥ ﻤﻊ‬
‫ﺘﻘﻠﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻜﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺹ )‪ (Spatula‬ﻝﻠﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺘﺒﺨﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫‪81‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ -4‬ﻴﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺴﺨﻴﻥ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﻜـﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺄﻜـﺩ ﻤﻨـﻪ‬
‫ﺒﺘﻭﺯﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺘﺴﺨﻴﻥ‪ .‬ﻴ‪‬ﺅﺨﺫ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺜﺒﺎﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻴﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ )‪.(m3‬‬
‫)‪ (4‬ﺍﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ‪: (Calculations) :‬‬
‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ )‪.(1-3‬‬

‫‪m2 − m3‬‬
‫=‪W‬‬ ‫)‪(%‬‬
‫‪m 3 − m1‬‬

‫)‪ (5‬ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺎﺕ )‪: (Notes‬‬


‫ﻼ ﺴﺭﻴﻌﹰﺎ ﻝﻠﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺴـﺎﺒﻘﺔ )‪-3‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺒﺩﻴ ﹰ‬
‫‪ (1-2‬ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ ﺒﺎﻝﻔﺭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴ‪‬ﻠﺠﺄ ﺇﻝﻴﻬﺎ ﺤﻴﻥ ﻻ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻓـﺭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﻔﻴـﻑ‬
‫ﻤﺘﻭﻓﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﻝﻼﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﻠﺠـﻭﺀ ﺇﻝـﻰ ﻫـﺫﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ ﻝﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﻴﺠﺏ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺘﺴﺨﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺯﺍﺌﺩ ﻝﻠﺭﻤل‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﺘـﻪ‬
‫ﺒﻭﻀﻊ ﺃﻭﺭﺍﻕ ﺒﻴﻀﺎﺀ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﻝﻭﻨﻬﺎ ﺒﻨﻴﹰﺎ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬
‫ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺴﺨﻴﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .3‬ﻻ ﺘﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻝﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺠـﺒﺱ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻜﻠﺱ‪.‬‬

‫‪82‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺤـﺩﻭﺩ ﺃﺘـﺭﺒـﺭﻍ‬ ‫‪3-3‬‬


‫)‪(Atterberg Limits‬‬

‫ﻴﺴﻬل ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝـﻙ ﺒﺘﻐﻴﻴـﺭ‬
‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻗﻠﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ ﺘﺯﻴﺩ ﺭﺨﺎﻭﺘﻬـﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻭ ﺃﻤﺭ ﻴﺴﻬل ﺘﺼﻭﺭﻩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺸﻜل ﺃﻭ ﺒﺂﺨﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻝﻜل ﺸﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺠﺎل ﻤﻥ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻪ ﺒﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﻝﺩﻨﺔ ﻤﺜﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻝﻔﻬﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﻨﻔﺭﺽ ﺃﻥ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻗﺩ ﺃﻀﻴﻔﺕ ﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ ﻭﺤﻭ‪‬ﻝﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺌل ﺍﻝﻠﺯﺝ‪ .‬ﺇﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺘـﻲ ﺃﺼـﺒﺢ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ ﻫﻲ ﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ )‪ .(Liquid state‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻤﺎ ﺘﺭﻜﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻝﺘﺠـﻑ‬
‫ﺒﺒﻁﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻓﻘﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻴﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻭﻴﺠﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﻗـﺎﺩﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺒﺩﺍﺀ ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﻝﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺸﻜﻠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺫﻩ ﻫﻲ ﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ )‪ .(Plastic state‬ﻭﻤﻊ‬
‫ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ ﻓﻘﺩﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﺒﺩﺃ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﻘﻠﺹ )‪ (Shrink‬ﻭﺘﺯﺩﺍﺩ ﺼﻼﺒﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻤﻊ ﺍﺤﺘﻔﺎﻅﻬﺎ ﺒﻘﻠﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﻨﻘﻭل ﺒﺄﻨﻬﺎ ﻓـﻲ ﺤﺎﻝـﺔ ﺸـﺒﻪ ﺍﻝﺼـﻼﺒﺔ‬
‫)‪ .(Semi-solid state‬ﻭﺘﻨﺘﻘل ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺤﺎﻝـﺔ ﺍﻝﺼـﻼﺒﺔ )‪ (Solid state‬ﻤـﻊ‬
‫ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ ﺠﻔﺎﻓﻬﺎ ﻭﺘﻘﻠﺹ ﺤﺠﻤﻬﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺤﺩ ﺍﻷﺩﻨﻰ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل )‪ (3-2‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺭﺒﻁ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻭﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﺘﺭﺒﺭﻍ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻭﻋﻼﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻔﻴﺩ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﻤﻊ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒـﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺘﺤﺩﻴـﺩ‬
‫ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺼﻬﺎ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼﻝﻬﺎ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ )‪ ( LI‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝـﺔ‬
‫)‪ (20-2‬ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﻤـﺎ ﻴﺴﻤﻰ ﺒﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻘﻭﺍﻡ )‪) (I c‬ﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ ‪:(22-2‬‬

‫‪83‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪W − PL W − PL‬‬ ‫‪LL − W‬‬


‫)‪(2-3‬‬ ‫= ‪LI‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫= ‪, IC‬‬
‫‪LL − PL‬‬ ‫‪PI‬‬ ‫‪PI‬‬

‫ﻭﻴﺸﻴﻊ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ )‪ (LI‬ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻭﺍﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ‬
‫ﻤﻭﻀﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل )‪.(2-2‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ )‪ (1-3‬ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻤﺠﺎل ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻘﻭﺍﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﹸﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺃﺘﺭﺒﺭﻍ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﻓﻌﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻁـﻴﻥ )‪،(Clay activity‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺨﺎﺼﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁﺔ ﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ ) > ‪ 2‬ﻤﻴﻜﺭﻭﻥ( ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻭﺼل ﺴﻜﻤﺒﺘﻭﻥ )‪ (Skempton‬ﺴﻨﺔ ‪ 1953‬ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨـﺔ‬
‫)‪ (PI‬ﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ ﻤﻊ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺨﺸﻭﻨﺔ ﻤﻨﻪ ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ )‪ ،(Clay fraction‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ )‪(PI‬‬

‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ – (1-3‬ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﻭﺍﻡ‬


‫ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ‬ ‫ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻘﻭﺍﻡ‬
‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‬
‫)‪(LI‬‬ ‫)‪(Ic‬‬
‫ﺴﺎﻝﺏ‬ ‫<‪1‬‬ ‫)‪(PL‬‬ ‫ﺘﺤﺕ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺼﻔﺭ‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫)‪(PL‬‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺼﻔﺭ‪1-‬‬ ‫ﺼﻔﺭ‪1-‬‬ ‫)‪(PL‬‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ‬
‫)‪(LL‬‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ‬
‫‪1‬‬ ‫ﺼﻔﺭ‬ ‫)‪(LL‬‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺩ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ‬
‫<‪1‬‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻝﺏ‬ ‫)‪(LL‬‬ ‫ﻓﻭﻕ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ‬

‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ ﻫﻲ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺜﺎﺒﺘﺔ ﺠﺭﺕ ﺘﺴﻤﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﻔﻌﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ )‪:(Activity‬‬

‫‪84‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫)‪(3-3‬‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ = ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ )‪ ÷ (PI‬ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ‬

‫ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﻓﻌﺎﻝﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﺭﺒﻊ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺎﺕ ﻜﻤـﺎ ﻫـﻭ‬
‫ﻤﻭﻀﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل )‪: /6/ (2-3‬‬

‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ – (2-3‬ﻓﻌﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ‬


‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻔﻌﺎﻝﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬
‫>‪0.75‬‬ ‫) ‪(Inactive clay‬‬ ‫ﻁﻴﻥ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻓ ‪‬ﻌﺎل‬ ‫‪-1‬‬
‫‪1.25-0.75‬‬ ‫)‪(Normal clay‬‬ ‫ﻁﻴﻥ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫‪-2‬‬
‫‪2.0-1.25‬‬ ‫)‪(Active clay‬‬ ‫ﻁﻴﻥ ﻓ ‪‬ﻌﺎل‬ ‫‪-3‬‬
‫<‪2.0‬‬ ‫ﻁﻴﻥ ﻋﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻝﻔﻌﺎﻝﻴﺔ )‪(Highly active‬‬ ‫‪-4‬‬
‫≤‪6.0‬‬
‫)ﻤﺜﺎل ﺍﻝﺒﻨﺘﻭﻨﺎﻴﺕ(‬

‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺃﺘﺭﺒﺭﻍ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻁﻁ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺹ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ‬
‫ﻭﻀﻌﻪ ﻜﺎﺯﺍﻏﺭﺍﻨﺩ )‪ ،(Casagrande plasticity chart‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺎ ﺴﻨﺄﺘﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻜﺭﻩ‬
‫ﻻﺤﻘﹰﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻴﺙ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻕ ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪85‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ 1-3-3‬ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻜﺎﺯﺍﺠﺭﺍﻨﺩ‬


‫)‪(Liquid Limit Determination Using Casagrande Method‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ )‪:(Standard references‬‬


‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪BS 1377‬‬
‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪ASTM D- 423‬‬
‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪ASSHTO T-89‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ )‪:(Equipment‬‬
‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﻝﻭﺡ ﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ )‪.(Glass plate‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﺴﻜﺎﻜﻴﻥ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ )‪.(Palette knives‬‬
‫ﺕ‪ .‬ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻜﺎﺯﺍﻏﺭﺍﻨﺩ )‪ (Casagrande apparatus‬ﻤﻊ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺘﺤﺯﻴﺯ )ﺸﻜل ‪-3‬‬
‫‪.(1‬‬
‫ﺙ‪ .‬ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺝ‪ .‬ﻤﺎﺀ ﻤﻘﻁﺭ )‪.(Distilled water‬‬
‫ﺡ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﺎﺀ )ﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ( )‪.(Desiccator‬‬
‫ﺥ‪ .‬ﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ ‪ 425) 40‬ﻤﻴﻜﺭﻭﻥ(‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (3‬ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ )‪:(Procedure‬‬


‫‪ .1‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﻠﻭﺏ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ ﻝﻬﺎ )‪(LL‬‬
‫ﺇﻝﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺘﺴﻤﺢ ﺒﺴﻬﻭﻝﺔ ﺘﻔﺘﻴﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻨﺨﻴل ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺘﻔﺘﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪.(40‬‬

‫‪86‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ – (1-3‬ﺃ‪ -‬ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻜﺎﺯﺍﻏﺭﺍﻨﺩ ﺏ‪-‬ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﺯﻴﺯ‬

‫‪ .3‬ﺘﺅﺨﺫ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺘﻨﺨﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺨﻠﻁﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﻁﺭ ﺠﻴﺩﹰﺍ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﻝﻭﺡ ﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ ﻭﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺴﻜﻴﻥ ﻋﺭﻴﺽ ﺍﻝﻨﺼل ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠل ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭل‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻌﺠﻭﻥ ﺴﻤﻴﻙ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .4‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺠﻭﻥ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻭﻀﻌﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﻝﻤـﺩﺓ ‪24‬‬
‫ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺤﺘﻰ ﻴﺤﺼل ﺍﻝﺘﻤﺎﺯﺝ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺠﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻤﺘﺠﺎﻨﺴﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .5‬ﻴﺅﺨﺫ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺠﻭﻥ ﺒﻌﺩ ﻤﺭﻭﺭ ‪24‬ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﻴ‪‬ﻌﺎﺩ ﺨﻠﻁﻪ ﺠﻴﺩﹰﺍ ﻝﻤـﺩﺓ ‪10‬‬
‫ﺩﻗﺎﺌﻕ‪.‬‬

‫‪87‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ .6‬ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﺠﺯﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺠﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻜﺎﺯﺍﻏﺭﺍﻨﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴ‪‬ﺒﺴـﻁ ﺠﻴـﺩﹰﺍ‬


‫ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺴﻁﺤﻪ ﻤﻭﺍﺯﻴﹰﺎ ﻝﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺴﻁﺢ ﺍﻝﺼﺤﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴـﺘﻡ ﺒﻌـﺩ‬
‫ﺫﻝﻙ ﺘﺨﺯﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺠﻭﻥ )ﺇﺤﺩﺍﺙ ﻓﺎﺼل( ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﺯﻴﺯ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .7‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺍﻝﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻭﻴﺴﺠل ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻝﻀﺭﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻝﺯﻤﺕ ﻹﺤـﺩﺍﺙ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺌﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺃﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻔﺼﻭﻝﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺼﺤﻥ ﻝﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ‪ 13‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .8‬ﻴﻀﺎﻑ ﺠﺯﺀ ﺁﺨﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺠﻭﻥ ﺒﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﺇﻝـﻰ ﺍﻝﺼـﺤﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺘﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ )‪ (7‬ﺤﺘﻰ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﺘﺸـﺎﺒﻬﺘﻴﻥ‬
‫)ﻨﻔﺱ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻝﻀﺭﺒﺎﺕ ﻝﻠﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺌﺎﻡ ﻤﻘـﺩﺍﺭﻫﺎ ‪13‬‬
‫ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭﹰﺍ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ .9‬ﻋﻨﺩﻫﺎ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺃﺨﺫ ﺤﻭﺍﻝﻲ ‪ 10‬ﻏﺭﺍﻤﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨـﺔ ﻭﻴـﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﺩﻴـﺩ‬
‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺭﻁﻭﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻭﺭﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .10‬ﺘﺘﻡ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺒﺴﻴﻁﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﻁﺭ ﻭﻴﺨﻠﻁ ﻤﺭﺓ ﺃﺨـﺭﻯ‬
‫ﻝﻤﺩﺓ ‪ 10‬ﺩﻗﺎﺌﻕ ﻭﺘﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ )ﻨﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻥ ﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺘﺯﻴـﺩ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﻤﺤﺎﻭﻝﺔ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﻁﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻋـﺩﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻀﺭﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻹﺤﺩﺍﺙ ﻨﻔﺱ ﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻻﻝﺘﺌﺎﻡ ﻴﻘل ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﻤﺭﺓ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ .11‬ﺘﺘﻡ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺃﺭﺒﻊ ﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗل ﻤﻊ ﺘﺴـﺠﻴل ﻋـﺩﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻀﺭﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﻤﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .12‬ﻴﺭﺴﻡ ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻝﻀﺭﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻌﺘﺒـﺭ‬
‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﺒﻠﺔ ﻝﻌﺩﺩ ﻀﺭﺒﺎﺕ = ‪ 25‬ﻀﺭﺒﺔ ﻫـﻲ‬
‫ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ )‪.(LL‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺇﻴﺠـﺎﺩ ﺤـﺩ ﺍﻝﺴـﻴﻭﻝﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ )‪ (2-3‬ﻤﺜﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻜﺎﺯﺍﻏﺭﺍﻨﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪88‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫)‪ (4‬ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺎﺕ ‪:(Notes) :‬‬


‫‪ -1‬ﺇﻥ ﺘﺭﻙ ﻤﻌﺠﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻤﺩﺓ ‪ 24‬ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺨﻠﻁﻪ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﻴﺼـﺒﺢ ﻏﻴـﺭ‬
‫ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻨـﺩﻫﺎ ﻴﻤﻜـﻥ ﺇﺠـﺭﺍﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺨﻠﻁ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﺍﺤﺘﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻴﻼﺤﻅ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻻ ﺘﺜﺒـﺕ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺼﺤﻥ ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻜﺎﺯﺍﻏﺭﺍﻨﺩ ﻭﺘﻨﺯﻝﻕ ﻋﻨﻪ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﻠﺠـﻭﺀ ﺇﻝـﻰ‬
‫ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺭﺍﻕ )‪.(2-3-3‬‬

‫‪89‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ )‪(2-3‬‬

‫ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ‬


‫)‪(PI‬‬ ‫)‪(LL‬‬
‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ )ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻭﻝﺔ(‬
‫‪18‬‬ ‫‪19‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪13‬‬ ‫‪12‬‬ ‫‪14‬‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ ﺍﻝﻭﻋﺎﺀ‬
‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪35‬‬ ‫‪24‬‬ ‫‪14‬‬ ‫ﻋﺩﺩ ﺍﻝﻀﺭﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫‪29.6‬‬ ‫‪30.3‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪58.8‬‬ ‫‪47.8‬‬ ‫‪50.6‬‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﺒﺔ ‪ +‬ﺍﻝﻭﻋﺎﺀ )ﻏﺭﺍﻡ(‬
‫‪28.0‬‬ ‫‪28.8‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪52.2‬‬ ‫‪42.5‬‬ ‫‪44.1‬‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ ‪ +‬ﺍﻝﻭﻋﺎﺀ )ﻏﺭﺍﻡ(‬
‫‪19.0‬‬ ‫‪19.2‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪18.9‬‬ ‫‪18.2‬‬ ‫‪16.8‬‬ ‫)ﻏﺭﺍﻡ(‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻭﻋﺎﺀ‬
‫‪1.6‬‬ ‫‪1.5‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪6,6‬‬ ‫‪5.3‬‬ ‫‪6.5‬‬ ‫)ﻏﺭﺍﻡ(‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ‬
‫‪9.0‬‬ ‫‪9.6‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪33.3‬‬ ‫‪24.3‬‬ ‫‪27.3‬‬ ‫)ﻏﺭﺍﻡ(‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫‪17.8‬‬ ‫‪15.6‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪19.8‬‬ ‫‪21.8‬‬ ‫‪23.8‬‬ ‫)‪(%‬‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‬
‫‪16.7‬‬ ‫)‪(%‬‬ ‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ‬

‫‪24‬‬
‫‪c) 4ccccccc48. <F@,‬‬

‫‪22‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪18‬‬
‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪100‬‬

‫@‪c cccc \P-.‬‬


‫‪Y‬‬

‫ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ )‪% 16.7 = (PL‬‬ ‫ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ )‪% 21.4 = (LL‬‬
‫ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ )‪4.7 = (PI‬‬

‫‪90‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ 2-3-3‬ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺭﺍﻕ‬


‫)‪(Liquid Limit Determination Using Cone Penetrometer‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ )‪: (Standard reference‬‬


‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪BS 1377.‬‬

‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ )‪:(Equipment‬‬


‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﻝﻭﺡ ﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ )‪.(Glass plate‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﺴﻜﺎﻜﻴﻥ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ )‪.(Palette knives‬‬
‫ﺕ‪ .‬ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻝﺸﻜل )‪.(2-3‬‬
‫ﺙ‪ .‬ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺝ‪ .‬ﻤﺎﺀ ﻤﻘﻁﺭ )‪.(Distilled water‬‬
‫ﺡ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﺎﺀ )ﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ( )‪.(Desiccator‬‬
‫ﺥ‪ .‬ﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ ‪ 425) 40‬ﻤﻴﻜﺭﻭﻥ(‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (3‬ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ )‪:(Procedure‬‬


‫‪ .1‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺩ ﻓﺤﺼﻬﺎ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻜﺎﺯﺍﻏﺭﺍﻨﺩ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺨﻠﻁ ﻤﻌﺠﻭﻥ ﺴﻤﻴﻙ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (40‬ﻭﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺠـﻭﻥ ﺒﻌـﺩ‬
‫ﺨﻠﻁﻪ ﺠﻴﺩﹰﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﻝﻤﺩﺓ ‪ 24‬ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻝﻠﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻌﺠـﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻤﺘﺠﺎﻨﺱ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻴﺅﺨﺫ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺠﻭﻥ ﻭﻴﺨﻠﻁ ﻤﺭﺓ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‬
‫ﻝﻤﺩﺓ ‪ 10‬ﺩﻗﺎﺌﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻝﻭﺡ ﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ ﺒﻭﺍﺴـﻁﺔ ﺴـﻜﻴﻥ ﻋـﺭﻴﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﺼل‪.‬‬

‫‪91‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ .3‬ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺠﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻭﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺴـﻁﻭﺍﻨﻲ )ﺍﻝﻌﻠﺒـﺔ( ﺒﻭﺍﺴـﻁﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺴﻜﻴﻥ ﻭﻴﺴﻭ‪‬ﻯ ﺴﻁﺢ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻭﻋﺎﺀ ﺃﻓﻘﻴﹰﺎ ﻤﻊ ﺤﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .4‬ﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻜﺎﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﻨﺯﺍل ﺍﻝﺠـﺯﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺭﻭﻁﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻝﻴﻼﻤﺱ ﺴﻁﺢ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺴﺠﻴل ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﺩﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .5‬ﻴﺤﺭﺭ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺭﻭﻁﻲ ﻝﺘﺘﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﺨﺘﺭﺍﻗﻪ ﺍﻝﺤـﺭﺓ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﺅﺨﺫ ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻝﻌﺩﺍﺩ ﺒﻌﺩ ﻤـﺭﻭﺭ ﺤـﻭﺍﻝﻲ ‪ 5‬ﺜـﻭﺍﻥ ﻤـﻥ ﺒـﺩﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺭﺍﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻰ ﻗﺒـل‬
‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺭﺍﻕ ﻫﻭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺭﺍﻕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻴﺴﺤﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺭﻭﻁ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻭﻴﻨﻅﻑ ﺭﺃﺴﻪ ﺠﻴﺩﹰﺍ‪.‬‬ ‫‪.6‬‬
‫‪ .7‬ﻴﻀﺎﻑ ﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺠﻭﻥ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻭﻋـﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺴـﻁﻭﺍﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻌـﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺭﺓ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‪ .‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻲ ﺍﻻﺨﺘـﺭﺍﻕ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻭﻝﺘﻴﻥ ﺃﻗل ﻤـﻥ ‪ 0.5‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘـﺭ‪ ،‬ﺘﺅﺨـﺫ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤـﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﺴـﻁﺔ‬
‫ﻝﻼﺨﺘﺭﺍﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻕ ﺒﻴﻥ ‪ 1.0-0.5‬ﻤﻠﻴﻤﺘـﺭ‪ ،‬ﺘﻌـﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻭﻝﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺜﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻴﺯﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺍﻻﺨﺘـﺭﺍﻕ‬
‫ﻋﻥ ‪ 1.0‬ﻤﻠﻴﻤﺘﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺅﺨﺫ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .8‬ﺘﺅﺨﺫ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )ﺤﻭﺍﻝﻲ ‪10‬ﻏﺭﺍﻡ( ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﺩﻴـﺩ ﻤﺤﺘـﻭﻯ‬
‫ﺭﻁﻭﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻭﺭﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .9‬ﺘﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ‪ 4‬ﻤﺭﺍﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗل ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﻤﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .10‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺭﺴﻡ ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺭﺍﻕ ﻭﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺅﺨﺫ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺤﺼـل ﻋﻨـﺩﻩ ﺍﺨﺘـﺭﺍﻕ‬
‫ﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭﻩ ‪ 20‬ﻤﻠﻴﻤﺘﺭﹰﺍ ﻜﺤﺩ ﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ ﻝﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪92‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻻ ﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬


‫ﻭﻴﺒﻴ‪‬ﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ )‪ (3-3‬ﻤﺜﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺭﺍﻕ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (4‬ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺎﺕ )‪:(Notes‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﺇﻥ ﺘﺭﻙ ﻤﻌﺠﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻤﺩﺓ ‪ 24‬ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺨﻠﻁﻪ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﻴﺼـﺒﺢ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺭ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﻱ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻨـﺩﻫﺎ ﻴﻤﻜـﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺨﻠﻁ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺭﺍﻕ ﺸﺎﺌﻌﺔ ﺍﻜﺜﺭ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﺒﺭﻴﻁﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺒﺭﻴﻁﺎﻨﻴﺔ )‪ (BS 1377‬ﺃﻓﻀل‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻜﺎﺯﺍﻏﺭﺍﻨﺩ ﻷﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﻼﺌﻡ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤـﺎ ﻻ ﺘﻼﺌـﻡ‬
‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻜﺎﺯﺍﻏﺭﺍﻨﺩ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠـﺔ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪93‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ – (2-3‬ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺭﺍﻕ ﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬

‫‪94‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ )‪(3-3‬‬
‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺭﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻕ =‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻰ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫)‪(%‬‬ ‫)ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭ(‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺭﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫‪15.68‬‬ ‫‪4.32‬‬ ‫‪20.00‬‬ ‫‪1.‬‬
‫‪32.5‬‬ ‫‪15.63‬‬
‫‪15.57‬‬ ‫‪4.41‬‬ ‫‪19.98‬‬ ‫‪2.‬‬
‫‪17.48‬‬ ‫‪2.52‬‬ ‫‪20.00‬‬ ‫‪3.‬‬
‫‪39.0‬‬ ‫‪17.25‬‬
‫‪17.02‬‬ ‫‪2.69‬‬ ‫‪19.71‬‬ ‫‪4.‬‬
‫‪22.73‬‬ ‫‪1.27‬‬ ‫‪24.00‬‬ ‫‪5.‬‬
‫‪52.8‬‬ ‫‪20.51‬‬
‫‪20.31‬‬ ‫‪3.59‬‬ ‫‪23.90‬‬ ‫‪6.‬‬
‫‪22.73‬‬ ‫‪1.27‬‬ ‫‪24.00‬‬ ‫‪7.‬‬
‫‪61.2‬‬ ‫‪22.43‬‬
‫‪22.13‬‬ ‫‪1.62‬‬ ‫‪23.75‬‬ ‫‪8.‬‬

‫‪25‬‬
‫‪cc6ccccc5I -B‬‬

‫‪20‬‬
‫‪15‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪5‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪20‬‬ ‫‪40‬‬ ‫‪60‬‬ ‫‪80‬‬

‫‪c) 5ccccccc59/ =IB-‬‬

‫ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ = ‪% 50‬‬

‫‪95‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ 3-3-3‬ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻓﺎﺴﻴﻠﻴﻴﻑ ﻝﻼﺨﺘﺭﺍﻕ‬


‫)‪(Liquid Limit Determination Using Vasilyev Balance Cone‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ )‪:(Standard references‬‬


‫)‪- GOST, 5183 (Russian Standard‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ )‪:(Equipment‬‬
‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﻝﻭﺡ ﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ )‪.(Glass plate‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﺴﻜﺎﻜﻴﻥ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ )‪.(Palette knives‬‬
‫ﺕ‪ .‬ﻤﺨﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﺘﺯﺍﻥ )‪) (Balance cone‬ﺸﻜل ‪ (3-3‬ﻭﺯﻨﻪ ‪ 76‬ﻏﺭﺍﻤﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺙ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﺎﺀ ﺃﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﻲ )ﻋﻠﺒﺔ( ﻗﻁﺭﻩ ﻻ ﻴﻘل ﻋﻥ ‪ 40‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺝ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﺭﺘﻜﺎﺯ ﻤﻌﺩﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺨﺸﺒﻴﺔ )ﺸﻜل ‪.(3-3‬‬
‫ﺡ‪ .‬ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺥ‪ .‬ﻤﺎﺀ ﻤﻘﻁﺭ )‪.(Distilled water‬‬
‫ﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﺎﺀ )ﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ( )‪.(Desiccator‬‬
‫ﺫ‪ .‬ﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ ‪ 425) 40‬ﻤﻴﻜﺭﻭﻥ(‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (3‬ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ )‪:(Procedure‬‬


‫‪ -1‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﺒﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻘﺘﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺨﻠـﻁ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ ‪ 425) 40‬ﻤﻴﻜﺭﻭﻥ( ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﻁﺭ ﻝﻠﺤﺼـﻭل‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻌﺠﻭﻥ ﺴﻤﻴﻙ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻭﻀﻌﻪ ﻝﻤﺩﺓ ‪24‬ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻴﺅﺨﺫ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺠﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻓﻅﺔ ﻭﻴﺨﻠﻁ ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻝﻤﺩﺓ ‪ 10‬ﺩﻗﺎﺌﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻝﻭﺡ ﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺴﻜﻴﻥ ﺨﺎﺹ‪.‬‬

‫‪96‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ -3‬ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺠﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻭﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﻲ )ﺍﻝﻌﻠﺒﺔ( ﺒﻭﺍﺴـﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﺴـﻜﻴﻥ‬


‫ﻭﻴﺴﻭﻯ ﺴﻁﺢ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺃﻓﻘﻴﹰﺎ ﻤﻊ ﺤﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﻋﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -4‬ﻴﻤﺴﻙ ﻤﺨﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻻﺘﺯﺍﻥ ﺒﺤﺫﺭ ﻤﻊ ﻤﻘﺒﻀﻪ ﻝﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺭﻭﻁـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺒﺏ ﻤﻼﻤﺴﹰﺎ ﻝﺴﻁﺢ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -5‬ﻴﺘﺭﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺭﻭﻁ ﻝﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺎﺨﺘﺭﺍﻕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﻭﻋﺎﺀ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻭﺯﻨﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺫﺍﺘﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -6‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺘﻤﺕ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺭﺍﻕ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺭﻭﻁ )ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺒﻌﺩ ‪ 10‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺒﺏ( ﺨﻼل ﺨﻤﺱ ﺜﻭﺍﻥ‪ ،‬ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻗﺩ‬
‫ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ ﻤﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ ﻝﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺭﺍﻕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -7‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺠﺭﻯ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺭﺍﻕ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭﺓ ﺒﺸﻜل ﺴﺭﻴﻊ )ﺃﻗل ﻤـﻥ ‪5‬‬
‫ﺜﻭﺍﻥ(‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﺫﺍ ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻗﺩ ﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯﺕ ﺤﺩ ﺴﻴﻭﻝﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺩﻫﺎ ﺘﻀـﺎﻑ‬
‫ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ ‪ (40‬ﻝﻠﻤﻌﺠـﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻌـﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺨﻠﻁﻪ ﺠﻴﺩﹰﺍ ﺜﻡ ﺘﻜﺭﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺤﺼل ﺍﻝﻌﻜﺱ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺭﺍﻕ ﻝﻡ‬
‫ﻴﺤﺼل ﺨﻼل ﺍﻝﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻤﺔ )‪ 10‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭﺍﺕ(‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻠﺯﻡ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﻗﻠﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺨﻠﻁ ﻭﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ‪ ،‬ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺨﻁﺄ‪ ،‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﻭﺼﻭل ﺇﻝﻰ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺤﺼل ﻋﻨﺩﻩ ﺍﺨﺘﺭﺍﻕ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭﻩ ‪ 10‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭﺍﺕ ﺨﻼل ‪ 5‬ﺜﻭﺍﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪97‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ (3-3‬ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻓﺎﺴﻴﻠﻴﻴﻑ ﻝﻼﺨﺘﺭﺍﻕ‬


‫‪-1‬ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺨﺸﺒﻴﺔ ‪-2‬ﻤﺨﺭﻭﻁ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺭﺍﻕ ﻤﻊ ﻤﻘﺒﺽ ﻤﺜﺒﺕ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﺫﺭﺍﻉ ‪-3‬ﻤﻘﺒﺽ ‪-4‬ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺭﻭﻁ‬
‫‪-5‬ﻭﻋﺎﺀﺍﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﻲ ﻗﻁﺭ ≤ ‪40‬ﻤﻡ ‪-6‬ﻜﺭﺍﺕ ﻤﻌﺩﻨﻴﺔ ﻝﻼﺘﺯﺍﻥ‬

‫‪ 4-3-3‬ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ )‪(Plastic Limit Determination‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ )‪:(Standard references‬‬


‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪BS 1377‬‬
‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪ASTM D-424.‬‬
‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪AASHTO T-90.‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ )‪:(Equipment‬‬
‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﻝﻭﺡ ﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ )‪.(Glass plate‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﺴﻜﺎﻜﻴﻥ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ )‪.(Palette knives‬‬
‫ﺕ‪ .‬ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪98‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺙ‪ .‬ﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ ‪ 425) 40‬ﻤﻴﻜﺭﻭﻥ(‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (3‬ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ )‪:(Procedure‬‬


‫‪ -1‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﺄﺨﺫ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (40‬ﺒﻌـﺩ ﺘﺠﻔﻴـﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻬﻭﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺨﻠﻁﻪ ﺠﻴﺩﹰﺍ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﻁﺭ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﻤﻌﺠﻭﻥ ﻝﺩﻥ ﺒﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺘﺴﻤﺢ ﺒﺘﺸﻜﻴﻠﻪ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻜﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫) ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺇﻴﺠـﺎﺩ ﺤـﺩ ﺍﻝﺴـﻴﻭﻝﺔ ﻝﻬـﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺽ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﺘﹸﺸﻜل ﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻴﺩ ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺩﻭﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺘﻅﻬـﺭ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺴـﻁﺤﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻝﺸﻘﻭﻕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -3‬ﺘﹸﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻝﻜﺭﺓ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﺤـﻭﺍﻝﻲ ‪ 10‬ﻏـﺭﺍﻡ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻘﺴﻡ ﻜل ﺠﺯﺀ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﺭﺒﻌﺔ ﺃﺠﺯﺍﺀ )ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ‪ 8‬ﺃﺠﺯﺍﺀ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ -4‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﻓﺭﻙ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺜﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺇﺼﺒﻌﻲ ﺍﻹﺒﻬـﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﺴـﺒﺎﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺤﺘﻰ ﺘﺼﺒﺢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﻜل ﻜﺭﺓ ﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﻗﻁﺭﻫﺎ ﺤﻭﺍﻝﻲ ‪6‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﺜـﻡ‬
‫ﺘﺒﺴﻁ ﺒﺄﺼﺎﺒﻊ ﺍﻝﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺴﻭﻁﺔ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺘﺘﺤﻭل ﺇﻝﻰ ﺨﻴﻁ ﺃﻭ ﺤﺒل ﻗﻁﺭﻩ ‪3‬‬
‫ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -5‬ﻴ‪‬ﻌﺎﺩ ﺨﻠﻁ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺜﻡ ﺘﺩﻭﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻜﺭﺓ ﻗﻁﺭﻫﺎ ‪6‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺒﺴـﻁ‬
‫ﺇﻝﻰ ﺨﻴﻁ ﺒﻘﻁﺭ ‪ 3‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴـﺔ ﺤﺘـﻰ ﺘﺒـﺩﺃ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻘﻘﺎﺕ ﺒﺎﻝﻅﻬﻭﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﻁﺢ ﺍﻝﺨﻴﻁ ﺫﻱ ﺍﻝﻘﻁﺭ ‪ 3‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -6‬ﻋﻨﺩﻫﺎ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻗﺩ ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﺤﺩ ﻝﺩﻭﻨﺘﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺘﺅﺨﺫ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ‬
‫ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺭﻁﻭﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻫﻭ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -7‬ﺘﹸﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻘﻁﻊ ﺍﻝﺜﻼﺙ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻝـﻰ‪ ،‬ﺜـﻡ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻘﻁﻊ ﺍﻷﺭﺒﻊ ﺍﻷﺨﺭﻯ )ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ(‪.‬‬

‫‪99‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ -8‬ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻤﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻝﻡ ﻴﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻕ ﺒـﻴﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺘـﻲ ﻤﺤﺘـﻭﻯ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ ‪ 0.5‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺌﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﺜﺎل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﻝﻠﺘــﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺒ ‪‬ﻴﻥ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻤـﻭﺫﺝ )‪(2-3‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺹ ﺒﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬ ‫‪4-3‬‬


‫)‪(Specific Gravity of Soil‬‬

‫ﺠﺭﻯ ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ )ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﻠﺒﺔ( ﺒﺄﻨﻪ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻜﺘﻠـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻭﺯﻥ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺘﺸﻐل ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻡ‪ .‬ﻭﻻ ﻴﺸﻜل ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺃﺩﻨﻰ ﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ ﻝﻭ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤـﻥ ﺤﺒﻴﺒـﺎﺕ ﻤﺘﺸـﺎﺒﻬﺔ‬
‫ﻤﺘﺠﺎﻨﺴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻝﺭﻤل ﺍﻝﻨﻘﻲ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻜﻭﺍﺭﺘﺯ ﻤﺜﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻤﻥ ﻋﺩﺓ ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺩﻨﻴﺔ )‪،(Mineral particles‬‬
‫ﻝﻜل ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺯﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﻫﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺘﻬﺩﻑ ﺇﻝﻴﻪ ﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﻝـﻭﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺨﻠﻴﻁ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻜﻜل ﻻ ﻴﺘﺠﺯﺃ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﺼﺎﺩﻑ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﻝﻠﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻝﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤـﻭﺍﺩ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﻭﺠﻪ ﺍﻝﺨﺼﻭﺹ‪ ،‬ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﻁﻠﺢ ﻤﺭﺘﺒﻁ ﺒﺎﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻁﻠﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻅﺎﻫﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻜﻠﻲ ﺒﺄﺸﻜﺎﻝﻪ‪ ،‬ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﺒﺏ ﻨﻭﻋﹰﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﻠﻁ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺸﻭﻴﺵ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻝﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﻁﻠﺤﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻨﺴﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻔﺎﺘﻬﺎ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﻠﻕ )‪ -(Absolute specific gravity‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻝﻠﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺩﻨﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻘﺎﺱ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺴﺤﻕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﻜﺸﻑ ﻜل ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﺍﻝﻅـﺎﻫﺭﻱ )‪ -(Apparent specific gravity‬ﻭﻫـﻭ ﺍﻝـﻭﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪100‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻲ )‪ -(Bulk specific gravity‬ﻭﻴ‪‬ﻘﺎﺱ ﻝﻠﺤﺒﻴﺒـﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺸـﺒﻌﺔ‬


‫ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻤﺠﻔﻔﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻁﺢ )‪ (Saturated surface dry‬ﺃﻱ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﻜـﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻤﻤﻠﻭﺀﺓ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻠﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﻠﻠﺔ ﻤﺠﻔﻔﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﻁﺢ )‪ ،(Wet surface dry‬ﻭﺫﻝـﻙ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻤﺘﻠﺌﺔ ﺘﻤﺎﻤﹰﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﻝﻠﺤﺒﻴﺒـﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻔﻔـﺔ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻝﻔﺭﻥ )‪.(Oven dry‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﺔ ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩﻩ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻝﻠﺭﻜﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺨﻠﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻜﻤﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل‬
‫ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏـﺎﺕ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ )‪ (Voids ratio‬ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺴـﺎﻤﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪ (Porosity‬ﻭﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﺒﻊ ﺒﺎﻝﻤـﺎﺀ )‪ ،(Degree of saturation‬ﻭﻜـﺫﻝﻙ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﻤﻴﺘﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺩﺩﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻤﺎﺴﻜﺔ )ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ( ﺒـﻴﻥ‬
‫‪ ،2.72-2.68‬ﻭﺘﺒﻠﻎ ﺤﻭﺍﻝﻲ ‪ 2.67‬ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻤﺎﺴﻜﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺴﻨﻌﺭﺽ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﺸﻴﻭﻋﹰﺎ ﻹﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﻝـﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨـﻭﻋﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﺩﻭﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺝ )ﺍﻝﺒﻜﻨﻭﻤﻴﺘﺭ(‪.‬‬

