Anda di halaman 1dari 17

TAJUK 1 : PERSAMAAN LINEAR SERENTAK

Contoh 1 Contoh 2 Contoh 3

x +5 =10 4 y =16 6 x −6 = 3 x +3
x =5 y =4 6 x −3 x = 3 + 6
3x = 9
x =3

Latihan 1

1. x +4 = 9 2. x −5 = 2

3. q +8 = 4 4. y + 30 = −15

5. 8 − 5k = 3 6. 9 x = 54

7r 8. − 6d = 72
7. = 14
4

9. − 4k = 8 y
10. = −2
−6

11. 3 x − 2 = 10 12. 11 = 4 x + 3

13. 4 x − 6 = −22 14. x − 4 = 4 x − 13

1
15. 6 x + 5 = 3x − 7 16. 3 x − 2 = 4 x + 5

2. Penggantian

Arahan : Cari nilai n dalam setiap persamaan berikut

Contoh 1 Contoh 2

m =3 m = −3
2m + n = 5.......... .......... .( i ) 2m + n = 5
gantikan m = 3 dalam persamaan (i ) 2(−3) + n = 5
2( 3) + n = 5 −6 + n = 5
6 +n =5 n =5 +6
n = 5 −6 n = 11
n = −1

Latihan 2

m =5 m = −5
1. 2.
3m + n = 5 3m + n = 2

m =5 m = −5
3. 4.
3m − n = 2 3m − n = 2

p = −3 p =3
5. p + 2q = 5
6. p − 2q = 5

2
p = −3 p =5
7. p − 2q = 5
8. 3 p + 2q = 7

Selesaikan setiap persamaan berikut

h =6 h = −6
9 10
h + 2k = −4 h + 2k = 4

w =3 w = −2
11. 12.
2v + 3w = 5 v −3w = −5

1 w =2
w= 14
13 4 2v −3w = 8
v + 4w = 8

Menjadikan mana-mana satu anu sama dalam kedua-dua persamaan.

Contoh 1 Contoh 2

3
m + 3n = 6.......... ....( i ) 3h + 4k = 5.......... ...( i )
3m + 2n = 4.......... ..( ii ) 5h + 2k = 7.......... ....( ii )
(i )
X 3 ( jadikan anu m sama ) (ii ) X 2 ( jadikan anu k sama )
3m + 9n =18 .......... .( iii ) 10 h + 4k =14 .......... .( iii )
Contoh 3 Contoh 4
1 2
p − q = 4.......... ...( i ) p − q = 2.......... ......( i )
2 3
3 p + q = 2.......... ....( ii ) p − 3q =1.......... ........( ii )
(i ) X 2 ( jadikan anu q sama ) (i ) X 3 ( jadikan anu q sama )
2 p − q = 8.......... ....( iii ) 2 p − 3q = 6.......... ......( iii )

Latihan 3
3m −2 n = 3 4h + 6k = −5
m +3n = −8
2.
1. 5h + 2 k = 7

1 2
p −q =3 p− q =1
3. 3 4. 5
4 p + 3q = 5 3 p − 2q = 4

m − 2n = 3 5m − 2n = 2
5. 6. 3m + n = 7
3m + 4n =1

3h − 6k = 5 10 h +3w = 4
7. 8. 5h −2 w = 9
4h + 2k = 7

1 2
u + 4 w =1 p+ =3
9. 3 10. 3q
u + 3w = 3 5 p + 2q = 2

4
1. Penambahan

Contoh 1 Contoh 2

2m +n = 3.......... ......( i ) 3m + 2n =12 .......... .......( i )

3m −n = 2.......... ......( ii ) 4m − 2n = 2.......... ......... ( ii )
(i ) +(ii ) [untuk hapuskan anu n ] (i ) + (ii ) [untuk hapuskan anu n ]
2m +3m = 3 +2 3m + 4m =12 + 2
5m = 5 7 m =14
m =1 m =2
gantikan m =1 dalam (i ) gantikan m = 2 dalam (i )
2m + n = 3 3m + 2n =12
2(1) +n = 3 3( 2) + 2n =12
n =1 2n = 6
n =3

Contoh 3 Contoh 4

2 m +n =3.......... ........( i ) 5 p −4q = −7.......... ........( i )

5m −2 n =3.......... .......( ii ) 2 p + q = 5.......... .......... ..( ii )
(i ) X 2 [untuk jadikan anu n sama ] (ii ) X 4 [untuk jadikan anu n sama ]
4 m +2n =6.......... ....... (iii ) 8 p +4q = 20 .......... .........( iii )
(ii ) +(iii ) [untuk hapuskan anu n ] (i ) +(iii )
5m +4m =3 +6 5 p +8 p = −7 +20
9m =9 13 p =13
m =1 p =1
gantikan m =1 dalam (i ) gantikan p =1 dalam (i )
2 m +n =3 5 p −4q = −7
2(1) +n =3 5(1) −4q = −7
n =1 −4q = −12
q =3

Latihan 4

1. 2.

