Anda di halaman 1dari 53

CADRUL NATURAL

AL ROMÂNIEI
1 $ù(=$5($*(2*5$),& *5$1, (/(ù,9(&,1,,

$úH]DUHD JHRJUDILF  SRDWH IL SULYLW  FD SR]L LH SH JORE vQ UDSRUW GH FRRUGRQDWHOH

JHRJUDILFH VDX FD SR]L LH SH FRQWLQHQW vQ UDSRUW GH PDULOH UHJLXQL DOH (XURSHL RUL FX DOWH

elemente geografice princiSDOH PDUL PXQ L IOXYLL  $QVDPEOXO DFHVWRU HOHPHQWH LQGLF  R

IDYRUDELO DúH]DUHJHRJUDILF D ULLQRDVWUHvQUDSRUWFXFRQGL LLOHQDWXUDOH7U V WXULOHVSHFLILFH


1
DOHFDGUXOXLJHRJUDILFURPkQHVFVXQWLQIOXHQ DWHGHIRUPDVLSR]L LDW ULL

La nivelul continentului european5RPkQLDFXSULQGHLQWHUIHUHQ HQDWXUDOHVLFXOWXUDOHGH


PDUH YDORDUH GH WDOLH HXURSHDQ  )RUPD UHODWLY KH[DJRQDO  D WHULWRULXOXL D SHUPLV vQ WLPS VL

VSD LXRS LXQLYDULDWHGHGH]YROWDUHSULQGLVWULEX LDHFKLOLEUDW DPDULORUDULLJHRJUDILFHFXUHOD LL

deschise cu oricare dintre ele.


0
$úH]DUHD SH JORE HVWH GHILQLW  GH FRRUGRQDWHOH JHRJUDILFHFDUH R VWU EDW 3DUDOHOD GH 

ODWLWXGLQH QRUGLF  OD MXP WDWHD GLVWDQ HL GLQWUH (FXDWRU úL 3ROXO 1RUG VWU EDWH DUD QRDVWU  SULQ

apropiere dH 7kUJX -LX SH OkQJ  3ORLHúWL úL SULQ 'HOWD 'XQ ULL 3XQFWXO FHO PDL VXGLF DO ULL
0 0
RUDúXO =LPQLFHD  HVWH VLWXDW OD   ¶ LDU FHO PDL QRUGLF VDWXO +RURGLúWHD SH 3UXW  OD 

¶ODWLWXGLQH QRUGLF  $FHDVWD LQGLF  VLWXDUHD ULL QRDVWUH vQ ]RQD WHPSHUDW  XQGH GLVWULEX LD

OXPLQLLúLDWHPSHUDWXULLRVFLOHD] vQWLPSXODQXOXLvQOLPLWHPRGHUDWH/DQRLQXVHvQUHJLVWUHD] 
0
QLFL F OGXUL H[FHVLYH FD vQ LQXWXULOH WURSLFDOH XQGH WHUPRPHWUXO QX XUF    ]LXD OD  C, nici
0
JHUXULQ SUDVQLFHFDvQ LQXWXULOHSRODUHXQGHLDUQDWHPSHUDWXUDFRERDU DGHVHDVXE -70 C.
0
ÌQ ORQJLWXGLQH 5RPkQLD HVWH DúH]DW  vQ HPLVIHUD U V ULWHDQ  vQWUH PHULGLDQXO GH   úL

cel de 300 3XQFWXO FHO PDL YHVWLF DO ULL ORFDOLWDWHD %HED 9HFKH HVWH VLWXDW OD 
0
15’, iar cel
0 0
mai estic RUDúXO 6XOLQD OD UPXO 0 ULL 1HJUH OD  41’. Meridianul de 25 est, care împarte
FRQWLQHQWXO HXURSHDQ vQ GRX  S U L DSURDSH HJDOH SRUQLQG GLQ SXQFWXO FHO PDL QRUGLF DO

FRQWLQHQWXOXL &DSXO 1RUG  úL FHO PDL VXGLF ,QVXOD &UHWD  VWU EDWH WHULWRULXO ULL QRDVWUH SULQ

PLMORFWUHFkQGSHOkQJ RUDúHOH) J UDúúL5RúLRULGH9HGH

'H OD DFHVW PHULGLDQ SkQ  OD PDUJLQLOH GH DSXV úL GH U V ULW DOH (XURSHL DGLF  SkQ  OD

PHULGLDQXO /LVDERQHL OD UPXO 2FHDQXOXL $WODQWLF úL FHO DO 6YHUGORYVNXOXL vQ 8UDO  este
0
DFHHDúLGHS UWDUHGHFkWH latitudine.

)D  GH GLIHULWHOH VHFWRDUH DOH FRQWLQHQWXOXL HXURSHDQ 5RPkQLD HVWH VLWXDW  vQWUH (XURSD

DSXVHDQ  SHQLQVXODU  úL FHD U V ULWHDQ  FRQWLQHQWDO  vQWUH (XURSD 1RUGLF  D 3HQLQVXOHL

6FDQGLQDYLFHúLDvPSUHMXULPLORU0 ULL%DOWLFHúLFHDVXGLF D ULORUGLQMXUXO0 ULL0HGLWHUDQH

'LVWDQ D GLQWUH DUD QRDVWU  úL PDUJLQLOH GH HVW 8UDO  GH YHVW 2FHDQXO $WODQWLF  úL GH QRUG

2FHDQXO ÌQJKH DW  HVWH DSUR[LPDWLY HJDO  FLUFD  NP  )D  GH OLPLWD VXGLF  D

FRQWLQHQWXOXLGHFLGH UPXO0 ULL0HGLWHUDQHGLVWDQ DHVWHvQV GHQXPDLNP

'DWRULW  FDUDFWHUHORU FOLPDWLFH JHQHUDOH SH FDUH L OH LPSULP  DúH]DUHD SH JORE FOLPDW

WHPSHUDW  úL D LQIOXHQ HORU SH FDUH OH SULPHúWH GH OD ILHFDUH GLQWUH ]RQHOH vQFRQMXU WRDUH DOH

FRQWLQHQWXOXLHXURSHDQ5RPkQLDSUH]LQW DVSHFWHSURSULLFOLPDWLFHúLIORULVWLFH

1
Bran, Florina (1999), Geografie economic WHULWRULDO D5RPkQLHL$6(%XFXUHúWLSJ -8.
3H WHULWRULXO ULL QRDVWUH VH vQWUHS WUXQG HOHPHQWH DOH FOLPDWXOXL VFDQGLQDYR
-baltic din
QRUG FX FHOH DOH FOLPDWXOXL PHGLWHUDQHDQ GLQ VXG 'DU LQIOXHQ HOH DFHVWora ajung pe teritoriul