‫‪ 1-4-3‬ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﺩﻭﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺝ )ﺍﻝﺒﻜﻨﻭﻤﻴﺘﺭ(‬


‫)‪(Specific Gravity Determination Using the Pycnometer‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ )‪:(Standard references‬‬


‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪BS 1377, Test No. 6.‬‬
‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪ASTM D-854.‬‬
‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪AASHTO T-100.‬‬

‫‪101‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ )‪:(Equipment‬‬


‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﺩﻭﺍﺭﻕ ﻤﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻋﺩﺩ )‪ (2‬ﺴﻌﺔ ‪ 100‬ﺴﻨﺘﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﻓﺭﻥ ﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ )‪.(Dry oven‬‬
‫ﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﺎﺀ ﻤﻊ ﻤﺩﻗﺔ ﻝﺴﺤﻕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )‪.(Mortar and pestle‬‬
‫ﺙ‪ .‬ﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ ‪) 10‬ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺘﻪ ‪ 2‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺝ‪ .‬ﺤﻭﺽ ﺭﻤﻠﻲ ﺴﺎﺨﻥ )‪ (Sand - bath‬ﺃﻭ ﺤﻭﺽ ﻤﺎﺀ ﺴﺎﺨﻥ‪.‬‬
‫ﺡ‪ .‬ﻤﻴﺯﺍﻥ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ )‪.(Thermometer‬‬
‫ﺥ‪ .‬ﻤﺎﺀ ﻤﻘﻁﺭ )‪.(Distilled water‬‬

‫)‪ (3‬ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ )‪:(Procedure‬‬


‫‪ -1‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺜﻡ ﺴﺤﻘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻭﻋﺎﺀ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺩﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﺘﹸﺅﺨﺫ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺴﺤﻘﻬﺎ ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻤﺭﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨـل ﺭﻗـﻡ‬
‫)‪.(10‬‬
‫‪ -3‬ﺘﹸﺅﺨﺫ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل ﻭﺯﻨﻬﺎ ﺤـﻭﺍﻝﻲ ‪ 15‬ﻏﺭﺍﻤـﹰﺎ‬
‫)‪ 15‬ﻏﺭﺍﻤﹰﺎ ﻝﻜل ‪100‬ﺴﻡ‪ 3‬ﻤﻥ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﺭﻕ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ -4‬ﻴﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﺭﻕ ﻓﺎﺭﻏﹰﺎ ﻭﻝﻴﻜﻥ ﻭﺯﻨﻪ )‪.(m1‬‬
‫‪ -5‬ﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﺩﻭﺭﻕ ﺒﻌﻨﺎﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﺭﻕ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﻝﻴﻜﻥ‬
‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ )‪) (m2‬ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ = ‪.(m1-m2‬‬
‫ﻼ ﺜﻡ ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫‪ -6‬ﻴﻤﻸ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﺭﻕ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﻨﺘﺼﻔﻪ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﻁﺭ ﻭ ‪‬ﻴﺭﺝ ﻗﻠﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﻭﺽ ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺨﻥ ﻝﻴﻐﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻹﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﻓﻘﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻭﻓﺼـل‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻐﻠﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻝﻤﺩﺓ ﺜﻼﺜﻴﻥ ﺩﻗﻴﻘـﺔ ﻭﻝﻠﻁﻴﻨﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ‪ ،‬ﻤﻊ ﻤﺭﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺨﻔﺽ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺴﺨﻴﻥ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺭﻏﻭﺓ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﺩﻭﺭﻕ‪.‬‬

‫‪102‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻼ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -7‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻝﻐﻠﻲ ﻴﺘﺭﻙ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﺭﻕ ﻭﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺘﻪ ﻝﺘﺒﺭﺩ ﻗﻠﻴ ﹰ‬
‫‪ -8‬ﻴﻤﻸ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﺭﻕ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﻁﺭ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺩل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﻌﺘﻪ ﻭﻴﺘﺭﻙ‬
‫ﻝﻴﺒﺭﺩ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﻓﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -9‬ﻴﺠﻔﻑ ﺴﻁﺢ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﻋﻨﻕ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﺭﻕ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻝـﺩﺍﺨل‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﺭﺍﻋﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻋﺎﻝﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻨﻕ ﻓـﻭﻕ‬
‫ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻠﻭل‪.‬‬
‫ﻴﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﺭﻕ ﻭﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺘﻪ ﻭﻝﻴﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ) ‪.(m‬‬
‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪-10‬‬
‫ﻴﻔﺭﻍ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﺭﻕ ﻤﻥ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺘﻪ ﻭﻴﻐﺴل ﺠﻴﺩﹰﺍ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺜﻡ ﻴﻤﻸ‬ ‫‪-11‬‬
‫ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﻁﺭ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺩل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﻌﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻭﺯﻥ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺘﺠﻔﻴﻔﻪ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﻭﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﻌﻨﻕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻴﻜﻥ ﻭﺯﻨﻪ ) ‪.(m‬‬
‫‪4‬‬

‫)‪ (4‬ﺍﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ )‪:(Calculation‬‬


‫ﻴﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ )ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﻠﺒﺔ( ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫‪m 2 − m1‬‬
‫= ‪Gs‬‬
‫) ‪(m 4 + m 2 ) − (m 3 + m1‬‬

‫ﻻ ﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﻝﻠﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬


‫ﻭﻴﺒﻴ‪‬ﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ )‪ (4-3‬ﻤﺜﺎ ﹰ‬

‫)‪ (5‬ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺎﺕ )‪:(Notes‬‬


‫‪ -1‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻤﻼﺡ ﺫﺍﺌﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻴﺠـﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﻴﻌﻁﻲ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻤﺨﻔﻀﺔ ﻝﻠﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺫﻭﺒﺎﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻤﻼﺡ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺴﻭﺍﺌل ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻤﺜل ﺍﻝﻜﻴﺭﻭﺴﻴﻥ )ﺍﻝﻜـﺎﺯ( ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺒﻨﺯﻴﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪103‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ -2‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻁﺭﻕ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻝﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺜل ﺍﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺃﻨﺒـﻭﺏ‬
‫ﺃﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﻲ ﻤﺩﺭﺝ ﺴﻌﺔ ‪1000‬ﻤﻠﻠﺘﺭ )‪ (BS1377‬ﺃﻭ ﺒﻜﻨﻭﻤﻴﺘﺭ ﺃﺴـﻁﻭﺍﻨﻲ ﺨـﺎﺹ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻝﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻕ ﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﺘﺘﺸﺎﺒﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺩﺃ‪ ،‬ﻤﻊ ﺒﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ‬
‫ﺸﻴﻭﻋﹰﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -3‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻴﻥ )ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﺭﻗﻴﻥ ﻤﻨﻔﺼﻠﻴﻥ( ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻤﻘﺒﻭﻝـﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻝـﻡ‬
‫ﻴﺯﺩ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺘﻴﻥ ﻋﻥ )‪ ،(0.02‬ﺃﻱ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ × 0.02‬ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ ‪ +‬ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻗل < ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ )‪(4-3‬‬
‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺤـــﺎﻭﻝــﺔ‬

‫‪16‬‬ ‫‪15‬‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﺭﻕ‬


‫‪2110‬‬ ‫‪2112‬‬ ‫)‪ (m3‬ﻏﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﺭﻕ ‪ +‬ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ‪ +‬ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ‬
‫‪1595‬‬ ‫‪1600‬‬ ‫)‪ (m2‬ﻏﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﺭﻕ ‪ +‬ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫‪1495‬‬ ‫‪1495‬‬ ‫)‪ (m4‬ﻏﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﺭﻕ ﻤﻤﻠﻭﺀﹰﺍ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﻘﻁ‬
‫‪620‬‬ ‫‪620‬‬ ‫)‪ (m1‬ﻏﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﺩﻭﺭﻕ‬
‫‪510‬‬ ‫‪512‬‬ ‫)‪ (m3 – m2‬ﻏﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤل‬
‫‪975‬‬ ‫‪980‬‬ ‫)‪ (m2 – m1‬ﻏﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ‬
‫‪365‬‬ ‫‪363‬‬ ‫)‪ (m4 – m1)-(m3 – m2‬ﻏﻡ‬ ‫ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫‪2.67‬‬ ‫‪2.70‬‬ ‫‪m 2 − m1‬‬
‫= ‪Gs‬‬
‫) ‪(m 4 + m 2 ) − (m 3 + m1‬‬

‫ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ ‪) 2.70 <2.72 = 2.67 + 2.70 ×0.02 :‬ﺍﻝﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻤﻘﺒﻭﻝﺔ(‪.‬‬

‫‪104‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻜﺜﺎﻓـﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒــﺔ‬ ‫‪5-3‬‬


‫)‪(Bulk Density of Soil‬‬

‫ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻫﻡ ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩﻫﺎ ﻝﻐﺭﺽ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻋﺩ‪‬ﺓ ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻤﻨﻬـﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺴـﺒﻴل‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺜﺎل‪:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﺭﺍﻥ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻨﺎﺩﻴﺔ )‪.(Retaining walls‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﺘﺯﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺤﺩﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺍﺒﻴﺔ )‪.(Slope stability analysis‬‬
‫‪ -3‬ﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﻫﺒﻭﻁ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )‪.(Settlement‬‬
‫‪ -4‬ﺘﻭﺯﻴﻊ ﺍﻻﺠﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ )‪.(Stress distribution‬‬
‫‪ -5‬ﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺤﺠﻭﻡ ﺃﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﺤﻔﺭﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺠـﺭﻱ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗـﻊ‬
‫ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺴﻤﻰ ﺒﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻠﻴـﺔ )‪ ،(Field density tests‬ﺃﻭ ﻋـﻥ‬
‫ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺒﺴﻴﻁﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺅﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﺴﻨﺘﻁﺭﻕ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻝﺘﻔﺼـﻴل‬
‫ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺒﺭﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺽ ﺍﻝﻤﻔﺼل ﻝﻠﻔﺤﻭﺼـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺼﺹ ﻝﺫﻝﻙ )ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﺴﻊ(‪.‬‬

‫‪105‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ 1-5-3‬ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﻁﻊ‬


‫)‪(Bulk Density Determination Using the Core-Cutter‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ )‪:(Standard reference‬‬


‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪BS 1377.‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ )‪:(Equipment‬‬
‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﺃﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﺔ ﻗﻁﻊ ﺃﺤـﺩ ﺃﻁﺭﺍﻓﻬـﺎ ﺤـﺎﺩ )‪،(Hardened cutting edge‬‬
‫ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻋﻬﺎ )‪ (130‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭﹰﺍ ﻭﻗﻁﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﻝـﺩﺍﺨﻠﻲ )‪ (100‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘـﺭ ) ‪BS‬‬
‫‪) (1377‬ﺸﻜل ‪ ،(4-3‬ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺽ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﺠﻬـﺎﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ )‪ (Consolidation ring‬ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻻ ﻴﻘل ﻗﻁﺭﻫﺎ ﻋـﻥ )‪(50‬‬
‫ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﻤﻁﺭﻗﺔ ﻓﻭﻻﺫﻴﺔ )‪ -(Steel hammer‬ﺸﻜل )‪.(4-3‬‬
‫ﺕ‪ .‬ﻤﻴﺯﺍﻥ )‪.(Balance‬‬
‫ﺙ‪ .‬ﺴﻜﻴﻥ ﺨﺎﺹ ﻝﻠﻘﻁﻊ )‪.(Palette knife‬‬
‫ﺝ‪ .‬ﻤﺴﻁﺭﺓ ﻤﻌﺩﻨﻴﺔ )‪.(Steel ruler‬‬
‫ﺡ‪ .‬ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻝﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺥ‪ .‬ﺯﻴﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺸﺤﻤﺔ )‪.(Oil‬‬

‫)‪ (3‬ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ )‪:(Procedure‬‬


‫‪ -1‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺯﻴﻴﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺘﺸﺤﻴﻡ )‪ (Lubrication‬ﺍﺴـﻁﻭﺍﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﻁـﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻘـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﺯﻴﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺸﺤﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻷﺴـﻁﻭﺍﻨﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﺩﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻴﻜﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ )‪.(m1‬‬

‫‪106‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ (4-3‬ﺍﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﻁﻊ ﻝﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺠﻊ ‪(/10/‬‬

‫‪107‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ -2‬ﺘﺅﺨﺫ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﻭﺃﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻻﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝـﺩﺍﺨﻠﻲ‬


‫ﻝﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪πD 2‬‬
‫=‪V‬‬ ‫‪h‬‬
‫‪4‬‬

‫ﺤﻴﺙ ‪ -D‬ﺍﻝﻘﻁﺭ ﺍﻝﺩﺍﺨﻠﻲ ﻝﻸﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻘﺔ‪.‬‬


‫‪ -h‬ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻻﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -3‬ﺘﺘﻡ ﺘﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﺴﻁﺢ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﺴﻜﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﻁﻌﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﻭﻻﺫﻴـﺔ ) ‪Steel‬‬
‫‪ (dolly‬ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﻁﻊ )ﻫﺫﺍ ﻓـﻲ ﺤﺎﻝـﺔ ﺍﺴـﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﺴـﻁﻭﺍﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻘﻁﻊ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺩﻕ ﻓﻭﻕ ﺍﻷﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﺔ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﻭﻻﺫﻴﺔ ﻝﻴـﺘﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻨﻐﺭﺍﺯ ﺍﻻﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎ ﺘﻨﻔﻊ ﺍﻝﺨﺒﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺠﻭﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺩﻕ ﻭﻏﺭﺯ ﺍﻻﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﺔ ﺒﻬﺩﻭﺀ ﻭﺒﺸﻜل ﻋﻤﻭﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻝﻠﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻴﻨـﺔ‬
‫ﺠﻴﺩﺓ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻻﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ‪ ،‬ﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﻁﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺘﺴﻭﻴﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﻗﻁﻊ ﻗﻠﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺤﺫﺭ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﺜﻡ ﻏﺭﺯﻫـﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺘﻨﻐﺭﺯ ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﻭﺘﻤﺘﻠﺊ ﺒﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -4‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻤﺘﻼﺀ ﺍﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﻁﻊ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺩﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻴـﺘﻡ ﺘﻨﻅﻴـﻑ‬
‫ﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ ﺍﻻﺴـﻁﻭﺍﻨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻘـﺔ ﻭﺘﺴـﻭﻴﺔ ﺴـﻁﺢ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﺒـﺩﺍﺨﻠﻬﺎ‬
‫)‪.(Trimming‬‬
‫‪ -5‬ﻋﻨﺩﻫﺎ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻻﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺒـﺩﺍﺨﻠﻬﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻭﻀﻊ ﻗﻁﻌﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺯﺠﺎﺝ ﻝﻬﻤﺎ ﻭﺯﻥ ﻤﻌﻠـﻭﻡ )‪ (m4, m3‬ﻋﻨـﺩ‬
‫ﻁﺭﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝـﻴﻜﻥ ﺍﻝـﻭﺯﻥ ﻤﺴـﺎﻭﻴﹰﺎ )‪) (m2‬ﻭﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻘﺔ ‪ +‬ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ‪ +‬ﻗﻁﻌﺘﻲ ﺯﺠﺎﺝ(‪.‬‬

‫‪108‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ -6‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺠﺩﻭل ﻝﺘﺴﻬﻴل ﺍﻝﺤﺴﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ‬


‫ﺭﻗﻡ )‪.(5-3‬‬

‫)‪ (4‬ﺍﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ )‪:(Calculations‬‬


‫ﺘﺤﺴﺏ ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪mo‬‬
‫=‪ρ‬‬
‫‪V‬‬

‫) ‪m o = m 2 − ( m1 + m 2 + m 3‬‬
‫)‪ (5‬ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺎﺕ )‪:(Notes‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺤﺴﺏ ﺘﺠﺎﻨﺱ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴـﺙ‬
‫ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﺩﻗﺔ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻴﻔﻀل ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻴﻘل ﻋـﺩﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﻋﻥ ﺴﺕ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﺤﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺘﺠﺎﻨﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻗـﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓـﺔ ﻻ‬
‫ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺯﻴﺩ ﻋﻥ ‪ 0.03‬ﻏﺭﺍﻡ‪ /‬ﺴﻨﺘﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ )= ‪ 0.03‬ﻁﻥ‪/‬ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ -3‬ﺘﺅﺨﺫ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﻝﻠﻘﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﻝﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺒﻤﺜﺎﺒﺔ ﻗﻴﻤـﺔ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓـﺔ‬
‫ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻗﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -4‬ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﺸﺎﺌﻊ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﻹﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻭ‬
‫ﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻨﺘﺎﺠﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴ‪‬ﺠﺭﻯ ﺒﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -5‬ﻨﻅﺭﹰﺍ ﻝﻠﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺭﻁﻭﺒﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺯﻴﺩ ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻭ ﺯﺍﺩ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺭﻁﻭﺒﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻴﻘﺎﺱ ﺠﻨﺒﹰﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺠﻨﺏ‬
‫ﻤﻊ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺫﻜﺭ ﺩﺍﺌﻤﹰﺎ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﺫﻜﺭ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -6‬ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ )‪ (Dry density‬ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﺘﺩﺨل ﻓـﻲ ﻜﺜﻴـﺭ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺨﺼﻭﺼﹰﺎ ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺩﻤﻙ)‪ ،(Compaction‬ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬
‫ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﺒﺔ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝـﻙ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫‪109‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪100ρ‬‬
‫= ‪ρd‬‬
‫‪100 + W‬‬

‫‪ρ‬‬
‫= ‪ρd‬‬
‫‪1+ W‬‬

‫‪ -7‬ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩﻫﺎ ﺨﻼل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﻫﻲ ﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺴﻤﻰ ﺒﺎﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺭﻁﺒﺔ )‪ ،(wet density‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻝﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯﻫﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻤﺘﻌﺎﺭﻑ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻻﺨﺘﺼﺎﺹ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺭﻁﺒﺔ ﺤﻴﺜﻤﺎ ﻭﺭﺩ ﻤﺼﻁﻠﺢ‬
‫)ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ( ﺤﺘﻰ ﻭﻝﻭ ﻝﻡ ﺘﺠﺭ ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﻝﺫﻝﻙ‪.‬‬

‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ )‪(5-3‬‬

‫ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺠﻡ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﻁﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ‬
‫ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫‪ρ‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﺔ ﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻗﻁﻌﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪ρd‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫)‪(V‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﻗﻁﻌﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺯﺠﺎﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﺔ‬
‫)‪(W‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺯﺠﺎﺝ‬ ‫‪m3,m4‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ‬
‫)ﻏﻡ‪/‬ﺴﻡ‪(3‬‬ ‫) ‪(%‬‬ ‫)ﻏﻡ‪/‬ﺴﻡ‪(3‬‬ ‫)ﺴﻡ‪(3‬‬ ‫)ﻏﻡ(‬ ‫)ﻏﻡ(‬ ‫)ﻏﻡ(‬ ‫)ﺴﻡ(‬ ‫)ﺴﻡ(‬
‫)‪ρ = m1-(m1+m3+m4‬‬
‫)‪ρd = ρ÷ (1+W‬‬

‫‪m2‬‬ ‫‪m3+m4‬‬ ‫‪m1‬‬ ‫‪D‬‬ ‫‪h‬‬


‫‪V‬‬

‫‪W‬‬ ‫‪V‬‬

‫‪1.73‬‬ ‫‪15.61‬‬ ‫‪2.00‬‬ ‫‪114.00‬‬ ‫‪455.98‬‬ ‫‪100.5‬‬ ‫‪127.30‬‬ ‫‪6.00‬‬ ‫‪4.00‬‬

‫‪110‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ 1-5-3‬ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻐﻤﺭ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ‬


‫)‪(Bulk Density Determination Using Immersion In Water‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ )‪:(Standard references‬‬


‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪BS 1377, Test No. 15 (E).‬‬

‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ )‪:(Equipment‬‬


‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﺎﺀ ﻤﻌﺩﻨﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺒﻼﺴﺘﻴﻜﻲ ﻤﺤﻜﻡ )‪.(Water-tight container‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﻤﻴﺯﺍﻥ ﻝﻪ ﺤﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ‪ 1‬ﻏﺭﺍﻡ )‪.(Balance‬‬
‫ﺕ‪ .‬ﺤ ‪‬ﻤﺎﻝﺔ )‪ (Cradle‬ﻤﻊ ﻫﻴﻜل ﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩ )‪ (Supporting frame‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫـﻭ‬
‫ﻤﺒﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل )‪.(5-3‬‬
‫ﺙ‪ .‬ﺸﻤﻊ ﺒﺭﺍﻓﻴﻥ )‪ (Paraffin wax‬ﻝﻪ ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺔ ) ‪.( ρ‬‬
‫‪p‬‬

‫ﺝ‪ .‬ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺨﺎﺹ ﺃﻭ ﻭﻋﺎﺀ ﻝﺘﺫﻭﻴﺏ ﺸﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﺒﺭﺍﻓﻴﻥ )‪.(Melting tank‬‬


‫ﺡ‪ .‬ﺴﻜﻴﻥ ﻝﻠﻘﻁﻊ )‪.(Knife‬‬
‫ﺥ‪ .‬ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﺘﺭﺸﻴﺢ )‪.(Filter paper‬‬

‫)‪ (3‬ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ )‪:(Procedure‬‬


‫‪ -1‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺃﺨﺫ ﻗﻁﻌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺩ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺨﻠﺨﻠﺔ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺒﻬـﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻻ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﻷﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻨﺘﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺒﻌﺎﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻜﻥ ﻴﻠـﺯﻡ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻌﻘﻭﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻡ )ﺤﻭﺍﻝﻲ ‪ 30‬ﺴﻨﺘﻤﺘﺭﹰﺍ ﻤﻜﻌﺒﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﺘﻨﻅﻑ ﺃﻁﺭﺍﻑ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﺴﻜﻴﻥ ﻭﻴﺴﻭﻯ ﺴﻁﺤﻬﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺤﺩ ﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﺜﻡ ﺘﻭﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻴﻜﻥ ﻭﺯﻨﻬﺎ )‪.(m‬‬
‫‪ -3‬ﻴﺴﺨﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﺭﺍﻓﻴﻥ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ‪ 60‬ﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺜﻡ ﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﺘﻠﺒﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻝﺒﺭﺍﻓﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺌل ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺘﻐﻁﻴﺴﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻭﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﺍﻝﺒـﺭﺍﻓﻴﻥ‬

‫‪111‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻤﻥ ﻋﺩﺓ ﺠﻬﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻝﺘﺘﻐﻁﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﺭﺍﻓﻴﻥ ‪1.0-5.0‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘـﺭ‪.‬‬


‫ﻭﻴﺭﺍﻋﻰ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻴ‪‬ﺤﺘﺠﺯ ﻫﻭﺍﺀ ﺩﺍﺨل ﻓﻘﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺒﺭﺍﻓﻴﻥ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺨﻠﺹ ﻤﻥ ﻓﻘﺎﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺇﺒﺭﺓ ﻤﺩﺒﺒﺔ ﺴـﺎﺨﻨﺔ ﻤـﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﻠﻴ‪‬ﻥ ﺒﺎﻹﺼﺒﻊ ﻝﺘﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻝﻔﻘﺎﻋﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -4‬ﺘﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻐﻁﺎﺓ ﺒﺎﻝﺒﺭﺍﻓﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻴﻜﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ) ‪.(m‬‬
‫‪1‬‬

‫‪ -5‬ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﺭﺍﻓﻴﻥ )‪.(mp = m - m‬‬


‫‪1‬‬

‫‪ -6‬ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﺒﺭﺍﻓﻴﻥ )‪ (Vp = mp / ρp‬ﺤﻴـﺙ ‪ -ρp‬ﻜﺜﺎﻓـﺔ ﺍﻝﺒـﺭﺍﻓﻴﻥ‪،‬‬


‫ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺒﺤﺩﻭﺩ ‪0.9‬ﻏﺭﺍﻡ‪/‬ﺴﻨﺘﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -7‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﻏﻤﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺭﺒﻁﻬﺎ ﺒﺨﻴﻁ ﺃﻭ ﺒﻭﻀﻌﻬﺎ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﺤﻤﺎﻝﺔ ﻜﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻫﻭ ﻤﻭﻀﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل )‪ ،(5-3‬ﻭﻴﺅﺨﺫ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻤﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻴﻜﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ )‪.(m2‬‬
‫‪ -8‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﻴﺠﻔﻑ ﺴﻁﺤﻬﺎ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﻭﺭﻗﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺸﻴﺢ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﻭﺯﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻬﻭﺍﺀ‪ .‬ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻓﺭﻕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ )‪(m1‬‬
‫ﻴﺯﻴﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪0.02‬ﻏﺭﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻻﻏﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -9‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﻜﺴﺭ ﻁﺒﻘـﺔ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻝﺒـﺭﺍﻓﻴﻥ‬
‫ﻭﺇﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (4‬ﺍﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ )‪:(Calculations‬‬


‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ )ﺴﻡ‪(3‬‬
‫‪m1 − m‬‬
‫‪V = (m1 − m 2 ) −‬‬
‫‪ρp‬‬
‫ﺏ ‪-‬ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )ﻏﻡ‪/‬ﺴﻡ‪(3‬‬
‫‪m‬‬
‫=‪ρ‬‬
‫‪V‬‬

‫‪112‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺕ ‪ -‬ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ )ﻏﻡ‪/‬ﺴﻡ‪(3‬‬

‫‪100ρ‬‬
‫= ‪ρd‬‬
‫‪100 + W‬‬

‫‪ρ‬‬
‫= ‪ρd‬‬
‫‪1+ W‬‬

‫ﺤﻴﺙ ‪ - W‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻻ ﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻐﻤﺭ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ‪.‬‬


‫ﻭﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ )‪ (6-3‬ﻤﺜﺎ ﹰ‬

‫)‪ (5‬ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ )‪:(Note‬‬


‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻤﺭﺘﻴﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗل‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺅﺨﺫ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬
‫ﻝﻠﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻴﺯﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻲ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻋﻥ ‪0.03‬ﻏﺭﺍﻡ‪ /‬ﺴﻨﺘﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﻜﻌﺏ‪.‬‬

‫‪113‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ (5-3‬ﺍﻻﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻐﻤﺭ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ )ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺠﻊ ‪(/10/‬‬

‫‪114‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ )‪(6-3‬‬

‫ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺭﺍﻓﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ ﻁﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻊ ﻁﺒﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻗﺒل‬
‫ﺍﻝﺒﺭﺍﻓﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺭﺍﻓﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺘﻐﻁﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻲ‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻝﺒﺭﺍﻓﻴﻥ‬
‫ﻤﻌﻠﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ‬
‫)ﻏﻡ‪/‬ﺴﻡ‪(3‬‬ ‫)‪(%‬‬ ‫)ﻏﻡ‪/‬ﺴﻡ‪(3‬‬ ‫)ﺴﻡ‪(3‬‬ ‫)ﻏﻡ‪/‬ﺴﻡ‪(3‬‬ ‫)ﻏﻡ(‬ ‫)ﻏﻡ(‬ ‫)ﻏﻡ(‬
‫‪m1 − m‬‬
‫‪V = (m1 − m 2 ) −‬‬
‫‪ρd‬‬ ‫‪W‬‬ ‫‪ρ‬‬ ‫‪ρp‬‬ ‫‪ρp‬‬ ‫‪m2‬‬ ‫‪m1‬‬ ‫‪m‬‬

‫‪1.68‬‬ ‫‪14.70‬‬ ‫‪1.93‬‬ ‫‪31.11‬‬ ‫‪0.90‬‬ ‫‪28.00‬‬ ‫‪68.00‬‬ ‫‪60.00‬‬


‫‪1.66‬‬ ‫‪14.60‬‬ ‫‪1.90‬‬ ‫‪38.13‬‬ ‫‪0.90‬‬ ‫‪33.34‬‬ ‫‪81.00‬‬ ‫‪72.42‬‬

‫‪ 3-5-3‬ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓ‬


‫)‪(Bulk Density Determination By Direct Measurements‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ )‪:(Standard references‬‬


‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪GOST, 5182 (Russian Standard).‬‬

‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ )‪:(Equipment‬‬


‫ﺴﻜﻴﻥ ﺤﺎﺩ )‪.(Knife‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬‬
‫ﻤﺴﻁﺭﺓ )‪.(Ruler‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻤﻴﺯﺍﻥ )‪.(Balance‬‬ ‫ﺕ‪.‬‬

‫‪115‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫)‪ (3‬ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ )‪:(Procedure‬‬


‫ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﺴﺭﻴﻌﺔ ﻝﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺨﺼﻭﺼـﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺘﻠﺨﺹ ﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﻴﻘﻁﻊ ﺠﺯﺀ ﻤﻥ ﻗﻁﻌﺔ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺴﻜﻴﻥ ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺸـﻜﻴل‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﻜل ﻤﻜﻌﺏ ﻤﻨﺘﻅﻡ ﺍﻷﺒﻌﺎﺩ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﻴﺤﺴﺏ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﺴﻬﻭﻝﺔ )ﺍﻝﻁﻭل × ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺽ × ﺍﻻﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ( ) ‪.(V‬‬
‫‪ .3‬ﺘﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻴﻜﻥ ﻭﺯﻨﻬﺎ )‪.(m‬‬
‫‪ .4‬ﺘﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ ‪:‬‬
‫‪m‬‬
‫=‪ρ‬‬
‫‪V‬‬

‫‪116‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒـﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒــﺔ‬ ‫‪6-3‬‬


‫)‪(Particle size distribution of soil‬‬

‫ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺃﺤﺠﺎﻡ ﻭﻗﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﺠـﺎﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺯﻴﺩ ﺃﺒﻌﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﻋﻥ ‪ 20‬ﺴﻨﺘﻤﺘﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻗﻁﺭ‬
‫ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪ 0.002‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻘﺼﻭﺩ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫـﻭ ﻓـﺭﺯ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒـﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﺴـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺸﺎﺒﻬﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻜل ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻲ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺠـﺭﻱ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﻜﺜـﺭ ﻨﻌﻭﻤـﺔ ﻤـﻥ ﻗﻴـﺎﺱ ﻤﻌـﻴﻥ‬
‫)‪ ،(Percentage finer‬ﺃﻭ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻤﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﺨل ﻤﻌﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺴـﻨﺭﻯ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺒﻌﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺘﺎﻥ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺘﺎﻥ ﻹﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻝﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻤﺎ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻨﺨﻴل )ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺒﻠﺔ( )‪ (Sieving‬ﻭﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺴﻴﺏ )‪.(Sedimentation‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻰ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﺨﻴل‪ ،‬ﻹﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭ‪‬ﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻴﺔ )‪ ،(Gravel and sand size‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﺒﺘﻤﺭﻴﺭ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺭ ﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺨل )ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺍﺒﻴـل( ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴـﻴﺔ )‪ ،(Standard sieves‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘـﻲ‬
‫ﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻘﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺨل ﻓﻭﻕ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻜـﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل ﺫﻭ ﺍﻝﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺜﻡ ﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﺨﻴل‬
‫ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﻫﺯﺍﺯ ﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻲ )‪ ،(Mechanical shaker‬ﺃﻭ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﻴﺩ‪ ،‬ﻝﻤﺩﺓ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻭﻗﺕ ﻻ ﺘﻘل ﻋﻥ ﻋﺸﺭ ﺩﻗﺎﺌﻕ‪ ،‬ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻝﻔـﺭﺯ ﺍﻷﺤﺠـﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔـﺔ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻨﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﺨﻴل ﻴﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﻜل ﻤﻨﺨل ﻭﺘﺠﺭﻱ ﺍﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﻝﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻨﺴـﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺒﻘـﻲ )‪(Percentage retained‬‬
‫ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭ )‪ (Parentage passing‬ﻤﻥ ﻜل ﻤﻨﺨل ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻲ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪117‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻭﺘﺠﺩﺭ ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻴـﺎﺱ ﻓﺘﺤـﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺨـل )‪ (Aperture size‬ﻴﺨﺘﻠـﻑ‬


‫ﺒﺎﺨﺘﻼﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﺍﻝﻤﻠﺤﻕ ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (5‬ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺨل ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻘـﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴـﺔ )‪(ASTM‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺒﺭﻴﻁﺎﻨﻴﺔ )‪ (BS‬ﻭﺍﻝﻔﺭﻨﺴﻴﺔ )‪ (AFNOR‬ﻭﺍﻷﻝﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ )‪ ،(DIN‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺭﻏﻡ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﺸﻴﻭﻋﹰﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺨل ﺍﻝﻤﻁﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺒﺭﻴﻁﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻤﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻨﻪ ﻨﻅﺭﹰﺍ ﻝﻨﻌﻭﻤﺘﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﻭﻋﺩﻡ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻤﻨﺎﺨل ﺫﺍﺕ ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ )ﺃﺼﻐﺭ ﻤﻨﺨل ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻲ ﻤﺘـﺩﺍﻭل ﻫـﻭ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻡ‪ 200‬ﻭﻤﻘﺎﺱ ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺘﻪ ‪0.075‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭﹰﺍ(‪ ،‬ﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﺍﻝﻠﺠﻭﺀ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺴـﻴﺏ‬
‫ﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﺩﺭﺠﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺸﻬﺭﻫﺎ ﺒﺎﺴـﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﻬﻴـﺩﺭﻭﻤﻴﺘﺭ )‪ ،(Hydrometer‬ﻭﻫـﻭ‬
‫ﻤﺼﻁﻠﺢ ﻴﺘﺭﺠﻤﻪ ﺍﻝﺒﻌﺽ ﺇﻝﻰ )ﺍﻝﻤ‪‬ﻜﺜﺎﻑ(‪ .‬ﻭﺘﻜﻤﻥ ﻓﺤﻭﻯ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺒﺈﻝﻘـﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (200‬ﻓﻲ ﺃﻨﺒﻭﺏ ﺘﺭﺴﻴﺏ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻤﺤﻠﻭل‬
‫ﻤــﻥ ﺍﻝﻤــﺎﺀ ﻤــﻊ ﻤــﺎﺩﺓ ﻫﻜﺴﺎﻤﻴﺘﺎﻓﻭﺴــﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼــﻭﺩﻴﻭﻡ ) ‪Sodium‬‬
‫‪ (hexametaphosphate - Na PO3‬ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻤﻨﻊ ﺘﻼﺼـﻕ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒـﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺘـﺭﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻠﻭل ﻝﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﺯﻤﻨﻴﺔ ﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﺨﻼﻝﻬﺎ ﺃﺨﺫ ﻋﺩﺓ ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻠﻭل‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘـﻲ‬
‫ﻴﻔﺘﺭﺽ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﻘل ﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﺯﺍﺩﺕ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺭﺴﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻴـﺘﻡ ﺇﻴﺠـﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﻴﺯﻴـﺎﺌﻲ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴـﺯﻱ ﺝ‪.‬‬
‫ﺴﺘﻭﻜﺱ )‪ ،(G.Stokes‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺭﺒﻁ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺘﺭﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻝﺴـﺎﺌل‬
‫ﻭﻤﻘﺎﺱ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﻜﺜﺎﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﻝﺯﻭﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺌل )‪.(Viscosity‬‬
‫ﻭﻨﺸﻴﺭ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﺃﺤﻴﺎﻨﹰﺎ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭﺘﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺁﻥ ﻤﻌﺎﹰ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺭﻜﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺨﺸﻨﺔ ﻜﺎﻝﺤﺼﻰ ﻭﺍﻝﺭﻤل‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻓﺼل ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗـﻡ )‪،(200‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﺘﻨﺨﻴل ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل ﻋﺒﺭ ﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺨل ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‪،‬‬

‫‪118‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻭﻴﺩﺭﺱ ﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﻤﻴﺘﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺭﻩ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺴﻴﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻤﺜﻴل ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺨﺎﺼـﺔ ﺘﺴـﻤﻰ ﺒﻤﻨﺤﻨﻴـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ )‪) (Particle size distribution curves‬ﺸﻜل ‪ .(6-3‬ﻭﺘﻜـﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻗﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻝﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺤﻨﻴﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻨﻌﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻜل ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺼﺎﺩﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻨﺸﻴﺭ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺸﻜﻠﻴ‪‬ﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺤﻨﻴﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﺍﻷﻭل‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻝﻤـﻭﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻨﻌﻡ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻷﺨﺸﻥ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻨﺎﺕ(‪ ،‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺸﻤﺎل ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻴﻤﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﺒﺭﻴﻁﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻤﻌﻜﻭﺴـﺔ ﻝـﻸﻭل‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻴﺒﺩﺃ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻴﻤﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴـﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ ﻨﻭﺭﺩﻫﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﺭﻏﻡ ﻋﺩﻡ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺃﻱ ﻓﺭﻕ ﻴﺫﻜﺭ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺸﻜﻠﻴﻥ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﻻ ﻝﻠﻔﺎﺌﺩﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺍﻝﻤﻀﻤﻭﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﺍﺴﺘﻜﻤﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﻀﺭﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﺘﻜﻤﻥ ﻓﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻭﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴـﻲ ﻝﺘﺼـﻨﻴﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸـﺎﺌﻴﺔ ) ‪Soil classification for engineering‬‬
‫‪ ،(purposes‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺒﺤﺴﺏ ﻤﻘﺎﺴـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻬﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﻨﺘﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ )‪) (Uniform‬ﺃﻱ ﺘﺘﻜـﻭﻥ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻤﺘﺸﺎﺒﻬﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺠﻴﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ )‪) (Well-graded‬ﺘﺘﻭﺯﻉ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻤﻘﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﻐﻴﺭ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻭﺴﻁ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻜﺒﻴﺭ(‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺴﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ )‪) (Poorly- graded‬ﻻ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﻭﺴﻁﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺘﺘﺭﻜﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﻭﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﺎﻥ ﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩﻫﻤﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪،‬‬

‫‪119‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻭﺘﺴـﺎﻋﺩﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻤﺎ ﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻅﺎﻡ ) ‪Uniformity‬‬


‫‪:(coefficient‬‬
‫‪D 60‬‬
‫)‪(4-3‬‬ ‫= ‪Cu‬‬
‫‪D10‬‬

‫ﻭﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺘﺠﻭﻴﻑ )ﺘﻘﻌﺭ( ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ )‪:(Concavity coefficient‬‬