2m + n = 2 2 p + 3q = 7
3m − n = 3 5 p − 3q = 7

5
3. 4.

2m + m = −3 5 p −6q = −2
5m − 2n = −3 2 p +q = 6

5. Pengurangan

Contoh 1 Contoh 2

3m +n = 2.......... .......( i )
2m +n = 3.......... .......( ii )
(i ) −(ii ) [untuk hapuskan anu n]
3m −2 m = 2 −3
m = −1
gantikan m = −1 dalam (i )
3m +n = 2
3(−1) +n = 2
n =5

6
6 x −3 y =21 .......... .......( i )
2 x −3 y =−7.......... ......( ii )
(i ) −(ii )
6 x −2 x =21 −( −7)
4 x =28
x =7
gantikan x =7 dalam (i )
6 x −3 y =21
6(7 ) −3 y =21
−3 y =21 −42
−3 y =−21
y =7

Contoh 3 Contoh 4

3 p + q = 8.......... .....( i ) 2 p +3q =4.......... .........( i )

4 p +3q = −6.......... .(ii ) p +2q =6.......... .........( ii )
(i ) X 3 [untuk jadikan anu yang sama ] (ii ) X 2
9 p +3q = 24 .......... .(iii ) 2 p +4q =12 .......... ........ (iii )
(ii ) −(iii ) [untuk hapuskan anu q ] (i ) −(iii )
4 p −9 p = −6 −24 3q −4q =4 −12
−5 p = −30 −q =−8
p =6 q =8
gantikan p = 6 dalam (i ) gantikan q =8 dalam (i )
3 p +q =8 2 p + 3 q = 4
3( 6 ) + q = 8 2 p +3(8) =4
q = 8 −18 2 p =4 −24
q =10 2 p =−20
p =−10

Latihan 5

1. 2.

3m + n = 2 4h −3k =16
2m + n = 5 2h −3k = −4

7
3. 4

3 p + q = −6 2 p +3q = −6
4 p +3q = 2 p + 2q = −4

SOALAN-SOALAN BENTUK SPM

Contoh 1 Contoh 2

8
2m −n =3.......... .........( i ) m −3n =11 .......... .......... ..( i )
m +3n =−2.......... ......( ii ) 2m −n =2.......... .......... ...( ii )
(i ) ×3 (ii ) ×3
6m −3n =9.......... ....... (iii ) 6m −3n =6.......... .......... ..( iii )
(ii ) +(iii ) (i ) −(iii )
m +6m =−2 +9 m −6 m =11 −6
7 m =7 −5m =5
m =1 m =−1
gantikan m =1 dalam (i ) gantikan m =−1 dalam (i )
2m −n =3 m −3n =11
2(1) −n =3 ( −1) −3n =11
−n =1 −3n =12
n =−1 n =−4

Latihan 6

Hitungkan nilai-nilai pembolehubah yang memuaskan kedua-dua persamaan

berikut :

1. 2.

p −3q = 3
h − 3k = 2 2 p − q =11
2h + k = −3

3. 4.

3 x + 2 y = −4 3u − 2 w = 5
x −3 y =17 u −3w = −17

9
5. 6.

3 p + 4q = 7 3 p − 4q = 8
p − 2q = 4 p + 2q = 6

7. 8.

1 h − 2k = 2
p+ =2
2q 2
2h − = −6
2 p −q = 4 3k

10
9. 10.

1 1
p− q =2 p+ = −2
2 2q
2p +q =8 2 p − q = −8

1. Hitungkan nilai x dan nilai y yang memuaskan persamaan linear

serentak berikut :-

Contoh :

3x + 2 y = 3
x + 4 y =11
[ 4 markah ]

11
Kaedah Penyelesaian

A) Penghapusan

3 x +2 y = 3.......... .......... .......... ...( i )

x +4 y =11 .......... .......... .......... .(ii )
(ii ) × 3 3 x +12 y = 3
Menyamakan pekali mendapat satu markah
3 x + 2 y =3
10 y = 30
y =3 Menghapuskan satu anu mendapat satu markah
x = −1
1 markah
1 markah
B ) Gantian
3 + 3x
x =11 − 4 y atau y= atau setara 1 markah
2

14 y = 7 1 markah
y =3 1 markah
x = −1
1 markah

C ) Matriks

3 2  x   3 
   =  
1 4  y  11  1 markah

x 1 4 − 2  3 

y
 = (3)( 4) − (2)(1) 
 −1 
 
3   1 markah
   11 

x =−1 1 markah
y =3
1 markah

pelajar.