ULL QRDVWUH PXOWDWHQXDWH GDWRULW  GLVWDQ HORU úL FDWHQHORU PXQWRDVH vQWkOQLWH vQ FDOH /D QRL QX

VH vQUHJLVWUHD]  QLFLFRQWUDVWHOH PDUL GH WHPSHUDWXU  GLQWUH YDU  úL LDUQ FD vQ U V ULWXO (XURSHL

QLFL DULGLWDWHD DFFHQWXDW  GLQ VXGXO FRQWLQHQWXOXL GXS  FXP QX VH vQUHJLVWUHD]  QLFL SORLOH

SHUVLVWHQWH VSHFLILFH FOLPDWXOXL RFHDQLF ,QIOXHQ HOH FOLPDWXOXL VFDQGLQDYR EDOWLF S WUXQG SH
-
WHULWRULXO5RPkQLHLvQ 0ROGRYDVHSWHQWULRQDO RUL vQ0DUDPXUHúLDUFHOHPHGLWHUDQHHQHvQVXG -
vestXO2OWHQLHLúLvQ%DQDW1XVHvQUHJLVWUHD] ODQRLLHUQLOXQJLFDvQ LQXWXULOHQRUGVDXQRUG -est
HXURSHQHúLQLFLSHULRDGHOHOXQJLGHVHFHW FDUH LQWRDW YDUDFDvQ LQXWXULOHPHGLWHUDQHHQH

7RW FD XQ HOHPHQW VSHFLILF DúH] ULL JHRJUDILFH DPLQWLP F  WHULWRULXO ULL QRDVWUH HVWH

WUDYHUVDWGHGRX OLPLWHILWRJHRJUDILFHDFHHDGLQWUHS GXUHFDUHVHvQWLQGHvQYHVWXOúLvQQRUGXO

FRQWLQHQWXOXL úL VWHSD VSHFLILF  (XURSHL VXG HVWLFH SUHFXP úL OD OLPLWD QRUGLF  D YL HL
- -de-vie,
SODQWD VHQVLELO  OD IULJ FDUHHYLW FOLPDWHOH UHFL$FHDVW  OLPLW DMXQJH ODQRL SkQ OD %DLD 0DUH

úLOD%RWRúDQL

'DU FX DFHDVWD QX DP GHILQLW SH GHSOLQ DúH]DUHD JHRJUDILF  D ULL QRDVWUH HD WUHEXLH

XUP ULW úLvQUDSRUWFXXQHOHHOHPHQWHJHRJUDILFHHVHQ LDOHDOHFRQWLQHQWXOXLÌQYRUELUHDFXUHQW 

VHVSXQHF 5RPkQLDHVWHR DU GXQ UHDQ ; aceasta întrucât teritoriul ei este cuprins aproape în
vQWUHJLPHGHED]LQXO'XQ ULLúLXGDWGLUHFWGHDFHVWIOXYLXSHGLQWRWDOXOOXQJLPLLVDOH

Se mai spune, de asemenea, ca România eVWH R DU FDUSDWLF , întrucât pe teritoriul ei se


GHVI úRDU  DSURDSH GRX  WUHLPL GLQ vQWUHJXO ODQ  DO DFHVWRU PXQ L FXSULQ]kQG  GLQ VHFWRUXO

sud-HVWLFDO&DUSD LORULDUWHULWRULLOHGLQYHFLQ WDWHV-au format fie din depuneri carpatice, fie din
influHQ H WHFWRQLFH FDUSDWLFH GH FXWDUH vQ YHFLQ WDWHD LPHGLDW  GH vQ O DUH VDX FRERUkUH VXE
LQIOXHQ DFDUSDWLF PDLGHSDUWH 

5RPkQLDHVWHDúH]DW ODFRQWDFWXOGLQWUHFHOHGRX VWUXFWXULJHRORJLFHPDMRUHDOH(XURSHL

DULD FXWDW  GH RURJHQ  FDUH DOF WXLHúWH vQ FHD PDL PDUH SDUWH S PkQWXO (XURSHL $SXVHQH úL

&HQWUDOHGLQFDUHIDFSDUWHúL&DUSD LLúLVWUXFWXUDGHSODWIRUP YHFKH GHFUDWRJHQ GLQU V ULWXO

FRQWLQHQWXOXLFDUHQXDVXIHULWvQGHFXUVXOWLPSXOXLGHFkWPLúF ULOHQWHGHULGLFDUHVDXFRERUkUH

pe YHUWLFDO  $FHVW FRQWDFW D LQIOXHQ DW HYROX LD UHOLHIXOXL ULL QRDVWUH vQ VHQVXO F  RULHQWDUHD

IRUPHORUGHRURJHQúLH[WLQGHUHDORUVSUHHVWDIRVWIUkQDW GHUH]LVWHQ DEORFXULORUYHFKLúLULJLGH

GLQU V ULW

8Q DOW HOHPHQW JHRJUDILF GH LPSRUWDQ  HXURSHDQ  FX FDUH 5RPkQLD VH DIO  vQ OHJ WXU 

GLUHFW HVWH0DUHD1HDJU  DUDQRDVWU RFXSkQGGLQ UPXOHLYHVWLFROXQJLPHGHNP3ULQ

DFHDVW SRDUW PDULWLP  DUDQRDVWU DUHOHJ WXULGHFRPXQLFD LHFXP ULOHúLRFHDQHOHOXPLL

Din punct de vedere HFRQRPLF úL SROLWLF 5RPkQLD VH VLWXHD]  vQ ]RQD GH LQWHUIHUHQ  D