‫‪(D 30 ) 2‬‬
‫)‪(5-3‬‬ ‫= ‪Cc‬‬
‫‪D 60 D10‬‬

‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺭﻤﺯ ‪ ،D60 ،D30 ،D10‬ﺇﻝﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺒﻠﻎ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﻨﻌﻡ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ‪ 10‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺌﺔ‪30 ،‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺌﺔ ﻭ ‪ 60‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺍﻝﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﻁﻠﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫‪ D10‬ﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﻔﻌ‪‬ﺎل )‪.(Effective size‬‬
‫‪-2‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﻤﻬﻡ ﺠﺩﹰﺍ ﻝﻠﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻬﻨﺩﺴـﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﻴﻭﺘﻘﻨﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺃﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺀﺍﺕ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻠﺨﻴﺼﻪ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫)ﺃ(ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﺭﺩﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﻝﺌﺔ )‪ ،(Fill material‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﺤـﺩﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﺤﺩﻭﺩﹰﺍ ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒـﻲ ﻝﻠﻤـﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺴـﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻷﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻝﺭﺩﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﺴﺩﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺏ(ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻘﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺍﺒﻴﺔ ﻷﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻕ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜل ﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﻤـﺎ ﺘﺤـﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺱ )‪ (Sub-base‬ﻭﺍﻷﺴﺎﺱ )‪ (Base‬ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺕ(ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﻌﻤل ﻜﻤﺭﺸﺤﺎﺕ )‪،(Filters‬ﺤﻴـﺙ ﻴﻠـﺯﻡ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻝﻠﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﺔ ﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺽ ﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻤﺤﺩﺩ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺙ(ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﻝﻼﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺨﻠﻁﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻝﺭﻤـل‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺭﻜﺎﻡ )‪ (Fine and coarse aggregates‬ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺤـﺩﺩ ﻝﻬـﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺼـﻔﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﺨﻠﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﺨﺭﺴﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﻠﻭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪120‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫)ﺝ(ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻷﻨﺴﺏ ﻷﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺤﻘـﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﻴﻤـﺎﺌﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬


‫)‪ ،(Grouting and chemical injection‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﻭﻤـﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺡ(ﺘﹸﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺘﻘﺭﻴـﺭ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴـﺔ ﺘﺤﺴـﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺼﻬﺎ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﺩﻤﻙ )‪،(Compaction‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺩﻤﻙ ﺍﻝﺘـﻲ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﻜﻥ ﺒﻠﻭﻏﻬﺎ ﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﻤﻌﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻝﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻝﻰ ﺤﺩ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‪.‬‬

‫‪121‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫)ﺃ(‬

‫‪100‬‬

‫‪80‬‬
‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭ )‪(%‬‬

‫‪60‬‬

‫‪40‬‬

‫‪20‬‬

‫‪0‬‬
‫‪0.01‬‬ ‫‪0.1‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬

‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل )ﻤﻡ(‬

‫)ﺏ(‬

‫‪100‬‬

‫‪80‬‬
‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭ )‪(%‬‬

‫‪60‬‬

‫‪40‬‬

‫‪20‬‬

‫‪0‬‬
‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪0.1‬‬ ‫‪0.01‬‬

‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل )ﻤﻡ(‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ -(6-3‬ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ﺍﻝﺸﺎﺌﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﺒﺭﻴﻁﺎﻨﻴﺔ )‪.(BS‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ﺍﻝﺸﺎﺌﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ )‪(ASTM‬‬

‫‪122‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ 1-6-3‬ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒـﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﻨﺨﻴل ﺍﻝﺠـﺎﻑ‬


‫)‪(Particle Size Distribution By Dry Sieving‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ )‪:(Standard references‬‬


‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪BS 1377‬‬
‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪ASTM D-421, D-422‬‬
‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪AASHTO T-88.‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ )‪:(Equipment‬‬
‫ـﻊ‬
‫ـﻴﺔ )‪ ،(Set of standard sieves‬ﻤـ‬
‫ـل ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴـ‬
‫ـﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺨـ‬
‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـ‬
‫ﻏﻁﺎﺀ)‪ (Lid‬ﻭﻭﻋﺎﺀ )‪ (Pan‬ﻤﻥ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﺘﺤﺕ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺨل‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﺨﺫ ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺘﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺨل ﺍﻝﻤﺒﻴﻨﺘﻴﻥ ﺃﺩﻨـﺎﻩ‬
‫ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺨﺸﻨﺔ ‪:/8/‬‬

‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻓﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل )ﻤﻡ(‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ )ﺏ(‬ ‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ )ﺃ(‬


‫‪-‬‬ ‫ﻏﻁﺎﺀ‬ ‫ﻏﻁﺎﺀ‬
‫‪4.75‬‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ ‪4‬‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ ‪4‬‬
‫‪2.00‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬
‫‪0.850‬‬ ‫‪20‬‬
‫‪0.600‬‬ ‫‪30‬‬
‫‪0.425‬‬ ‫‪40‬‬
‫‪0.300‬‬ ‫‪50‬‬
‫‪0.250‬‬ ‫‪60‬‬
‫‪0.150‬‬ ‫‪100‬‬
‫‪0.106‬‬ ‫‪140‬‬
‫‪0.075‬‬ ‫‪200‬‬ ‫‪200‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﻫﺯﺍﺯ ﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻲ )‪-(Mechanical Shaker‬ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،-‬ﻤـﻊ ﺴـﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺘﻭﻗﻴﺕ‪.‬‬

‫‪123‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺕ‪ .‬ﻤﻭﺍﺯﻴﻥ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ )‪.(Balances‬‬


‫ﺙ‪ .‬ﻓﺭﻥ ﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ )‪.(Drying oven‬‬
‫ﺝ‪ .‬ﺃﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﻤﻌﺩﻨﻴﺔ )‪.(Metal trays‬‬

‫)‪ (3‬ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ )‪:(Procedure‬‬


‫‪ -1‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺃﺨﺫ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺴﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻔﺤـﺹ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨـﺔ ﺍﻷﺼـﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺴﻴﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺯ )‪ ،(Riffle box‬ﻭﺫﻝـﻙ ﻝﻀـﻤﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﺘﺠﺎﻨﺴﺔ ﻭﺠﻴﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﺜﻴل ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﻴﻌﺘﻤـﺩ‬
‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻝﻠﻔﺤﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻜﺒﺭ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻠـﺯﻡ‬
‫ﺃﺨﺫ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺒـﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (3-3‬ﺍﻝﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﻠﻭﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﻔﺤﺹ ﺤﺴـﺏ ﻤﻘـﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ‪ ،/6/‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺒﺭﻴﻁﺎﻨﻴـﺔ ) ‪BS‬‬
‫‪ ،(1377‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﺠﺩﻭل ﺍﺴﺘﺭﺸﺎﺩﻱ ﻭﻻ ﺘﺅﺩﻱ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺃﻭ ﻨﻘﺼﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﻤﻴـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺭ ﺇﻝﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺨﻠل ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺤﺘﻰ ﻴﺜﺒﺕ ﻭﺯﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﻓﺭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﻔﻴـﻑ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﺤﺕ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ ‪ 110-105‬ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -3‬ﺘﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺯﻨﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻴﻜﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ )‪.(m1‬‬
‫‪ -4‬ﺘﺅﺨﺫ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺨل ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ )ﺤﺴﺏ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺭﺘﺏ ﻓﻭﻕ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ )ﺫﻭ ﺍﻝﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ ﺜـﻡ ﺍﻷﺼـﻐﺭ‬
‫ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻝﻭﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻝﻪ ﻨﻔﺱ ﻗﻁﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺨل ﺘﺤـﺕ ﺃﺼـﻐﺭ‬
‫ﻤﻨﺨل‪.‬‬
‫‪ -5‬ﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل ﺍﻷﻋﻠﻰ )ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ( ﻭﺘﻐﻁﻰ ﺒﺎﻝﻐﻁﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺜـﻡ‬
‫ﻴﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﺨﻴل ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﻬﺯﺍﺯ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻲ ﺃﻭ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﻴﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻤﺩﺓ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬

‫‪124‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻝﻐﺭﺯ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻝﻠﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ )ﺤـﻭﺍﻝﻲ‬


‫‪ 10‬ﺩﻗﺎﺌﻕ(‪.‬‬

‫ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ‪ :‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻬﺯﺍﺯ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻲ ﺃﺼﻐﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺘﺴﻊ ﻝﻜـل ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺨـل‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﺠﺯﺌﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﺨﻴل ﺍﻝﻴﺩﻭﻱ‪.‬‬

‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ -(3-3‬ﺍﻝﺤﺩ ﺍﻷﺩﻨﻰ ﻷﻭﺯﺍﻥ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ‬

‫ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻷﺩﻨﻰ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﻤﻁﻠﻭﺒﺔ ﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﺨﻴل‬ ‫ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫‪100‬ﻏﺭﺍﻡ‬ ‫> ‪2‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭ‬
‫‪200‬‬ ‫‪6.3‬‬
‫‪500‬‬ ‫‪10.0‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ﻜﻴﻠﻭ ﻏﺭﺍﻡ‬ ‫‪14.0‬‬
‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪20.0‬‬
‫‪6‬‬ ‫‪28.0‬‬
‫‪15‬‬ ‫‪37.5‬‬
‫‪35‬‬ ‫‪50.0‬‬
‫‪50‬‬ ‫‪63.0‬‬
‫‪75‬‬ ‫‪75.0‬‬
‫‪150‬‬ ‫‪100.0‬‬
‫‪500‬‬ ‫‪150.0‬‬
‫‪1000‬‬ ‫‪200.0‬‬
‫‪ -6‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻨﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﺨﻴل ﻴﺅﺨﺫ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ﻤﻨﺨل ﺇﻝﻰ ﻭﻋﺎﺀ ﻤﻌﺩﻨﻲ ﺜﻡ‬
‫ﻴﻭﺯﻥ ﺒﺩﻗﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻭﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺴﻔﻠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (4‬ﺍﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ )‪:(Calculations‬‬
‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫)ﺃ( ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ﻤﻨﺨل ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻲ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ ) ‪.(m‬‬
‫‪1‬‬

‫)ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل ÷ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻲ ‪%100× (m1‬‬

‫‪125‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫)ﺏ( ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻜل ﻤﻨﺨل‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ ﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨـل‬


‫ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺴﺒﻘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻤﻁﺭﻭﺤﹰﺎ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل‪.‬‬

‫ﻻ ﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺴﺒﻕ ﺸـﺭﺤﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻤـﻊ‬


‫ﻭﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ )‪ (7-3‬ﻤﺜﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪ 2-6-3‬ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻐﺴل‬


‫)‪(Particle Size Distribution By Wet Sieving‬‬
‫ﺘﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﻨﺨﻴل ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺴـﺒﺔ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻁﻤﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻜﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﺘﻤﺎﺴـﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒـﺎﺕ ﻭﻻ‬
‫ﺘﺫﻭﺏ ﺇﻻ ﺒﺎﻝﻐﺴل‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻜﺒﺭﺕ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﺎﹰ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺨﺸﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺼﻐﺭﺕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ )‪:(Standard references‬‬


‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪BS 1377‬‬
‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪ASTM, D-421, D-422‬‬
‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪AASHTO, T-88.‬‬
‫‪-‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ )‪:(Equipment‬‬
‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺨل ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻏﻁـﺎﺀ ﻭﻭﻋـﺎﺀ )ﺃﻨﻅـﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﻫﺯﺍﺯ ﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻲ )‪-(Mechanical Shaker‬ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭﻱ‪ ،-‬ﻤـﻊ ﺴـﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺘﻭﻗﻴﺕ‪.‬‬

‫‪126‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺕ‪ .‬ﻤﻭﺍﺯﻴﻥ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ )‪.(Balances‬‬


‫ﺙ‪ .‬ﻓﺭﻥ ﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ )‪.(Drying oven‬‬
‫ﺝ‪ .‬ﺃﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﻤﻌﺩﻨﻴﺔ )‪.(Metal trays‬‬
‫ﺡ‪ .‬ﻤﻊ ‪‬ﻤﺩ‪‬ﻗﺔ ﻝﺴﺤﻕ )ﻁﺤﻥ( ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )‪.(Mortar and pestle‬‬

‫)‪ (3‬ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ )‪:(Procedure‬‬


‫‪ -1‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺩ ﻓﺤﺼﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺫﻜﺭﺕ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ )‪ ،(1-6-3‬ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺩﻕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﺴﺤﻘﻬﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺘﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺼﻐﺭ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻗﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺴﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﺤﺘﻰ ﻴﺜﺒـﺕ ﻭﺯﻨﻬـﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﺴﺠل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻴﻜﻥ )‪.(m1‬‬
‫‪ -3‬ﻴﺅﺨﺫ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ ،(10‬ﻭﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻓﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﺜـﺎﻨﻲ ﺩﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﻐﻁﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻭﻋﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -4‬ﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ ،(10‬ﻭﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﺘﺴﻠﻴﻁ ﺭﺸﺎﺵ ﺍﻝﻤـﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺼﻭل ﺒﺎﻝﺼﻨﺒﻭﺭ ﻝﺘﺴﻬﻴل ﺫﻭﺒﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﺘل ﻭﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل ﺍﻷﺼﻐﺭ )ﺭﻗﻡ ‪ ،(200‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﺜﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل‪.‬‬

‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ )‪(7-3‬‬

‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬


‫)‪(%‬‬ ‫)‪(%‬‬ ‫)ﻤﻡ(‬ ‫)ﻤﻡ(‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل‬
‫‪100‬‬ ‫‪0.0‬‬ ‫‪0.0‬‬ ‫‪4.75‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬
‫‪81.86‬‬ ‫‪18.14‬‬ ‫‪76.20‬‬ ‫‪2.36‬‬ ‫‪8‬‬
‫‪61.79‬‬ ‫‪20.07‬‬ ‫‪84.30‬‬ ‫‪1.18‬‬ ‫‪16‬‬

‫‪127‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪38.19‬‬ ‫‪23.60‬‬ ‫‪99.10‬‬ ‫‪0.600‬‬ ‫‪30‬‬


‫‪24.24‬‬ ‫‪13.95‬‬ ‫‪58.60‬‬ ‫‪0.425‬‬ ‫‪40‬‬
‫‪14.07‬‬ ‫‪10.17‬‬ ‫‪42.70‬‬ ‫‪0.300‬‬ ‫‪50‬‬
‫‪4.21‬‬ ‫‪9.86‬‬ ‫‪41.40‬‬ ‫‪0.150‬‬ ‫‪100‬‬
‫‪1.59‬‬ ‫‪2.62‬‬ ‫‪11.00‬‬ ‫‪0.075‬‬ ‫‪200‬‬
‫‪0.0‬‬ ‫‪1.59‬‬ ‫‪6.70‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻭﻋﺎﺀ‬
‫‪100‬‬ ‫‪420.0‬‬

‫‪100‬‬

‫‪80‬‬
‫ﻨ ﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝ ﻤﺎ ﺭ ) ‪(%‬‬

‫‪60‬‬

‫‪40‬‬

‫‪20‬‬

‫‪0‬‬
‫‪0.01‬‬ ‫‪0.1‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬

‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل )ﻤﻡ(‬

‫‪ -5‬ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (10‬ﻗﺩ ﺃﺼﺒﺢ‬


‫ﺨﺎﻝﻴﹰﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﺘﺘﻡ ﻤﻭﺍﺼﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﻐﺴﻴل ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨـل ﺭﻗـﻡ‬
‫)‪ (200‬ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل ﺼﺎﻓﻴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺩل‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﻜل ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -6‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻝﻐﺴﻴل‪ ،‬ﺘﺘﺭﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨﻠﻴ‪‬ﻥ ﻝﺘﺭﺸﺢ ﻓﺘـﺭﺓ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻭﻗﺕ‪ ،‬ﺜﻡ ﺘﻨﻘل ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻴﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻭﻋﻴﺔ ﻤﻌﺩﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻭﻀـﻊ ﻓـﻲ ﻓـﺭﻥ‬

‫‪128‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺍﻝﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺘﺘﺭﺍﻭﺡ ﺒﻴﻥ ‪ 110-105‬ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻤﺌﻭﻴـﺔ‬


‫ﺤﺘﻰ ﻴﺜﺒﺕ ﻭﺯﻨﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -7‬ﺘﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺒﺩﻗﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -8‬ﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﺘﻨﺨﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺎﺨل ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴـﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤـﺎ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﺨﻴل ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻑ )ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ‪ ،(1-6-3‬ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺃﻭﺯﺍﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺒﻘﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ﻤﻨﺨل‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (4‬ﺍﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ )‪:(Calculations‬‬


‫ﺘﺠﺭﻱ ﺍﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﻹﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ﻤﻨﺨل ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭ‪:‬‬
‫)ﺃ( ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ﻤﻨﺨل ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻲ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻝﻐﺴـﻴل‬
‫)‪.(m‬‬

‫)ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ﻤﻨﺨل ÷ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻝﻐﺴﻴل ‪%100× (m1‬‬

‫)ﺏ( ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻜل ﻤﻨﺨل‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ ﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨـل‬


‫ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻤﻁﺭﻭﺤﹰﺎ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ ،(200‬ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻭﺯﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺩﻗﻴﻕ ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺠﺯﺌﻴﻥ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻓﻘﺩ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻐﺴﻴل ﺒﻤﺭﻭﺭﻩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪.(mL) (200‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻤﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (200‬ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺘﻨﺨﻴل ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻑ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻌـﺩ‬
‫ﻏﺴﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺘﺠﻔﻴﻔﻬﺎ )‪ ،(mp‬ﺤﻴﺙ‪:‬‬
‫‪mF = mL + mP‬‬
‫‪m L = m1 − m w‬‬

‫‪129‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺤﻴﺙ ‪ - mw‬ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﻏﺴﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺘﺠﻔﻴﻔﻬﺎ‪.‬‬


‫ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﺎﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (200‬ﻤﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ ﻝﹻ ‪:‬‬
‫‪mF‬‬
‫‪x100%‬‬
‫‪m1‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻐﺴﻴل‬
‫ﻭﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ )‪ (8-3‬ﻤﺜﺎ ﹰ‬
‫‪./6/‬‬

‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ )‪(8-3‬‬

‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﻔﺘﺤﺎﺕ‬


‫ﺭﻗﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل‬
‫)‪(%‬‬ ‫)‪(%‬‬ ‫)ﻤﻡ(‬ ‫)ﻤﻡ(‬
‫‪100‬‬ ‫‪0.0‬‬ ‫‪0.0‬‬ ‫‪4.75‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬
‫‪96.00‬‬ ‫‪4.00‬‬ ‫‪20.00‬‬ ‫‪2.00‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬
‫‪89.00‬‬ ‫‪7.00‬‬ ‫‪35.00‬‬ ‫‪1.18‬‬ ‫‪16‬‬
‫‪77.00‬‬ ‫‪12.00‬‬ ‫‪60.00‬‬ ‫‪0.600‬‬ ‫‪30‬‬
‫‪48.00‬‬ ‫‪29.00‬‬ ‫‪145.00‬‬ ‫‪0.250‬‬ ‫‪60‬‬
‫‪28.00‬‬ ‫‪20.00‬‬ ‫‪100.00‬‬ ‫‪0.075‬‬ ‫‪200‬‬

‫‪130‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪2.00‬‬ ‫‪10.00‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻭﻋﺎﺀ‬

‫ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (200‬ﺒﺎﻝﺘﻨﺨﻴل ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻑ )‪ 10) = (mp‬ﻏﻡ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬


‫ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻲ ﻝﻠﻤﺎﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ 140) = ( mL+ mp) = (mF) (200‬ﻏﻡ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬
‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪.(%28) = %100 × (m1 ÷ mF) = (200‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬

‫‪100‬‬
‫‪90‬‬
‫‪80‬‬
‫‪70‬‬
‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭ )‪(%‬‬

‫‪60‬‬
‫‪50‬‬
‫‪40‬‬
‫‪30‬‬
‫‪20‬‬
‫‪10‬‬
‫‪0‬‬
‫‪0.01‬‬ ‫‪0.1‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬

‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل )ﻤﻡ(‬

‫ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴـﺔ‬ ‫‪7-3‬‬


‫)‪(Soil Classification For Construction Purposes‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﺨﺘﻼﻑ ﻭﺘﻌﺩﺩ ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﺃﻨﻭﺍﻋﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺤﺘـﻰ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺤﺩ‪ ،‬ﻴﺠﻌل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﻌﺏ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻤﻭﺤﺩ ﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﺃﻤﺭ ﻏﺎﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻭ ﻴﻌﻁﻲ ﻓﻜﺭﺓ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﻥ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﻗﻌﺔ ﻝﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺘﻠﻙ‪ ،‬ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺴـﺎﻋﺩ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺭﺴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻭﺭ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻫﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻨﺩﺱ‪ ،‬ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺴـﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‬
‫ﺃﺴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﻨﻰ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺸﺄ‪.‬‬

‫‪131‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻭﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺽ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻴﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻨﺩﺴـﻭﻥ‬


‫ﻤﻊ ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﻋﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻴﺄﺨﺫ ﻤﻌﻅﻤﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤـﺎ‬
‫ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﺠﺯﺀ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻜﺄﺴﺎﺱ ﻝﻠﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴ‪‬ﻥ ﻤﻌﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺴﻨﺭﻯ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﻔﺼﻴل‪ ،‬ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﺴﺘﻌﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻜﺜﺭ ﻫـﺫﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺸﻴﻭﻋﹰﺎ ﻭﺍﻨﺘﺸﺎﺭﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺴﻨﻨﺎﻗﺸﻬﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﻬﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ ﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫)‪(U.S Bureau soil classification system‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻤﻌﻬﺩ ﻤﺎﺴﺎﺸﻭﺴﺘﺱ ﻝﻠﺘﻜﻨﻭﻝﻭﺠﻴﺎ ﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫)‪(M.I.T* soil classification system‬‬
‫‪ -3‬ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻴﺠﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪(U.S Department of Agriculture Textural classification of soil‬‬
‫‪ -4‬ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻁﺭﻕ ﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫)‪(AASHTO soil classification system‬‬
‫‪ -5‬ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺤﺩ ﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫)‪(Unified Soil Classification System-USCS‬‬
‫‪ -6‬ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﺭﻭﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪(Soil classification according to Russian Standards‬‬

‫ﻭﻻ ﺒﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﻫﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺃﻱ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﻻ‬


‫ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻨﻬﺎﺌﻴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻨﻬﺎﺌﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤـﺔ‬

‫*‬
‫‪M.I.T – Massachusetts Institute of Technology.‬‬

‫‪132‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺅﻜﺩ ﺍﻨﺘﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﺃﻭ ﺫﺍﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺅﻜـﺩ ﺒﺎﻝﺘـﺎﻝﻲ‬
‫ﺼﺤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ‪.‬‬

‫‪ 1-7-3‬ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ ﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒــﺔ‬


‫)‪(U.S Bureau Soil Classification System‬‬

‫ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻜﺄﺴﺎﺱ ﻝﺘﻘﺴﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﺒﻴ‪‬ﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (4-3‬ﻜﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺘﻘﺴﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺇﻝـﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺎﺕ ﺤﺴـﺏ ﻗﻴـﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ -(4-3‬ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻲ ﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬
‫)ﻤﻡ(‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘـﺭﺒـــــــﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬
‫‪1.00-2.00‬‬ ‫)‪(Fine gravel‬‬ ‫ﺤﺼﻰ ﻨﺎﻋﻡ‬ ‫‪-1‬‬
‫‪0.500-1.00‬‬ ‫)‪(Coarse sand‬‬ ‫ﺭﻤل ﺨﺸﻥ‬ ‫‪-2‬‬
‫‪0.250-0.500‬‬ ‫)‪(Sand‬‬ ‫ﺭﻤل‬ ‫‪-3‬‬
‫‪0.200-0.250‬‬ ‫)‪(Fine sand‬‬ ‫ﺭﻤل ﻨﺎﻋﻡ‬ ‫‪-4‬‬
‫‪0.05-0.100‬‬ ‫)‪(Very fine sand‬‬ ‫ﺭﻤل ﻨﺎﻋﻡ ﺠﺩﹰﺍ‬ ‫‪-5‬‬
‫‪0.005-0.05‬‬ ‫)‪(Silt‬‬ ‫ﻁﻤﻲ‬ ‫‪-6‬‬
‫> ‪0.005‬‬ ‫)‪(Caly‬‬ ‫ﻁﻴﻥ‬ ‫‪-7‬‬

‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻤﻌﻬﺩ ﻤﺎﺴﺎﺸﻭﺴﺘﺱ ﻝﻠﺘﻜﻨﻭﻝﻭﺠﻴﺎ ﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬ ‫‪2-7-3‬‬


‫)‪(M.I.T Soil Classification System‬‬

‫‪133‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﻜﺴﺎﺒﻘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻜﺄﺴﺎﺱ ﻝﺘﻘﺴـﻴﻤﻬﺎ ﺇﻝـﻰ‬
‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺒﻴ‪‬ﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (5-3‬ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺎﺕ ﺤﺴـﺏ ﻗﻴـﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (5-3‬ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻤﻌﻬﺩ ﻤﺎﺴﺎﺸﻭﺴﺘﺱ ﻝﻠﺘﻜﻨﻭﻝﻭﺠﻴﺎ‬


‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻨﻭﻉ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬
‫)ﻤﻡ(‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘـﺭﺒـــــــﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬
‫‪0.60-2.00‬‬ ‫)‪(Coarse sand‬‬ ‫ﺭﻤل ﺨﺸﻥ‬ ‫‪-1‬‬
‫‪0.20-0.60‬‬ ‫)‪(Medium sand‬‬ ‫ﺭﻤل ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫‪-2‬‬
‫‪0.06-0.20‬‬ ‫)‪(Fine sand‬‬ ‫ﺭﻤل ﻨﺎﻋﻡ‬ ‫‪-3‬‬
‫‪0.02-0.06‬‬ ‫)‪(Coarse silt‬‬ ‫ﻁﻤﻲ ﺨﺸﻥ‬ ‫‪-4‬‬
‫‪0.006-0.02‬‬ ‫)‪(Medium silt‬‬ ‫ﻁﻤﻲ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ‬ ‫‪-5‬‬
‫‪0.002-0.006‬‬ ‫)‪(Fine silt‬‬ ‫ﻁﻤﻲ ﻨﺎﻋﻡ‬ ‫‪-6‬‬
‫> ‪0.002‬‬ ‫)‪(Caly‬‬ ‫ﻁﻴﻥ‬ ‫‪-7‬‬

‫ﻭﻴﻘﺴﻡ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﻫﻲ‪:‬‬


‫‪ -‬ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﺸﻥ )‪0.0006-0.002‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭ(‪،‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ )‪0.0002-0.0006‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭ(‪،‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻋﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﻭﻱ )‪) (Colloidal clay‬ﺃﺼﻐﺭ ﻤـﻥ ‪0.0002‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘـﺭ(‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﹰﺍ ﻭﻻ ﺘﺩﺨل ﻀﻤﻥ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﺼـﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻤﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻘﻴﻥ )‪ 1-7-3‬ﻭ ‪ (2-7-3‬ﺒﻌـﺩ‬
‫ﺭﺴﻡ ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻭﺼﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻪ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠـﻲ‪-‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺒﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﺜﺎل‪:-‬‬

‫‪134‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫)‪ %5‬ﺤﺼﻰ‪ % 43 ،‬ﺭﻤل‪ % 16 ،‬ﻁﻤﻲ‪ %36 ،‬ﻁﻴﻥ(‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﻴﺠﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪3-7-3‬‬


‫)‪(U.S Department of Agriculture Textural Classification of Soil‬‬

‫ﻴﻔﺘﺭﺽ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺃﺤﺠـﺎﻡ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻘﻁ )ﺍﻝﺭﻤل ﻭﺍﻝﻁﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ(‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﺘﺜﻨﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒـﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘـﻲ ﻴﺯﻴـﺩ‬
‫ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻬﺎ ﻋﻥ )‪ (2‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭ )ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻰ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺒﻌﺩ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻝﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﺠﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻤﺜﻴل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺜﻠﺙ ﺨﺎﺹ‪ ،‬ﺘﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ﻀﻠﻊ ﻤـﻥ ﺃﻀـﻼﻋﻪ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻝﻤﺎ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻴﻪ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻜل ﺤﺠﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺤﺠـﺎﻡ )ﺸـﻜل ‪،(7-3‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻌﻁﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﺴﻡ ﺫﻝﻙ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻭﻗﻌﺕ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻨﻘﻁﺔ ﺘﻼﻗﻲ ﺍﻝﺨﻁﻭﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺯﻴﺔ ﻝﻸﻀﻼﻉ ﺍﻝﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ‪.‬‬

‫‪135‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪(7-3‬‬

‫ﻤﺜـﺎل ﺘﻭﻀﻴﺤـﻲ‬
‫ﻝﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﻤﺜﻠﺙ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل )‪ (7-3‬ﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻨـﻭﺭﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺜﺎل ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻋﻠﻤﺕ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﺒﺎﺴـﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﺘﻨﺨﻴـل‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺭﺴﻴﺏ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻤل = ‪%67‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻁﻤﻲ = ‪%23‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ = ‪%10‬‬
‫ﻓﻤﺎ ﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﻤﺜﻠﺙ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺹ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﻨﻅـﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ؟‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤـل ‪:‬‬

‫‪136‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﻨﻤﺜل ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻤل )‪ (%67‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻀﻠﻊ ﺍﻷﻴﺴـﺭ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺜﻠﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻨﺭﺴﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﻁﺔ ﺨﻁﹰﺎ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﹰﺎ ﻤﻭﺍﺯﻴـﹰﺎ ﻝﻠﻀـﻠﻊ ﺍﻷﻴﻤـﻥ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺜﻠﺙ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﻨﻤﺜل ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻁﻤﻲ )‪ (%23‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﺜﻠﺙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻨﺭﺴﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻫـﺫﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﻘﻁﺔ ﺨﻁﹰﺎ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﻴﻤﹰﺎ ﻤﻭﺍﺯﻴﹰﺎ ﻝﻠﻀﻠﻊ ﺍﻷﻴﺴﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻨﻼﺤﻅ ﺘﻘﺎﻁﻊ ﺍﻝﺨﻁﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﻁﺔ )‪ (M‬ﺍﻝﻭﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﻀﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﻁﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﹸﻔـﺎل ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠـﻲ‬
‫)‪) (Sandy loam‬ﺸﻜل ‪ .(7-3‬ﺇﺫﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﻁﹸﻔﺎل ﺭﻤﻠﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﻁﻔﺎل )‪ (Loam‬ﻫﻭ ﺨﻠﻴﻁ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﻤـل‬


‫ﺘﺫﻜﻴﺭ‪ :‬ﺫﻜﺭﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺁﺨﺭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺼﻭﺩ ﺒﻤﺼﻁﻠﺢ ﹸ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻁﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ ﺒﻨﺴﺏ ﻤﺘﻘﺎﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻜل ﻤﻨﻬﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (6-3‬ﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﺤﺘﻭﺍﺀ ﻜل ﻨﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﻴﻨـﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬


‫ﺍﻝﻤﺜﻠﺙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺭﻤل ﻭﺍﻝﻁﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﻨﺸﻴﺭ ﺨﺘﺎﻤﹰﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺫﻜﺭﺕ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ‪ ،‬ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﺠﻤﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻝﻡ ﻴﺄﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻱ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺫﻜﺭ ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨـﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﺘﺤﺴﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (6-3‬ﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﺤﺘﻭﺍﺀ ﻤﻜﻭﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺤﺴﺏ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺯﺭﺍﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻝﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬
‫ﻭﺼﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻁﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺭﻤل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـــــــــﺔ‬
‫)‪(%‬‬ ‫)‪(%‬‬ ‫)‪(%‬‬
‫‪20-0‬‬ ‫‪20-0‬‬ ‫‪100-80‬‬ ‫)‪(Sand‬‬ ‫ﺭﻤل‬ ‫‪-1‬‬

‫‪137‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪20-0‬‬ ‫‪50-0‬‬ ‫‪80-50‬‬ ‫)‪(Sandy loam‬‬ ‫ﻁﹸﻔﺎل ﺭﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫‪-2‬‬


‫‪30-20‬‬ ‫‪30-0‬‬ ‫‪80-50‬‬ ‫)‪(Sandy clay loam‬‬ ‫ﻁﹸﻔﺎل ﺭﻤﻠﻲ ﻁﻴﻨﻲ‬ ‫‪-3‬‬
‫‪50-30‬‬ ‫‪20-0‬‬ ‫‪70-50‬‬ ‫)‪(Sandy clay‬‬ ‫ﻁﻴﻥ ﺭﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫‪-4‬‬
‫‪100-30‬‬ ‫‪50-0‬‬ ‫‪50-0‬‬ ‫)‪(Clay‬‬ ‫ﻁﻴﻥ‬ ‫‪-5‬‬
‫‪50-30‬‬ ‫‪70-50‬‬ ‫‪20-0‬‬ ‫)‪(Silty caly‬‬ ‫ﻁﻴﻥ ﻁﻤﻴﻲ‬ ‫‪-6‬‬
‫‪30-20‬‬ ‫‪80-50‬‬ ‫‪30-0‬‬ ‫)‪(Silty caly loam‬‬ ‫ﻁﹸﻔﺎل ﻁﻴﻥ ﻁﻤﻴﻲ‬ ‫‪-7‬‬
‫‪20-0‬‬ ‫‪80-50‬‬ ‫‪50-0‬‬ ‫)‪(Silty loam‬‬ ‫ﻁﹸﻔﺎل ﻁﻤﻴﻲ‬ ‫‪-8‬‬
‫‪20-0‬‬ ‫‪100-80‬‬ ‫‪20-0‬‬ ‫)‪(Silt‬‬ ‫ﻁﻤﻲ‬ ‫‪-9‬‬
‫‪30-20‬‬ ‫‪50-20‬‬ ‫‪50-20‬‬ ‫)‪(Caly loam‬‬ ‫ﻁﹸﻔﺎل ﻁﻴﻨﻲ‬ ‫‪-10‬‬
‫‪20-0‬‬ ‫‪50-30‬‬ ‫‪50-30‬‬ ‫)‪(Loam‬‬ ‫ﻁﹸﻔﺎل‬ ‫‪-11‬‬

‫ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺠﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻁﺭﻕ ﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬ ‫‪4-7-3‬‬


‫)‪(AASHTO Soil Classification System‬‬

‫ﻨﺸﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺭﺉ ﻗﺩ ﻴﺼﺎﺩﻑ ﻤﺴﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﺃﺨـﺭﻯ ﻝﻬـﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻅـﺎﻡ‪،‬‬


‫ﻭﺃﻜﺜﺭﻫﺎ ﺸﻴﻭﻋ ﹰﺎ ﻨﺴﺒﺘﻪ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ ) ‪Bureau of Public Roads-‬‬
‫‪ (BPR‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺃﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﺍﻝﻁـﺭﻕ ) ‪،(Highway Research Board- HRB‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻤﺎ ﻤﺅﺴﺴﺘﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻭﻻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴﺔ ‪.‬ﻭﻝﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ ﺍﻝﺴﺒﺏ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﻫـﺫﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺴﻤﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻨﺸﻴﺭ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪ ،1928‬ﺘﻡ ﺇﺩﺨﺎل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺇﻝـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻤﺎﺭﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻰ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﻤﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤﺔ )‪ (BPR‬ﻝﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﻪ‬
‫ﻤﻬﻨﺩﺴﻭ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻕ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻭﺍﺴﻊ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻤﺕ ﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌﺔ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻭﺘﺤﺩﻴﺜﻪ ﺜﻼﺜﹰﺎ‪ :‬ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1945‬ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﻝﺠﻨﺔ ﺘﺎﺒﻌﺔ ﻝﻤﺠﻠﺱ ﺃﺒﺤﺎﺙ ﺍﻝﻁـﺭﻕ )‪ ،(HRB‬ﻭﻓـﻲ ﻋـﺎﻡ‬
‫‪ ،1949‬ﻭﺃﺨﻴﺭﹰﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻋـﺎﻡ ‪ 1966‬ﻤـﻥ ﻗﺒـل ﺍﻝﺠﻤﻌﻴـﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴـﺔ ﻝﻠﻁـﺭﻕ‬
‫)‪ ،(AASHTO‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺩﺕ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻝﻲ ﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺼـﻨﻴﻑ ﻫـﺫﺍ‪ ،‬ﻓﺼـﺎﺭ‬
‫ﻴﺤﻤل ﺍﺴﻤﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪138‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻭﺃﻤﺎ ﻤﻀﻤﻭﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﺴﻊ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﻓﻴﻜﻤﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻴﻘﺴـﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﺇﻝـﻰ‬
‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ )‪ (Groups‬ﻭﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻓﺭﻋﻴﺔ )‪ (Subgroups‬ﺤﺴـﺏ ﺍﻝﺘـﺩﺭﺝ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻭﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﻷﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫـﻭ‬
‫ﻤﻭﻀﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺹ ﺒﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ )ﺠﺩﻭل‪.(7-3‬‬
‫ﻭﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﻭﺍﻀﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل ﺍﻝﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻴﻘﺴـﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﻏﻴـﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ )‪ (Inorganic soil‬ﺇﻝﻰ ﺴﺒﻊ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺃﺴﺎﺴـﻴﺔ )‪ A-1‬ﺇﻝـﻰ ‪،(A-7‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﻘﺴﻡ ﺒﺩﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﺜﻨﺘﻲ ﻋﺸﺭﺓ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻓﺭﻋﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻀﻊ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ )‪ ،(A-8‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺠﺩﻭل ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ )‪ .(7-3‬ﻭﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﻤﻰ ﺒـ "‬
‫ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ " )‪ ،(Group Index-GI‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻋﺩﺩﻴﺔ ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺭﺠـﺎﻉ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﺘﻤﻲ ﺇﻝﻴﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩﻫﺎ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻋﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﻜﻡ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺎﺤﻴﺔ ﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝﻬﺎ ﻜﺴﻁﺢ ﺘﺭﺍﺒـﻲ )‪ ،(Subgrade‬ﺤﻴـﺙ‬
‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻨﻭﻋﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺽ ﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ )‪ (GI‬ﻝﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻗل‪.‬‬

‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (7-3‬ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﺨﻠﻴﻁ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻰ ﺤﺴﺏ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ )‪(AASHTO‬‬


‫ﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺨﺸﻨﺔ )ﺤﺒﻴﺒﻴﺔ(‬
‫ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﻋﺎﻡ‬
‫)ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ‪ %35‬ﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﺨل ‪(200‬‬ ‫)‪ %35‬ﺃﻭ ﺃﻗل ﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ ‪(200‬‬
‫‪A-7‬‬ ‫‪A-6‬‬ ‫‪A-5‬‬ ‫‪A-4‬‬ ‫‪A-2‬‬ ‫‪A-3‬‬ ‫‪A-1‬‬
‫‪A-7-5,‬‬
‫‪A-1-b‬‬ ‫‪A-1-a‬‬ ‫ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ‬
‫‪A-7-6‬‬ ‫‪A-2-7‬‬ ‫‪A-2-6‬‬ ‫‪A-2-5‬‬ ‫‪A-2-4‬‬