KESILAPAN UMUM

Hitungkan nilai k dan nilai w yang memuaskan persamaan linear serentak

berikut :-

2k −3w =10
4k + w = −1
[ 4 markah ]

Jawapan

12
2. SPM 2004, Kertas 2, Soalan 5

berikut:-

1
p − 2 p = 13
2 [ 4 markah ]
3 p + 4q = −2

Jawapan

Hitungkan nilai p dan nilai q yang memuaskan persamaan linear serentak

berikut :-

2 p −3q =13
4 p + q =5
[ 4 markah ]

Jawapan:

13
4. JUN 2005, Kertas 2, Soalan 5.

berikut :-

3d + e =12
[ 4 markah ]
d − 2e = −10

Jawapan:

Hitungkan nilai d dan nilai e yang memuaskan persamaan linear serentak

berikut :-

4d +3e = 6
2d − e = 8
[ 4
markah ]

Jawapan:

14
LATIHAN PENGUKUHAN

Arahan : Selesaikan setiap persamaan serentak yang berikut :

1 1 2 p −5q =11
p+ q =1 p + 2q = −1 11.
1. 2 6. 3 4 p − q =4
3 p − q = 13 p −3q = 6

4m − 3n = 7 2v + 6 w = 3 3x + y = 9
2.
m + 6n = 4 7. 1 12. 1
v − 2w = 2 2x − y =9
3 3

15
3 x + y =15 4h + k = 5 2m −n = 7
3. x − 2 y = −2
8. 13.
2h − 3k =13 m − 2n = 5

2m − n = 7 1 2
4. 2m − n = 5 2m − n =2
m − 2n = 5 9. 3 14. 3
3m + n = 3 6m − 3n = 8

2m + n = 5 5m +3n = 7 1
5. 10. 2x + y =5
4m − 3n =15 m −6n = 8 15. 2
3 x − y =18

Jawapan Latihan pengukuhan.

1
1. p = 3, q = −4 6. p = 3, q = −1 11. p= , q = −2
2

1 1
2. m = 2, n = 7. v = 3, w = − 12.
3 2
x = 4, y = −3

3. x = 4, y = 3 8. h = 2, k = −3 13. m = 3, n = −1

1
4. m = 3, n = −1 9. m = 2, n = −3 14. m= , n = −2
3

5. m −3, n = −1 10. m = 2, n = −1 15. x = 4, y = −6

JAWAPAN

Latihan 1

1. 5 2. 7 3. -4 4. – 45 5. 1 6. 6

13. -4 14. 3 15. -4 16. -7

Latihan 2

1. - 13 2 17 3. 13 4. – 17 5. 4 6. – 1 7.-4

8. – 4 9 –5 10. 5 11. – 2 12. – 11 13. 14. – 4/3

16
Latihan 3

1 3m + 9n = -2 2. 15 h + 6 k = 21 3. p -3q=9

4. 5 p - 2q = 5 5. 2m - 4n = 6 6. 6 m + 2n = 14

7. 12 h + 6 k = 21 8. 10h - 4w = 18 9. u + 12 w = 3

10. 3 p + 2 q = 9

Latihan 4

1. m = 1 , n = 0 2. p = 2, q = 1 3. m = - 1, n = - 1 4. p = 2 , q = 2

Latihan 5

1. m = - 3 , n = 11 2. h = 10 , k = 8 3. p = -4 , q = 6 4. q = - 2 , p = 0

Latihan 6

1. h = -1, k = -1 2. p = 0 , q = -1 3. x = 2 , y = -5 4. u = 7 , w = 8

1
5. p = 3 , q =− 6. p = 8 , q = -1 7. p = 2 , q = 0 8. h = -4 , k =
2
-3

9. p = 3 , q = 2 10. p = -3 , q = 2

Latihan 7

1
1. k = , w = -3 2. p = 6 , q = -5 3. p = 2 , q = - 3 4. e = 6 , d =
2
2
5. e = -2 , d = 3

17