PDULORU GUXPXUL HXURSHQH FDUH SRUQHVF GLQ ]RQD 0 ULL %DOWLFH úL 3HQLQVXOD 6FDQGLQDYLF  VSUH

0HGLWHUDQD 2ULHQWDO FX GUXPXULOHFH YLQ GLQVSUH (XURSD $SXVHDQ  úL &HQWUDO  vQGUHSWkQGX -se
spUHHVWXOúLVXG-HVWXOFRQWLQHQWXOXL&DXUPDUH5RPkQLDHVWHR DU GHWUDQ]LWHXURSHDQFDUDFWHU

DPSOLILFDWvQXOWLPHOHGHFHQLLSULQPRGHUQL]DUHDF LORUIHUDWHúLUXWLHUHSULQFRQVWUXLUHDXQRUQRL

SRGXULSHVWH'XQ UHúLSULQH[WLQGHUHDVLVWHPXOXLSRUWXDU&RQVWDQ D

*5$1, (/('(67$79(&,1,,ù,Ì17,1'(5($

TERITORIULUI ROMÂNIEI
ÌQ WRWDO JUDQL HOH 5RPkQLHL DX R OXQJLPH GH  NP GLQWUH FDUH  IOXYLDOH 

terestre, restul fiind maritime.


*UDQL DGHU V ULW cuprinde trei sectoare. De la VamD9HFKHSkQ ODJXUDEUD XOXL&KLOLD

SHROXQJLPHGHNPHVWHIRUPDW GH UPXO0 ULL1HJUH'HIDSWHDQXVHRSUHúWHSHOLWRUDO

FL FXSULQGH úL R ]RQ  GLQ ODUJXO P ULL GH  PLOH PDULQH FDUH IDFH SDUWH GLQ DSHOH QRDVWUH
teritoriale.
De la gura &KLOLHLSkQ ODFRQIOXHQ D'XQ ULLFX3UXWXOJUDQL DXUPHD] FXUVXOSULQFLSDO

DO EUD XOXL &KLOLD DSRL  vQ FRQWLQXDUH FXUVXO 'XQ ULL GHOLPLWkQG SH OD QRUG WHULWRULXO 'HOWHL úL

PDUJLQHD KRUVWXOXL GREURJHDQ FX 8FUDLQD 'LQ DSURSLHUH GH *DOD L SkQ  OD YHVW GH RUDúXO

'DUDEDQLvQQRUGXO0ROGRYHLJUDQL DXUPHD] FXUVXO3UXWXOXLFX5HSXEOLFD0ROGRYD

*UDQL D GH QRUG FDUH LQH GH OD 'DUDEDQL SkQ  OD +DOPHX HVWH FHD PDL FRPSOH[ 

VHF LXQL PDUFDWH FRQYHQ LRQDO  DOWHUQkQG FX VHFWRDUH QDWXUDOH FXOPL GH PXQ L úL DOELL GH UkXUL 

0XQ LL 0DUDPXUHúXOXL FXUVXO VXSHULRU DO 7LVHL 0XQ LL 2DúXOXL 3H vQWUHJXO VHFWRU GH HVW úL GH

QRUGQHvQYHFLQ PFX8FUDLQD SHVWHGLQOXQJLPHDIURQWLHUHORU ULLQRDVWUH 

*UDQL DGHYHVWvQWUH+DOPHX úL%D]LDúSH 'XQ UHFXSULQGHGRX VHFWRDUHSULPXOvQWUH

+DOPHX úL %HED 9HFKH VWU EDWH  &kPSLD GH 9HVW  7LVHL  SH GLUHF LD 1( 69 SkQ  OD YHVW GH
-
$UDG XQGHFRQWLQX  R PLF  GLVWDQ  SH YDOHD 0XUHúXOXL $FHDVW  SRU LXQH IRUPHD]   KRWDUXO FX

Ungaria. În cel de-al doilea sector, întUH %HED 9HFKH úL %D]LDú IURQWLHUD ULL FX ,XJRVODYLD

WUDYHUVHD] vQGLDJRQDO &kPSLD%DQDWXOXL

*UDQL DGHVXG XUPHD] FXUVXO'XQ ULLSkQ OD 2VWURYGH XQGH SkQ  OD UPXOP ULL OD

9DPD 9HFKH  VWU EDWH 3RGLúXO 'REURJHL GH VXG vQWUH %D]LDú úL JXUD 7LPRNXOXL 'XQ UHD

FRQWLQX  JUDQL D FX ,XJRVODYLD LDU GH DFROR VSUH HVW IOXYLXO úL vQ FRQWLQXDUH JUDQL D WHUHVWU 

IRUPHD] KRWDUXOFX%XOJDULD

ÌQWUHJUDQL HOHDU WDWH DUDQRDVWU DUHRVXSUDID GHNPSFDUHRVLWXHD] SULQWUH

ULOHGHP ULP e mijlocie ale continentului european, ocupând locul al 12-lea între ele.
2 5(/,()8/ù,3(,6$-8/*(2*5$),&

)250$5($ù,(92/8 ,$3$/(2*(2*5$),& 

$3 0Æ178/8,520Æ1,(,

3HQWUX D XUP UL FXP V D IRUPDW S PkQWXO


- ULL QRDVWUH WUHEXLH V  VH LQ  VHDPD GH

WUDQVIRUP ULOHFDUHV DXSURGXVQXQXPDLvQWUHFXWXOV XJHRORJLFFLúLDODOWRU LQXWXULHXURSHQH


-
GLQvPSUHMXULPLVDXFKLDUGLQORFXULPDLGHS UWDWH0RGXOGHIRUPDUHúLGHHYROX LHDUHOLHIXOXLD

GHWHUPLQDW XQ DQXPLW PRGHO GH RUJDQL]DUH VSD LDO  úL VHFWRULDO  )RUPHOH PDMRUH de relief
LQIOXHQ HD] úLFHOHODOWHFRPSRQHQWHGHPHGLX