‫‪139‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ‪-‬‬
‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﻤﻨﺨل‪:‬‬
‫‪50‬‬
‫‪max‬‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ ‪10‬‬
‫‪51‬‬ ‫‪50‬‬ ‫‪30‬‬
‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ ‪40‬‬
‫‪min‬‬ ‫‪max‬‬ ‫‪max‬‬
‫‪36‬‬ ‫‪36‬‬ ‫‪36‬‬ ‫‪36‬‬ ‫‪35‬‬ ‫‪35‬‬ ‫‪35‬‬ ‫‪35‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪25‬‬ ‫‪15‬‬
‫ﺭﻗﻡ ‪200‬‬
‫‪min‬‬ ‫‪min‬‬ ‫‪min‬‬ ‫‪min‬‬ ‫‪max‬‬ ‫‪max‬‬ ‫‪max‬‬ ‫‪max‬‬ ‫‪max‬‬ ‫‪max‬‬ ‫‪max‬‬
‫‪ CDEFG‬ا‪?@A‬و=< ‪:‬‬
‫‪41‬‬ ‫‪40‬‬ ‫‪41‬‬ ‫‪40‬‬ ‫‪41‬‬ ‫‪40‬‬ ‫‪41‬‬ ‫‪40‬‬
‫‪min‬‬ ‫‪max‬‬ ‫‪min‬‬ ‫‪max‬‬ ‫‪min‬‬ ‫‪max‬‬ ‫‪min‬‬ ‫‪max‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪ ?L‬ا‪LL <AIJKA‬‬
‫ﻏﻴﺭ‬
‫‪11‬‬ ‫‪11‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪11‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬
‫ﻝﺩﻨﺔ‬ ‫‪6 max‬‬ ‫ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ ‪PI‬‬
‫‪min‬‬ ‫‪min‬‬ ‫‪max‬‬ ‫‪max‬‬ ‫‪min‬‬ ‫‪min‬‬ ‫‪max‬‬ ‫‪max‬‬
‫‪NP‬‬
‫‪≤20‬‬ ‫‪≤16‬‬ ‫‪≤12‬‬ ‫‪≤8‬‬ ‫‪≤4‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ‪GI‬‬
‫ﺭﻤل‬ ‫ﻗﻁﻊ ﺤﺠﺎﺭﺓ ﺤﺼﻰ‬ ‫ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺘﻭﺍﺓ‬
‫ﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻁﻤﻴﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺤﺼﻰ ﻭﺭﻤل ﻁﻤﻴﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻁﻴﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻨﺎﻋﻡ‬ ‫ﺭﻤل‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻴﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ ﻝﻠﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺴﻴﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻤﺘﺎﺯﺓ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺠﻴﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﻜﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺴﻁﺢ ﻝﻠﻁﺭﻕ‬
‫)‪(subgrade‬‬

‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ )‪ (GI‬ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ‪:‬‬

‫)‪(6-3‬‬ ‫‪GI = 0.2a +0.005ac + 0.01 bd‬‬

‫ﺤﻴﺙ ‪ - a‬ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ ،(200‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻜﺒـﺭ‬


‫ﻤﻥ )‪ (%35‬ﻭﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ )‪ (%75‬ﻤﻌﺒﺭﹰﺍ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺒﻌﺩﺩ ﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻤﻭﺠـﺏ )‪≤ a ≤40‬‬
‫‪.(1‬‬

‫‪140‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ -b‬ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ ،(200‬ﻭﻫـﻲ ﺃﻜﺒـﺭ ﻤـﻥ‬


‫)‪ (%15‬ﻭﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ )‪ (%55‬ﻤﻌﺒﺭﹰﺍ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺒﻌﺩﺩ ﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻤﻭﺠﺏ )‪.(1 ≤ b ≤40‬‬
‫‪ -c‬ﺫﻝﻙ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ ﻤﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ )‪ (LL‬ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺯﻴﺩ ﻋﻥ )‪ (40‬ﻭﻴﻘـل ﻋـﻥ‬
‫)‪ ،(60‬ﻤﻌﺒﺭﹰﺍ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺒﻌﺩﺩ ﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻤﻭﺠﺏ )‪.(1 ≤ c ≤20‬‬
‫‪ -d‬ﺫﻝﻙ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ )‪ (PI‬ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺯﻴﺩ ﻋﻥ )‪ (10‬ﻭﻴﻘل ﻋـﻥ )‪،(30‬‬
‫ﻤﻌﺒﺭﹰﺍ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺒﻌﺩﺩ ﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻤﻭﺠﺏ )‪.(1 ≤ d ≤20‬‬

‫ﻤﺜﺎل – ﻝﻨﻔﺘﺭﺽ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺘﻨﺘﻤﻲ ﻝﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ )‪ (A-6‬ﺒﻠﻐﺕ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻋﺒﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل )‪ (200‬ﻗﻴﻤﺔ )‪ ،(%65‬ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ = )‪ (32‬ﻭﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨـﺔ = )‪.(13‬‬
‫ﺃﺤﺴﺏ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ‪./12/ GI‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤل ‪:‬‬
‫– ﻨﺤﺴﺏ ﻗﻴﻡ ﻤﻌﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ )‪:(6-3‬‬
‫‪30 = 35-65 =a‬‬
‫‪) 40 = 15-55 =b‬ﺘﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺩﺍل ‪65‬ﺒـ‪ 55‬ﻷﻥ ﻤﺠﺎل ‪ B‬ﻫﻭ ‪.(55-15‬‬
‫‪ =c‬ﺼﻔﺭ )ﻷﻥ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪.(40‬‬
‫‪3 = 10-13 =d‬‬
‫ﻭﺒﺎﻝﺘﻌﻭﻴﺽ‪،‬‬

‫‪7.2 = 3×40×0.01+30×0.2 =GI‬‬

‫ﻭﺒﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺒﻌﺩﺩ ﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﻤﻭﺠـﺏ‪ ،‬ﻨﻌﺘﺒـﺭ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ‪ ،7=GI‬ﻭﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ )‪.A-6 (7‬‬

‫‪141‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻭﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﺴﺎﻭﻴﹰﺎ ﺼﻔﺭﹰﺍ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝـﺔ )‪(6-3‬‬
‫ﺴﺎﻝﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻨﺸﻴﺭ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻁﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﻴ‪‬ﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل )‪ ،(8-3‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒـﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ )‪ (GI‬ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭﺓ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ ،(200‬ﻫﻭ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ‬
‫ﻋﻥ ﺘﻤﺜﻴل ﺒﻴﺎﻨﻲ ﻝﻠﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ )‪ ،(6-3‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻼﺤﻅ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻱ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻁﻁ‬
‫ﻫﻭ ﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ )‪ (0.01bd‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻴﻤﺜل ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻝﺴـﻔﻠﻲ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻁﻁ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ )‪ (0.2a + 0.005 ac‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻝﻬـﺫﺍ ﻓـﺈﻥ ﻤﻌﺎﻤـل‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻫﻭ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﺤﺼﻠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺠﺯﺌﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻁﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭ ﻤﻘﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻗﺭﺏ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺼﺤﻴﺢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻁﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﻴ‪‬ﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل )‪ ،(9-3‬ﻓﻴﺭﺒﻁ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ )‪ (PI‬ﻭﺤـﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ )‪ (LL‬ﻝﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ )‪.(A-7) ،(A-6) ،(A-5) ،(A-4‬‬

‫‪142‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ -(8-3‬ﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ )ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺠﻊ ‪(/12/‬‬

‫‪143‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ -(9-3‬ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ ﻭﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬

‫ﻭﻝﺭﺴﻡ ﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻀﺤﺔ ﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )‪ (AASHTO‬ﻭﺁﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﺴـﺘﺨﺩﺍﻤﻪ‪،‬‬


‫ﻨﻭﺭﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺜﺎل ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ ﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ‪./8/‬‬

‫ﻤﺜـﺎل ﺘﻭﻀﻴﺤـﻲ‬

‫‪144‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻤﻁﻠﻭﺏ ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )ﺃ‪ ،‬ﺏ‪ ،‬ﺝ( ﺤﺴﺏ ﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺠﻤﻌﻴـﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻝﻠﻁﺭﻕ )‪ ،(AASHTO‬ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﺒﺄﻥ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻝﻬﺎ ﻭﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل ﺃﺩﻨﺎﻩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﺎﺭ )‪(%‬‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬


‫ﺝ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺃ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل‬
‫‪69.3‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬
‫‪59.1‬‬ ‫‪79.5‬‬ ‫‪68.5‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬
‫‪48.3‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪20‬‬
‫‪38.5‬‬ ‫‪69.0‬‬ ‫‪36.1‬‬ ‫‪40‬‬
‫‪28.4‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪60‬‬
‫‪19.8‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪100‬‬
‫‪5.1‬‬ ‫‪54.3‬‬ ‫‪21.9‬‬ ‫‪200‬‬
‫ﻏﻴﺭ ﻝﺩﻨﺔ‬ ‫‪53.5‬‬ ‫‪34.1‬‬ ‫ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ‬
‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪31.6‬‬ ‫‪16.5‬‬ ‫ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤــل‪:‬‬
‫)‪ (1‬ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )ﺃ(‪:‬‬
‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﻨﺤﺴﺏ ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ ‪11< 17.6 = 16.5-34.1 = PI‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﺒﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ ‪ ،%21.9 = 200‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ )ﺃ(‬
‫ﺘﻨﺘﻤﻲ ﻝﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ )‪ ،(A-2‬ﻭﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻋﻴـﺔ ﻓﻴـﺘﻡ‬
‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩﻫﺎ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ ﻭﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺕ‪ .‬ﻤﺭﻭﺭﹰﺍ ﺒﺎﻝﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (7-3‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻴﻤﻴﻥ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻴﺴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻨﺠﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻭل ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺘﺘﻁﺎﺒﻕ ﻤﻊ ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )ﺃ( ﻫـﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺔ )‪= LL) (A-2-6‬‬
‫‪.(11<17.6 = PI ،40 >34.1‬‬
‫ﺙ‪ .‬ﻨﺤﺴﺏ ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ )‪ (GI‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ )‪:(6-3‬‬

‫‪145‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ = a‬ﺼﻔﺭ )ﻷﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪.(%35‬‬


‫‪6.9= 15.0-21.9 = b‬‬
‫‪ = c‬ﺼﻔﺭ )ﻷﻥ ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ >‪.(40‬‬
‫‪.7.6 =10-17.6 =d‬‬
‫‪ ×0.2) = GI‬ﺼﻔﺭ( ‪ ×0.005) +‬ﺼﻔﺭ × ‪(7.6×6.9×0.01) + (6.9‬‬
‫= ‪ 0.52‬ﻭﺒﺎﻝﺘﻘﺭﻴﺏ ﻷﻗﺭﺏ ﻋﺩﺩ ﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪.1 = GI‬‬
‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻁﻁ )ﺸﻜل ‪ (8-3‬ﻨﺠﺩ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ‪ GI‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻱ ﻤﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ ﻝـﹻ‬
‫)‪ (1.2‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺘﻘﺭﺏ ﺃﻴﻀﹰﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ )‪ ،(1‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻝﺴﻔﻠﻲ ﻤﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ ﻝﺼﻔﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﻥ ‪ + 1 = GI‬ﺼﻔﺭ = ‪.1‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻨﻬﺎﺌﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ )ﺃ( ﻫﻭ )‪.A-2-6 (1‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )ﺏ(‪:‬‬
‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﺘﺤﺴﺏ ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ ‪10<21.9=31.6-53.3 =PI‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (200‬ﻫﻲ ﺍﻜﺒـﺭ ﻤـﻥ ‪< 54.3) %35‬‬
‫‪ (35‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺘﻨﺘﻤﻲ ﻹﺤـﺩﻯ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋـﺎﺕ )‪،(A-5) ،(A-4‬‬
‫)‪ (A-6‬ﺃﻭ )‪.(A-7‬‬
‫ـﺔ ﺘﻨﺘﻤــﻲ‬
‫ـﺎ ﺃﻥ ‪ % 53.5 =LL‬ﻭ ‪ ،% 21.9 = PI‬ﻓــﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـ‬
‫ﺕ‪ .‬ﺒﻤـ‬
‫ﻝﻠﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ )‪ ،(A-7‬ﻭﻝﻜﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺤﺩﺩ ﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ )‪ (A-7-5‬ﺃﻭ )‪A-‬‬
‫‪ ،(7-6‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﻤﺎ ﻨﺠﺩﻩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻁﻁ )ﺸـﻜل ‪ ،(9-3‬ﻭﺍﻝـﺫﻱ ﻴﺒـﻴﻥ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻫﻭ )‪.(A-7-5‬‬
‫ﺙ‪ .‬ﻨﺠﺩ ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ )‪ (GI‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻁﻁ )ﺸﻜل ‪ ،(8-3‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻨﺤﺼـل‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ )‪ (4.3‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻝﺴﻔﻠﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫)‪ ،(5.2‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ )‪ .(9.5 = 5.2+4.3 =GI‬ﻨﺴﺘﻌﻤل )‪ ،(10=GI‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻨﻬﺎﺌﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ )ﺏ( ﻫﻭ )‪.A-7-5 (10‬‬

‫‪146‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫)‪ (3‬ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )ﺝ(‪:‬‬


‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺠﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻝﺸﻁﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﺭﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﻫـﻲ )‪ (A-1‬ﺃﻭ )‪،(A-3‬‬
‫ﻭﺒﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ ،%38.5 =(40‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (7-3‬ﻨﺠﺩ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻫﻲ )‪ .(A-1-B‬ﻭﺒﻤﺎ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻝﺩﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻼ ﺩﻝﻴل ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻝﻬـﺎ )‪=GI‬‬
‫)‪. A-1-B (0‬‬ ‫ﺼﻔﺭ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻨﻬﺎﺌﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ )ﺝ( ﻫﻭ‬

‫ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺤﺩ ﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬ ‫‪5-7-3‬‬


‫)‪(Unified Soil Classification System-USCS‬‬

‫ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺤﺩ ﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﹰﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻨﺘﺸﺎﺭﹰﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭﺴﺎﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺫﻴﻥ ﻴﺘﻌﺎﻤﻠﻭﻥ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺭﺠﻊ ﺘﺎﺭﻴﺦ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻅـﺎﻡ ﺇﻝـﻰ ﻋـﺎﻡ‬
‫‪ ،1942‬ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺍﻗﺘﺭﺡ ﺍﻝﺒﺭﻭﻓﻴﺴﻭﺭ ﺁﺭﺜﺭ ﻜﺎﺯﺍﻏﺭﺍﻨﺩ )‪ (A.Casagrande‬ﻋﻨﺎﺼﺭﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺒﺘﻜﻠﻴﻑ ﻤﻥ ﺴﻼﺡ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﻥ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻝﺠـﻴﺵ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜـﻲ ) ‪Crops of‬‬
‫‪ ،(Engineers, U.S Army‬ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺩ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻋﻤـﺎل‬
‫ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﺏ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﻭﻤﺭﺍﺠﻌـﺔ ﻫـﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻁﻠﻘﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺤـﺩ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻤـﺎ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻝﻌـﺎﻡ‬
‫‪ ،1969‬ﻓﻘﺩ ﺘﻡ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩﻩ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻝﺠﻤﻌﻴـﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴـﺔ ﻝﻠﻔﺤﻭﺼـﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻤـﻭﺍﺩ‬
‫)‪ (ASTM‬ﻜﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ )‪.(ASTM D-2487‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺨﺸﻨﺔ – ﻭﺘﻘﺴﻡ ﺒﻤﻭﺠﺏ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺘﻴﻥ‪:‬‬
‫)ﺃ( ﺤﺼﻰ ﻭﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺤﺼﻭﻴﺔ )‪ (Gravel and gravelly soils‬ﻭﻴﺭﻤـﺯ ﻝﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻝﺤﺭﻑ )‪.(G‬‬
‫)ﺏ( ﺭﻤل ﻭﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺭﻤﻠﻴﺔ )‪ (Sand and sandy soils‬ﻭﻴﺭﻤﺯ ﻝﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﺤﺭﻑ )‪.(S‬‬

‫‪147‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻭﻴﻘﺴﻡ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻰ ﻭﺍﻝﺭﻤل ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﺭﺒﻊ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ‪:‬‬


‫‪ -‬ﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺠﻴﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ )‪ (Well-graded‬ﻭﻴﺭﻤﺯ ﻝﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﺤﺭﻑ )‪.(W‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺠﻴﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﻤﻊ ﺭﺍﺒـﻁ ﻁﻴﻨـﻲ ﻤﻤﺘـﺎﺯ )‪(Excellent clay binder‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﺭﻤﺯ ﻝﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﺤﺭﻑ )‪.(C‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺴﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ )‪ (Poorly-graded‬ﻭﻴﺭﻤﺯ ﻝﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﺤﺭﻑ )‪.(P‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺨﺸﻨﺔ )‪ (Coarse materials‬ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻤـﻭﺍﺩ ﻨﺎﻋﻤـﺔ )‪(Fines‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﺭﻤﺯ ﻝﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﺤﺭﻑ )‪.(M‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ – ﻭﺘﻘﺴـﻡ ﺒﻤﻭﺠـﺏ ﻫـﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻅـﺎﻡ ﺇﻝـﻰ ﺜـﻼﺙ‬
‫ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ‪:‬‬
‫)ﺃ( ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻤﻴﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻋﻤـﺔ ﺠـﺩﹰﺍ ) ‪Silty and very fine sandy‬‬
‫‪ (soils‬ﻭﻴﺭﻤﺯ ﻝﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﺤﺭﻑ )‪.(M‬‬
‫)ﺏ( ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ )‪ ،(Inorganic clays‬ﻭﻴﺭﻤﺯ ﻝﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﺤﺭﻑ‬
‫)‪.(C‬‬
‫)ﺕ( ﺍﻝﻁﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻀﻭﻴﻴﻥ )‪ ،(Organic silts and clay‬ﻭﻴﺭﻤـﺯ ﻝﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻝﺤﺭﻑ )‪.(O‬‬
‫ﺘﻘﺴﻡ ﻜل ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺜﻼﺙ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﺤﺴـﺏ ﺤـﺩ ﺍﻝﺴـﻴﻭﻝﺔ‬
‫ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ )‪ (LL‬ﺇﻝﻰ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﻝﻬﺎ ﺤﺩ ﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ ﺃﻗل ﺃﻭ ﻴﺴﺎﻭﻱ )‪) (50‬ﺫﺍﺕ ﻝﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻨﻀـﻐﺎﻁﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻝﻴﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺭﻤﺯ ﻝﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﺤﺭﻑ )‪.(H‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺨﺜﻴﺔ )‪ (Peat‬ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل ﺍﻝﺨـﺎﺹ )‪-3‬‬
‫‪ ،(8‬ﻭﻤﺨﻁﻁ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻭﻀﻌﻪ ﻜﺎﺯﺍﻏﺭﺍﻨﺩ )‪) (Plasticity chart‬ﺸـﻜل ‪-3‬‬
‫‪.(10‬‬

‫‪148‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ ‪ :‬ﻴﻠﺯﻡ ﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺨﺸﻨﺔ ﺒﻬـﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻅـﺎﻡ ﺇﻴﺠـﺎﺩ ﻤﻌـﺎﻤﻠﻲ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻅـﺎﻡ )‪(Cu‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺠﻭﻴﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﻌﺭ )‪) (Cc‬ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻻﺕ‪ 4-3‬ﻭ ‪ ،(5-3‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪149‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ – (8-3‬ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺤﺩ )‪(USCS‬‬


‫ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺒﺭﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺭﻤﻭﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ )‪(%‬‬
‫‪4< Cu‬‬
‫‪5-0‬‬ ‫‪GW‬‬ ‫ﺤﺼﻰ ﺠﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ‪،‬ﺤﺼﻰ ﺭﻤﻠﻲ ﻤﻊ ﻗﻠﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺒﺩﻭﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺤﺼﻭﻴﺔ‬
‫‪1< Cu<3‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻴﻁﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫)ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ‬
‫‪5-0‬‬ ‫‪GP‬‬ ‫ﺤﺼﻰ ﺴﻴﺊ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ‪ ،‬ﺤﺼﻰ ﺭﻤﻠﻲ ﻤﻊ ﻗﻠﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺒﺩﻭﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ‪GW‬‬ ‫‪ %50‬ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺘﺤﺕ ﺨﻁ )‪(A‬‬
‫<‪12‬‬ ‫‪GM‬‬ ‫ﺤﺼﻰ ﻁﻤﻴﻲ‪ ،‬ﺤﺼﻰ ﻁﻤﻴﻲ ﺭﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ‪4 > PI‬‬ ‫ﺤﺒﻴﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺨﺸﻥ ﻫﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻭﻕ ﺨﻁ )‪(A‬‬ ‫ﺨﺸﻨﺔ‬
‫<‪12‬‬ ‫‪GC‬‬ ‫ﺤﺼﻰ ﻁﻴﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﺤﺼﻰ ﻁﻴﻨﻲ ﺭﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺤﺼﻰ(‬
‫ﺃﻭ ‪7 < PI‬‬ ‫)ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ‬
‫‪6< Cu‬‬
‫‪1< Cu<3‬‬
‫‪5-0‬‬ ‫‪SW‬‬ ‫ﺭﻤل ﺠﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ‪ ،‬ﺭﻤل ﺤﺼﻭﻱ ﻤﻊ ﻗﻠﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺒﺩﻭﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫‪ %50‬ﻻ‬
‫ﻻ ﻴﻁﺎﺒﻕ‬ ‫ﺭﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺘﻤﺭ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ‬ ‫‪5-0‬‬ ‫‪SP‬‬ ‫ﺭﻤل ﺴﻴﺊ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ‪ ،‬ﺭﻤل ﺤﺼﻭﻱ ﻤﻊ ﻗﻠﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺒﺩﻭﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫)ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ‬
‫‪SW‬‬ ‫‪ %50‬ﻤﻥ‬ ‫‪(200‬‬
‫ﺘﺤﺕ ﺨﻁ )‪(A‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ‬
‫<‪12‬‬ ‫‪SM‬‬ ‫ﺭﻤل ﻁﻤﻴﻲ‬
‫‪4‬‬ ‫‪> PI‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺨﺸﻥ ﻫﻲ‬
‫ﻓﻭﻕ ﺨﻁ )‪(A‬‬ ‫ﺭﻤل(‬
‫<‪12‬‬ ‫‪SC‬‬ ‫ﺭﻤل ﻁﻴﻨﻲ‬
‫‪7‬‬ ‫‪< PI‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬

‫ﺘﺎﺒﻊ ﺠﺩﻭل )‪(8-3‬‬

‫‪150‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺍﻨﻅﺭ ﻤﺨﻁﻁ ﻜﺎﺯﺍﻏﺭﺍﻨﺩ‬ ‫ﻁﻤﻲ ﻭﻁﻴﻥ‬


‫‪ML‬‬ ‫ﻁﻤﻲ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻋﻀﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﺭﻤل ﻨﺎﻋﻡ ﻁﻤﻴﻲ ﺃﻭ ﻁﻴﻨﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻤﻊ ﻝﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺸﻜل )‪(10-3‬‬ ‫)ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ‬
‫ﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ‬
‫‪-"-‬‬ ‫‪CL‬‬ ‫ﻁﻴﻥ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻋﻀﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻁﻴﻥ ﻁﻤﻴﻲ ﻁﻴﻥ ﺭﻤﻠﻲ ﻤﻊ ﻝﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪(50‬‬
‫)ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ‬
‫‪-"-‬‬ ‫‪OL‬‬ ‫ﻁﻤﻲ ﻋﻀﻭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻁﻴﻥ ﻁﻤﻴﻲ ﻋﻀﻭﻱ ﻤﻊ ﻝﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬
‫‪ %50‬ﻴﻤﺭ‬
‫‪-"-‬‬ ‫‪MH‬‬ ‫ﻁﻤﻲ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻋﻀﻭﻱ ﻤﻊ ﻝﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﻋﺎﻝﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻁﻤﻲ ﻭﻁﻴﻥ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل‬
‫‪-"-‬‬ ‫‪CH‬‬ ‫ﻁﻤﻲ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻋﻀﻭﻱ ﻤﻊ ﻝﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﻋﺎﻝﻴﺔ‬ ‫)ﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻡ ‪(200‬‬
‫ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﻤﻥ‬
‫‪-"-‬‬ ‫‪OH‬‬ ‫ﻁﻤﻲ ﻋﻀﻭﻱ ﻤﻊ ﻝﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﻋﺎﻝﻴﺔ‬
‫‪(50‬‬
‫‪Pt‬‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺨﺜﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻋﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻋﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ‬

‫‪151‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ – (10-3‬ﻤﺨﻁﻁ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ )ﻜﺎﺯﺍﻏﺭﺍﻨﺩ(‬

‫ﻤﺜﺎل ﺘﻭﻀﻴﺤﻲ ‪ -‬ﻤﻁﻠﻭﺏ ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﻋﻴﻨـﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ )ﺃ‪ ،‬ﺏ‪ ،‬ﺝ( ﺍﻝﺘـﻲ ﻭﺭﺩ‬
‫ﺫﻜﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺜﺎل ﺍﻝﺘﻭﻀﻴﺤﻲ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻕ )ﺍﻝﺒﻨﺩ ‪ ،(4-7-3‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﺤﺴـﺏ ﺍﻝﻨﻅـﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺤﺩ ﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )‪./8/ (USCS‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )ﺃ(‪:‬‬


‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﺒﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (200‬ﻫﻲ ‪ ،%50>21.9‬ﻭﻨﺴـﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (4‬ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ‪) %50‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗـﻡ‬

‫‪152‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ 10‬ﻫﻭ ‪ ،(%68.5‬ﺇﺫﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺇﻤﺎ )‪ (SM‬ﺃﻭ )‪-(SC‬ﺃﻨﻅﺭ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل )‪-3‬‬


‫‪.(8‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﻤﺨﻁﻁ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﻝﻜﺎﺯﺍﻏﺭﺍﻨﺩ )ﺸﻜل ‪ ،(10-3‬ﻨﺠﺩ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ‪ 34.1 =LL‬ﻭ ‪ ،17.6=PI‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻫﻲ)‪ ،(CL‬ﻨﺄﺨﺫ )‪ (C‬ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻝﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻨﻬﺎﺌﻲ ) ‪.(SC‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )ﺏ(‪:‬‬
‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﺒﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗـﻡ )‪ (200‬ﻫـﻲ ‪ ،%54.3‬ﻭﺤـﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ ‪ ،50< 53.3 =LL‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺤﺘﻤﹰﺎ ﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺇﻤﺎ‬
‫)‪ (MH‬ﺃﻭ )‪ (OH‬ﺃﻭ )‪.(CH‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﻤﻥ ﻤﺨﻁﻁ ﻜﺎﺯﺍﻏﺭﺍﻨﺩ )ﺸـﻜل ‪ ،(10-3‬ﻋﻨـﺩ ‪ 53.3 =LL‬ﻭ ‪=PI‬‬
‫‪ ،21.9‬ﻨﺠﺩ ﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻝﺫﺍ ﻨﺤﺴﺏ ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨـﺔ‬
‫) ‪ (PI‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﺤﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻁﻁ‪:‬‬
‫= )‪PI = 0.73 (LL-20‬‬
‫)‪= 0.73 (53.5-20‬‬
‫‪= 24.5 > 21.9‬‬

‫ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )‪ (MH‬ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﻁﻁ‪.‬‬


‫)‪ (3‬ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )ﺝ(‪:‬‬
‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﺒﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (200‬ﻫﻲ ‪ ،%5.1‬ﻓـﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﻫﻲ )‪ (GW‬ﺃﻭ )‪ (GP‬ﺃﻭ )‪ (SW‬ﺃﻭ )‪.(SP‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻀﺭﻭﺭﻱ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺭﺴﻡ ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻹﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﻤﻌـﺎﻤﻠﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻅﺎﻡ ‪ Cu‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﻌﺭ ‪ ،Cc‬ﻝﻠﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ‪:‬‬

‫‪D60 = 2.0 mm‬‬ ‫‪, D30 = 0.29 mm‬‬ ‫‪, D10 = 0.086 mm‬‬

‫‪153‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ‪:‬‬
‫‪D 60‬‬ ‫‪2 .0‬‬
‫= ‪Cu‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪= 23.3 >6‬‬
‫‪D10 0.086‬‬

‫‪(D 30 ) 2‬‬ ‫‪(0.29) 2‬‬


‫= ‪Cc‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪= 0.49 <1‬‬
‫‪D 60 D10 2.0x 0.086‬‬

‫ﻭﺒﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﻻ ﻴﻁﺎﺒﻕ ﺸﺭﻁ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺠﻴﺩ‪ ،‬ﻨﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺴﻴﺌﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ )‪.(P‬‬
‫ﺕ‪ .‬ﺒﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (200‬ﻫـﻲ ‪ ،%94.9‬ﻭﻨﺴـﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (4‬ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻨﺨل ﺭﻗﻡ )‪ (200‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫= ‪64.2‬‬ ‫‪5.1-69.3‬‬
‫= ‪30.7‬‬ ‫‪) 69.3-100‬ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﻗﻡ ‪(4‬‬
‫= ‪5.1‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺭ ﻤﻥ )‪(200‬‬
‫‪%100‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻉ‬
‫ﻭﺒﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻤل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ = ‪ ،% 64.2‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﹸﺘﺼﻨﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺭﻤل ) ‪ ،(S‬ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻨﻬﺎﺌﻲ ﻝﻬﺎ )‪.(SP‬‬

‫ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﺭﻭﺴﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪6-7-3‬‬


‫)‪(Soil Classification According to Russian Standard‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﺘﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻨﺩﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻨﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﺒﻲ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺘﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸـﺎﺌﻴﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺃﺤﺩ ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺴﺒﻕ ﺘﻔﺼﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺒﺘﺼـﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻝﺸﻴﻭﻉ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻷﻨﻅﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻐﻁﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺸﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﻝﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻤﻌﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺒﺤﻭﺯﺘﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺸﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺤﺩﹰﺍ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﻥ ﺃﻭ ﻁﻼﺏ ﺍﻝﻬﻨﺩﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﻨﻴﺔ ﻗﺩ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻡ ﺒﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﻓﻘﹰﺎ ﻝﻠﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﺭﻭﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻤـﺎ ﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻨﺩﺴـﻭﻥ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬

‫‪154‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺘﺴﻤﻴﺘﻪ ﺒـ"ﺍﻝﻜﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﺭﻭﺴﻲ"‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻠﻬﻡ ﺇﻻ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻁﻼﺏ ﺍﻝﺫﻴﻥ ﺘﻠﻘﻭﺍ ﻋﻠـﻭﻤﻬﻡ‬


‫ﻓﻲ ﺒﻠﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺸﺄ ﻝﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺒﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺘﺎﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻤﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﻨﺎ ﻤﺘﺤﻴﺯﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻏﻠﺏ ﺍﻷﺤﻴـﺎﻥ ﻝﻠﻌﻠـﻡ ﺍﻝﻬﻨﺩﺴـﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻬﻨﺩﺴﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺒﻠﺩ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺃﻜﻤﻠﻭﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺘﻌﻠﻴﻤﻬﻡ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻨﻙ ﺘـﺭﺍﻫﻡ‬
‫ﻴﺩﺍﻓﻌﻭﻥ ﺩﺍﺌﻤﹰﺎ ﻋﻥ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻴﻴﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺤﺎﻭﻝﻭﻥ ﺘﺄﻜﻴﺩ ﺃﻓﻀﻠﻴﺘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﺴﺘﺒﺎﻗﹰﺎ ﻹﻝﺼﺎﻕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺘﻬﻤﺔ ﺒﻲ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﻗﺎﺭﺉ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪ ،‬ﺃﺴﺎﺭﻉ ﺒﺎﻝﻘﻭل ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﻝﺴﻬﻠﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻨﺎﺠﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﻁـﻲ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺃﻭﻝﻴﺔ ﻋﻥ ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﻝﻸﺤﻤـﺎل‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻻ ﺘﻌﻁﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻨﻅﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺴﺒﻕ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﺭﺍﻀﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺨﻴﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﻤﺴﺄﻝﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺃﻭ ﻋﺩﻤﻪ‪ ،‬ﻫﻲ ﻤﺴﺄﻝﺔ ﺘﻌﻭﺩ ﻝﻠﻘﺎﺭﺉ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﺭﻀﻬﺎ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻴﻤﺜل ﻓﺎﺌﺩﺓ ﺃﻜﻴﺩﺓ ﺒﻼ ﺸﻙ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺒل ﺍﻝﺘﻁﺭﻕ ﻝﺘﻔﺎﺼﻴل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃُﺸﻴﺭ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺠـﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﻲ ﺍﻝﺭﻭﺴﻲ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺍﻋﺘﻤﺩﺕ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻫﻨﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻭ "ﻤﺠﻠﺩ ﻗﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ ﻭﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻝﺒﻨـﺎﺀ"‬
‫) ‪ (Building Normes and Rules-SNIP II-15-74‬ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﻠــﻕ ﺒﺎﻝﻘﻭﺍﻋــﺩ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫)ﺃ( ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻴﺔ )‪:(Sandy soils‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﺘﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒـﻲ )ﻗﻴـﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﻤﻭﻀﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (9-3‬ﺃﺩﻨﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﻀﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺘﻠﻙ )ﺠﺩﻭل‪ ،(9-3‬ﺒﻌﺩ‬
‫ﺘﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﻨﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻌﺭﻭﻓﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﺘـﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒـﻲ‬
‫ﻻ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﺴﻠﺴل‪ :‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻨﺠﺩ ﺃﻭ ﹰ‬
‫‪2‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭ‪ ،‬ﺜﻡ ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ ﻤﻥ ‪0.5‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ‪ ،‬ﺤﺘﻰ ﻴﺤﺼل ﺍﻝﺘﻁـﺎﺒﻕ ﺍﻝـﺫﻱ‬
‫ﻴﻀﻊ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻀﻤﻥ ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ‪.‬‬

‫‪155‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ -(9-3‬ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺘﻬﺎ‬


‫ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺼــﻑ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻲ )‪(%‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـــــﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ ﻤﻥ ‪ 2‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﻤل ﺤﺼﻭﻱ‬ ‫‪-1‬‬
‫ﺍﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ‪ 25‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺌﺔ‬ ‫)‪(Gravelly sand‬‬
‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ ﻤﻥ ‪ 0.5‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﻤل ﺨﺸﻥ‬ ‫‪-2‬‬
‫ﺍﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ‪ 50‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺌﺔ‬ ‫)‪(Coarse- grained sand‬‬
‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ ﻤﻥ ‪0.25‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﻤل ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻝﺨﺸﻭﻨﺔ‬ ‫‪-3‬‬
‫ﺍﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ‪ 50‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺌﺔ‬ ‫)‪(Medium- grained sand‬‬
‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ ﻤﻥ ‪0.1‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﻤل ﻨﺎﻋﻡ‬ ‫‪-4‬‬
‫ﺍﻜﺜﺭ ﺍﻭ ﻴﺴﺎﻭﻱ ‪ 75‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺌﺔ‬ ‫)‪(Fine- grained sand‬‬
‫ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻜﺒﺭ ﻤﻥ ‪0.1‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﻤل ﻨﺎﻋﻡ ﺠﺩﹰﺍ‬ ‫‪-5‬‬
‫ﺍﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪ 75‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺌﺔ‬ ‫)‪(Dusty sand‬‬

‫‪ -2‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻴﺔ )‪ (Initial voids ratio‬ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬


‫ﺤﺎﻝﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ )‪(eo‬‬
‫‪Gs‬‬
‫= ‪eo‬‬ ‫‪−1‬‬
‫‪ρd‬‬

‫ﺤﻴﺙ ‪ -Gs‬ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﻝﻠﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﻠﺒﺔ‬


‫‪ -ρd‬ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ )ﻏﻡ‪/‬ﺴﻡ‪.(3‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ )‪ (eo‬ﺘﺼﻨﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻜﺜﻴﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻤﺨﻠﺨﻠﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (10-3‬ﺃﺩﻨﺎﻩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ -(10-3‬ﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬

‫‪156‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )‪(Density‬‬


‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬
‫ﻭﺼﻑ‬
‫ﻤﺨﻠﺨﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺜﻴﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪(Loose‬‬ ‫) ‪Medium‬‬ ‫)‪(Dense‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬
‫‪(dense‬‬
‫ﺭﻤل ﺤﺼﻭﻱ‬ ‫‪-1‬‬
‫)‪(Gravelly sand‬‬
‫ﺭﻤل ﺨﺸﻥ‬
‫)‪(Coarse- grained sand‬‬
‫ﺭﻤل ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻝﺨﺸﻭﻨﺔ‬
‫‪0.70< eo‬‬ ‫‪0.55≤ eo ≤0.70‬‬ ‫‪0.55> eo‬‬ ‫)‪(Medium- grained sand‬‬
‫ﺭﻤل ﻨﺎﻋﻡ‬ ‫‪-2‬‬
‫‪0.75< eo‬‬ ‫‪0.60≤ eo ≤0.75‬‬ ‫‪0.60> eo‬‬
‫)‪(Fine- grained sand‬‬
‫‪0.80< eo‬‬ ‫‪0.60≤ eo ≤0.80‬‬ ‫‪0.60> eo‬‬ ‫ﺭﻤل ﻨﺎﻋﻡ ﺠﺩﹰﺍ‬ ‫‪-3‬‬
‫)‪(Dusty sand‬‬

‫‪ -3‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺩﺭﺠـﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺸـﺒﻊ ﺒﺎﻝﻤـﺎﺀ )‪ (Degree of saturation‬ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬


‫ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ )‪:(12-2‬‬
‫‪WG S‬‬
‫= ‪Sr‬‬
‫‪eo‬‬
‫ﺤﻴﺙ ‪ -W‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴـﺘﻡ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩﻫـﺎ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﺒـﺭ‬
‫ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺤﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻲ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (11-3‬ﺃﺩﻨﺎﻩ‪ ،‬ﺘﻀﺎﻑ ﺘﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺩﺭﺠـﺔ ﺘﺸـﺒﻌﻬﺎ‬


‫ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫‪157‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ -4‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﻝﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻝﻸﺤﻤﺎل )‪ (Ro‬ﻤـﻥ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل )‪ ،(12-3‬ﺤﺴﺏ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺒﻬﺫﺍ‪ ،‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﺇﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻝﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻷﺭﺒﻊ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﺒﺎﻹﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺇﻋﻁـﺎﺀ ﻭﺼـﻑ‬
‫ﺸﺎﻤل ﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﻝﻘﺩﺭﺓ ﺘﺤﻤﻠﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﺴﻴﺘﻀـﺢ ﻫـﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻝﻤﺜﺎل ﺍﻝﺘﻭﻀﻴﺤﻲ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺴﻨﻌﺭﻀﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‪.‬‬

‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ -(11-3‬ﻭﺼﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺘﺸﺒﻌﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ‬


‫ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﺒﻊ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬
‫)‪(Sr‬‬ ‫ﺤﺴﺏ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺘﺸﺒﻌﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻗﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‬
‫‪ <Sr ≤ 0.50‬ﺼﻔﺭ‬ ‫‪-1‬‬
‫)‪(Low moist‬‬
‫ﺭﻁﺒﺔ‬
‫‪0.50 <Sr ≤ 0.80‬‬ ‫‪-2‬‬
‫)‪(Moist‬‬
‫ﻤﺸﺒﻌﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ‬
‫‪0.80 <Sr ≤ 1.0‬‬ ‫‪-3‬‬
‫)‪(Saturated‬‬

‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ -(12-3‬ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ )‪ (Ro‬ﻤﻴﺠﺎ‬
‫ﺒﺎﺴﻜﺎل‬ ‫ﻭﺼﻑ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬
‫ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﺜﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬
‫)‪(Med. dense‬‬ ‫)‪(Dense‬‬
‫‪0.50‬‬ ‫‪0.60‬‬ ‫ﺭﻤل ﺨﺸﻥ ﺒﻐﺽ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺭﻁﻭﺒﺘﻪ‬ ‫‪-1‬‬

‫‪158‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪0.40‬‬ ‫‪0.50‬‬ ‫ﺭﻤل ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻝﺨﺸﻭﻨﺔ ﺒﻐﺽ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺭﻁﻭﺒﺘﻪ‬ ‫‪-2‬‬


‫ﺭﻤل ﻨﺎﻋﻡ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪-3‬‬
‫)‪(Low moist‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﻗﻠﻴل ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‬
‫‪0.30‬‬ ‫‪0.40‬‬
‫‪0.20‬‬ ‫‪0.30‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺭﻁﺏ ﻭﻤﺸﺒﻊ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ ) ‪(Moist & Saturated‬‬
‫ﺭﻤل ﻨﺎﻋﻡ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪-4‬‬
‫)‪(Low moist‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ -‬ﻗﻠﻴل ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‬
‫‪0.25‬‬ ‫‪0.30‬‬
‫)‪(Moist‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺭﻁﺏ‬
‫‪0.15‬‬ ‫‪0.20‬‬
‫‪0.10‬‬ ‫‪0.15‬‬ ‫)‪(Saturated‬‬ ‫ﺕ‪ -‬ﻤﺸﺒﻊ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ‬

‫)ﺏ( ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ )‪:(Calyey Soils‬‬


‫‪ -1‬ﺘﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺩﻝﻴل‬
‫ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ )‪ ،(Plasticity Index - PI‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل )‪(13-3‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﻨﺎﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (13-3‬ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﻑ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬
‫)‪(PI‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬
‫‪1 ≤PI ≤ 7‬‬ ‫)‪(Sandy loam‬‬ ‫ﻁﻔﺎل ﺭﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫‪-1‬‬
‫‪7 ≤PI ≤ 17‬‬ ‫)‪(Loamy soil‬‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻁﻔﺎﻝﻴﺔ‬ ‫‪-2‬‬
‫‪17 < PI‬‬ ‫)‪(Clay‬‬ ‫ﻁﻴﻥ‬ ‫‪-3‬‬

‫‪ -2‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻴﺔ )‪ (Initial Voids Ratio‬ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ‬


‫ﺤﺎﻝﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ )‪:(eo‬‬
‫‪Gs‬‬
‫= ‪eo‬‬ ‫‪−1‬‬
‫‪ρd‬‬
‫ﺤﻴﺙ ‪ -Gs‬ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﻝﻠﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪،‬‬
‫‪ – ρd‬ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ )ﻏﻡ‪/‬ﺴﻡ‪.(3‬‬

‫‪159‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪-3‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ )‪ (Liquidity Index-LI‬ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ‬


‫)‪:(20-2‬‬
‫‪W − PL‬‬
‫= ‪LI‬‬
‫‪PI‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻗﻭﺍﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ )‪ (Consistency‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺠـﺩﻭل )‪(14-3‬‬
‫ﺃﺩﻨﺎﻩ ﺤﺴﺏ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ )‪.(LI‬‬

‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (14-3‬ﻗﻭﺍﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ‬


‫ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﻑ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬
‫)‪(LI‬‬ ‫ﻗﻭﺍﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬
‫)‪:(Sandy Loam‬‬ ‫ﻁﻔﺎل ﺭﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫‪-1‬‬
‫‪ > LI‬ﺼﻔﺭ‬ ‫)‪(Hard‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﺱ‬
‫‪ < LI ≤ 1‬ﺼﻔﺭ‬ ‫)‪(Plastic‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﻝﺩﻥ‬
‫‪1 < LI‬‬ ‫)‪(Liquid‬‬ ‫ﺕ‪ .‬ﻤﺎﺌﻊ‬
‫)‪:(Loam and Clay‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻁﻔﺎل ﻭﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ‬ ‫‪-2‬‬
‫)‪(Hard‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﻗﺎﺱ‬
‫‪ > LI‬ﺼﻔﺭ‬
‫)‪(Semi-Hard‬‬ ‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﺸﺒﻪ ﻗﺎﺱ‬
‫‪ ≤LI ≤ 0.25‬ﺼﻔﺭ‬
‫)‪(Stiff Plastic‬‬ ‫ﺕ‪.‬ﺼﻠﺏ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻝﺩﻥ‬
‫‪0.25 ≤LI ≤ 0.50‬‬
‫‪0.50 <LI ≤ 0.75‬‬ ‫)‪(Soft Plastic‬‬ ‫ﺙ‪ .‬ﻁﺭﻱ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻝﺩﻥ‬
‫‪0.75 <LI ≤ 1.0‬‬ ‫)‪(Liquid Plastic‬‬ ‫ﺝ‪ .‬ﻤﺎﺌﻊ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻝﺩﻥ‬
‫‪1 <LI‬‬
‫)‪(Liquid‬‬ ‫ﺡ‪ .‬ﻤﺎﺌﻊ‬

‫‪ -4‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﻝﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻝﻸﺤﻤـﺎل )‪(Ro‬‬


‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل )‪ ،(15-3‬ﺤﺴﺏ ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ )‪.(eo‬‬

‫‪160‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ‪ :‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﻠﺠﻭﺀ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺭﻴﺏ ﺒﺎﻻﺴﺘﻜﻤﺎل )‪ (Interpolation‬ﻋﻨـﺩ ﺍﺴـﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﻗـﻴﻡ‬


‫ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ )‪ (Ro‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭﻝﻴﻥ )‪ (12-3‬ﻭ )‪ ،(15-3‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻝﻠﻘﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺩﻭﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺒﻴﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭﻝﻴﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ -(15-3‬ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ)‪(Ro‬‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬
‫)ﻤﻴﻐﺎﺒﺎﺴﻜﺎل(‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺼﻑ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ‬
‫‪1=LI‬‬ ‫‪=LI‬ﺼﻔﺭ‬
‫)‪(eo‬‬
‫‪0.30‬‬ ‫‪0.30‬‬ ‫‪0.50‬‬
‫ﻁﻔﺎل ﺭﻤﻠﻲ )‪(Sandy Loam‬‬ ‫‪-1‬‬
‫‪0.20‬‬ ‫‪0.25‬‬ ‫‪0.70‬‬
‫‪0.25‬‬ ‫‪0.30‬‬ ‫‪0.50‬‬
‫‪0.18‬‬ ‫‪0.25‬‬ ‫‪0.70‬‬ ‫ﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻁﻔﺎﻝﻴﺔ )‪(Loamy Soil‬‬ ‫‪-2‬‬
‫‪0.10‬‬ ‫‪0.20‬‬ ‫‪1.00‬‬
‫‪0.40‬‬ ‫‪0.60‬‬ ‫‪0.50‬‬
‫‪0.30‬‬ ‫‪0.50‬‬ ‫‪0.60‬‬
‫)‪(Clay‬‬ ‫ﻁﻴﻥ‬ ‫‪-3‬‬
‫‪0.20‬‬ ‫‪0.30‬‬ ‫‪0.80‬‬
‫‪0.10‬‬ ‫‪0.25‬‬ ‫‪1.10‬‬

‫ﻤﺜـﺎل ﺘﻭﻀﻴﺤـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻁﻠﻭﺏ ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﻋﻴﻨﺘﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )ﺃ( ﻭ )ﺏ( ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻭﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﺒﺄﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻔﻴﺯﻴﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻝﻬﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل ﺃﺩﻨﺎﻩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬


‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ‬
‫ﻴﺒﻠﻎ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬
‫‪PL‬‬ ‫‪LL‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫‪ρ‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ‬
‫)ﻏﻡ‪/‬ﺴﻡ‪(3‬‬ ‫‪-0.25‬‬ ‫‪-0.5‬‬ ‫‪-0.2‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬
‫)‪(%‬‬ ‫‪Gs‬‬ ‫>‪1‬‬ ‫<‪2.0‬‬
‫‪1.0‬‬ ‫‪0.25‬‬ ‫‪0.5‬‬
‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪4.0‬‬ ‫‪1.85‬‬ ‫‪2.61‬‬ ‫‪16.4‬‬ ‫‪31.2‬‬ ‫‪25.8‬‬ ‫‪19.2‬‬ ‫‪7.4‬‬ ‫ﺃ‬
‫‪9.2‬‬ ‫‪16‬‬ ‫‪12.0‬‬ ‫‪2.10‬‬ ‫‪2.77‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫ﺏ‬

‫‪161‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )ﺃ(‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻀﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﺭﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻝﺫﻝﻙ‬
‫ﻨﺘﺒﻊ ﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﻨﺠﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺯﻴﺩ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﻬﺎ ﻋـﻥ ‪ 2‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘـﺭ ﻫـﻲ‬
‫‪ 7.4‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪ 25‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (9-3‬ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻼ ﺤﺼﻭﻴﹰﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺭﻤ ﹰ‬
‫ﻨﺴــﺒﺔ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒــﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘــﻲ ﻴﺯﻴــﺩ ﻗﻴﺎﺴــﻬﺎ ﻋــﻥ ‪0.5‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘــﺭ=‬
‫ﻼ‬
‫‪26.6=19.2+7.4‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻗل ﻤﻥ ‪ 50‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﹰﺍ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻴﺴﺕ ﺭﻤ ﹰ‬
‫ﺨﺸﻨﹰﺎ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل‪.‬‬
‫ﻨﺴــﺒﺔ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒــﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘــﻲ ﻴﺯﻴــﺩ ﻗﻴﺎﺴــﻬﺎ ﻋــﻥ ‪0.25‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘــﺭ=‬
‫‪ 52.4 =25.8+19.2+7.4‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﻤﻥ ‪ 50‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺌـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴـﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل )‪ ،(9-3‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻫﻲ )ﺭﻤل ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻝﺨﺸﻭﻨﺔ(‪.‬‬

‫‪ -2‬ﻨﺤﺴﺏ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ )‪.(eo‬‬


‫‪Gs‬‬ ‫‪G‬‬
‫= ‪eo‬‬ ‫= ‪− 1 = s (1 + W ) − 1‬‬
‫‪ρd‬‬ ‫‪ρ‬‬
‫‪2.61‬‬
‫=‬ ‫‪(1 + 0.04) − 1 = 0.467‬‬
‫‪1.85‬‬

‫ﻨﺠﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (10-3‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻜﺜﻴﻔﺔ ﻷﻥ )‪(0.55 >0.467 =eo‬‬


‫ﺇﺫﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻫﻲ )ﺭﻤل ﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁ ﺍﻝﺨﺸﻭﻨﺔ ﻭﻜﺜﻴﻑ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ -3‬ﻨﺤﺴﺏ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﺒﻊ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ ) ‪: (Sr‬‬

‫‪162‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪WG s 0.04 x 2.61‬‬


‫= ‪Sr‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪= 0.22‬‬
‫‪eo‬‬ ‫‪0.467‬‬
‫<‬ ‫ﻨﺠﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (11-3‬ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻗﻠﻴﻠـﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ )‪Sr <0.5‬‬
‫ﺼﻔﺭ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻨﻬﺎﺌﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ )ﺃ( ﺃﻨﻬـﺎ‪) :‬ﺭﻤـل ﻤﺘﻭﺴـﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺨﺸﻭﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﺜﻴﻑ ﻭﻗﻠﻴل ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ(‬
‫)‪.(Medium- grained sand, dense and low moist‬‬

‫)‪ (2‬ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )ﺏ( ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﻀﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺃﻨﻬﺎ ﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻝﺫﺍ ﻨﺘﺒـﻊ‬
‫ﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ ﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﻨﺠﺩ ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻭﻨﺔ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ ) ‪:(PI‬‬

‫‪PI = LL – PL =16-9.2 = 6.8‬‬

‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (13-3‬ﻨﺠﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻫﻲ ﻁﻔﺎل ﺭﻤﻠﻲ ﻷﻥ‬


‫)‪.(1< PI < 7‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﻨﺤﺴﺏ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ )‪:(eo‬‬

‫‪Gs‬‬ ‫‪G‬‬
‫= ‪eo‬‬ ‫= ‪− 1 = s (1 + W ) − 1‬‬
‫‪ρd‬‬ ‫‪ρ‬‬
‫‪2.77‬‬
‫=‬ ‫‪(1 + 0.12) − 1 = 0.48 = 0.50‬‬
‫‪2.10‬‬

‫‪ -3‬ﻨﺤﺴﺏ ﺩﻝﻴل ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻭﻝﺔ ) ‪:(LI‬‬

‫‪W − PL 12 − 9.2‬‬
‫= ‪LI‬‬ ‫=‬ ‫‪= 0.41‬‬
‫‪PI‬‬ ‫‪6.8‬‬

‫‪163‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻭﻨﺠﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (14-3‬ﺃﻥ ﻗﻭﺍﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻗﺎﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻷﻥ ) ‪.(1 > LI‬‬
‫ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ‪ ،‬ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻨﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻨﻬﺎﺌﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ )ﺏ(‪:‬‬
‫)ﻁﻔﺎل ﺭﻤﻠﻲ ﻗﺎﺴﻲ(‪(Hard sandy loam) ،‬‬

‫‪ -4‬ﻭﺃﻤﺎ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺩﻴﺭﻴﺔ ﻝﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )‪ (Ro‬ﻓﻨﺠﺩﻫﺎ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻝﺠـﺩﻭل‬


‫)‪ (15-3‬ﺒﺎﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ )‪ (0.50 =eo‬ﻭ )‪ (0.41=LI‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻤﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ ﻝـﹻ‪0.3‬‬
‫ﻤﻴﻐﺎﺒﺎﺴﻜﺎل = ‪ 3‬ﻜﻴﻠﻭ ﻏﺭﺍﻡ‪/‬ﺴﻨﺘﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﺭﺒﻊ‪.‬‬

‫‪164‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺍﻝﺒــﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ‬

‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘـﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒــــﺔ‬

‫‪ 1-4‬ﻤﺩﺨـل‬
‫‪ 2-4‬ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫‪ 3-4‬ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺜﻼﺜﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ‬
‫‪ 4-4‬ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﻼﻤﺤﺼﻭﺭ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬

‫‪165‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼـﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘـﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـــﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒــﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒـﻊ‬

‫)‪(Soil Shear Tests‬‬

‫ﻤﺩﺨــل )‪(Introduction‬‬ ‫‪1-4‬‬


‫ﺃﺸﺭ‪‬ﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﻭ‪‬ﺓ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝـﻰ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺼﻭﺩ ﺒﻬﺎ ﻫﻭ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼﻝﻬﺎ ﺍﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻡ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻤﻼﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻗﻭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺘﻬﺎ ﻝﻠﻘـﻭﻯ ﻭﺍﻷﺤﻤـﺎل ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴـﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺸﻬﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺍﻻﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـﻲ ﻓﺤـﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ )‪ ،(Direct shear test‬ﻭﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺜﻼﺜﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ )‪،(Triaxial test‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﻼﻤﺤﺼﻭﺭ )‪ ،(Unconfined compression‬ﻭﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﻀـﺎﻏﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ )‪ ،(One-dimensional consolidation‬ﻭﺍﻻﺨﺘـﺭﺍﻕ )‪(Penetration‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﺤﺹ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺘﺤﻤل ﻜﺎﻝﻴﻔﻭﺭﻨﻴﺎ )‪ (California Bearing Ratio‬ﺍﻝـﺫﻱ ﻴﺸـﺘﻬﺭ‬
‫ﺒﺎﺴﻤﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﺼﺭ ﺴﻲ ﺒﻲ ﺁﺭ )‪ .(C.B.R‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﻤﺨﺒﺭﻱ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﺤﻘﻠﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻨﻅﺭﹰﺍ ﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼـﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘـﺩ ﺭﺃﻴﻨـﺎ ﻋـﺭﺽ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺒﺭﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺒﻭﺍﺏ ﻤﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺘﺘﻡ ﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺒﺎﺏ ﻴﺨﺼﺹ ﻝﺫﻝﻙ‪ .‬ﺃﻡ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﻓﻬﻭ ﻤﺨﺼﺹ ﻝﻠﻔﺤﻭﺼـﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺒﺭﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻝﻠﻘﺹ‪.‬‬
‫ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﻘﺹ )‪ :(Shear strength of soil‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌـﺭﻭﻑ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺴـﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺒﻨﻰ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺸﺄ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻨﻘل ﻭﺘﻭﺼﻴل ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘـﻲ ﻴﺭﺘﻜـﺯ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﻰ ﻅﻬﻭﺭ ﺍﺠﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ )‪ (Stresses‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬

‫‪166‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﺸﻭﻫﺎﺕ )‪ .(Deformations‬ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺘﺸـﻭﻫﺎﺕ ﺇﻤـﺎ ﻤﺭﻨـﺔ‬


‫)‪ (Elastic‬ﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺤﺠﻤﻴﺔ ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻝﺨﺭﻭﺝ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏـﺎﺕ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﻐﻴ‪‬ﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )‪ (Volume change‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻅﺎﻫﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ‬
‫)‪ (Consolidation‬ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺴﻨﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﺘﻔﺎﺼﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻤـﺎ ﺍﻝﺸـﻜل‬
‫ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ ﻝﻠﺘﺸﻭﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻅﻬﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﻤل ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﻭ ﺍﻨﺯﻻﻕ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺤـﺩﺓ ﻓـﻭﻕ ﺍﻻﺨـﺭﻯ ) ‪Slippage of soil‬‬
‫‪ ،(particles‬ﻭﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻗﺩ ﻴﺅﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻨﺯﻻﻕ ﻜﺘﻠﺔ ﺘﺭﺍﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻭﻕ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﻌﻨـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻨﻬﻴﺎﺭ )‪ ،(Failure‬ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻭﻫﺎﺕ ﻫـﻭ ﻤـﺎ ﻴﻌـﺭﻑ ﺒـﺎﻝﻘﺹ‬
‫)‪ .(Shear‬ﻭﺤﺘﻰ ﺘﺘﻭﻀﺢ ﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻅﺎﻫﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﻝﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺼل ﺨﻼﻝﻬﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻨﻭﺭﺩ ﻤﺴﻠﺴل ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻤﻴل ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻼ ﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴﹰﺎ ﻤﺘﺼﺎﻋﺩﹰﺍ ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺠﻴﹰﺎ ﻴﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﻁﺢ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل‬
‫ﻝﻨﻔﺭﺽ ﺃﻥ ﺤ‪‬ﻤ ﹰ‬
‫ﻤﻜﺒﺱ ﺼﻠﺏ )‪ (Rigid stamp‬ﻤﻊ ﻤﺭﺍﻗﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻬﺒﻭﻁ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻭﺩﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻤﻴل‪ .‬ﻭﻝﻨﻔﺭﺽ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻭل ﺤﻤل ﻜﺎﻥ )‪ (P1‬ﻭﺍﻝﻬﺒﻭﻁ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻪ )‪ ،(S1‬ﻭﺍﻝﺤﻤل‬
‫ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻜﺎﻥ )‪ (P2‬ﻭﺍﻝﻬﺒﻭﻁ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻪ )‪ ،(S2‬ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ‪ ،‬ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺤﻨـﻰ )‪(P→S‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل )‪.(1-4‬‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺘﺤﻤﻴل ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺤﺩ ﻤﻌﻴﻥ ﻴﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺘﺭﺍﺹ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﻤـل‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒـﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﺘﻨـﺩﻤﻙ ﺒﺘﻘـﺎﺭﺏ‬
‫ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺒﻌﺽ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺎﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ ﺘﺘﺤﺴـﻥ ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺼـﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘـﺩﻋﻰ ﻫـﺫﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺭﺍﺤل ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻤﻴل ﺒﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﻀـﻐﺎﻁ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝـﺩﻤﻙ ) ‪Compaction‬‬
‫‪ ،(phase‬ﻭﻴﻤﺜل ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﺤﻤل )‪ (P2‬ﻭﺍﻝﻬﺒﻭﻁ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﻋﻨـﻪ )‪.(S2‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﻼﺸﻲ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺭﻜﻴـﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻨﻅﺭﻴـﹰﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝِﻡ ﺍﻝﺭﻭﺴﻲ ﻨﻴﻜﻭﻻﻱ ﻏﻴﺭﺴﻴﻔﺎﻨﻭﻑ )‪ ،(N.Gersevanov‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬
‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﻤل ﻭﺍﻝﻬﺒﻭﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺨﻁﻴﺔ )‪،(Linear‬‬

‫‪167‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻭﺒﺎﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﻘﻭﺍﻨﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻻﺸﺘﻘﺎﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ ﻤـﻥ ﻨﻅﺭﻴـﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﻨـﺔ‬


‫)‪ (Theory of elasticity‬ﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻀﻴﺔ ﻫـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻱ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﺸﻬﺭﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﺎ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﺼـﺎﻝﺤﺔ ﻁﺎﻝﻤـﺎ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﻤل ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻀﻤﻥ ﻨﻁﺎﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﻭﻝـﻰ ﻝﻠﺘﺤﻤﻴـل‪ ،‬ﻤﺭﺤﻠـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺩﻤﻙ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻭﻝﻜﻥ‪ ،‬ﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺤﺼل ﻝﻭ ﺘﻤﺕ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺤﻤل ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺘﻼﺸـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺘﻬﺎ ؟‬
‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺤﺼل ﻫﻭ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺘﺒﺩﺃ ﺒﺎﻻﻨﺯﻻﻕ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻓﻭﻕ ﺍﻻﺨﺭﻯ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺘﺒﺩﺃ‬
‫ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ )‪ .(Shear phase‬ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﻤل ﻭﺍﻝﻬﺒﻭﻁ ﻓﻲ ﻫـﺫﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺨﻁﻴﺔ )‪ ،(Non-linear‬ﻭﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺨﻼﻝﻬـﺎ ﺘﺘﺒـﻊ ﻨﻅﺭﻴـﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‪ ،‬ﺤﺘﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻓﺭﻋﹰﺎ ﺨﺎﺼﹰﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﺎ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻗﺩ ﺒﺩﺃ ﺒﺎﻻﺴﺘﻘﻼل ﺒﺫﺍﺘﻪ ﻭﻫﻭ‬
‫ﻓﺭﻉ "ﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﺎ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺨﻁﻴﺔ" )‪.(Non-linear soil mechanics‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﺃﻅﻬﺭﺕ ﺘﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺃﺠﺭﺍﻫﺎ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻡ ﺍﻝﺭﻭﺴﻲ ﻓﻼﺩﻴﻤﻴﺭ ﺒﻴﺭﻴﺯﺍﻨﺘﺴﻴﻑ ) ‪V.‬‬
‫‪ (Berezantsev‬ﺃﻥ ﻨﻭﺍﺓ ﻤﺘﺭﺍﺼﺔ )‪ (Compacted core‬ﺘﺘﺸﻜل ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ ﻭﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ )ﺸﻜل ‪ (2-4‬ﻭﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺘﺸﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺒﻠﻭﻍ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﺘﺤﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻘﺼﻭﻯ )ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻝﺤﻤل ‪ P3‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ‪ ،(1-4‬ﻭﺃﻱ ﺯﻴـﺎﺩﺓ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﻼ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﻤل ﺒﻌﺩ ﺫﻝﻙ ﺘﺅﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﻰ ﻅﻬﻭﺭ ﺍﺴﻁﺢ ﺍﻨﺯﻻﻕ ﻤﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺩﻝﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺩﺃﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻘﺩﺍﻥ ﺜﺒﺎﺘﻬﺎ )‪ ،(Loss of stability‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻤﻴل‬
‫ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺜﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺴﻤﻰ ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﻬﻴﺎﺭ )‪.(Failure phase‬‬
‫ﻭﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﻘﺹ ‪ ،‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺃﺤﺩ ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻝﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻜﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﻴﻥ ﻝﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻤﺎ‪:‬‬

‫‪168‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ (1-4‬ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﻤل ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﻬﺒﻭﻁ )ﻤﺭﺍﺤل ﺘﺤﻤﻴل ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ(‬

‫ﺍﻝﺘﻤﺎﺴﻙ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺘﻌﺒ‪‬ﺭ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻗﻭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﺎﺴﻙ )‪ (Cohesion‬ﻭﻴ‪‬ﺭﻤﺯ ﻝﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺃ‪-‬‬
‫ﺒﺎﻝﺤﺭﻑ )‪(C‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻜﺎﻙ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻌ ‪‬ﺒﺭ ﻋﻨـﻪ ﺯﺍﻭﻴـﺔ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻜـﺎﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺩﺍﺨﻠﻲ )‪ (Angle of internal friction‬ﻭﻴ‪‬ﺭﻤﺯ ﻝﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻝﻼﺘﻴﻨﻲ )‪.(φ‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻡ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻨﺴﻲ ﻜﻭﻝﻭﻡ )‪ (Columb‬ﺃﻭل ﻤﻥ ﺭﺒﻁ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺯﺍﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻜﺎﻙ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻤﺎﺴﻙ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﺴﻨﺔ ‪ 1773‬ﻓﻲ ﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺘﻪ‪:‬‬

‫‪169‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
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‫)‪τ = C + σ tan φ (1-4‬‬


‫ﺤﻴﺙ ‪:‬‬
‫‪ - τ‬ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﻘﺹ‬
‫‪ -C‬ﻗﻭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﺎﺴﻙ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫‪ -σ‬ﺍﺠﻤﺎﻝﻲ ﺍﻻﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻭﺩﻱ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ‬
‫‪ -φ‬ﺯﺍﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻜﺎﻙ ﺍﻝﺩﺍﺨﻠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ )‪ (1-4‬ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﻗﻴﻡ ﺍﻻﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻔﻌ‪‬ﺎل ) ‪Effective‬‬
‫‪:(stress‬‬
‫)‪(2-4‬‬ ‫‪τ′ = C′ + σ′ tan φ′‬‬
‫ﺤﻴﺙ‪:‬‬
‫‪ - C′,φ′‬ﻗﻭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﺎﺴﻙ ﻭﺯﺍﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻜﺎﻙ ﺍﻝﺩﺍﺨﻠﻲ ﻤﻨﺴﻭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻻﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻔﻌﺎل‬
‫‪ - σ′‬ﺍﻻﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻔﻌﺎل ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻭﺩﻱ )‪:(Normal effective stress‬‬

‫)‪(3-4‬‬ ‫‪σ′ = σ - u‬‬


‫ﺤﻴﺙ‪:‬‬
‫‪ - u‬ﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻤﻲ )‪.(Pore-water pressure‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل )‪ (3-4‬ﺍﻝﺘﻤﺜﻴل ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺎﻨﻲ ﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ ﻜﻭﻝﻭﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺒﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺅﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺍﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﻤﻌﺎﻤﻼﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻓﻬﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ )‪ (Direct shear test‬ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺠﺭﺍﺅﻩ ﺩﺍﺨل ﻤﺎ ﻴﺴـﻤﻰ‬
‫ﺒـ ﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ )‪ ،(Shear box‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﹸﺅﺨﺫ ﺜﻼﺙ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻤﺘﺸﺎﺒﻬﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺘﻡ‬
‫ل ﻋﻤـﻭﺩﻱ ﻤﺨﺘﻠـﻑ )‪ ،(σ1,σ2,σ3‬ﻭﺒﻌـﺩﻫﺎ ﻴـﺘﻡ‬
‫ﺘﻌﺭﻴﺽ ﻜل ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻝﺤﻤ ٍ‬
‫ﺘﻌﺭﻴﺽ ﻜل ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻝﻘﻭﺓ ﻗﺹ ﺃﻓﻘﻴﺔ )‪ ،(τ1،τ2 ،τ3‬ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻨﺘﻴﺠـﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺤـﺹ‬

‫‪170‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺭﺴﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ )‪) (σ →τ‬ﺸﻜل ‪ ،(4-4‬ﻭﻤﻨﻪ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺯﺍﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻜﺎﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺩﺍﺨﻠﻲ )‪ (φ‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻤﺎﺴﻙ )‪ (C‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﻤﺒﻴﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ (2-4‬ﺍﻝﻨﻭﺍﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺭﺍﺼ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﺸﻜل ﺒﻌﺩ ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ‬

‫‪171‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ (3-4‬ﺍﻝﺘﻤﺜﻴل ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺎﻨﻲ ﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ ﻜﻭﻝﻭﻡ ﻻﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ‬

‫ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ‪ :‬ﻤﻌﺭﻭﻑ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺘﻤﺎﺴﻙ ﺃﻗﻭﻯ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺘﻬﺎ )‪ (C‬ﻭﺍﺤﺘﻜﺎﻙ ﺩﺍﺨﻠـﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻗل )‪ ،(φ‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﺤﺘﻜﺎﻙ ﺃﻗﻭﻯ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺘﻤﺎﺴﻙ ﺃﻗل‪ .‬ﻭﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻅﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﺜﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻤﺎﺴﻜﺔ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ )‪ ،(φ=0‬ﻭﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻴـﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺤﺼـﻭﻴﺔ‬
‫)‪ ،(C=0‬ﻭﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﺜل ﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ ﻜﻭﻝﻭﻡ )‪ (1-4‬ﻤﻭﺍﺯﻴﹰﺎ ﻝﻤﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺴﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻝـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ )ﺸﻜل ‪ 5-4‬ﺃ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻨﻁﻠﻘﹰﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﻔﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻤل )ﺸﻜل ‪ 5-4‬ﺏ(‪.‬‬

‫‪ -2‬ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺜﻼﺜﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ )‪ – (Triaxial shear test‬ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺘﻌـﺭﻴﺽ‬


‫ﺜﻼﺙ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل )ﻁﻭﻝﻬﺎ ﻀﻌﻑ ﻗﻁﺭﻫﺎ( ﺍﻝﻰ ﻀﻐﻁ ﻤﻥ ﻜل‬
‫ﺍﻝﺠﻬﺎﺕ ﺩﺍﺨل ﻭﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﻲ ﻤﺤﻜﻡ ﻴﺴﻤﻰ ﺨﻠﻴﺔ )‪ ،(Cell‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل‬
‫ﻀﺦ ﻤﺎﺀ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻝﻴﺤﻴﻁ ﺒﺎﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺤﻔﻭﻅﺔ ﺩﺍﺨـل ﻏﺸـﺎﺀ‬

‫‪172‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻤﻁﺎﻁﻲ )‪ ،(Rubber membrane‬ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻀﻐﻁ ﺜﺎﺒﺘـﹰﺎ ﻭﻴﺭﻤـﺯ ﻝـﻪ‬


‫)‪ .(σ3‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﺫﻝﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻊ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﺒﺕ )‪ (σ3‬ﺤﻭل ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ‬
‫ل ﻋﻤﻭﺩﻱ ﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ ﻤﺘﺼﺎﻋﺩ ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺠﻴﹰﺎ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻨﻬﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل‬
‫ﺒﺤﻤ ٍ‬
‫)‪ (6-4‬ﻤﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺜﻼﺜﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ‪./7/‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﺭﺴﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ )‪ (σ→τ‬ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺸـﻜل )‪-4‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﻭﻝـﻰ‬
‫‪ ،(7‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﺒﺭﺴﻡ ﺩﻭﺍﺌﺭ ﻤﻭﺭ )‪ (Mohr circles‬ﻝﻜل ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﻤﺜ ﹰ‬
‫ﹸﺘ ﹶﺜ ‪‬ﺒﺕﹾ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻀﻐﻁ )‪ (σ3‬ﻭ )‪(σ1‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻻﻓﻘﻲ )‪ (σ‬ﻭﻤﻥ ﻤﻨﺘﺼﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫)‪ (σ1 - σ3‬ﻴ‪‬ﺭﺴﻡ ﻨﺼﻑ ﺍﻝﺩﺍﺌﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭل‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ‪ .‬ﻭﺒﻌﺩ ﺭﺴﻡ ﺩﻭﺍﺌﺭ ﻤـﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻴـﺘﻡ‬
‫ﺘﻭﺼﻴل ﻤﻤﺎﺱ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل )‪ (7-4‬ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﺜل ﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺨﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻘﻴﻡ }ﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ ﻜﻭﻝﻭﻡ )‪.{(104‬‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ (4-4‬ﺍﻝﺘﻤﺜﻴل ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺎﻨﻲ ﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬

‫‪173‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ -(5-4‬ﺘﻤﺜﻴل ﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ ﻜﻭﻝﻭﻡ ﺒﻴﺎﻨﻴﹰﺎ‪:‬‬


‫)ﺃ( ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻝﺔ )‪(φ=0‬‬
‫)ﺏ( ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻝﺔ )‪(C=0‬‬

‫‪174‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ (6-4‬ﻤﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺜﻼﺜﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ‬

‫‪175‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ (7-4‬ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺜﻼﺜﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ‬

‫ﻭﻨﺸﻴﺭ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺘﻌﺩﺩ ﻁﺭﻕ ﺍﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺜﻼﺜﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺤـﺎﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻤـﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻝﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻔﺤﺹ ﻓﻬﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃ – ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁﺔ‪-‬ﻏﻴـﺭ ‪‬ﻤﺼ‪‬ـﺭ‪‬ﻓﺔ )‪Unconsolidated-‬‬
‫‪ (Undrained UU‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻌﺭﻴﺽ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻝﻀﻐﻁ ﻤﻥ ﻜل‬

‫‪176‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺍﻝﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ )‪ ،(σ3‬ﺜﻡ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺒﺎﻝﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ )‪ (σ1 - σ3‬ﻓﻭﺭﹰﺍ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﻤﺎﺡ‬
‫ﺒﺤﺼﻭل ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﻝﻠﻤﻴﺎﻩ )‪ (Drainage‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺭﻓﺔ )‪Consolidated-‬‬
‫ﺕ‪ -‬ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﻋﻴﻨـﺔ ﻤﺘﻀـﺎﻏﻁﺔ‪-‬ﻏﻴـﺭ ‪‬ﻤﺼ‪‬ـ ‪‬‬
‫‪ (Undrained CU‬ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﺒﺤﺼﻭل ﺍﻝﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨـﺔ ﺃﺜﻨـﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺘﻌﺭﻀﻬﺎ ﻝﻠﺤﻤل ﻤﻥ ﻜل ﺍﻝﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ )‪ ،(σ3‬ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﻩ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨـﺔ‬
‫ﺤﺘﻰ ﺇﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺒﺎﻝﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ )‪ (σ1 - σ3‬ﺩﻭﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﺒﺤﺩﻭﺙ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ‪.‬‬

‫ﺼ ‪‬ﺭﻓﺔ )‪(Consolidated-Drained CD‬‬


‫ﺙ‪ -‬ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁﺔ‪ -‬ﻤ ‪‬‬
‫ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﺒﺤﺼﻭل ﺍﻝﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻀﻬﺎ ﻝﻠﺤﻤل ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﻜل ﺍﻝﺠﻭﺍﻨﺏ )‪ ،(σ3‬ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺘﻌﺭﻴﺽ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻝﻠﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﺨـﺎﺭﺠﻲ ) ‪σ1 -‬‬
‫‪ (σ3‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻨﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -3‬ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﻼﻤﺤﺼﻭﺭ )‪ (Unconfined compression test‬ﻭﻴـﺘﻡ‬


‫ﺨﻼﻝﻪ ﺘﻌﺭﻴﺽ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل )ﻁﻭﻝﻬﺎ ﻀﻌﻑ ﻗﻁﺭﻫـﺎ( ﻝﻀـﻐﻁ‬
‫ﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻤﺘﺼﺎﻋﺩ ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺠﻴﹰﺎ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻨﻬﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل )‪-4‬‬
‫‪ ،(6‬ﻭﺤﻴﺙ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻀﻐﻁ )‪ ،(σ3 =0‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻝﻀـﻐﻁ ﺍﻝـﺫﻱ ﻴﺤـﺩﺙ ﻋﻨـﺩﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻨﻬﻴﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺭﻤﺯ ﻝﻪ ﺒـ )‪ (qu‬ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺴﺎﻭﻴﹰﺎ )‪:(σ1‬‬
‫‪qu = σ1‬‬

‫ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﻁ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﻤﺜل ﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ ﻜﻭﻝﻭﻡ ﻤﻭﺍﺯﻴﹰﺎ ﻝﻠﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻻﻓﻘﻲ )‪ ،(σ‬ﻭﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺸﻜل )‪ (8-4‬ﻨﺴﺘﻨﺘﺞ ﺃﻥ‪:‬‬
‫‪qu‬‬
‫)‪(4-4‬‬ ‫=‪C‬‬
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪177‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﺎﺴﻙ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ( ﻫﻲ ﻨﺼﻑ ﻗﻴﻤـﺔ ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﻼﻤﺤﺼﻭﺭ ﻝﻬﺎ‪.‬‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ (8-4‬ﺍﻝﺘﻤﺜﻴل ﺍﻝﺒﻴﺎﻨﻲ ﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﻼﻤﺤﺼﻭﺭ‬

‫ﻭﻨﺸﻴﺭ ﺃﺨﻴﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﻨﺘﺸﺭﹰﺍ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻭﺍﺴـﻊ‪،‬‬
‫ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻁﺭﺃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻠﻡ ﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﺎ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻗﺩ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺘﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺸﻌﺒﻴﺔ ﻫﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻝﻸﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﻠﺨﺼﻬﺎ ﺝ‪ .‬ﺒﻭﻝﺯ )‪ (J. Bowles‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ ‪: /8/‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﺘﻐﻴ‪‬ﺭ ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ‪،‬‬

‫‪178‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ -2‬ﺴﻁﺢ ﺍﻻﻨﻬﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ ﻝﻴﺱ ﻤﺴﺘﻭﻴﹰﺎ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﻭﺭ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﺼﻨﺩﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻘﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻻ ﻴﺘﻭﺯﻉ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻤﻨﺘﻅﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﻁﺢ ﺍﻻﻨﻬﻴـﺎﺭ ﻜﻤـﺎ‬
‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤ‪‬ﻔﺘﺭ‪‬ﻀﹰﺎ‬
‫‪ -3‬ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﺼﻐﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻻﺒﻌﺎﺩ ﻤﻤﺎ ﻴﺯﻴﺩ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺤﺼﻭل‬
‫ﺍﻻﺨﻁﺎﺀ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭﻫﺎ‪،‬‬
‫‪ -4‬ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻴﺤﻭل ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺒﺩﺭﺍﺴﺎﺕ ﺘﻔﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻝﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﻤـﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻤﻲ )‪ (Pore-water pressure‬ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ‪،‬‬
‫‪ -5‬ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﻗﻴﻡ ﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻭﻨـﺔ )‪ (Modulus of elasticity‬ﻭﻤﻌﺎﻤـل‬
‫ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻭﻥ )‪ (Poisson’s ratio‬ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ‪،‬‬
‫‪ -6‬ﺘﻁﻭﻴﺭ ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺜﻼﺜﺔ )‪.(Triaxial apparatus‬‬

‫ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻨﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﻗﺩ ﻋﺎﺩ ﻤﺭﺓ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ﻝﻸﺴﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤـﺎ ﻴﻭﺭﺩﻫـﺎ‬
‫ﺝ‪.‬ﺒﻭﻝﺯ ﻨﻔﺴﻪ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔ ﻨﺴﺒﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﻭﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ ﻨﺘـﺎﺌﺞ ﻓﺤـﺹ ﺍﻝﻘـﺹ ﺜﻼﺜـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﺨﺼﻭﺼﹰﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻤﻲ‪،‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻝﻌﻤل ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺍﻝﺴﺭﻴﻊ ﺒﻌﺩ‬
‫‪ -2‬ﻻ ﻴﺄﺨﺫ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﻗﺘﹰﺎ ﻁﻭﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ )‪ ،(Consolidated-Undrained CU‬ﻭﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺍﻝﺒﻁﻲﺀ ﺒﻌﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ )‪ ،(Consolidated-Drained CD‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻝﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻡ ﻝﺘﺼـﺭﻴﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﻗﻠﻴل ﻨﺴﺒﻴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﺤﺘﻰ ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﻠﻴل‪،‬‬
‫‪ -3‬ﺇﺩﺨﺎل ﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺒﻊ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ‪‬ﻴ ‪‬ﻤﻜﱢﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺨﺫ ﺘﻘﻠﻴـل ﻤﺴـﺎﺤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﺒﻌﻴﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‪،‬‬
‫‪ -4‬ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻻﻝﻜﺘﺭﻭﻨﻴـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﻤـﺎ ﻻ‬
‫ﻴﺘﻁﻠﺏ ﺒﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻔﺎﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﻰ ﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﺍﻝﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ‪،‬‬

‫‪179‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
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‫‪ -5‬ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻗﻴﻡ )‪ (C‬ﻭ )‪ (φ‬ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺸـﺭ‬


‫ﻭﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺜﻼﺜﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒــﺔ‬ ‫‪2-4‬‬


‫)‪(Direct Shear Test of Soil‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ )‪:(Standard references‬‬


‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪ASTM D-3080.‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻻﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ )‪:(Equipment‬‬
‫ﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ )‪ (Direct shear box‬ﻭﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل )‪ (9-4‬ﺍﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﻫﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺠﻬﺎﺯ‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ )‪:(Procedure‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﹰﻻ – ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻤﺎﺴﻜﺔ )ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭﻴﺔ(‪:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﻴﻭﺯﻥ ﻭﻋﺎﺀ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻝﺭﻤل ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺩ ﻓﺤﺼﻪ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﻤﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻜﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﻝﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭ ﺜﻼﺙ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻤﺘﺸﺎﺒﻬﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‪،‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﺩﺨﺎل ﺒﺭﺍﻏﻲ ﺍﻝﻔﺼل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺼﻑ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻱ ﻝﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﺭﺒﻁ‬
‫ﻨﺼﻔﻲ ﺍﻝﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ‪،‬‬
‫‪ -3‬ﺘﹸﺅﺨﺫ ﻗﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ ﻝﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺴﻁﺢ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪،‬‬
‫‪ -4‬ﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺒﻌﻨﺎﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺜـﻡ ﻴﻭﻀـﻊ ﻗـﺭﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻤﻴل ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻤﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﻨﹼﻥ )‪،(Serrated porous disc‬‬
‫‪ -5‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺴﻠﻴﻁ ﺍﻝﺤﻤل ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻭﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﻠﻭﺏ )‪ (N1‬ﻤﻊ ﺃﺨـﺫ ﻭﺯﻥ ﻗـﺭﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻤﻴل ﻭﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻱ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ ﺒﻌﻴﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻜﺠﺯﺀ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫)‪،(N1‬‬

‫‪180‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
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‫‪ -6‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﻓﻙ ﺍﻝﺒﺭﺍﻏﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺭﺒﻁ ﺍﻝﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻱ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺼـﻨﺩﻭﻕ ﺒﺠﺯﺌـﻪ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺴﻔﻠﻲ‪،‬‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ – (9-4‬ﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬

‫‪ -7‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺜﺒﻴﺕ ﺴﺎﻋﺘﻲ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻝﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻭﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﻘﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻤﻭﺩﻴﺔ‪،‬‬


‫‪ -8‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺒﺩﺀ ﺒﺎﻝﻘﺹ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻭﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻭﺩﻴـﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ‬
‫ﺒﻌﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺄﺨﺫ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﺩﻯ ﻫﺒﻭﻁﻬﺎ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﻤل ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻭﺩﻱ )‪،(N1‬‬
‫‪ -9‬ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻝﻬﺒﻭﻁ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻭﺩﻱ‪ ،‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺒﺩﺀ ﺒﺘﺴﻠﻴﻁ ﺍﻝﺤﻤل ﺍﻻﻓﻘﻲ )‪(T1‬‬
‫ﻤﻊ ﺃﺨﺫ ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻭﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻓﻘﻴﺔ ﻜل ‪ 15‬ﺜﺎﻨﻴـﺔ ﻝﻠـﺩﻗﻴﻘﺘﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻻﻭﻝﻴﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜل ‪ 30‬ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﻭﻗﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺒﻘﻲ‪،‬‬

‫‪181‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
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‫ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻨﻬﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ )ﺤﺼﻭل ﺍﻝﻘﺹ( ﻴـﺘﻡ ﺭﻓـﻊ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨـﺔ ﻤـﻥ‬ ‫‪-10‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ‪،‬‬
‫ﺘﺘﻡ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ )‪ (10-1‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺘـﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺒـﺎﻗﻴﺘﻴﻥ ﺫﺍﺕ‬ ‫‪-11‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺎﺒﻬﻴ‪‬ﻥ ﻝﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﻭﻝﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺤﻤل‬
‫ﻋﻤﻭﺩﻱ )‪ (N2‬ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺤﻤل )‪ (N3‬ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺜﺔ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻜـﻭﻥ‬
‫)‪.(N1<N2<N3‬‬

‫ﺜﺎﻨﻴ ﹰﺎ ‪ -‬ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻤﺎﺴﻜﺔ )ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ(‪:‬‬


‫ﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻤﺎﺴﻜﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻘـﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺸـﺭ‬
‫ﺒﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻤﺎﺴﻜﺔ‪ ،‬ﺒﺎﺨﺘﻼﻑ ﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﻴﺘﻤﺜل ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺴـﻠﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴـﺏ )‪ ،(Undisturbed‬ﻭﻴﺠـﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻗﻁﻌﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﻭﺇﺩﺨﺎﻝﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺍﻨﻬـﺎﺀ ﺘﻀـﺎﻏﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ )‪ (Consolidation‬ﺘﺤﺕ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﻤل ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻭﺩﻱ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺒﻔﺼل ﺠﺯﺌـﻲ‪‬‬
‫ﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ )ﺨﻁﻭﺓ ﺭﻗﻡ ‪ ،(5‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻝﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺨﺭﻭﺝ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺒﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺼل‪.‬‬

‫‪ -4‬ﺍﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ )‪:(Calculations‬‬
‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺒﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺘﻤﺎﺴـﻜﺔ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺘﻤﺎﺴﻜﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻴ‪‬ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻻﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻭﺩﻱ )‪ (Normal stress‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪-‬‬
‫‪Ni‬‬
‫= ‪σi‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﻴ‪‬ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻻﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺃﺤﺩﺙ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ )‪ (Shear stress‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ‪:‬‬

‫‪182‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
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‫‪Ti‬‬
‫= ‪τi‬‬
‫‪A‬‬
‫ﺤﻴﺙ‪:‬‬
‫‪ - i‬ﺭﻗﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ‪،‬‬
‫‪ -A‬ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺴﻁﺢ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -6‬ﺍﻝﺭﺴﻡ )‪:(Plotting‬‬
‫ﻴ‪‬ﺭﺴﻡ ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ‪ τ‬ﻭ‪ σ‬ﻭﻤﻨﻪ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﻗﻭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﺎﺴﻙ )‪ (C‬ﻭﺯﺍﻭﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺃ‪-‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻜﺎﻙ ﺍﻝﺩﺍﺨﻠﻲ )‪.(φ‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺏ‪ ،‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺭﺴﻡ ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻭﻩ ﺍﻻﻓﻘﻲ ) ‪Horizontal‬‬
‫‪ (displacement‬ﻭﺍﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻭﻩ ﺍﻻﻓﻘﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺸﻭﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻭﺩﻱ )‪.(Vertical displacement‬‬

‫ﻻ ﻝﺤﺴـﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫ﻭﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ )‪ (1-4‬ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻨﺤﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﻓﻘﺔ )ﺸﻜل ‪ (10-4‬ﻤﺜـﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻭﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻨﺤﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻘﺘﺒﺴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺠﻊ ‪./7/‬‬

‫‪183‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
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‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ )‪(1-4‬‬

‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬
‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻻﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻭﺩﻱ ‪σn‬‬
‫‪146‬‬ ‫‪80‬‬ ‫‪36‬‬
‫)ﻜﻴﻠﻭﻨﻴﻭﺘﻥ‪/‬ﻡ‪(2‬‬
‫ﺍﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻻﻨﻬﻴﺎﺭ ‪τ‬‬
‫‪128‬‬ ‫‪70‬‬ ‫‪32‬‬
‫)ﻜﻴﻠﻭﻨﻴﻭﺘﻥ‪/‬ﻡ‪(2‬‬
‫‪2.2‬‬ ‫‪2.5‬‬ ‫‪2.0‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻭﻩ ﺍﻻﻓﻘﻲ )ﻤﻠﻡ(‬
‫‪0.14-‬‬ ‫‪0.15-‬‬ ‫‪16.0-‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻬﺒﻭﻁ )ﻤﻠﻡ(‬
‫‪1.71‬‬ ‫‪1.70‬‬ ‫‪1.70‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ )ﻏﻡ‪/‬ﺴﻡ‪(3‬‬

‫‪200‬‬
‫ﺇﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ )ﻜﻴﻠﻭ ﻨﻴﻭﺘﻥ‪/‬ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﺭﺒﻊ(‬

‫‪150‬‬

‫‪100‬‬

‫‪50‬‬

‫‪0‬‬
‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪50‬‬ ‫‪100‬‬ ‫‪150‬‬ ‫‪200‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻭﺩﻱ )ﻜﻴﻠﻭ ﻨﻴﻭﺘﻥ‪/‬ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﺭﺒﻊ(‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪(10-4‬‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ‪ :‬ﺍﻝﺘﻤﺎﺴﻙ )‪ = (C‬ﺼﻔﺭ‬
‫)ﻤﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ(‬ ‫ﺯﺍﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻜﺎﻙ ﺍﻝﺩﺍﺨﻠﻲ )‪ 41 = (φ‬ﺩﺭﺠﺔ‬

‫‪184‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
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‫‪ 3-4‬ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺜﻼﺜﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ‬


‫)‪(Triaxial Compression and Shear Test‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ )‪:(Standard references‬‬
‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪ASTM D-2850‬‬
‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪BS 1377.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﺍﻻﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ )‪:(Equipment‬‬
‫ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺜﻼﺜﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﻭﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﺸﻔﹼﺎﻓﺔ ﻤﺭﻜﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﻴﻜـل‬ ‫ﺃ‪-‬‬
‫ﺘﺤﻤﻴل ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺏ )‪) (Loading frame‬ﺸﻜل ‪،(11-4‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﻝﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﻗﻴﺎﺴﻬﺎ )ﻤﻨﺸﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺴـﻜﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﻝﻠﻘﻴـﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺩﻗﻴﻕ‪،(...‬‬
‫ﺕ‪ -‬ﻏﺸﺎﺀ ﻤﻁﺎﻁﻲ ﻝﺘﻐﻠﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ )‪،(Rubber membrane‬‬
‫ﺙ‪ -‬ﻓﺭﻥ ﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ ﻭﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -3‬ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ )‪:(Procedure‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭ ﺜﻼﺙ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻤﺘﺸﺎﺒﻬﺔ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻻﻗل( ﻤﻤﺜﻠﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴ‪‬ـﺭﺍﺩ‬
‫ﻓﺤﺼﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ﺫﺍﺕ ﻗﻁﺭ ﻴﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﻨﺼـﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻁﻭل )‪ ،(D = L/2‬ﻭﻏﺎﻝﺒﹰﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﻭل ‪ 76‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭﹰﺍ ﻭﺍﻝﻘﻁﺭ ‪ 38‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ ‪ :‬ﺍﻻﻗﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺸﺎﺌﻌﺔ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻫﻲ ‪ 1.4‬ﻭ ‪ 2.8‬ﺇﻨﺵ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻭﻻﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﻤﺭﻴﻜﻴـﺔ‪،‬‬
‫‪ 38‬ﻭ ‪100‬ﻤﻠﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺒﺭﻴﻁﺎﻨﻴﺎ ﻭ ‪ 50‬ﻤﻠﻡ ﻓﻲ ﻜﻨﺩﺍ ﻭﺍﻝﺩﻭل ﺍﻻﺴﻜﻨﺩﻨﺎﻓﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺃﺨﺫ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ ﺒﻘﻁﻌﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻜﺘﻠﺔ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )‪ (Block sample‬ﺃﻭ ﻤﻥ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺃﻨﺒـﻭﺏ ﺠﻤـﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﻲ )‪.(Tube sampler‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻐﻠﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻐﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﺎﻁﻲ ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﺒﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﻐﺸﺎﺀ ﺤﻭﻝﻬﺎ ﺍﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬
‫ﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺘﻤﺎﺴﻜﺔ ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺌﺒﺔ )‪ (Loose‬ﻏﻴـﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻤﺎﺴﻜﺔ ﻜﺎﻝﺭﻤل‪ ،‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺴﻜﺏ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﻐﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﺎﻁﻲ ﻋﺒـﺭ ﻗﻤـ ﹴﻊ‬
‫ﻭﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺽ‪،‬‬

‫‪185‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
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‫ﺸﻜل )‪ (11-4‬ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ ﺜﻼﺜﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ‬

‫‪186‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ُ -3‬ﺘﺅﺨﺫ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ )ﺍﻝﻘﻁﺭ ﻭﺍﻝﻁﻭل(‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ ﺘﹸﺅﺨﺫ ﻫﺫﻩ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻝﺘﻐﻠﻴﻑ ﺒﺎﻝﻐﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﺎﻁﻲ‪،‬‬
‫‪ -4‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺠﻤﻊ ﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺒﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺼـﺹ ﻝﻬـﺎ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺨﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻤﻸ ﺍﻝﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻝﻴﺤﻴﻁ ﺒﺎﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪،‬‬
‫‪ -5‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻌﺭﻴﺽ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺤﻴﻁ ﺒﺎﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻝﻀـﻐﻁ ﺜﺎﺒـﺕ‬
‫ﻤﻌﻴﻥ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﻤﻀﺨﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻝﻠﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﻀﻐﻭﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻫـﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻀـﻐﻁ‬
‫ﻤﺤﻴﻁﹰﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻜل ﺠﺎﻨﺏ ﻭﻴ‪‬ﺭﻤﺯ ﻝﻪ ﺒـ )‪- (σ3‬ﺍﻨﻅﺭ ﺸﻜل )‪، -(6-4‬‬
‫‪ -6‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺒﻀﻐﻁ ﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ ﻋﻤﻭﺩﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺨـﻼل ﺤﻤـل‬
‫ﻤﺘﺼﺎﻋﺩ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺤﺼﻭل ﺍﻨﻬﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻀﻐﻁ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻻﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﻫـﻭ‬
‫)‪- (σ1-σ3‬ﺍﻨﻅﺭ ﺸﻜل )‪،-(6-4‬‬
‫‪ -7‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻨﻬﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﻓﻙ ﺍﻝﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻨﻬـﺎ ﻝﻭﺼـﻑ ﺸـﻜل‬
‫ﺍﻻﻨﻬﻴﺎﺭ ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﺍﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻝﻬﺎ‪،‬‬
‫‪ -8‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﺘﻨﻅﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﺨﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﻝﺨﻁـﻭﺍﺕ ﻤـﻥ )‪ (7-2‬ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺘـﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﻗﻴﺘﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻤﻊ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻴﻁ ﺒﺎﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝـﻰ )‪ (σ′3‬ﺜـﻡ )‪ (σ′′3‬ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻭﻝﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺜﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺍﻝﻲ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ )‪.(σ3<σ3′<σ′′3‬‬
‫ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ ‪ :‬ﺘﹸﺅﺨﺫ ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻭﻫﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻭﺩﻴﺔ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻤﻴل ﻝﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻻﻨﻔﻌﺎل‪.‬‬

‫‪-4‬ﺍﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ )‪:(Calculation‬‬
‫ﻝﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻻﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﻤـﻭﺩﻱ )‪ (Normal stress‬ﻭﺍﻻﻨﻔﻌـﺎل )‪ (Strain‬ﺘﺴـﺘﻌﻤل‬
‫ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻭﺯ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -Lo‬ﺍﻝﻁﻭل ﺍﻻﺒﺘﺩﺍﺌﻲ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪،‬‬
‫‪ -D‬ﻗﻁﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪،‬‬
‫‪ -Ao‬ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻻﺒﺘﺩﺍﺌﻴﺔ ﻝﻤﻘﻁﻊ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬

‫‪187‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
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‫‪πD 2‬‬
‫= ‪Ao‬‬
‫‪4‬‬
‫‪ -X‬ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻭﻩ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻭﺩﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻴﺔ ﻝﺤﻅﺔ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻤﻴل‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﺘﹸﺤﺴﺏ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﻔﻌﺎل ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪-‬‬
‫‪X‬‬
‫=‪ε‬‬ ‫)‪100(%‬‬
‫‪Lo‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﻴ‪‬ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻭﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺤﺼل ﻋﻨﺩﻩ ﺍﻻﻨﻬﻴﺎﺭ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪P‬‬
‫= ‪σ1 − σ 3‬‬
‫‪Ao‬‬
‫ﺤﻴﺙ ‪ – P‬ﺍﻝﺤﻤل ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻭﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪-5‬ﺍﻝﺭﺴﻡ )‪:(Plotting‬‬
‫ﻴ‪‬ﺭﺴﻡ ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻭﺩﻱ )‪ (σ‬ﻭﺍﺠﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻘـﺹ )‪،(τ‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪-‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﹸﺤﺴﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﻗﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﺎﺴﻙ )‪ (C‬ﻭﺯﺍﻭﻴﺔ ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻜﺎﻙ ﺍﻝﺩﺍﺨﻠﻲ )‪.(φ‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﻴ‪‬ﺭﺴﻡ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻝﻁﻠﺏ‪ ،‬ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﻔﻌﺎل ﻭﺍﺠﻬـﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻘـﺹ‪.‬‬
‫ﻻ ﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻭﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﺤـﺹ ﺍﻝﻘـﺹ ﺜﻼﺜـﻲ‬
‫ﻭﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ )‪ (12-4‬ﻤﺜﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻨﺤﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﻤﻘﺘﺒﺴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺠﻊ ‪./7/‬‬

‫‪188‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
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‫ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ )‪(2-4‬‬
‫‪118-3-54‬‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ ﻗﺭﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻤﻴل‬ ‫‪78.2‬‬ ‫ﻁﻭل ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ )ﻤﻠﻡ(‬
‫‪1.71‬‬ ‫ﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﻗﺭﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻤﻴل )ﻨﻴﻭﺘﻥ‪/‬ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ(‬ ‫‪38.0‬‬ ‫ﻗﻁﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ )ﻤﻠﻡ(‬
‫‪100‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻀﻐﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺨﻠﻴﺔ )ﻜﻴﻠﻭﻨﻴﻭﺘﻥ ‪/‬ﻡ‪(2‬‬ ‫‪1134‬‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﻤﻘﻁﻊ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ)ﻤﻠﻡ‪(2‬‬
‫‪2‬‬ ‫ﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﻔﻌﺎل )‪ %‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ(‬ ‫‪88.7‬‬ ‫ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ )ﺴﻡ‪(3‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﻨﻔﻌﺎل‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻻﺠﻬﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ‬


‫ﺍﻻﻨﻔﻌﺎل‬
‫)‪(%‬‬ ‫)ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ=‪(div‬‬ ‫)ﻤﻠﻡ(‬
‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪0.0‬‬
‫‪0.25‬‬ ‫‪28‬‬ ‫‪0.20‬‬
‫‪0.50‬‬ ‫‪46‬‬ ‫‪0.40‬‬
‫‪0.75‬‬ ‫‪63‬‬ ‫‪0.60‬‬
‫‪1.00‬‬ ‫‪81‬‬ ‫‪0.80‬‬
‫‪1.50‬‬ ‫‪107‬‬ ‫‪1.20‬‬
‫‪2.00‬‬ ‫‪152‬‬ ‫‪1.60‬‬
‫‪2.50‬‬ ‫‪187‬‬ ‫‪2.00‬‬
‫‪3.00‬‬ ‫‪216‬‬ ‫‪2.40‬‬
‫‪3.50‬‬ ‫‪245‬‬ ‫‪2.80‬‬
‫‪4.00‬‬ ‫‪272‬‬ ‫‪3.20‬‬
‫‪4.50‬‬ ‫‪291‬‬ ‫‪3.60‬‬
‫‪5.00‬‬ ‫‪297‬‬ ‫‪4.00‬‬
‫‪5.50‬‬ ‫‪252‬‬ ‫‪4.40‬‬

‫‪φ‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﻔﻌﺎل‬ ‫ﺍﺠﻬﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﺨﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬


‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬
‫‪C‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻀﻐﻁ‪-‬‬ ‫)ﻜﻴﻠﻭ‬
‫)ﻜﻴﻠﻭﻨﻴﻭﺘﻥ‪/‬ﻡ‪(2‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬
‫)‪(º‬‬ ‫)‪(%‬‬ ‫‪(σ‬‬ ‫)‪σ 1‬‬
‫‪σ3-σ‬‬ ‫ﻨﻴﻭﺘﻥ‪/‬ﻡ‪σ1 (2‬‬ ‫)‪(%‬‬ ‫)ﻏﻡ‪/‬ﺴﻡ‪(3‬‬

‫‪189‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
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‫‪5.0‬‬ ‫‪425‬‬ ‫‪100‬‬ ‫‪21‬‬ ‫‪1.85‬‬ ‫‪A‬‬


‫‪17‬‬ ‫‪135‬‬ ‫‪6.2‬‬ ‫‪573‬‬ ‫‪200‬‬ ‫‪20‬‬ ‫‪1.83‬‬ ‫‪B‬‬
‫‪7.0‬‬ ‫‪672‬‬ ‫‪400‬‬ ‫‪21‬‬ ‫‪1.86‬‬ ‫‪C‬‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ (12-4‬ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺜﻼﺜﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ‪/‬ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺠﻊ ‪/7‬‬

‫‪ 4-4‬ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﻼﻤﺤﺼﻭﺭ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬


‫)‪(Unconfined Compression Test of Soil‬‬

‫‪ -1‬ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ )‪:(Standard references‬‬


‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪ASTM D-2166‬‬

‫‪190‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ -2‬ﺍﻻﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ )‪:(Equipment‬‬


‫ﻫﻴﻜل ﺘﺤﻤﻴل )‪ (Loading frame‬ﺫﻭ ﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﻴﺩﻭﻱ ﺃﻭ ﺁﻝﻲ ﻗـﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬ ‫ﺃ‪-‬‬
‫ﺍﻋﻁﺎﺀ ﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺘﺤﻤﻴل ﻗﺩﺭﻫﺎ ‪ 4 – 0.50‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭ‪/‬ﺍﻝﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺴـﺘﻌﻤﺎل‬
‫ﻨﻔﺱ ﻫﻴﻜل ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻤﻴل ﻝﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺜﻼﺜﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ ﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺽ‪،‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﻗﺭﺹ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻤﻴـل )‪ (Load measuring ring‬ﺫﻭ ﻗـﺩﺭﺓ ﺤـﻭﺍﻝﻲ ‪2‬‬
‫ﻜﻴﻠﻭﻨﻴﻭﺘﻥ‪،‬‬
‫ﺕ‪ -‬ﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﺜﺒﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﻴﻜل ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻤﻴل‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻻﻨﻔﻌـﺎل‬
‫)‪،(Strain‬‬
‫ﺙ‪ -‬ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﻝﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻭﻗﻴﺎﺴﻬﺎ )ﻤﻨﺸﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺴـﻜﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﻝﻠﻘﻴـﺎﺱ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺩﻗﻴﻕ‪،(...‬‬
‫ﺝ‪ -‬ﻓﺭﻥ ﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ ﻭﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻝﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -3‬ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ )‪:(Procedure‬‬
‫‪-1‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ﺫﺍﺕ ﻁﻭل ﻴﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﻀﻌﻑ ﺍﻝﻘﻁـﺭ ) = ‪L‬‬
‫‪ ،(2D‬ﻭﻏﺎﻝﺒﹰﺎ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻁﻭل = ‪ 76‬ﻤﻠﻡ ﻭﻗﻁـﺭ = ‪ 38‬ﻤﻠـﻡ )ﺍﻨﻅـﺭ‬
‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭ ﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﺜﻼﺜﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ(‪،‬‬
‫‪-2‬ﺘﹸﺅﺨﺫ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﻴﺅﺨﺫ ﻭﺯﻨﻬﺎ‪،‬‬
‫‪-3‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺼﺹ ﻝﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺠﻬﺎﺯ )ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺴـﻔﻠﻴﺔ(‬
‫ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﺘﺄﻜﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻀﻊ ﻤﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺎﺌﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﺒﻌـﺩﻫﺎ ﻴـﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﺭﻴـﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻭﺇﻨﺯﺍل ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻝﺘﻼﻤﺱ ﺴﻁﺢ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺜﻡ ﺘﹸﺜﺒـﺕ ﺴـﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﻴـﺎﺱ‬
‫ﻝﻼﻨﻔﻌﺎل‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺼﻔﻴﺭ ﺴﺎﻋﺘﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﻤل ﻭﺍﻻﻨﻔﻌﺎل‪،‬‬
‫‪-4‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻀﻐﻁ ﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ ﻋﻤﻭﺩﻱ ﻤﻊ ﺃﺨﺫ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺘﺒﺎﻋﹰﺎ ﻝﻜل‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﻤل ﻭﺍﻻﻨﻔﻌﺎل‪،‬‬

‫‪191‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪-5‬ﻴﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺒﺎﻝﺤﻤل ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺤﺼﻭل ﺍﻻﻨﻬﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺘﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﻜﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺩﻭﺜﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ ﺜﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﻤل ﺃﻭ ﻨﻘﺼﺎﻨﻪ ﻝﺜﻼﺙ ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻤﺘﺘﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺒﻠﻭﻍ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﻔﻌﺎل ‪ 15) %20‬ﻤﻠﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻬﺒﻭﻁ ﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻗﻁﺭﻫـﺎ‬
‫‪ 38‬ﻤﻠﻡ(‪،‬‬
‫‪-6‬ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻨﻬﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﻴﻘﺎﻑ ﺍﻝﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻭﺍﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻨﻪ‪،‬‬
‫‪-7‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺭﺴﻡ ﺸﻜل ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻨﻬﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻝﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻻﻨﻬﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺤﺼل‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻗﺩ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺃﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻻﻨﻬﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻥ )‪) (Plastic failure‬ﺸﻜل ‪ 13-4‬ﺃ(‬ ‫ﺃ‪-‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﻻﻨﻬﻴﺎﺭ ﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻥ )‪) (Semi-plastic failure‬ﺸﻜل ‪ 13-4‬ﺏ(‬
‫ﺕ‪ -‬ﺍﻨﻬﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻘﺼﻑ )‪) (Brittle failure‬ﺸﻜل ‪ 13-4‬ﺠـ(‪.‬‬
‫‪-8‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻻﻨﻬﻴﺎﺭ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -4‬ﺍﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ )‪:(Calculations and report‬‬


‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺍﻻﻨﻔﻌﺎل ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﻤﻭﻀﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﺜﻼﺜﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻀﻐﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺸﺩ ﺒﻘﺴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﻤل ﻝﺤﻅﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﻬﻴﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﻤﻘﻁﻊ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﻀـﻲ ﻤـﻊ‬
‫ﻤﺭﺍﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﻤ‪‬ﻼﺕ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﺒﻜل ﺠﻬﺎﺯ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ ﻓﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪:‬‬

‫‪192‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ (13-4‬ﺍﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻨﻬﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﻼﻤﺤﺼﻭﺭ‬


‫ﺃ‪-‬ﺍﻻﻨﻬﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻥ ﺏ‪ -‬ﺍﻻﻨﻬﻴﺎﺭ ﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻝﻠﺩﻥ ﺠـ‪ -‬ﺍﻨﻬﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻘﺼﻑ‬

‫ﻤﻘﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪-‬‬


‫ﺏ‪ -‬ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺕ‪ -‬ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﺙ‪ -‬ﺸﻜل ﺍﻻﻨﻬﻴﺎﺭ‪،‬‬
‫ﺝ‪ -‬ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻻﺠﻬﺎﺩ )ﺍﻝﻀﻐﻁ( ﻭﺍﻻﻨﻔﻌﺎل‪،‬‬
‫ﺡ‪ -‬ﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﺸﺩ ﺍﻻﻗﺼﻰ )ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻻﻨﻬﻴـﺎﺭ( ﻭﻫـﻭ ﻨﻔﺴـﻪ ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤـﺔ ﺍﻝﻀـﻐﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻼﻤﺤﺼﻭﺭ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ )‪.(qu) (Unconfined compressive strength‬‬
‫ﺥ‪ -‬ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﻔﻌﺎل ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻻﻨﻬﻴﺎﺭ )‪.(%‬‬

‫‪ -5‬ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ ‪ :‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺤﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ )‪ (Sensitivity of clay‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻨﻬﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬


‫ﻭﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﻼﻤﺤﺼﻭﺭ )‪ ،(qu‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﺒﺄﺨﺫ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺘﺸـﻜﻴﻠﻬﺎ‬
‫)‪ (Remoulding‬ﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﻴﺔ ﺒﻨﻔﺱ ﻤﻘﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻻﻭﻝﻰ ﻭﻓﺤﺹ ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺘﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﻝﻠﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﻼﻤﺤﺼﻭﺭ)‪ .(qr‬ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺤﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪q‬‬
‫‪St = u‬‬
‫‪qr‬‬
‫ﺤﻴﺙ ‪:‬‬
‫‪-qu‬ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ ﻝﻠﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﻼﻤﺤﺼﻭﺭ‪،‬‬
‫‪-qr‬ﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺘﺠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻜﻴل ﻝﻠﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﻼﻤﺤﺼﻭﺭ‪.‬‬

‫‪193‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺭﺍﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪194‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ – ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺍﻝﺒــﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ‬

‫ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒــــﺔ‬

‫‪ 1-5‬ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ‬
‫‪ 2-5‬ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫‪ 3-5‬ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬

‫‪195‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ – ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺍﻝﺘـﻀﺎﻏـﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤـﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘـﺭﺒـﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ‬

‫)‪(One - Dimensional Consolidation of Soil‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ‬ ‫‪1-5‬‬


‫)‪(Compressibility and Consolidation‬‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﺍﻨﻀــﻐﺎﻁﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒــﺔ )‪ (Soil compressibility‬ﻭﺘﻀــﺎﻏﻁﻬﺎ ) ‪Soil‬‬


‫‪ (consolidation‬ﻴﺩﻻﹼﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﻴﺌﻴ‪‬ﻥ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﻴ‪‬ﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻥ ﺒﺩﺍ ﻝﻠﻭﻫﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻝـﻰ ﺃﻨﻬﻤـﺎ‬
‫ﻴﺩﻻﹼﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺸﻲﺀ ﻨﻔﺴـﻪ‪ .‬ﻭﻨﺄﻤـل ﺃﻥ ﻴﺒـﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺸـﺭﺡ ﺍﻝﻼﺤـﻕ ﻝﻠﻤﻘﺼـﻭﺩ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺼﻁﻠﺤﻴ‪‬ﻥ ﺼﻭﺍﺏ ﺍﺠﺘﻬﺎﺩﻨﺎ ﺒﺎﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺠﻤﺔ ﻝﻬﻤﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﻨﻘﺼﺎﻥ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺤﻴﻥ ﺘﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﻝﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺇﺠﻬـﺎﺩ‬
‫ﻀﻐﻁ )‪ ،(Compressive stress‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﺘﻀﺎﺅل ﻓﺭﺍﻏﺎﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﻋـﺎﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻫﺫﺍ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻡ ﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻤـﺎ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻔﻬﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺹ ﻝﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻭ ﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺤﻴﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺴﻤﻭﺤﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻝﻬﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ )‪.(Consolidate‬‬
‫ﻓﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﺼﻭﺩ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ؟‬
‫ﻫﻭ ﻤﺼﻁﻠﺢ ﻴﺅﺘﻰ ﺒﻪ ﻝﻠﺘﺩﻝﻴل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺘﺠﺭﻱ ﻭﻓﻘـﹰﺎ ﻝﺸـﺭﻭﻁ ﻭﻓﺭﻀـﻴﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺨﺎﺼﺔ‪ ،‬ﺘﺸﻜل ﻤﻌ ﹰﺎ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻱ ﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴـﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻀـﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤـﻭﺭﻱ )‪One-‬‬
‫‪.(dimensional consolidation theory‬‬

‫‪196‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ – ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﻫﻭ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺘﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﻠﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺨـﻼل‬


‫ﻓﺘﺭﺓ ﺯﻤﻨﻴﺔ ﻭﺘﺤﺕ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺇﺠﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻤﺘﺯﺍﻴﺩﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺘﺭﺍﻓﻕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺨـﺭﻭﺝ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬ ‫‪2-5‬‬


‫)‪(One-Dimensional Consolidation Theory‬‬

‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﺒﺭﻭﻓﻴﺴﻭﺭ ﻜﺎﺭل ﺘﺭﺯﺍﺠﻲ )‪ (K.Terzaghi‬ﺃﻭل ﻤﻥ ﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻝﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻥ ﻜل ﻤﺎ‬


‫ﻫﻭ ﻤﺘﻌﻠﻕ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﻁﻭﻴـل ﺍﻷﻤـﺩ )‪ (Long-term consolidation‬ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻓﻲ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻪ ﺍﻝﺸﻬﻴﺭ ﺒﺎﻷﻝﻤﺎﻨﻴـﺔ )‪ (Erdbaumechanik‬ﺃﻱ ﻫﻨﺩﺴـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺼﺩﺭ ﻝﻠﻤﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻰ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻴﻴﻨﺎ ﺴﻨﺔ ‪ .1925‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﺘﺎﺒﻊ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺠﻬﻭﺩ ﺘﺭﺯﺍﺠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻫـﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻤﺠـﺎل‪ ،‬ﻭﻜـﺎﻥ ﺃﻫﻤﻬـﻡ ﺍﻝﺒﺭﻭﻓﻴﺴـﻭﺭ ﻨﻴﻜـﻭﻻﻱ‬
‫ﻏﻴﺭﺴﻴﻔﺎﻨﻭﻑ )‪ (N. Gersevanov‬ﺒﺄﺒﺤﺎﺜﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺸﻭﺭﺓ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻋﺎﻤﻲ ‪،1948-1931‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺒﺭﻭﻓﻴﺴﻭﺭ ﻓﻼﺩﻴﻤﻴﺭ ﻓﻠﻭﺭﻴﻥ )‪ (V.Florin‬ﺒﺄﺒﺤﺎﺜﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺸـﻭﺭﺓ ﺒـﻴﻥ ﻋـﺎﻤﻲ‬
‫‪.1961-1937‬‬
‫ل ﺍﻝﻨﻅﺭﻱ ﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻀـﺎﻏﻁ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﻋﺭﺽ ﺘﺭﺯﺍﺠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺒﺤﺜﻪ ﺍﻝﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺨ َ‬
‫ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﺍﻝﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺒﺘﺼﻤﻴﻤﻪ ﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻅﺎﻫﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺃﻁﻠﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﺴﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻭﺩﻭﻤﻴﺘﺭ )‪ ،(Oedometer‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻤﺸﺘﻘﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻤـﺔ ﺍﻝﻴﻭﻨﺎﻨﻴـﺔ )‪(Oidem‬‬
‫ﻭﻤﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻔﺎﺥ )‪.(Swelling‬‬
‫ﻭﺴﻨﻜﺘﻔﻲ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺒﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻷﻤﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺒﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺨﻭﺽ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺘﻔﺎﺼﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺭﻴﺎﻀﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺤﺘﻰ ﻻ ﻨﺨﺭﺝ ﻋﻥ ﺇﻁﺎﺭ ﺍﻝﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪.‬‬

‫‪197‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ – ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ 1-2-5‬ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ‬


‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻭﻑ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺼﻠﺒﺔ )‪ (Solid particles‬ﺘﺘﻭﺍﺠـﺩ‬
‫ﺒﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻓﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ )‪ (Voids‬ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻤﻠﻭﺀﺓ ﺒﺎﻝﻐﺎﺯ )ﺍﻝﻬﻭﺍﺀ ﻏﺎﻝﺒـﺎ(ً‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻤـﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻜﻠﻴﻬﻤﺎ ﻤﻌﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﻜل ﻤﺯﻴﺞ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﺘﻌﺭﺽ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻹﺠﻬـﺎﺩ ﻀـﻐﻁ‪ ،‬ﻓـﺈﻥ‬
‫ﺤﺠﻤﻬﺎ ﻴﻨﻘﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺹ ﺒﺎﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻴـﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸـﺒﻌﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻤـﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺭﺍﺠﻌﹰﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﺤﺩ ﺍﻝﻌﻭﺍﻤل ﺍﻝﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺍﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼﻠﺒﺔ )‪،(Compression of solid particles‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﺍﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺒـﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒـﺎﺕ ) ‪Compression of water in‬‬
‫‪،(voids‬‬
‫ﺕ‪" .‬ﻓﺭﺍﺭ" ﺃﻭ ﺇﻓﻼﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ )‪.(Escape of water from voids‬‬

‫ﻭﺒﻤﺎ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻷﻭل )ﺃ( ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻀﻭﻴﺔ ﻀﺌﻴل ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻤـﺎل‪ ،‬ﻓـﺈﻥ‬
‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤل ﻴ‪‬ﻬﻤل ﻓﻲ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴ‪‬ﻬﻤل ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤـل ﺍﻝﺜـﺎﻨﻲ )ﺏ( ﻷﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻻ ﻴﻜﺎﺩ ﻴ‪‬ﺫﻜﺭ‪ .‬ﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺙ )ﺕ(‪ ،‬ﺍﻝـﺫﻱ ﻴﻘﻀـﻲ ﺒـﺄﻥ‬
‫ﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻴﺤﺼل ﻜﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﻹﻓﻼﺕ ﺃﻭ ﺨﺭﻭﺝ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﻓﺭﺍﻏـﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﺘﺤﺕ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺘﺭﺘﻜﺯ ﺇﻝﻴﻪ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻤﺎ ﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻡ )‪ (Volume change‬ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﻋﻥ ﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻨـﻪ ﻴـﺘﻡ‬
‫ﺒﺒﻁﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﺍﻝﻬﺒﻭﻁ )‪ (Settlement‬ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺘﺞ ﻋﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﻨﻪ ﻴﺴﺘﻐﺭﻕ ﻭﻗﺘﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻼ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺤﺘﻰ ﻴﺼل ﺇﻝﻰ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺘﻪ ﺍﻝﻘﺼﻭﻯ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺩﻋﻰ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﺤﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻁﻭﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻬﺒﻭﻁ ﺍﻝﺤﺩ‪‬ﻱ )‪.(Ultimate settlement‬‬
‫ﻭﻝﺘﻭﻀﻴﺢ ﻤﻴﻜﺎﻨﻴﻜﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ‪ ،‬ﻨﻭﺭﺩ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻤـﻭﺫﺝ ﺃﻭ "ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺩﻴـل"‬
‫ﻝﻬﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻗﺩﻤﻪ ﺘﺭﺯﺍﺠﻲ ﻭﺯﻤﻴﻠﻪ ﺭﺍﻝﻑ ﺒﻴﻙ )‪ (R. Peck‬ﺴـﻨﺔ ‪،1948‬‬
‫ﻭﺤﺴﺏ ﺸﺭﺡ ﻭﺘﻔﺴﻴﺭ ﺩ‪ .‬ﺘﺎﻴﻠﻭﺭ )‪./7/ (D. Taylor‬‬

‫‪198‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ – ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ 2-2-5‬ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺒﺱ ﻭﺍﻝﻨﺎﺒﺽ )ﺍﻝﺯﻨﺒﺭﻙ(‬


‫)‪(Spring and Piston Analogy‬‬

‫ﻝﻨﻔﺭﺽ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﻭﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﻷﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﻴ‪‬ﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل )‪ (1-5‬ﻝـﻪ ﻤﻜـﺒﺱ ﻋـﺩﻴﻡ‬


‫ﺍﻻﺤﺘﻜﺎﻙ )‪ (Frictionless piston‬ﻭﺫﻭ ﻭﺯﻥ ﻻ ﻴﺫﻜﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﺴـﺎﺤﺔ ﺴـﻁﺤﻪ )‪(A‬‬
‫ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭﹰﺍ ﻤﺭﺒﻌﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻨﻪ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﺘﺤﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺒﺱ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻜﻡ ﺒﻬﺎ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ‬
‫ﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ )‪.(Valve‬‬
‫ﻨﻔﺘﺭﺽ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻻﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﺔ ﻤﻤﻠﻭﺀﺓ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺯﻨﺒﺭﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﻥ ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺒﺱ ﻭﻗﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﺔ )ﺸﻜل ‪1-5‬ﺃ(‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﻨـﺎﻙ ﺤﺎﻝـﺔ‬
‫ﺇﺘﺯﺍﻥ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻤﻐﻠﻘﹰﺎ ﻭﻻ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﻱ ﺤﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻜـﺒﺱ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻻ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺯﻨﺒﺭﻙ ﻤﻌﺭﻀﹰﺎ ﻷﻱ ﻀﻐﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﺃﻱ ﻀﻐﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﻭﺯﻥ )‪ 200‬ﻨﻴﻭﺘﻥ( ﻓﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺒﺱ )ﺸﻜل ‪1-5‬ﺏ(‪ .‬ﻴﺒﻘـﻰ ﺍﻝﻤـﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻤﺤﺼﻭﺭﹰﺍ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺴﻤﺢ ﻝﻪ ﺒﺎﻝﺨﺭﻭﺝ ﻷﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻤﻐﻠﻕ‪ ،‬ﻝﺫﺍ ﻻ ﻴﺘﺤـﺭﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺒﺱ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﺴﻔل ﻭﺒﺎﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ ﻻ ﻴﻨﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﺯﻨﺒﺭﻙ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﻭﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺜﺭﺓ ﺇﻝﻰ‬
‫ﺃﺴﻔل ﻤﺘﻭﺍﺯﻨﺔ ﻤﻊ ﻗﻭﺓ ﺭﺩ ﻓﻌل ﻤﺅﺜﺭﺓ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﻀﻐﻁ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﻲ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻝﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﺴﺘﺎﺘﻴﻜﻲ )‪ (Hydrostatic pressure‬ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴ‪‬ﺴﺎﻭﻱ‬
‫‪) A÷200‬ﻨﻴﻭﺘﻥ‪/‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭﻤﺭﺒﻊ(‪.‬‬
‫ﺕ‪ .‬ﻓﻲ ﻝﺤﻅﺔ ﻤﻌﻴﻨﺔ ‪‬ﻴﺤﺭﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ )‪ (t = 0‬ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺸﻐﻴل ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﻗﻴﺕ‪.‬ﻋﻨﺩﻫﺎ‬
‫ﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﺒﺈﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺨﺭﻭﺝ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻝﻔﺘﺤﺔ ﻭﻝﻜﻥ ﺒﺒﻁﺀ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﺼﻐﺭ ﻓﺘﺤـﺔ‬
‫ﻼ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﻴﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻨﺒﻭﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺒﺱ ﺒﺎﻝﻬﺒﻭﻁ ﺒﺒﻁﺀ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﺴﻔل ﻤﺴﺒﺒﹰﺎ ﺤﻤ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺯﻨﺒﺭﻙ ﻭﺃﻗل ﻤﻨﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ )ﺍﻝﺸﻜل ‪1-5‬ﺩ‪ ،‬ﺯ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻤﻊ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ ﻴﻨﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﺯﻨﺒﺭﻙ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺩﺭﺠـﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺼـﻭﻯ )ﺸـﻜل ‪ 1-5‬ﺯ(‪،‬‬
‫ﻼ ﻝﻜل ﺍﻝﺤﻤل‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺩﻫﺎ ﻴﺘﻼﺸـﻰ ﺍﻝﻀـﻐﻁ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻝﻤـﺎﺀ ) ‪Excess‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﺤﺎﻤ ﹰ‬

‫‪199‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ – ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ ،(pressure in water‬ﻭﻴﺤﺼل ﺍﺘﺯﺍﻥ ﻭﺘﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺒﺱ )ﺸﻜل ‪1-5‬ﺯ(‪.‬‬


‫ﻭﺃﻤﺎ ﺃﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﺤﻤل ﺍﻝﻭﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺯﻨﺒﺭﻙ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺘـﺭﺍﺕ ﺯﻤﻨﻴـﺔ‬
‫ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻤﻨﺫ ﺍﻝﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻲ ﻤﺒﻴﻨﺔ ﺃﺴﻔل ﺍﻝﺸـﻜل )‪ ،(1-5‬ﺇﻀـﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻝـﻰ ﻨﺴـﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﻨﻬﺎﺌﻲ ﻝﻠﺯﻨﺒﺭﻙ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻫﻲ ﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﻤل ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻴﺔ ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻭﺍﻀﺢ ﺃﻨﻪ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﺼل ﺍﻻﺘﺯﺍﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻬﺎﺌﻲ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺩﺭﺠـﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻀـﺎﻏﻁ ﺘﻜـﻭﻥ‬
‫‪ ،%100‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﻗﺩ ﺍﻨﺘﻬﻰ‪.‬‬

‫‪ 3-2-5‬ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻀﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﻝﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ )‪(Basic assumptions‬‬


‫ﺘﻘﻭﻡ ﻨﻅﺭﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻀﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﺸﺒﻌﺔ ﺘﻤﺎﻤﹰﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻗﺎﺒﻠﺔ ﻝﻼﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ‪.‬‬
‫ﺕ‪ .‬ﻫﻴﻜل ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )‪ (Soil skeleton‬ﻴﻨﻀﻐﻁ ﻓﻭﺭ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﻤل ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﻝﻪ‬
‫ﺘﺸﻭﻩ‪.‬‬
‫ﺙ‪ .‬ﺍﻝﺤﻤل ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻴﻨﺘﻘل ﻓﻭﺭﹰﺍ ﻝﻴﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﺝ‪ .‬ﺤﺭﻜﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺘﺠﺭﻱ ﺒﺸﻜل ﻋﻤﻭﺩﻱ ﻓﻘﻁ‪.‬‬
‫ﺡ‪ .‬ﺘﺭﺸﺢ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻴﺨﻀﻊ ﺘﻤﺎﻤﹰﺎ ﻝﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﺴﻲ )‪.(Darcy’s law‬‬

‫‪200‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ – ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
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‫ﺸﻜل )‪ -(1-5‬ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺒﺱ ﻭﺍﻝﺯﻨﺒﺭﻙ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﻤﺒﺩﺃ ﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪201‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ – ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ 4-2-5‬ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬


‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻠﺨﻴﺹ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻤﺩﻯ ﻗﺎﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻼﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﺤﻤـﺎل ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﺠﻴـﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻌﺒﺭ ﻋﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﻤﻌﺎﻤـل ﺍﻻﻨﻀـﻐﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻤـﻲ ) ‪Coefficient of‬‬
‫‪ (volume compressibility‬ﻭﻴﺭﻤﺯ ﻝﻪ )‪ ،(mv‬ﻭﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﻘﻴﺱ ﺍﻝﻜﻤﻴـﺔ ﺍﻝﺘـﻲ‬
‫ﺘﻨﻀﻐﻁ ﺇﻝﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﻤل ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺴﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﻫﺒﻭﻁﻬﺎ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﻤل ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺭﺠﻲ ﻭﺭﺒﻁ ﺫﻝـﻙ‬
‫ـﺎﻏﻁ ) ‪Coefficient of‬‬
‫ـل ﺍﻝﺘﻀـ‬
‫ـﻼل ﻤﻌﺎﻤـ‬
‫ـﻥ ﺨـ‬
‫ـﺯﻤﻥ‪ ،‬ﻤـ‬
‫ـل ﺍﻝـ‬
‫ﺒﻌﺎﻤـ‬
‫‪ (consolidation‬ﻭﻴﺭﻤﺯ ﻝﻪ )‪ ،(Cv‬ﻭﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﻌﺒﺭ ﻋـﻥ ﺴـﺭﻋﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻀـﺎﻏﻁ‬
‫)‪ ،(Rate of consolidation‬ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺍﻝﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺯﻤﻨﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ ﻝﻠﻭﺼﻭل‬
‫ﺇﻝﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻬﺒﻭﻁ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻲ )‪.(Final settlement‬‬
‫ﺕ‪ .‬ﺘﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻨﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻌﺭﻓـﺔ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺘﻬـﺎ‬
‫)‪.(Permeability‬‬

‫‪ 3-5‬ﻓﺤـﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﻀــﺎﻏـﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤـﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘـﺭﺒـﺔ‬


‫) ‪(One-Dimensional Consolidation Test of Soil‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ )‪:(Standard references‬‬


‫‪- BS 1377‬‬
‫‪- ASTM D-2435‬‬
‫‪- AASHTO T-216.‬‬
‫ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ‪ :‬ﺘﺨﺘﻠﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭﺓ ﺃﻋﻼﻩ ﻓﻲ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻋﺭﻀﻬﺎ ﻝﻠﻔﺤﺹ‪ ،‬ﺭﻏـﻡ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺩﺃ ﺜﺎﺒﺕ ﻻ ﻴﺘﻐﻴﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﺴﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻋﺭﻀﻨﺎ ﻝﻠﻔﺤﺹ ﻫﻨﺎ ﻤﺭﺘﻜﺯﹰﺍ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺼـﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺒﺭﻴﻁﺎﻨﻴـﺔ‬
‫)‪ ،(BS 1377‬ﻭﻴﺸﻤل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻭﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ‪ .‬ﻭﺴﻨﺭﺘﻜﺯ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺠﻊ ‪./7/‬‬

‫‪202‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ – ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
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‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ )‪:(Equipment‬‬


‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ )‪ -(Oedometer‬ﻭﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺒﺸﻜل ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻲ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ ﺃﻭ ﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ )‪ ،(Consolidation cell‬ﻭﺃﻫﻡ ﺃﺠﺯﺍﺌﻬﺎ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ )‪ (Ring‬ﻭﻗﻁﺭﻫﺎ )‪ (50‬ﺃﻭ )‪ (75‬ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭﹰﺍ ﻭﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻋﻬـﺎ )‪(20‬‬
‫ﻤﻠﻤﺘﺭﹰﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﻝﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ ﺃﻭ ﺠﺴﻡ ﺍﻝﺨﻠﻴﺔ )‪.(Cell body‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺃﻗﺭﺍﺹ ﻤ‪‬ﻨﻔ‪‬ﺫﺓ )‪ (Porous discs‬ﻋﺩﺩ )‪.(2‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻗﺭﺹ ﺘﺤﻤﻴل )‪ (Loading yoke‬ﻋﻤﻭﺩﻱ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺫﺭﺍﻉ ﺃﻓﻘﻲ )‪ (Beam‬ﻴﻨﻘل ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎل ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺃﺤﻤﺎل )ﺃﻭﺯﺍﻥ( )‪.(Weights‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﺒﻴ‪‬ﻥ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل )‪ (2-5‬ﺃﻫﻡ ﺘﻔﺎﺼﻴل ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﺴﻜﺎﻜﻴﻥ ﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ ﺨﺎﺼﺔ ﻝﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ )‪.(Trimming Knives‬‬
‫ﺕ‪ .‬ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺘﻭﻗﻴﺕ )‪.(Watch glass‬‬
‫ﺙ‪ .‬ﻤﻴﺯﺍﻥ )‪.(Balance‬‬
‫ﺝ‪ .‬ﺃﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻝﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (3‬ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ )‪:(Procedure‬‬


‫‪ -1‬ﺘﺅﺨﺫ ﻤﻘﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ )ﺍﻝﻘﻁﺭ ‪ D‬ﻭﺍﻻﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ‪ (H‬ﻭﻴﺅﺨﺫ ﻭﺯﻨﻬـﺎ‬
‫ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ )‪.(mR‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ -‬ﻭﻴﻘﺼﺩ ﺒﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤـﻭﺭﻱ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺇﺩﺨﺎل ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺸﻜل‬
‫ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺃﻨﺒﻭﺏ ﺠﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺎﺕ )‪ ،(Tube sampler‬ﺃﻭ ﻜﺘﻠﺔ ﻤﺄﺨﻭﺫﺓ ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺤ‪‬ﻔﺭﺓ ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﻴﺔ )‪) (Block sample‬ﺃﻨﻅﺭ ﺸﻜل ‪ ،(2-1‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻌﺠﻭﻨﺔ‬

‫‪203‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ – ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫)ﻤ‪‬ﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻜﻴل ‪ .(Remoulded sample‬ﻭﻝﻜـﻥ‪ ،‬ﻏﺎﻝﺒـﹰﺎ ﻤـﺎ ﻴﻜـﻭﻥ‬


‫ﺍﻝﻤﻁﻠﻭﺏ ﻫﻭ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ )‪ (Undisturbed sample‬ﻭﻤﻤﺜﻠـﺔ‬
‫ﻝﻠﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺒﻭﻀﻊ ﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻀـﺎﻏﻁ‬
‫ﻓﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻨﺒﻭﺏ ﺃﻭ ﻜﺘﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ( ﺒﻌﺩ ﺘﺴﻭﻴﺔ ﺴﻁﺤﻬﺎ ﺠﻴﺩﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﺜـﻡ‬
‫ﻴ‪‬ﻌﺯﺯ ﺠﺯﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻘﻠﻴل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻀﻐﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻨﻅـﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﺤﻭل ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺨﺎﺭﺠﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﺴﻜﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻐﺭﺯ ﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭﹰﺍ ﺁﺨﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ‪ ،‬ﺤﺘـﻰ‬
‫ﺘﻨﻐﺭﺯ ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﺘﻤﺎﻤﹰﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﻭﻤﺎ ﺒـﺩﺍﺨﻠﻬﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﺜﻡ ﻴ‪‬ﺴﻭ‪‬ﻯ ﺴﻁﺢ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﻬﺘﻴﻥ ﻤﻊ ﺤﻭﺍﻑ ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻘﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -3‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺃﺨﺫ ﺒﻌﺽ ﻨﻭﺍﺘﺞ ﺍﻝﻘﻁﻊ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝـﻙ ﻝﺤﺴـﺎﺏ‬
‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ )‪،Wo (Initial moisture content‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﻝﻬﺎ ‪ -Gs‬ﺃﺤﻴﺎﻨﹰﺎ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻓﺭﺽ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻭﻋﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺤﺴﺏ ﻨﻭﻋﻬﺎ ﻭﻴ‪‬ﺸﺎﺭ ﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ‪.-‬‬
‫‪ -4‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺤﻘﻕ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺠﺯﺍﺌﻪ ﻭﻭﻀﻌﻪ ﺍﻷﻓﻘﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -5‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺩﺍﺨـل ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻘـﺔ )‪ (m = m1-mR‬ﺤﻴـﺙ‪– m1‬ﻭﺯﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻘﺔ‪ - mR ،‬ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻓﺎﺭﻏﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -6‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺠﻤﻊ ﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ ﺃﻭ ﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺒﻭﻀـﻊ ﻗـﺭﺹ ﻤﻨﻔـﺫ ﺩﺍﺨـل‬
‫ﺍﻝﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ ﻭﻓﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﺜﻡ ﻗﺭﺹ ﻤﻨﻔﺫ ﻓﻭﻕ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨـﺔ‪ ،‬ﺜـﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻐﻁﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﻗﺭﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻤﻴل –ﺃﻨﻅﺭ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل )‪2-5‬ﺃ(‪.-‬‬

‫‪204‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ – ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ -(2-5‬ﺘﻔﺎﺼﻴل ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ‬


‫)ﺃ( ﺭﺴﻡ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁﻲ ﻝﺨﻠﻴﺔ )ﺼﻨﺩﻭﻕ( ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ‪) ،‬ﺏ(ﺃﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﺠﻬﺎﺯ‪.‬‬

‫‪205‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ – ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ -7‬ﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺼﺹ ﻝﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺠﻬﺎﺯ‪.‬‬


‫‪ -8‬ﻴ‪‬ﺼﺤﺢ ﻭﻀﻊ ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻤﻴل ﻝﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻋﻤﻭﺩﻴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﺍﻝﺫﺭﺍﻉ ﺍﻷﻓﻘـﻲ‬
‫ﻼ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﻘﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﻀـﺒﻁ‬
‫)‪ (Beam‬ﻝﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻠﻴ ﹰ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺫﺭﺍﻉ ﺍﻷﻓﻘﻲ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺒﺭﻏﻲ )‪ (Screw‬ﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﺽ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -9‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺜﺒﻴﺕ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺼﺼﺔ ﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﺘﺸـﻭﻩ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻜـﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺼﺹ ﻝﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﻭﻀﻊ ﻤﺅﺸﺭ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ )ﺼﻔﺭ(‪.‬‬
‫‪-10‬ﺘﺘﻡ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻁﻠﻭﺏ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻤﻴل ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻭﺩﻱ ﻝﻠﺤﺼﻭل‬
‫ﻋﻠىﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻻﺒﺘﺩﺍﺌﻲ )‪ (Initial pressure‬ﺍﻝﻤﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻀﻐﻁ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﹰﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻭﻀﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻗﺒل ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺠﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻭ‬
‫ﺇﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﻴﺴﺎﻭﻱ )‪ (γH‬ﺤﻴﺙ ‪ - γ‬ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ -H ،‬ﺴ‪‬ﻤﻙ ﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻭﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺭﺠﺕ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ )ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬
‫ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﺘﺅﺨﺫ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﺴﻁﺔ ﻝﻠﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ‪ :‬ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﹰ ﻝﻜل ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺘﻠﺯﻡ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺘﻪ ﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻤﻴل‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻭﺩﻱ ﻹﺤﺩﺍﺙ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺇﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺴﻁﺢ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﻨﺘﺞ ﻋﻥ‬
‫ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻤﻴل‪.‬‬
‫‪-11‬ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻐﻤﻭﺭﺓ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﻤلﺀ ﺍﻝﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﺒﻤﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻝﻪ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻐﺭﻓﺔ )‪ ،(Room temperature‬ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺹ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻔﺫ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻱ ﻤﻐﻤﻭﺭﹰﺍ ﺘﻤﺎﻤﹰﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻝﺔ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺒﺭﻁﻭﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻻﻨﺘﻘﺎل ﻝﻠﺨﻁﻭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺩﻭﻥ ﻏﻤﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -12‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﺭﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺒﺭﻏﻲ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﺭﺘﻜﺯ ﺇﻝﻴﻪ ﺍﻝﺫﺭﺍﻉ ﺍﻷﻓﻘﻲ ﻭﻓﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﻠﺤﻅﺔ‬
‫ﺘﹸﺸﻐل ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﻗﻴﺕ‪ .‬ﻴ‪‬ﻼﺤﻅ ﺃﻥ ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻭﻩ ﻗﺩ ﺒﺩﺃﺕ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻝﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﻤﻊ ﺘﺤﺭﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺒﺭﻏﻲ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﻤل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻗﺩ ﺒﺩﺃ‪.‬‬

‫‪206‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ – ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪-13‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺃﺨﺫ ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻭﻩ ﻭﺘﺜﺒﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل ﺍﻝﺨﺎﺹ ﺒﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻝﻔﺤـﺹ‬


‫ﻼ ﺒﻌـﺩ‪،15 ،10 ،6‬‬
‫)ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ ‪1-5‬ﺃ(‪ .‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺘﺭﺍﺕ ﺯﻤﻨﻴﺔ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ )ﻤﺜ ﹰ‬
‫‪30‬ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪ 30 ،15 ،8 ،4 ،2 ،1 ،‬ﺩﻗﻴﻘﺔ‪24 ،8 ،4 ،2 ،1 ،‬ﺴﺎﻋﺔ(‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻰ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺅﺨـﺫ ﺒﺸـﻜل‬
‫ﺩﻗﻴﻕ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻭﻗﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺩﺩ ﺒﺩﻗﺔ‪،‬ﻷﻥ ﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺍﻝﻬﺒﻭﻁ )ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻭﻩ( ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺴـﺭﻴﻌﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﻤل‪.‬‬
‫ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ‪ :‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ ﺒﺄﺨﺫ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﻁﺎﻝﻤﺎ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻭﻩ‪ .‬ﻭﻻ ﻴـﺘﻡ ﺘﻘﺭﻴـﺭ‬
‫ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺤﻤل ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ ﺇﻻ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﺄﻜﺩ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻭﻗﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻭﻩ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﻤل ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻝﻲ‪ .‬ﻭﻋﻨـﺩﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻭﻗﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺼﺹ ﻝﻠﻔﺤﺹ ﻜﺎﻓﻴﹰﺎ ﻓﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻓﻀل ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺤﻤل ﺍﻝﺘـﺎﻝﻲ ﺒﻌـﺩ ﻤـﺭﻭﺭ‬
‫)‪ (24‬ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻋل ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﺤﻤل ﺍﻝﺤﺎﻝﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -14‬ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺭ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺤﻤل‪ ،‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﻏﻠﻕ ﺍﻝﺒﺭﻏﻲ ﻝﻴﻼﻤﺱ ﺍﻝﺫﺭﺍﻉ ﺍﻷﻓﻘـﻲ‬
‫ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﺤﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻗﻴـﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﺘﺸـﻭﻩ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻀـﺎﻑ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺤﻤل ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻭﺩﻱ ﺜﻡ ﺘﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ )‪ ،(13-12‬ﻭﻫﻜـﺫﺍ ﻝﻜـل‬
‫ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺘﺤﻤﻴل )‪ (Loading stage‬ﺤﺘﻰ ﺁﺨﺭ ﺤﻤل )ﺃﻭ ﺇﺠﻬـﺎﺩ( ﻤﻁﻠـﻭﺏ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻹﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﻗﺭﻴﺒﹰﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻹﺠﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﻗﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺅﺜﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﺘـﻲ‬
‫ﺃﺨﺫﺕ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﻨﻰ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺸﺄ‪ ،‬ﻤﻀـﺎﻓﹰﺎ ﺇﻝﻴـﻪ ﻭﺯﻥ‬
‫ﻁﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﻓﻭﻕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﻁﺔ )‪ ،(γH‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺎﺕ ﻴﻁﻠﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻨﺩﺱ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﻤﻡ ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪-15‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﻁﻠﻭﺒـﹰﺎ ﺩﺭﺍﺴـﺔ ﺴـﻠﻭﻙ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ ﺃﺜﻨـﺎﺀ ﺭﻓـﻊ ﺍﻷﺤﻤـﺎل‬
‫)‪ ،(Unloading‬ﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﺘﻨﺯﻴل ﺍﻷﺤﻤﺎل ﺒﺎﻝﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ ﻤﻊ ﺃﺨﺫ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻜﺴـﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪207‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ – ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪-16‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻭﻗﻴﻑ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﻭﻓﻙ ﺨﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻀـﺎﻏﻁ ﻭﺇﺨـﺭﺍﺝ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ )ﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﻭﺒﺩﺍﺨﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ( ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﺘﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻭﻝـﻴﻜﻥ‬
‫)‪.(mp = m2 - mR‬‬ ‫ﻭﺯﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﺴﺎﻭﻴﹰﺎ )‪ ،(m2‬ﺜﻡ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬
‫‪-17‬ﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻝﺤﻠﻘﺔ ﻭﺒﺩﺍﺨﻠﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺭﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺜﺒـﺎﺕ ﺍﻝـﻭﺯﻥ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻝﻴﻜﻥ ﺍﻝﻭﺯﻥ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﻔﻴﻑ )‪ ،(m3‬ﻭﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻨﺠﺩ ﻭﺯﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫)‪.(ms = m3 - mR‬‬
‫‪-18‬ﻴ‪‬ﺤﺴﺏ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪m − ms‬‬
‫= ‪Wo‬‬
‫‪ms‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﺨﻁﻭﺓ ﺒﻤﺜﺎﺒﺔ "ﺘﺸﻴﻴﻙ" ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ‬
‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩﻫﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻨﻭﺍﺘﺞ ﺍﻝﻘﻁﻊ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ )ﺨﻁﻭﺓ ﺭﻗﻡ‪.(3‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻤﺎ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﻬﺎﺌﻲ )‪ (Final moisture content‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﻓﻬﻭ‪:‬‬
‫‪mf − ms‬‬
‫= ‪Wf‬‬
‫‪ms‬‬
‫‪-19‬ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﻭﺍﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻔﺼﻴﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻨﺤﻨﻴـﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫـﻭ ﻤـﺎ‬
‫ﺴﻨﺘﻨﺎﻭﻝﻪ ﻻﺤﻘﹰﺎ ﺒﺎﻝﺘﻔﺼﻴل‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (4‬ﺍﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ )‪:(Calculations‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﻘﺴﻡ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺠﺭﻱ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺠﺭﻱ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻨﺘﻬﺎﺌـﻪ‬
‫ﻭﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﻜل ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺘﺤﻤﻴل‪.‬‬
‫ﺃ‪ .‬ﻗﺒل ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ )‪:(Area of specimen‬‬
‫‪2‬‬
‫)‪A = π D ÷ 4 (mm²‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻻﺒﺘﺩﺍﺌﻲ ﻝﻠﻌﻴﻨﺔ )‪:(Initial volume of specimen‬‬
‫‪AH o‬‬
‫= ‪Vo‬‬ ‫)‪(cm²‬‬
‫‪1000‬‬

‫‪208‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ – ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
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‫ﺠﺩﻭل ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻠﻑ ﻤﺴﺘﻘل ﺒﺎﺴﻡ )ﺹ‪((210-209‬‬

‫‪209‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ – ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺠﺩﻭل ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻤﻠﻑ ﻤﺴﺘﻘل ﺒﺎﺴﻡ )ﺹ ‪((210-209‬‬

‫‪210‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ – ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
___________________________________________________________________

:(Moisture content) ‫ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‬-


m − ms
Wo =
ms
: (Density) ‫ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬-
ρ = m÷Vo (g/cm³)
:(Dry Density) ‫ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ‬-
100
ρd = ρ (g/cm³)
100 + Wo
:(Voids ratio) ‫ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ‬-
Gs
eo = −1
ρd

:(Degree of saturation) ‫ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﺒﻊ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ‬-


Wo G s
So =
eo
:(Voids ratio change factor) ‫ ﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ‬-
1 + eo
F= (mm-1)
Ho
:‫ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ‬.‫ﺏ‬
:(Moisture content) ‫ ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ‬-
mf − ms
Wf =
ms
:(Height of specimen) ‫ ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬-
Wf = Ho- (∆H)f (mm)

211 ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ – ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺤﻴﺙ ‪ – (∆H)f‬ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻜﻠﻴﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺸﻭﻩ )ﺍﻝﻬﺒﻭﻁ( ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻝﻨﻬﺎﺌﻴـﺔ ﻝﻠﺴـﺎﻋﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺠﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ )‪:(Density‬‬
‫‪mf‬‬
‫= ‪ρf‬‬ ‫‪1000‬‬ ‫)‪(g/cm³‬‬
‫‪AH f‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ )‪:(Dry density‬‬
‫‪100‬‬
‫‪ρ df = ρ f‬‬ ‫)‪(g/cm³‬‬
‫‪100 + Wf‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ )‪:(Voids ratio‬‬
‫‪Gs‬‬
‫= ‪eo‬‬ ‫‪−1‬‬
‫‪ρ df‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﺒﻊ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ )‪:(Degree of saturation‬‬
‫‪Wf G s‬‬
‫= ‪Sf‬‬
‫‪ef‬‬

‫ﺕ‪ .‬ﻋﻨﺩ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﻜل ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺘﺤﻤﻴل‪:‬‬


‫‪ -‬ﺍﻝﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ)ﺘﺭﺍﻜﻤﻲ()‪:(Voids ratio after an increment‬‬
‫‪∆e = F. ∆H‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺯﻴﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺤﻤل )‪:(Voids ratio after an increment‬‬
‫‪e1 = eo - ∆e‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻤﻴل‬
‫)‪(Voids ratio change during an increment‬‬
‫‪δe = e1 - e2‬‬

‫‪212‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ – ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ -‬ﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻤﻲ ﻝﺤﻤل ﻤﻌﻴﻥ‬


‫)‪(Coefficient of volume compressibility‬‬
‫‪δ e 1000‬‬
‫= ‪mv‬‬ ‫‪x‬‬
‫‪δ p 1 + e1‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺨﻼل ﺘﺤﻤﻴل ﻤﻌﻴﻥ )‪(Coefficient of consolidation‬‬
‫‪0.026( H ) 2‬‬
‫= ‪Cv‬‬ ‫)ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﺭﺒﻊ‪/‬ﺍﻝﺴﻨﺔ( )‪(m²/year‬‬
‫‪t 50‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪0.112( H ) 2‬‬
‫= ‪Cv‬‬ ‫)ﻤﺘﺭ ﻤﺭﺒﻊ‪/‬ﺍﻝﺴﻨﺔ( )‪(m²/year‬‬
‫‪t 90‬‬
‫ﺤﻴﺙ‬
‫‪H1 + H 2‬‬
‫=‪H‬‬ ‫)‪(mm‬‬
‫‪2‬‬

‫‪ -‬ﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺤﻤل ﻤﻌﻴﻥ )‪(Coefficient of compressibility‬‬

‫)ﻤﺘﺭ‪/‬ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ( )‪K = C v m v × 0.31 × 10-9 (m/s‬‬

‫ﻻ ﻝﻠﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘـﻲ ﺘﺠـﺭﻱ ﺃﺜﻨـﺎﺀ‬


‫ﻭﻴﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل )‪ (1-5‬ﻭﺍﻝﺸﻜل )‪ (3-5‬ﻤﺜﺎ ﹰ‬
‫ﻤﺭﺍﺤل ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻤﻴل‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﻭﻝﻭﻏـﺎﺭﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻹﺠﻬـﺎﺩ‬
‫)‪ (e-log P curve‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﻁﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ )‪.(1-5‬‬

‫)‪ (5‬ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻬﺒﻭﻁ ‪ -‬ﺍﻝﺯﻤﻥ‬


‫)‪:(Analysis of settlement- time curves‬‬
‫ﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗـﺔ ﺒـﻴﻥ ﻗـﻴﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻭﻩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻬﺒﻭﻁ )ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﻘﺭﺍﺀﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺠﻠﺔ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ( ﻭﺍﻝﺯﻤﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪213‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ – ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻭﻴﻬﺩﻑ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺇﻝﻰ ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻤﻌﺎﻤـل ﺍﻝﺘﻀـﺎﻏﻁ )‪ ،(Cv‬ﻭﻜـﺫﻝﻙ ﺩﺭﺠـﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ )‪ (Degree of consolidation‬ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺤـل ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔـﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺤﻤﻴـل‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻝﺘﺒﺩﺩ ﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻤﻲ ) ‪Pore-water‬‬
‫‪.(pressure‬‬
‫ﻭﻝﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺤﻨﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﺘﺴـﺘﻌﻤل ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺘـﺎﻥ ﺘﺠﺭﻴﺒﻴﺘـﺎﻥ ) ‪Empirical‬‬
‫‪ (methods‬ﻫﻤﺎ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺫﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻝﻠﺯﻤﻥ )‪ (Square root -time‬ﻭﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻝﻭﻏﺎﺭﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺯﻤﻥ )‪ ،(Log time‬ﻭﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﺍﻝﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺒﺎﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺘﻴﻥ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺠﺩ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺇﺤﺩﺍﻫﻤﺎ ﻴﻔﻲ ﺒﺎﻝﻐﺭﺽ‪.‬‬

‫‪214‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ – ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ – (1-5‬ﺍﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﻝﺭﺴﻡ ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ )‪( e - log P‬‬


‫ﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﺤﺠﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ‬
‫‪÷ t50‬‬

‫ﺭﻗﻡ ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻤﻴل‬


‫})‪÷ (1+ e1‬‬
‫‪ H= H1+ H2÷ 2‬‬
‫÷) ‪Cv = (0.026 × H2‬‬

‫)‪δe ÷δ p‬‬

‫)‪(F= 0.0807‬‬
‫) ‪(eo= 0.622‬‬

‫‪∆e = F. ∆H‬‬

‫ﺍﻝﻬﺒﻭﻁ )‪(∆H‬‬

‫)ﻛﻴﻠﻮﻧﻴﻮﺗﻦ‪ /‬ﻡ‪(2‬‬
‫) ﻡ‪/2‬ﻛﻴﻠﻮﻧﻴﻮﺗﻦ(‬

‫‪e1= eo - ∆e‬‬
‫‪∆H‬‬

‫ﺍﻹﺠﻬﺎﺩ )‪(P‬‬
‫)ﻡ‪/2‬ﺍﻝﺴﻨﺔ(‬

‫)‪(1+ e1‬‬
‫∆‪H=Ho-‬‬
‫‪ H)2‬‬

‫)ﻤﻡ(‬

‫)ﻤﻡ(‬

‫)ﻤﻡ(‬
‫‪δp‬‬
‫‪t50‬‬
‫)ﻤﻡ(‬

‫‪δe‬‬
‫÷‪{(1000‬‬
‫‪mv=(δ‬‬
‫‪(‬‬

‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪0‬‬
‫‪0‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬
‫‪0.804‬‬ ‫‪0.106‬‬
‫‪402‬‬ ‫‪20.05‬‬ ‫‪19.99‬‬ ‫‪13‬‬ ‫‪1.107‬‬ ‫‪1.613‬‬ ‫‪50‬‬ ‫‪0.0086‬‬ ‫‪0.613‬‬ ‫‪0.0086‬‬ ‫‪50‬‬ ‫‪1‬‬
‫‪1.63‬‬ ‫‪0.360‬‬
‫‪395‬‬ ‫‪19.87‬‬ ‫‪19.74‬‬ ‫‪6.3‬‬ ‫‪0.251‬‬ ‫‪1.593‬‬ ‫‪50‬‬ ‫‪0.020‬‬ ‫‪0.591‬‬ ‫‪0.0291‬‬ ‫‪100‬‬ ‫‪2‬‬
‫‪0.432‬‬ ‫‪0.762‬‬
‫‪382‬‬ ‫‪19.54‬‬ ‫‪19.34‬‬ ‫‪23‬‬ ‫‪0.205‬‬ ‫‪1.561‬‬ ‫‪100‬‬ ‫‪0.032‬‬ ‫‪0.561‬‬ ‫‪0.0615‬‬ ‫‪200‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬
‫‪0.498‬‬ ‫‪1.269‬‬
‫‪364‬‬ ‫‪18.83‬‬ ‫‪18.83‬‬ ‫‪19‬‬ ‫‪0.135‬‬ ‫‪1.520‬‬ ‫‪200‬‬ ‫‪0.041‬‬ ‫‪0.520‬‬ ‫‪0.1024‬‬ ‫‪400‬‬ ‫‪4‬‬
‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪200-‬‬ ‫‪0.012-‬‬ ‫‪0.532‬‬ ‫‪0.0902‬‬ ‫‪1.118‬‬
‫‪200‬‬ ‫‪5‬‬
‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪150-‬‬ ‫‪0.032-‬‬ ‫‪0.562‬‬ ‫‪0.0598‬‬ ‫‪0.741‬‬
‫‪50‬‬ ‫‪6‬‬