&HOHPDLYHFKLS PkQWXULHXURSHQHGDWkQGGLQSUHFDPEULDQVXQWVLWXDWHvQQRUGXOúLHVWXO

FRQWLQHQWXOXL GLQ )LQODQGD úL GLQ &kPSLD 5XV $FHVWH EORFXUL ULJLGH DOF WXLWH GLQ úLVWXUL

FULVWDOLQH úL L ntruziuni granitice, n-DX VXIHULW vQ GHFXUVXO YUHPXULORU GHFkW XúRDUH PLúF UL GH

ULGLFDUH VDX GH FRERUkUH U PkQkQG QHFXWDWH 'LQ DFHDVW  VWU YHFKH SDUWH D (XURSHL 3DOHR
-
HXURSD SHWHULWRULXOW ULLQRDVWUHQXVHJ VHúWHGHFkWXQFRO VLWXDWODRPLF DGâncime în partea

de nord-HVWD3RGLúXOXL0ROGRYHLVXEVWUDWXULPDLQRLGHSXVHvQP ULOHFDUHO-au acoperit din era


2
PH]R]RLFDSkQ vQSHULRDGDPDLQRX DWHU LDUXOXLvQVDUPD LDQ

Pe teritoriul României RURJHQH]D FDOHGRQLDQ  D vQ O DW XQ VLQJXU PDVLY PR ntan, care
RFXS 3RGLúXO&DVLPFHLGLQSDUWHDFHQWUDO QRUGLF D'REURJHLDOF WXLWGLQúLVWXULYHU]L8OWHULRU
-
HO D IRVW vQGHOXQJ HURGDW SkQ  OD QLYHODUHD VXE IRUPD XQXL SRGLú SX LQ vQDOW úL VODE Y OXULW DúD

cum apare în prezent.


ÌQSULPDMXP WDWHDHUHLSDOHR]RLFHODQLYHOXOFRQWLQHQWXOXLFDúLvQWRWVXGXO(XURSHLHUD

Marea Thetys. În cuprinsul ei, în a doua parte a erei paleozoice, din cauza presiunilor laterale
SURGXVH vQ IXQGXO JHRVLQFOLQDOXOXL GLQ FXSULQVXO (XURSHL SHQLQVXODUH vQFHS V  VH ULGLFH la

VXSUDID  - PDL vQWkL VXE IRUPD GH LQVXOH DSRL VXE IRUPD XQXL SXWHUQLF ODQ  PXQWRV - noi

VXSUDIH HFDUHV-DXDG XJDWODXVFDWXOHXURSHDQH[LVWHQWSHDWXQFL

&XW ULOH KHUFLQLFH DX DYXW FD HIHFW úL SXQHUHD vQ ORF D úLVWXULORU FULVWDOLQH GLQ D[D

&DUSD LORU ÌQ 3HUPLDQ XOWLPD SHULRDG  D SDOHR]RLFXOXL  ]RQD FULVWDOLQ  GLQ FHOH WUHL UDPXUL DOH

&DUSD LORU HUD vQ vQWUHJLPH LHúLW  GLQ DSHOH P ULL $ XUPDW R SHULRDG  GH HUR]LXQH úL QLYHODUH D

DFHVWRUIRUPD LXQLFDUHXOWHULRUDXIRVWUHvQJOREDWHúLUHFXWDWHS rin RURJHQH]DDOSLQ .


8OWHULRUODVIkUúLWXOHUHLPH]R]RLFH vQ&UHWDFLF SHWHULWRULXO5RPkQLHLSHOkQJ PXQ LL

PDL YHFKL GLQ QRUGXO 'REURJHL úL &DUSD LL 0HULGLRQDOL FX FRQWXUXO DSURSLDW GH FHO DFWXDO VH

LQGLYLGXDOL]HD] SDUWHDGHHVWD0XQ LORU$SXVHQLúLRPDUHSDUWHD&DUSD LORU2ULHQWDOLSHRIkúLH

FDUH VH DOLSHúWH OD HVW VWUXFWXULL PDL YHFKL FULVWDOLQH úL FRQWLQX  OD VXG vQ JROXO GH OD FXUED

FDUSDWLF  8Q LPSRUWDQW HIHFW DO DFHVWRU PLúF UL D IRVW IRUPDUHD XQRU PDUL GHSUHVLXQL WHFWRQLFH

2
Bran, Florina (1999), Geografie economic WHULWRULDO D5RPkQLHL$6(%XFXUHúWLSJ-11.
Atunci încHSHVFXIXQGDUHDOHQWDDED]LQXOXL7UDQVLOYDQLHLúLD'HSUHVLXQLL3DQRQLFHSUHFXPúLD
XQRUDULLGLQH[WHULRUXO&DUSD LORU GHH[HPSOX]RQD&kPSLHL5RPkQHVDXGHSUHVLXQHDGLQVXGXO

Moldovei).
/DQ XODOSLQR FDUSDWLFúLvQWUHDJD(XURS GHVXG 1HR
- -Europa) VHvQWUHJHVFvQHUDWHU LDU 

/D vQFHSXWXO DFHVWHL HUH DX ORF SXWHUQLFH PLúF UL WHFWRQLFH LQ LQVXOHOH FULVWDOLQH úL OD GHSXQHULOH

PH]R]RLFH PDLDOHVMXUDVLFHúLFUHWDFLFH FXWDWHDQWHULRUDOLSLQGX VHPXQ LLIOLúXOXLSDOHRJHQGLQ


-
&DUSD LL 2ULHQWDOL FXWD L FKLDU vQ YUHPHD IRUPDULL ORU SULQ VHGLPHQWDUH VXEPDULQD ,DX GH

DVHPHQHDQDúWHUHS U LPDL PLFLGLQ&DUSD LL 0HULGLRQDOLúL GLQQRUGXO0XQ LORU $SXVHQL2GDW 

FX PLúF ULOH GH FXWDUH D PXQ LORU V DX SURGXV LPSRUWDQWH PLúF UL YHUWLFDOH FDUH DX vQ O DW XQ
- ele
VHFWRDUH GLQ &DUSD L VFXIXQGkQG DOWHOH ÌQ DFHVW WLPS FRQWLQXD DIXQGDUHD OHQWD D ED]LQXOXL