‫‪0.63‬‬
‫‪0.62‬‬
‫‪0.61‬‬
‫‪0.6‬‬
‫‪0.59‬‬
‫‪0.58‬‬
‫‪0.57‬‬
‫‪e‬‬

‫‪0.56‬‬
‫ ا‬
‫‪0.55‬‬
‫‪0.54‬‬ ‫ ر ال‬
‫‪0.53‬‬
‫‪0.52‬‬
‫‪0.51‬‬
‫‪0.5‬‬
‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪100‬‬ ‫‪1000‬‬
‫)آ

‪ /‬م‪P (٢‬‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪(3-5‬‬
‫ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺫﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻝﻠﺯﻤﻥ )‪: (Square root –time method‬‬ ‫ﺃ‪.‬‬

‫‪215‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ – ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻭﺘﻨﺴﺏ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻝﻠﺒﺭﻭﻓﻴﺴﻭﺭ ﺘﺎﻴﻠﻭﺭ )‪ (Taylor‬ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺍﻗﺘﺭﺤﻬﺎ ﻝﻠﻤﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻰ‬


‫ﺴﻨﺔ ‪ .1942‬ﻭﺘﺘﻠﺨﺹ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺭﺴﻡ ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺠﺫﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻝﻠﺯﻤﻥ )‪ (√ t‬ﻭﻗﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺸﻭﻩ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻬﺒﻭﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻝﻜل ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺭﺍﺤل ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻤﻴل )ﺸﻜل ‪.(4-5‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻴ‪‬ﺭﺴﻡ ﺨﻁ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﻴﻡ ﻴﺼل ﺒﻴﻥ ﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﻭﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﺨﻁ )‪،(BQ‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺨﻁ ﻤﻤﺎﺴﹰﺎ ﻝﻠﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻘﻁﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﺭﺃﺴﻲ ﺍﻝـﺫﻱ ﻴﻤﺜـل‬
‫ﺍﻝﻬﺒﻭﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﻁﺔ )‪ (Q‬ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫـﺎ ﻨﻘﻁـﺔ ﺍﻝﺼـﻔﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺼـﺤﺤﺔ‬
‫)‪.(Corrected Zero point‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻴ‪‬ﺭﺴﻡ ﺨﻁ ﺃﻓﻘﻲ ﻤﻭﺍﺯ ﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭ )‪ (√ t‬ﻤﻥ ﻨﻘﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﺼﻔﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺼﺤﺤﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﻜـﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻼ ﻝﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ ﺼﻔﺭ )‪=U‬ﺼﻔﺭ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺨﻁ ﻤﻤﺜ ﹰ‬
‫‪ -‬ﺘﺅﺨﺫ ﺃﻱ ﻨﻘﻁﺔ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺨﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﺎﺱ ﻝﻠﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ) ‪ ( q‬ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻻﺒﺘﻌـﺎﺩ‬
‫ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺒﻤﻘﺩﺍﺭ )‪ (1.15‬ﻤﻥ ﺃﺤﺩﺍﺜﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻓﻘﻲ ﻝﻠﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻘﻁﺔ ﺃﺨﺭﻯ ) ‪.(r‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻭﺼﻴل ﺍﻝﻨﻘﻁﺘﻴﻥ )‪ (r‬ﻭ )‪ (Q‬ﻭﻨﺤﺼل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﻁﺔ )‪ (C‬ﺍﻝﺘـﻲ ﺘﻘﻁـﻊ‬
‫ﻼ ﻝﺩﺭﺠـﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻀـﺎﻏﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ‪ .‬ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺨـﻁ ﺍﻷﻓﻘـﻲ ﻤـﻥ )‪ (C‬ﻤﻤـﺜ ﹰ‬
‫)‪.(%90=U‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻝﻠﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻤﺜل ) ‪ ،(%100=U‬ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻘﺴﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺒـﻴﻥ‬
‫)‪ (d0‬ﻭ)‪ (d90‬ﺇﻝﻰ ﺘﺴﻌﺔ ﺃﻗﺴﺎﻡ ﻤﺘﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﻴﻀـﺎﻑ ﻗﺴـﻡ ﺒـﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻝﻘﻴـﺎﺱ‬
‫ﻝﻠﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻨﻘﻁﺔ )‪ (%100=U‬ﻭﺍﺴﺘﻜﻤﺎل ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ )‪.(U‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ )‪ (Cv‬ﺒﺈﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺘﻴﻥ‪:‬‬
‫‪0.112( H ) 2‬‬
‫= ‪Cv‬‬ ‫‪, t 90 = ( t 90 ) 2‬‬
‫‪t 90‬‬
‫‪0.026( H ) 2‬‬
‫= ‪Cv‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ‪, t 50 = ( t 50 ) 2‬‬
‫‪t 50‬‬

‫‪216‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ – ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ -(4-5‬ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺫﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻝﻠﺯﻤﻥ‬

‫ﺤﻴﺙ )‪ – (H‬ﺍﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻤﻴل )ﺃﻨﻅﺭ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل ‪.(1-5‬‬

‫ﺏ‪ .‬ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻝﻭﻏﺎﺭﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺯﻤﻥ )‪:(Log –time method‬‬


‫ﻭﺘﻨﺴﺏ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﺒﺭﻭﻓﻴﺴﻭﺭ ﻜﺎﺯﺍﻏﺭﺍﻨﺩ )‪ (Casagrande‬ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺍﻗﺘﺭﺤﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻷﻭل ﻤﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﺘﺘﻠﺨﺹ ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‪:‬‬

‫‪217‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ – ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ -‬ﻴﺘﻡ ﺭﺴﻡ ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺯﻤﻥ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻘﻴـﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﻠﻭﻏـﺎﺭﻴﺘﻤﻲ)‪(Log scale‬‬


‫ﻭﺍﻝﺘﺸﻭﻩ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﻬﺒﻭﻁ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻝﻜل ﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺭﺍﺤل ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻤﻴل )ﺸﻜل‪.(5-5‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺘﺅﺨﺫ ﻨﻘﻁﺘﺎﻥ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭﻴﺘﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺒﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺯﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﻝﻰ ﻭﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﺭﺒﻌﺔ ﺃﻀﻌﺎﻑ )ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺎﻁ ‪ a‬ﻭ‪ b‬ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺤﻨـﻰ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﺅﺨـﺫ‬
‫ﻤﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﺭﺃﺴﻴﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﻁﺔ ‪ (a d) a‬ﻤﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ ﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻀﻠﻊ )‪ (a c‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺜﻠـﺙ‬
‫)‪ (a b c‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻤﺘﺩﺍﺩﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺨـﻁ ﺍﻷﻓﻘﻲ ﻤﻥ )‪ (d‬ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺯﻱ ﻝﻤﺤـﻭﺭ‬
‫ﻼ ﻝﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ )‪ = U‬ﺼﻔﺭ(‪.‬‬
‫)‪ (Log t‬ﻤﻤﺜ ﹰ‬
‫ﻝﻠﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ) ‪ (%100 =U‬ﻴـﺘﻡ ﺍﺴـﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﺠـﺯﺀ‬ ‫‪-‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﺴﻔﻠﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﺘﺠﺎﻫﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﻋــﺎﺩﺓ ﻋﻨـﺩ‬
‫)‪ ،(%75 =U‬ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﺭﺴﻡ ﺨﻁ ﻤﻥ ﻨﻘﻁﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﻌﻁﺎﻑ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻤﺎﺴﹰﺎ ﻝﻠﺠـﺯﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻭﺴﻁ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ )ﺍﻝﺨﻁ ‪ ،(AB‬ﻭﻴﺭﺴﻡ ﺨﻁ ﺁﺨﺭ ﻤﻤﺎﺱ ﻝﻠﺠﺯﺀ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ )ﺍﻝﺨﻁ ‪ ،(DF‬ﻭﻋﻨﺩ ﻨﻘﻁـﺔ ﺘﻘـﺎﻁﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﺎﺴـﻴ‪‬ﻥ ﺘﻜـﻭﻥ )‪=U‬‬
‫‪.(%100‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﻝﻠﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺘﺩﺭﻴﺞ ﻤﺤﻭﺭ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ )‪ ،(U‬ﻭﺘﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺴـﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺒﻴﻥ )‪ (do‬ﻭ )‪ (d100‬ﺇﻝﻰ ﻋﺸﺭﺓ ﺃﺠﺯﺍﺀ ﻤﺘﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -‬ﺘﺤﺴﺏ ﻗﻴﻡ ﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ )‪ (C v‬ﺒﺈﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺘﻴﻥ‪:‬‬
‫‪0.112( H ) 2‬‬ ‫‪0.026( H ) 2‬‬
‫= ‪Cv‬‬ ‫= ‪, Cv‬‬ ‫ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪t 90‬‬ ‫‪t 50‬‬

‫ﻭﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺸﻜﻠﻴﻥ )‪ (6-5‬ﻭ )‪ (7-5‬ﺍﻝﻤﻨﺤﻨﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻠﺫﺍﻥ ﻴﻤﺜﻼﻥ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻓﺤـﺹ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﻝﻠﻤﺜﺎل ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻀﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ )‪ ،(1-5‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﻝﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻤﻴل ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺜﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺤﺴﺏ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺘﻲ ﺍﻝﺠﺫﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻝﻠﺯﻤﻥ ﻭﻝﻭﻏﺎﺭﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺯﻤﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪218‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ – ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ -(5-5‬ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻝﻭﻏﺎﺭﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺯﻤﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪219‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ – ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ - (6-5‬ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﻝﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻤﻴل ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺜﺔ )‪(P=200 KN/m²‬‬
‫ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ )‪ (1-5‬ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺫﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻝﻠﺯﻤﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪220‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺨﺎﻤﺱ – ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﻭﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ -(7-5‬ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺘﺤﻠﻴل ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻝﺘﻀﺎﻏﻁ ﻝﻤﺭﺤﻠﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺤﻤﻴل ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻝﺜﺔ )‪(P=200‬‬


‫ﺤﺴﺏ ﻨﻤﻭﺫﺝ )‪ (1-5‬ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻝﻭﻏﺎﺭﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﺯﻤﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪221‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺩﺱ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺍﻝﺒــﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺩﺱ‬

‫ﻓـﺤـﻭﺼـﺎﺕ ﻨﻔـﺎﺫﻴـــﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒــﺔ‬

‫‪ 1-6‬ﻤﺩﺨل‬
‫ﻓﺤﺹ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬ ‫‪2-6‬‬
‫ﻓﺤﺹ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﺒﺕ‬ ‫‪3-6‬‬

‫‪223‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺩﺱ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﻓﺤـﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴـــــﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺩﺱ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـــﺔ‬

‫)‪(Soil Permeability Tests‬‬

‫‪ 1-6‬ﻤﺩﺨــل )‪(Introduction‬‬
‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻌﺭﻴﻑ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺄﻨﻬﺎ ﻗﺩﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺴﻤﺎﺡ ﻝﻠﺴﻭﺍﺌل ﺒﺎﻝﺠﺭﻴـﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺨﻼل ﻓﺭﺍﻏﺎﺘﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻘﺼﺩ ﺒﺎﻝﺴﻭﺍﺌل ﻫﻨﺎ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻡ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻨﺴﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺴﻲ )‪ (H. Darcy‬ﺃﻭل ﻤﻥ ﺩﺭﺱ ﺨﺎﺼﻴﺔ ﺠﺭﻴـﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻷﻭﺴﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﻨﻔﺫﺓ )‪ ،(Porous medium‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﺴﻨﺔ ‪ ،1856‬ﻭﻜـﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﻴﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺭﻭﻑ ﺒﺎﺴﻡ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻌﺎﻝﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻝﻤﻬﻤﺔ ﻷﺒﺤﺎﺜﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎل‪ .‬ﻭﻴﻨﺹ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﺴﻲ )‪ (Darcy’s law‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻥ ﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺠﺭﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻤـﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺘﺘﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﻁﺭﺩﻴﹰﺎ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻝﻤﻴـل ﺍﻝﻬﻴـﺩﺭﻭﻝﻴﻜﻲ )‪،(Hydraulic gradient‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل )‪ (1-6‬ﻭﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﺃﺩﻨﺎﻩ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ‪.‬‬

‫ﺸﻜل)‪(1-6‬‬
‫‪H2‬‬
‫‪H1‬‬

‫‪L‬‬

‫‪224‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺩﺱ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪q = A.K.i‬‬

‫‪q‬‬
‫=‪V‬‬ ‫‪= K.i‬‬
‫‪A‬‬

‫‪( H 2 − H 1 ) ∆H‬‬
‫=‪i‬‬ ‫=‬
‫‪L‬‬ ‫‪L‬‬
‫ﺤﻴﺙ‪:‬‬
‫‪ –q‬ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻓﺫ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺨﻼل ﻭﺤﺩﺓ ﺍﻝﺯﻤﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪ –A‬ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻘﻁﻊ ﺍﻝﻌﺭﻀﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -K‬ﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ )‪.(Coefficient of permeability‬‬
‫‪ -i‬ﺍﻝﻤﻴل ﺍﻝﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﻝﻴﻜﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -V‬ﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺠﺭﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻼﺤﻅ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻝﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ )‪ (K‬ﻫﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﻭﺤﺩﺍﺕ‬
‫ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﺍﻝﺴﺭﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﺴﻨﺘﻤﺘﺭ‪/‬ﺍﻝﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﺘﺭ‪/‬ﺍﻝﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﻫﻜﺫﺍ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ )‪ (K‬ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻜﻤﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩﻫﺎ ﻝﻠﺤﻜـﻡ ﻋﻠـﻰ‬
‫ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺒﺭﻴﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻝﺤﻘﻠﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻤـﹰﺎ ﺒـﺄﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ ﺘﻌﻁﻲ ﺘﺼﻭﺭﹰﺍ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺩﻗﺔ ﻭﻭﻀﻭﺤﹰﺎ ﻋﻥ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻭﻀﻌﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﻁﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﺒﻌﻴﺩﹰﺍ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻗﺩ ﺘﺤﺼل ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺇﺠﺭﺍﺅﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ ﻝﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻨﺤﺼﺭ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺸﻜﻠﻴﻥ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﻫﻤﺎ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ )‪ -(Falling head test‬ﻭﻴﺴـﺘﻌﻤل‬
‫ﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﺍﺩ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﻜﺎﻝﻁﻤﻲ ﻭﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪225‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺩﺱ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ -2‬ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﺒﺕ )‪ -(Constant head test‬ﻭﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤل‬


‫ﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺴﻨﺘﻁﺭﻕ ﻝﺘﻔﺎﺼﻴل ﻫﺫﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺼﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺒﻨﻭﺩ ﺍﻝﻘﺎﺩﻤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻨﺸﻴﺭ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺘﺘﺄﺜﺭ ﺒﻌﺩﺓ ﻋﻭﺍﻤل‪ ،‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ‬
‫ﺘﻠﺨﻴﺹ ﺃﻫﻤﻬﺎ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﺍﻝﺘﺩﺭﺝ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ – ﻭﺘﻘل ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﻜﻠﻤﺎ ﺼﻐﺭ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .3‬ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺘﺸﺒﻊ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .4‬ﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺌل‪.‬‬
‫‪ .5‬ﺸﻜل ﺍﻝﺠﺭﻴﺎﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .6‬ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﻝﻭﺴﻁ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .7‬ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺩﻨﻲ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻨﺸﻴﺭ ﻜﺫﻝﻙ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ )‪ ،(K‬ﻫﻲ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﺘﺤﺩﻴـﺩﻫﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺩ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﻤﺴﺎﻭﻴﺔ ﻝِـ ‪ 20‬ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ )‪ ،(K20‬ﻭﺃﻤﺎ )‪ (K‬ﺍﻝﺘـﻲ ﻴـﺘﻡ‬
‫ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩﻫﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ‪ 10‬ﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻭﺼﻔﺭ ﻤﺌﻭﻴﺔ ﻓﺈﻨﻬﺎ ﺘﻌﺎﺩل ‪ 77‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺌﺔ‬
‫ﻭ ‪ 56‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺌﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ )‪ (K20‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺘﻭﺍﻝﻲ‪:‬‬

‫‪K10 = 0.77 K20‬‬

‫‪K0 = 0.56 K20‬‬

‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒﻴﺔ ﻝﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ )‪ (K‬ﻝﻸﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬـﻲ‬


‫ﻤﺒﻴﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل )‪./15/(1-6‬‬

‫‪226‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺩﺱ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺠﺩﻭل )‪ – (1-6‬ﻗﻴﻡ ﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ )‪) (K‬ﻤﺘﺭ‪/‬ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ(‬


‫‪10-‬‬ ‫‪7-‬‬ ‫‪7-‬‬
‫‪ 10‬ﺇﻝﻰ‪10‬‬ ‫‪4-10‬ﺇﻝﻰ‪10‬‬ ‫‪4-‬‬
‫‪1-10‬ﺇﻝﻰ‪10‬‬ ‫‪1-‬‬
‫‪1‬ﺇﻝﻰ‪10‬‬
‫ﺭﻤﺎل ﻨﻅﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﺨﻠﻴﻁ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺭﻤل‬
‫ﺭﻤﺎل ﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ ﺠﺩﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﻁﻤﻲ‬
‫ﺃﻁﻴﺎﻥ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺘﺸﻘﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻝﺤﺼﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺼﻔﺎﺌﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻁﻴﻥ ﻭﺍﻝﻁﻤﻲ‬
‫ﻭﻁﻴﻥ ﻤﻊ ﻁﻤﻲ‬ ‫‪Clean sands and sand‬‬ ‫ﺤﺼﻤﺔ ﻨﻅﻴﻔﺔ‬
‫‪Very fines sands, silts‬‬ ‫‪gravel mixture‬‬ ‫‪Clean gravels‬‬
‫‪Unfissured‬‬ ‫‪and clay- silt laminate‬‬
‫‪clays & silts‬‬
‫ﺃﻁﻴﺎﻥ ﻤﺘﺸﻘﻘﺔ ‪Fissured clays‬‬

‫ﺃﻤﺎ ﺍﻷﻫﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻝﺩﺭﺍﺴﺔ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﻠﺨﻴﺼﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻨﻘﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺴﺭﻋﺔ ﺘﺭﺸﺢ ﻭﺘﺼﺭﻑ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ )‪ (Seepage‬ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﺘﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺸﺢ )‪.(Seepage pressure‬‬
‫‪ -3‬ﺘﻔﺎﺩﻱ ﺤﺼﻭل ﻅﻭﺍﻫﺭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺴﺘﺤﺒﺔ ﺒل ﺨﻁﻴﺭﺓ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜل ﻅـﺎﻫﺭﺓ "ﻏﻠﻴـﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺭﻤل" )‪ (Sand boiling‬ﻭﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﻴﻅﻬﺭ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺭﻤل ﻭﻜﺄﻨﻪ ﻴﻐﻠـﻲ‪ ،‬ﺒﺴـﺒﺏ‬
‫ﺘﺠﺎﻭﺯ ﺍﻝﻤﻴل ﺍﻝﻬﻴﺩﺭﻭﻝﻴﻜﻲ )‪ (i‬ﻝﻤﺎ ﻴﺴﻤﻰ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻴـل ﺍﻝﻬﻴـﺩﺭﻭﻝﻴﻜﻲ ﺍﻝﺤـﺭﺝ‬
‫)‪ ،(ic) (Critical hydraulic gradient‬ﻭﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﺍﻝﻅـﺎﻫﺭﺓ ﻜـﺫﻝﻙ ﺒﺎﺴـﻡ‬
‫)‪ ،(Quick sand‬ﺃﻭ ﻅﻭﺍﻫﺭ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﺭﻴـﺔ ﺍﻝﺴـﻁﺤﻴﺔ )‪(Subsurface erosion‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻝﻨﺤﺭ )‪ ،(Piping‬ﻭﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -4‬ﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﻤﺨﺯﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻴﺎﻩ ﺍﻝﺠﻭﻓﻴﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -5‬ﺤﺴﺎﺏ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﻔﻘﻭﺩ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺴـﺘﻭﺩﻋﺎﺕ ﺘﺨـﺯﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﻴـﺎﻩ ) ‪Storage‬‬
‫‪.(reservoirs‬‬
‫‪ -6‬ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺘﺼﻤﻴﻡ ﻨﻅﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺤﻭل ﺃﺴﺎﺴﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﻤﺒﺎﻨﻲ ) ‪Drainage‬‬
‫‪.(system‬‬
‫ﻭﻏﻴﺭ ﺫﻝﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﻤﺠﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻁﺒﻴﻘﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﹰﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪227‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺩﺱ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ 2-6‬ﻓﺤﺹ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ‬


‫)‪(Falling Head Soil Permeability Test‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ )‪:(Standard references‬‬


‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪BS‬‬
‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪ASTM D-2434.‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ )‪:(Equipment‬‬
‫ﻴﺒﻴ‪‬ﻥ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل )‪ (2-6‬ﺘﻔﺎﺼﻴل ﺍﻝﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﺒﺄﻥ‬
‫ﻻ ﻭﺘﺼﺎﻤﻴﻡ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺒﺩﺃ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﺸﻜﺎ ﹰ‬
‫)‪ (3‬ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ )‪:(Procedure‬‬
‫‪ -1‬ﺘﹸﺅﺨﺫ ﻋﻴﻨﺔ ﺴﻠﻴﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﻜﻴﺏ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺃﻨﺒﻭﺏ ﺃﺴﻁﻭﺍﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻜﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل‬
‫)‪ ،(2-6‬ﻭﻴﻐﻁﻰ ﺴﻁﺤﺎ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺍﻝﻌﻠـﻭﻱ ﻭﺍﻝﺴـﻔﻠﻲ ﺒﻐﻁـﺎﺀ ﻤﻨﻔـﺫ‬
‫)‪.(Filter‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻷﻨﺒﻭﺏ ﻭﺒﺩﺍﺨﻠﻪ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﻼﻤﺴﹰﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﻔل ﻝﺴﻁﺢ ﻭﻋـﺎﺀ‬
‫ﻼ ﺒـﺄﻨﺒﻭﺏ ﺯﺠـﺎﺠﻲ‬
‫ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﺃﻤﺎ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻨﺒﻭﺏ ﻓﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺘﺼ ﹰ‬
‫)‪ (Standpipe‬ﺭﻓﻴﻊ ﺫﻱ ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ ﻤﻘﻁﻊ ﻤﻌﺭﻭﻓﺔ )‪.(a‬‬
‫‪ -3‬ﻴ‪‬ﻤﻸ ﺍﻷﻨﺒﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﺯﺠﺎﺠﻲ ﺒﺎﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻻﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ ﻤﻌﻴﻥ )‪ (h1‬ﻭﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻝﻭﻗـﺕ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺩﻫﺎ )‪.(t1‬‬
‫‪ -4‬ﻤﻊ ﻤﺭﻭﺭ ﺍﻝﻭﻗﺕ ﻴﺒﺩﺃ ﻤﻨﺴﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤـﺎﺀ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻷﻨﺒـﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﺯﺠـﺎﺠﻲ‬
‫ﺒﺎﻻﻨﺨﻔﺎﺽ ﺒﺴﺒﺏ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺨﻼل ﻋﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ .‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﻓﺘـﺭﺓ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻭﻗﺕ ﻭﻝﺘﻜﻥ )‪ (t2‬ﺘﹸﺅﺨﺫ ﻗﺭﺍﺀﺓ ﺍﻻﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ )‪.(h2‬‬
‫‪ -5‬ﺘﻌﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﺘﺠﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﺴﺘﻌﻤﺎل ﺃﻨﺎﺒﻴـﺏ ﺯﺠﺎﺠﻴـﺔ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻤﻘـﺎﻁﻊ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻋﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻤﺘﺸﺎﺒﻬﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻨﻔﺱ ﻨﻭﻉ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪228‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺩﺱ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ -6‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﺩﻭﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻓﻲ ﺠﺩﻭل ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‪-:‬‬

‫ﺍﻻﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﺭﺘﻔﺎﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺯﻤﻥ‬


‫‪Loge‬‬ ‫ﻁﻭل‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬
‫)‪L÷(t2-t1‬‬ ‫‪h 1 ÷h 2‬‬ ‫)‪(h2‬‬ ‫)‪(h1‬‬ ‫)‪(t2-t1‬‬
‫)‪(h2÷h1‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻭﻝﺔ‬
‫)ﺴﻡ(‬ ‫)ﺴﻡ(‬ ‫)ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ(‬
‫‪0.116‬‬ ‫‪1.0986‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪50‬‬ ‫‪150‬‬ ‫‪215‬‬ ‫‪24.0‬‬ ‫‪-1‬‬
‫‪0.1225‬‬ ‫‪1.0986‬‬ ‫‪3‬‬ ‫‪50‬‬ ‫‪150‬‬ ‫‪147‬‬ ‫‪18.0‬‬ ‫‪-2‬‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ – (2-6‬ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﻨﺎﻋﻤﺔ‬

‫‪229‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺩﺱ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫)‪ (4‬ﺍﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ )‪:(Calculations‬‬


‫ﻴﺤﺴﺏ ﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ )‪ (K‬ﺒﺎﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺸﺘﻘﺔ ﻤﻥ ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﺴﻲ‪:‬‬

‫‪aL‬‬ ‫‪h‬‬
‫=‪K‬‬ ‫‪log10 1‬‬
‫) ‪A( t 2 − t 1‬‬ ‫‪h2‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ‬
‫‪aL‬‬ ‫‪h‬‬
‫‪K = 2.3‬‬ ‫‪ln 1‬‬
‫‪A( t 2 − t 1 ) h 2‬‬
‫)*(‬
‫ﻝﻨﻔﺭﺽ ﺃﻥ‪:‬‬
‫‪A= 81.07 cm²‬‬

‫‪a = 7.1 cm²‬‬

‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﻗﻴﻡ )‪ (K‬ﻝﻠﻤﺤﺎﻭﻝﺘﻴﻥ ‪ 2،1‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل ﺃﻋﻼﻩ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﻌﺎﺩﻝﺔ )*( ‪:‬‬

‫‪aL‬‬ ‫‪h‬‬
‫= ‪K1‬‬ ‫= ‪log10 1‬‬
‫) ‪A( t 2 − t 1‬‬ ‫‪h2‬‬

‫‪7.1‬‬
‫=‬ ‫= ‪x 0.116 x1.0986‬‬
‫‪81.07‬‬

‫‪= 1.07 x10 − 2 cm / sec‬‬

‫‪K 2 = 1.18x10 − 2 cm / sec‬‬

‫ﻤﻼﺤﻅﺔ‪ :‬ﺘﺘﻡ ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﻤﻊ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ )‪ (ρ‬ﻭﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ )‪(W‬‬
‫ﻭﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ‪.‬‬

‫‪230‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺩﺱ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫‪ 3-6‬ﻓﺤﺹ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﺒﺕ‬


‫) ‪(Constant Head Soil Permeability Test‬‬

‫)‪ (1‬ﺍﻝﻤﺭﺍﺠﻊ ﺍﻝﻘﻴﺎﺴﻴﺔ )‪:(Standard references‬‬


‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪BS‬‬
‫‪-‬‬ ‫‪ASTM D-2434.‬‬
‫)‪ (2‬ﺍﻷﺠﻬﺯﺓ ﺍﻝﻼﺯﻤﺔ )‪:(Equipment‬‬
‫ﻴﺒﻴ‪‬ﻥ ﺍﻝﺸﻜل )‪ (3-6‬ﺘﻔﺎﺼﻴل ﺍﻝﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺍﻝﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻤﹰﺎ ﺒﺄﻥ‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﻭﺘﺼﺎﻤﻴﻡ ﻤﺨﺘﻠﻔﺔ ﻝﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﺇﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻤﺒﺩﺃ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ‪.‬‬

‫)‪ (3‬ﺍﻝﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ )‪:(Procedure‬‬


‫‪ -1‬ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﻤﺤﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﺴـﻁﻭﺍﻨﺔ ) ‪Perspex‬‬
‫‪ (cylinder‬ﻭﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺃﺴﻔل ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﻏﻁﺎﺀ ﻤﻨﻔﺫ ﻤﻥ ﺸـﺒﻜﺔ‬
‫ﻤﻌﺩﻨﻴﺔ )‪ ،(Wire mesh filter‬ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻴﺤﺎﻓﻅ ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻨﺴﻭﺏ‬
‫ﺜﺎﺒﺕ ﻝﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻭﻋﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻌﻠﻭﻱ ﻋﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻕ ﺍﻝﺘﻌﻭﻴﺽ ﺍﻝﻤﺴـﺘﻤﺭ ﻋـﻥ‬
‫ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺭﺸﺢ ﺨﻼل ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -2‬ﻴﺠﺭﻱ ﻗﻴﺎﺱ ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺭﺸﺤﺔ ﻋﺒﺭ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨـﺔ ﺒﻭﺍﺴـﻁﺔ ﺍﻹﻨـﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻤﺩﺭﺝ‪.‬‬
‫‪ -3‬ﺘﺘﺭﻙ ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ ﺃﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻠﻴل ﻝﻠﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻝﺘﺎﻝﻲ ﻝﻀﻤﺎﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﻘﺭﺍﺭ ﻭﺍﻨﺘﻅﺎﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺸﻴﺢ )‪.(Steady state‬‬
‫‪ -4‬ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﺩﻭﻴﻥ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﻓﻲ ﺠﺩﻭل ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﻤﻭﻀﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺃﺩﻨﺎﻩ‪.‬‬

‫‪231‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺩﺱ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ (3-6‬ﺠﻬﺎﺯ ﻀﻐﻁ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﺜﺎﺒﺕ ﻝﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺭﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭﻴﺔ‬

‫‪232‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺩﺱ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
‫___________________________________________________________________‬

‫)‪ (5‬ﺍﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ )‪:(Calculations‬‬


‫ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﻗﺎﻨﻭﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﺴﻲ‪:‬‬
‫‪V = K.i‬‬

‫‪Q‬‬
‫‪= A.V‬‬
‫‪t‬‬

‫‪Q‬‬
‫‪= K.A.i‬‬
‫‪t‬‬

‫‪h‬‬
‫=‪⇒i‬‬
‫‪L‬‬

‫‪QL‬‬
‫=‪⇒K‬‬
‫‪Aht‬‬

‫)ﺘﻔﺎﺼﻴل ﺍﻝﺤﺴﺎﺒﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﺠﺩﻭل ﺃﺩﻨﺎﻩ(‪.‬‬

‫ﻤﻌﺎﻤل ﺍﻝﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺴﺎﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻁﻭل‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻔﺭﻕ ﺒﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻭﻗﺕ ﺍﻝﺫﻱ‬ ‫ﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ‬
‫÷ ‪K=QL‬‬ ‫ﻤﻘﻁﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﻨﺴﻭﺏ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻝﺯﻡ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺸﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺘﺭﺸﺤﺔ ﻋﺒﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻡ‬
‫)‪(Aht‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ )‪(A‬‬ ‫)‪(L‬‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻨﺒﻭﺒﻴﻥ )‪(h‬‬ ‫)‪(t‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻌﻴﻨﺔ )‪(Q‬‬ ‫ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺎﻭﻝﺔ‬
‫)ﺴﻡ‪/‬ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ(‬ ‫)ﺴﻡ‪(2‬‬ ‫)ﺴﻡ(‬ ‫)ﺴﻡ(‬ ‫)ﺜﺎﻨﻴﺔ(‬ ‫)ﺴﻡ(‬
‫‪2-‬‬
‫‪10×6.9‬‬ ‫‪81.07‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪7.31‬‬ ‫‪121‬‬ ‫‪500‬‬ ‫‪-1‬‬
‫‪2-‬‬
‫‪10×6.6‬‬ ‫‪81.07‬‬ ‫‪10‬‬ ‫‪6.97‬‬ ‫‪134‬‬ ‫‪500‬‬ ‫‪-2‬‬

‫‪233‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺩﺱ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﻨﻔﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
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‫‪234‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺩﻤﻙ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
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‫ﺍﻝﺒــﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒـﻊ‬

‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺩﻤﻙ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬

‫‪ 1-7‬ﻤﺩﺨل‬
‫ﻓﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﺩﻤﻙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ‬ ‫‪2-7‬‬

‫‪235‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺩﻤﻙ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
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‫ﻓـﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺩﻤـﻙ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒــــﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻝﺒـﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒـﻊ‬


‫)‪(Soil Compaction Tests‬‬

‫ﻤﺩﺨـل ) ‪( Introduction‬‬ ‫‪1-7‬‬


‫ﺘﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻜﻤﻘﺎﻭﻤﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺹ )‪ (Shear strength‬ﻭﺍﻝﻨﻔـﺎﺫﻴﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬
‫)‪ (Low permeability‬ﻭﺍﻻﻤﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺍﻝﻘﻠﻴل ﻝﻠﻤـﺎﺀ )‪،(Low water absorption‬‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺃﻫﻡ ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻤﻨﺢ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﺼﻔﺔ ﺍﻻﺘﺯﺍﻥ )‪ ،(Stability‬ﻭﺘﺤﺴ‪‬ﻥ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﻨﻭﻋﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻭﺇﻤﻜﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﺒﺸﻜل ﺠﻴﺩ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺃﻱ ﻤﻨﺸﺄ‪ ،‬ﺴﻭﺍﺀ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻁﺭﻴﻘﹰﺎ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺒﻨﻰ‪،‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻜﻤﺎﺩﺓ ﺇﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻋﻤﺎل ﺍﻝﺴﺩﻭﺩ ﻭﺍﻝﺭﺩﻤﻴﺎﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻝﺩﻤﻙ )‪ (Soil compaction‬ﺃﺴﻠﻭﺒﹰﺎ ﻤﻤﺘﺎﺯﹰﺍ ﻝﺘﺤﺴـﻴﻥ ﻨﻭﻋﻴـﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻻﺭﺘﻘﺎﺀ ﺒﻬﺎ ﻝﻠﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻝﺨﺼﺎﺌﺹ ﺍﻝﻤﺫﻜﻭﺭﺓ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﻤﺎ ﺩﻤﻙ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻬﻭ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺘﺘﻡ ﺨﻼﻝﻬﺎ ﺇﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺘﺭﺘﻴﺏ ﺍﻝﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺼـﻠﺒﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬
‫ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺇﻨﻘﺎﺹ ﺤﺠﻡ ﺍﻝﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻤﺘﻠﺌـﺔ ﺒـﺎﻝﻬﻭﺍﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﻤﻁـﺎﺭﻕ ﺨﺎﺼـﺔ )‪ (Hammers‬ﺃﻭ ﻤـﺩﺍﺤل )‪ (Rollers‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﻝﻬﺯ)‪.(Vibration‬‬
‫ﻭﻴﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﺍﻝﺘﻤﻴﻴﺯ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺩﻤﻙ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﺘﻀـﺎﻏﻁﻬﺎ)‪،(Consolidation‬‬
‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﺇﻥ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ ﻫﻲ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺔ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻨﻀﻐﺎﻁ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﺘﻘﺎﺭﺏ ﺤﺒﻴﺒﺎﺘﻬـﺎ ﻤـﻥ‬
‫ﺨﻼل ﺇﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﺃﻭ ﻁﺭﺩ ﺍﻝﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻝﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺭﺍﻏﺎﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﺘﺤﺕ ﺘﺄﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻝﻀﻐﻁ‬
‫ﺍﻝﻌﻤﻭﺩﻱ ﺍﻝﻤﺘﻭﺍﺼل‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺘﻬﺩﻑ ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺩﻤﻙ ﺍﻝﺘﻲ ﺘﺠﺭﻱ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ ﺇﻝﻰ ﻤﻌﺭﻓـﺔ ﺩﺭﺠـﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺩﻤﻙ ﺍﻝﻘﺼﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﻤﻤﻜﻨﺔ ﻝﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻹﻴﺠـﺎﺩ ﻤﺤﺘـﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒـﺔ‬
‫ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ‪ ،‬ﺍﻝﺫﻱ ﺘﺤﺼل ﻋﻨﺩﻩ )ﺒﻌﺩ ﺩﻤﻜﻬﺎ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺴـﻤﻰ ﻤﺤﺘـﻭﻯ‬

‫‪236‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻝﻸﻏﺭﺍﺽ ﺍﻹﻨﺸﺎﺌﻴﺔ‬


‫ﺍﻝﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻝﺴﺎﺒﻊ – ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺩﻤﻙ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ‬
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‫ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺒﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒـﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺜـﺎﻝﻲ ) ‪Optimum moisture content -‬‬


‫‪ ،(OMC‬ﻭﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ ﻋﻨﺩﻩ ﺒﺎﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓـﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓـﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺼـﻭﻯ ) ‪Maximum dry‬‬
‫‪ ،(density - MDD‬ﻭﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ ﺍﻝﻔﺤﺹ ﺍﻝﺤﺼﻭل ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒـﻴﻥ‬
‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒـﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﻜﺜﺎﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺠـﺎﻓﺔ )ﺸﻜل ‪.(1-7‬‬

‫ا
 ا
 اى‬
‫ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ )ﻏﻡ‪/‬ﺴﻡ‪(٣‬‬

‫ى ا ا


‬
‫ﻤﺤﺘﻭﻯ ﺍﻝﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ )‪(%‬‬

‫ﺸﻜل )‪ – (1-7‬ﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ ﺍﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺭﻁﻭﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻭﻜﺜﺎﻓﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ‬

‫ﻭﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺼﻭﻯ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻤﻌﺭﻭﻓﺔ )ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ(‪ ،‬ﻴﺼﺒﺢ‬
‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻝﺴﻬل ﺇﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺩﻤﻙ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗـﻊ )‪،(Degree of compaction‬‬
‫ﻭﺫﻝﻙ ﺒﺈﻴﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ‪ ،‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﺩﻤﻜﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻨﺴﺒﺘﻬﺎ ﺇﻝﻰ ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺼﻭﻯ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ ﻝﻠﺘﺭﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻝﻤﻭﻗﻊ‬
‫× ‪%100‬‬ ‫ﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﺍﻝﺩﻤﻙ =‬
‫ﺍﻝﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﺠﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻘﺼﻭﻯ )ﻜﺜﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻝﻤﺨﺘﺒﺭ(‬

‫‪237‬‬ ‫ﻓﺤﻭﺼﺎﺕ ﺍﻝﺘﺭﺒ