WUDQVLOY QHDQ FRQFRPLWHQW FX VHGLPHQWDUHD OXL 0DUHD 'HSUHVLXQH 3DQRQLFD VH vQWLQGHD SkQ  OD

SRDOHOH 0XQ LORU $SXVHQL S WUXQ]kQG VXE IRUPD GH JROIXUL vQ GHSU esiuni, în timp ce marea
JURDS  RFXSDWD DVW ]L GH &kPSLD 5RPDQD VH DGkQFHD úL HD WUHSWDW 'DWRULWD IU PkQW ULORU

WHFWRQLFH vúL IDF ORF SH R OLQLH GH UXSWXUD GLQ HVWXO 7UDQVLOYDQLHL úL D 0DUDPXUHúXOXL ODYH GLQ

DGkQFFUHkQGPXQ LLYXOFDQLFL

3 PkQWXULOH PDL  QRL DOH ULL VH IRUPHD]  OD VIkUúLWXO HUHL QHR]RLFH FkQG vQI LúDUHD

S PkQWXOXLURPkQHVFHUDvQOLQLLPDULDSURSLDWDGHFHDGHDVW ]LQXPDLORFXOFkPSLLORUDFWXDOHúL

DOXQRUGHSUHVLXQLGLQMXUXO7UDQVLOYDQLHLHUDvQF DFRSHULWGHDSH$JHQ LLH[WHUQLGXVHVHU GHVWXO

GHGHSDUWHDF LXQHDGHHUR]LXQHDPXQ LORU5HOLHIXOYHFKLGLQQRUGXO'REURJHLúLGLQVHFWRDUHOH

FULVWDOLQHDOH&DUSD LORUVXSXVHXQHLvQGHOXQJDWHHUR]LXQLVXEXQFOLPDWWURSLFDOVHPLDULGDMXQJH

la o remarcabila netezire (Platforma BoU VFX 8OWHULRUVHLQGLYLGXDOL]HD] DOWHVXSUDIH HMRDVHD

PXQ LORU 'LQ IUDJPHQWDUHD ORU V DX FRQVWUXLW LQXWXULOH VHGLPHQWDUH GLQ MXU ÌQFHSH D VH IRUPD
-
UH HDXDKLGURJUDILFDúLFDXUPDUHVDVHDGkQFHDVF Y LOHvQXQHOHVHF LXQLFDUSDWLFH

În perioada FXDWHUQDU  PLúF ULOH VFRDU HL GH FXWDUH RUL QXPDL GH ULGLFDUH úL FRERUkUH  VH

SRWROHVFPXOWI U DVHVWLQJHFRPSOHW$SHOHP ULORUVHUHWUDJúLGHSHXOWLPHOHORFXULSHFDUHOH

RFXSDX &kPSLD GH 9HVW 7LVHL  úL &kPSLD 5RPkQ  GHYLQ XVFDWXUL SHVWH HOH G epunându-se o
FXYHUWXU GHOXWJDOEHQ ORHVVVDXIRUPD LXQLORHVVRLGH 

/D vQFHSXWXO FXDWHUQDUXOXL VH LQGLYLGXDOL]HD]  'XQ UHD FDUH WUDYHUVHD]  &DUSD LL

IHUHVWUXLQG SLWRUHVFXO V X GHILOHX GLQWUH %D]LDú úL 'UREHWD 7XUQX 6HYHULQ I FkQG DVWIHO XQLUHD
-
bazinXOXL SDQRQLF FX FHO SRQWLF úL vQDLQWHD]  WUHSWDW VSUH HVW  vQ vQWUHJXO FXDWHUQDU F WUH UPXO

P ULL DIODW vQ UHWUDJHUH &OLPD LQL LDO FDOG  D GHYHQLW VXFFHVLY VXESRODUD vQ SHULRDGHOH JODFLDUH

DVWIHO F  SH FXOPLOH vQDOWH DOH &DUSD LORU V DX IRUPDW JKH DUL FDUH DX VFRELW F OG UL JODFLDUH
-
QXPLWH SRSXODU ] QRDJH SUHFXP úL Y LOHFX YHUVDQ LDEUXS L GHSXQkQGPRUHQHOHvQWkOQLWHDVW ]L

ODvQ O LPLGHSHVWHPÌQID]HOHLQWHUJODFLDUHFDOGHFOLPDWXOUHGHYHQHDVXEWURSLFDO5kXULOH

FXUJHDXQ YDOQLFHGLQPXQ LWUDQVSRUWkQGPDWHULDOGHWULWLFSHFDUH OGHSXQODPDUJLQHDPXQ LORU


-
IRUPkQG SULVSH PDL vQDOWH GH SLHWULúXUL úL DOXYLXQL QXPLWH SLHPRQWXUL VL JODFLVXUL /D vQFHSXW

UkXULOH U W FHDXQHKRW UkWHSHVWHDFHVWHFkPSLLDSRLVHDGkQFHVF WUHSWDWúL úLVWDWRU - nicesc albiile.


&X WUHFHUHD WLPSXOXL VH VFKLPE  úL FOLPD LDU RGDW  FX HD  IORUD úL IDXQD DMXQJ SULQ UHSHWDWH

VHOHF LLúLQRLWUDQVIRUP ULODIRUPD LXQLOHGHDVW ]L

ÌQ DFHDVW  SHULRDG  D FXDWHUQDUXOXL DSDUH úL RPXO SUHLVWRULF FX DG SRVWXUL GH -a lungul
aSHORU PDUL &X DSDUL LD OXL vQFHSH LVWRULD VRFLHW LL VWU YHFKL SDOHROLWLF  8UPHOH O VDWH GH HO VH

vQWkOQHVF vQ PXOWH S U L DOH W ULL QRDVWUH SH PDOXO UkXOXL 3UXWXOXL OD &LRFORYLQD vQ +D HJ SULQ

XQHOH S U L DOH 'REURJHL  $FHVWH XUPH GHYLQ GLQ FH vQ FH PDL QXPHURDVH úL FX  HIHFWH PDL

HYLGHQWH DVXSUD SHLVDMXOXL QDWXUDO vQ P VXUD vQ FDUH RPXO vQDLQWD SH GUXPXO FLYLOL]D LHL 

QHROLWLF  ,VWRULD VFULV  RUL DWHVWDW  DUKHRORJLF GDWHD]  SH WHULWRULXO SDWULHL QRDVWUH GH SHVWH 

milenii.
2.2. CARACTERELE GENERALE ALE RELIEFULUI ROMÂNIEI
ù,0$5,/(',9,=,81,

5HOLHIXO ULL QRDVWUH HVWH YDULDW úL GLVWULEXLW FRQFHQWULF ÌQ PLMORFXO ULL VH DIO  XQ SRGLú

3RGLúXO 7UDQVLOYDQLHL  DYkQG R vQ O LPH PHGLH GH P vQ MXUXO F UXLD VH vQDO  R FXQXQ  GH

PXQ L FDUH QXPDL vQ FkWHYD ORFXUL WUHF GH  P DOWLWXGLQH ILLQG vQWUHUXSWH GH FkWHYD Y L

WUDQVYHUVDOH 8QHOH GLQ DFHVWH Y L WDLH vQ GHILOHH LQHOXO GH PXQ L 0ROGRYD 7URWXúXO 2OWXO

0XUHúXO  FUHkQG OHJ WXUL OHVQLFLRDVH FX ]RQHOH GLQ MXU /D UkQGXO HL FXQXQD PXQ LORU HVWH

vQFRQMXUDW  VSUH H[WHULRU GH GHDOXUL OD PDUJLQHD F URUD VH DO WXU  FkPSLL úL OXQFL &kPSLD GH

9HVWúL&kPSLD5RPDQDWHUPLQDW FXOXQFDODUJ D'XQ ULLúLFXPDUHDGHOWDDDFHVWXLIOXYLX

5HOLHIXO  ULL QRDVWUHDUH DVWIHO R vQI LúDUH YDULDW  úL VLPHWULFD PXQ L GHDOXUL FkPSLL úL

OXQFLWRDWHRUkQGXLWHGHODPLMORFF WUHPDUJLQLvQWUHSWHDSURDSHFRQFHQWULFHúLGLQFHvQFHPDL

MRDVH $FHVWHL GLYHUVLW L GH IRUPH vL FRUHVSXQG IHOXULWH URFL úL VWUXFWXUL JHRORJLFH QXDQ H GH

FOLP GLIHULWHFRPSOH[HIDXQLVWLFHúLDVRFLD LLYHJHWDOH)LHF UHLDGLQWUHDFHVWHWUHSWHGHUHOLHIvL

FRUHVSXQGH DOW  JUXS  GH UHVXUVH QDWXUDOH  PXQ LL FX vQWLQVHOH S úXQL SH FXOPLOH vQDOWH FX

S GXULOH úL IkQH HOH GH SH YHUVDQ LL úL FXOPLOH PDL MRDVH FX ] F PLQWH GH F UEXQL VXSHULRUL vQ

VHGLPHQWDUXO XQRU GHSUHVLXQL FX PLQHUHX GH ILHU úL PHWDOH QHIHURDVH GHDOXULOH FX OLYH]L úL

SRGJRULLFX] F PLQWHGHF UEXQL LQIHULRULúLJD]H QDWXUDOHFXSHWURO úLVDUHFkPSLLOHFXKROGH

P QRDVHGHFHUHDOHFXFXOWXULGHSODQWHWHKQLFHúLOHJXPHLDUvQDGkQFXULFXKLGURFDUEXULUHFHQW
3
GHVFRSHULWHOXQFLOHúLGHOWD'XQ ULLERJDWHvQSHVWHúLVWXI .
8Q DOW DVSHFW FDUDFWHULVWLF vQ DOF WXLUHD S PkQWXOXL ULL QRDVWUH HVWH SURSRU LRQDOLWDWHD

dintre cele trei principale forme de reliHI PXQ LLRFXS   GHDOXULOH úL SRGLúXULOH RFXS  

LDU FkPSLLOH úL OXQFLOH  GLQ VXSUDID D ULL ÌQ JHQHUDO FHOH WUHL SULQFLSDOH IRUPH GH UHOLHI

RFXS WHULWRULLDSURSLDWHFDvQWLQGHUH

$FHDVWD IDFH FD UHOLHIXO 5RPkQLHL V  VH GHRVHEHDVF  GH FHO DO XQRU UL XQGH ILH F 

SUHFXPS QHVF PXQ LL FD vQ FD]XO (OYH LHL $XVWULHL  ILH F  SUHGRPLQ  FkPSLD FD vQ 2ODQGD

%HOJLD 'DQHPDUFD  ILH F  vQWUH PDULOH WUHSWH GH UHOLHI H[LVW  vQVHPQDWH GLVSURSRU LL $FHDVW 

vPS U LUH SURSRU LRQDOD D IRUPHORU GH UHOLHI VH U VIUkQJH vQ FKLS IDYRUDELO vQ HFRQRPLD ULL (D

LPSULPD DFHD PLQXQDW  XQLWDWH JHRJUDILF  FRPSOH[  D WHULWRULXOXL 5RPkQLHL UHPDUFDW  úL GH

JHRJUDILLVWU LQL

LQkQG VHDPD GH JHQH]D GH VWUXFWXUD SUHFXP úL GH IRUPHOH GH UHOLHI FDUDFWHULVWLFH SH

teULWRULXO ULL QRDVWUH VH GHRVHEHVF GRX  PDUL GLYL]LXQL XQD vQ FDUH SUHGRPLQ  VWUDWXULOH FXWDWH

UHJLXQLOH GH RURJHQ  FX UHOLHI PDL vQDOW úL PDL IUDJPHQWDW FX IRUPH PDL ]YHOWH úL SDQWH vQ

JHQHUH PDL DFFHQWXDWH DOWD vQ FDUH SUHGRPLQ  VWUDWXULOH RUL]RQW ale sau apropiate de orizontala
UHJLXQLOHGHSODWIRUPD FXIRUPHGHUHOLHIPDLVFXQGHFXSDQWHPDLGRPRDOHúLY LODUJL

3 U LOH vQDOWH úL GLYHUVLILFDWHFD UHOLHIFDUH LQ GH LQHOXO FDUSDWLF úLDVRFLDWH ORU LQXWXULOH

depresionare pe care acestea le vQFKLG LQFOXVLY 3RGLúXO 7UDQVLOYDQLHL  LQWU  vQ SULPD FDWHJRULHD

UHJLXQLORU GH RURJHQ LDU LQXWXULOH FX VWUDWXUL QHFXWDWH GLQ H[WHULRU 3RGLúXO 0ROGRYHL *HWLF

Câmpia Romana, Câmpia de Vest) fac parte din cea de-a doua categorie, a regiunilor de
platfoUP  ÌQ FXSULQVXO DFHVWRUD GLQ XUP  IDF H[FHS LH GRDU R PLF  SRU LXQH GH WHUHQXUL FXWDWH
U P úL D XQRU PXQ L YHFKL SXWHUQLF HURGD L GLQ QRUGXO 'REURJHL úL VSLQ ULOH L]RODWH GH PXQ L

YHFKLvQ3RGLúXO6RPHúDQ

ÌQWUXFkW&DUSD LLDOF WXLHVFSHWHULWRULXO ULLQRDVWUHSDUWHDFHDPDLvQDOW DUHOLHIXOXLGHD

F URU IRUPDUH VH OHDJ  WRDWH FHOHODOWH UHJLXQL GH RURJHQ SULQ FXW ULOH SH FDUH DFHVWHD OH -au
VXIHULW  úL FKLDU XQHOH GLQ UHJLXQLOH GH SODWIRUPD SULQ VFXIXQGDUHD ORU vQ SHULRDGHOH GH vQ O DUH

carpatic úLSULQVHGLPHQWDUHDFXPDWHULDOHFDUSDWLFH vQFHSHPWUDWDUHDUHOLHIXOXLFXDFHúWLD

3
Bran, Florina (1999), Geografie economic WHULWRULDO D5RPkQLHL$6(%XFXUHúWLSJ -35.
2.1.1. 0XQ LL&DUSD L

&DUDFWHUHJHQHUDOHúLDVSHFWHGLIHUHQ LDOH

) FkQG SDUWH GLQ ODQ XO PXQ LORU WLQHULL DOSLQR KLPDOD\DQ &DUSD LL SUH]LQW  FDUDFWHUH GH
-
înrudire atât cu $OSLL FkW úL FX %DOFDQLL FX FDUHVH OHDJ  GH R SDUWH úL GHDOWD SUHFXP úLFX DO L

PXQ LGLQVLVWHPXODOSLQ

$X DFHHDúL DOF WXLUH JHRJUDILFD XQ IXQGDPHQW GH úLVWXUL FULVWDOLQH OD FDUH VH DGDXJ  vQ

latura externa roci sedimentare mai noi (cretacic - pDOHRJHQH  úL SH DORFXUL SH ODWXUD LQWHUQD
URFL YXOFDQLFH 'H DVHPHQHD &DUSD LL DX DFHODúL VLVWHP GH FXWH U VWXUQDWH VSUH H[WHULRU

GH]YROWDWH vQ DFHOHDúL ID]H GH FXWDUH vQFHSXWH OD VIkUúLWXO HUHL PH]R]RLFH úL FRQWLQXDWH vQ

QHR]RLFHLDXvQV úLXQHOHGHRVHELULFHHDFHHYLGHQ LD] WRFPDLFDUDFWHUHOHORUSURSULL

&DUSD LL VH GHRVHEHVF GH FHOHODOWH FDWHQH PXQWRDVH DOH VLVWHPXOXL DOSLQ SULQ WUDVHXO ORU

VLQXRV ÌQWUH OLPLWHOH DU WDWH VH GHVI úRDU  LQWU R GXEO  DUFXLUH FDUH VH H[SOLFD SULQ UH]LVWHQ D
-
oSXV  vQ FDOHD IRUP ULL ORU GH VRFOXULOH VWU YHFKL vQ HSHQLWH VDX D UHVWXULORU GH PXQ L YHFKL 

KHUFLQLFL  DIODWH vQ DIDUD 3RGLúXO %RHPLHL 3RGLúXO 0DODSROVND 3ODWIRUPD 3RGROLFD 0DVLYXO

Dobrogei, Platforma Moesica. Acestea i-au silit ca în perioada de FXWDUHV VHU VXFHDVF OXkQG

IRUPDORUFXUEDW 

'DF vLFRPSDUDP FXFHLODO LPXQ LDLFRQWLQHQWXOXLHLDXRDOWLWXGLQHPLMORFLH1XDWLQJ

QLFL vQ O LPLOH $OSLORU FDUH FXOPLQHD]  vQ 0RQW %ODQF OD  P QLFL QX U PkQ OD vQ O LPHD

FHORUPDLPXO LGLQWUHPXQ LLYHFKLDL(XURSHLFDUHUDUHRULGHS úHVFPDOWLWXGLQH&DUSD LL

VHFDUDFWHUL]HD] GHDVHPHQHDSULQPDVLYLWDWHDORUUHGXV UH]XOWDW GLQPXO LPHDWUHF WRULORUúL

D GHSUHVLXQLORU LQWHULRDUH FDUH vL IUDJPHQWHD]  $OSLL QX VXQW VWU E WX L GH nici o vale
WUDQVYHUVDO SHQWUXOHJ WXULOHIHURYLDUHWUDQVDOSLQHDXWUHEXLWV VHUHDOL]H]HWXQHOHOXQJLGH -
19 km.
1LFL%DOFDQLLGHúLPDLVFXQ]LGHFkW&DUSD LLQXDXGHFkWRVLQJXU YDOHWUDQVYHUVDO FHD

D,VNHUQXOXLÌQ&DUSD LY LOHWUDQVYHUVDOHVXQWGHVWXOGHIUHFYHQWH2OWXO-LXO'XQ UHD0XUHúXO

VWU EDW DFHúWL PXQ L 3DVXULOH GH FXOPH FDUH vQ $OSL DX vQ O LPL GH SHVWH P vQ &DUSD L VH

PHQ LQ vQ JHQHUH OD  – P ILLQG DVWIHO PDL XúRU DFFHVLELOH 6SHFLILFD SHQWUX &DUSD L

estH úL PXO LPHD GHSUHVLXQLORU XQHOH GHVWXO GH vQWLQVH ELQH SRSXODWH FX KROGH ERJDWH XQHOH
GLQWUH HOH FXQRVFXWH GLQ YHFKLPH VXE GHQXPLUHD GH ³ UL´ DUD +D HJXOXL DUD %kUVHL DUD

0DUDPXUHúXOXL DOWHOH FKLDUPDLUHWUDVH úL DXF S WDWvQVHPQ WDWHSULQ] F PLQWHOHFXSULQVHvQ


-
VXEVROXO ORU 'HSUHVLXQLOH 3HWURúDQL úL &RP QHúWL ERJDWH vQ F UEXQL  RUL SULQ GH]YROWDUHD ORU

LQGXVWULDOúLXUEDQ  'HSUHVLXQHD%UDúRYXOXL 

$VSHFWH DOSLQH DSDU vQ &DUSD L GRDU SH FXOPLOH FHOH PDL vQDOWH XQGH VH GHVI úRDU  ILH

ODUJL SODWIRUPH RQGXODWH FX S úXQL vQWLQVH ILH FUHVWH vQJXVWH FX PDUJLQL SU S VWLRDVH GDWRUDWH

FLUFXULORUJODFLDUHVFRELWHGHJKH DULRULUH]XOWDWHGHSHXUPDGH]DJUHJ ULLSULQvQJKH  GH]JKH  -


repetat (forme crionivale).
În adâncul multora din acestea sunt lacuri, care dau farmec împrejurimilor. Spre
GHRVHELUH GH $OSL úL 3LULQHL FX ] SH]L SHUPDQHQWH úL JKH DUL &DUSD LL QX DX JKH DUL DFWXDOL SH

FXOPL vQWUXFkW VH DIOD vQ vQWUHJLPH VXE OLPLWD ] SH]LORU SHUPDQHQWH FDUH OD DOWLWXGLQHD ULL

noastre se afla la circa 3.000 m altitudine.


2DOWDFDUDFWHULVWLF D&DUSD LORURFRQVWLWXLHVXFFHVLXQHDGHVHFWRDUHvQDOWHGHVS U LWHGH

DOWHOH MRDVH 6HFWRDUHOH PDL vQDOWH GDWRULW  XQRU vQ O UL vQ PDV  SUH]LQW  DGHVHD úL R ODUJ 

dezvoltare a cristalinului(Tatra, Rodna-%LVWULWD&DUSD LL0HULGLRQDOL FHOHODOWHFDUHVHGDWRUHD] 

XQRU O V UL D[LDOH VXQW DOF WXLWH vQ PDL PDUH SDUWH GLQ IRUPD LXQLOH VHGLPHQWDUH DOH IOLúXOXL

cristalinul aflându-VHvQS U LOHUHVSHFWLYHVFXIXQGDW %HVNL]LL2ULHQWDOL&DUSD LL& urburii) sau la


PLFDDOWLWXGLQHvQ0XQ LL%DQDWXOXLúL3RGLúXO6RPHúDQ
6XEvPS U LUHD ODQ XOXL FDUSDWLF VH ED]HD]  WRFPDL SH DFHVWH GHRVHELUL GH DOF WXLUH

SHWURJUDILFD GH VWUXFWXUD úL GH DOWLWXGLQH OD FDUH VH DGDXJ  úL DOWH FDUDFWHUH GLIHUHQ LDOH FD

oULHQWDUHD FXOPLORU IRUPHOH SUHGRPLQDQWH DOH PXQ LORU PDVLYLWDWHD VDX IUDJPHQWDUHD ORU SULQ
GHSUHVLXQLúLY LIUHFYHQ DúLvQ O LPLOHWUHF WRULORUJUDGXOGHSRSXODUHHWF6 DXSXWXWGLIHUHQ LD
-
DVWIHO XUP WRDUHOH PDUL GLYL]LXQL JUXSD 7DWUHL %HVNL]LL 2ULHQWDOL &DUSD LL 2ULHQWDOL &DUSD LL

0HULGLRQDOL0XQ LL%DQDWXOXL0XQ LL$SXVHQL3HWHULWRULXO ULLQRDVWUHVHvQWLQGXOWLPHOHSDWUX

sectoare.

'LYL]LXQLOH&DUSD LORUURPkQHúWL

LQkQG VHDPD GH FDUDFWHULVWLFLOH UHOLHIXOXL úL VWUXFWXULL ILHF UHL UDPXU i carpatice, precum
úLGHFRPSOH[XO FHORUODOWHHOHPHQWHJHRJUDILFHV DX SURSXVXUP WRDUHOHOLPLWHvQWUHSULQFLSDOHOH
-
GLYL]LXQLDOH&DUSD LORUURPkQHVWL

1. &DUSD LL 2ULHQWDOL VXQW GHOLPLWD L GH FHL 0HULGLRQDOL GH YDOHD 3UDKRYHL DYkQG vQ YHGHUH PDL
ales deosebirile de altitudine OD YHVW GH DFHDVWD YDOH PXQ LL FXOPLQkQG OD SHVWH  P OD HVW
FKLDUJUXSDFHDPDLvQDO -&LXFDúXO -GHS úHúWHGRDUP SUHFXPúLLPSUHVLRQDQWXODEUXSW

SUDKRYHDQ DO %XFHJLORU 2 DOW  GHOLPLWDUH HVWH SH YDOHD 'kPERYL HL, plecând de la IRUPD LXQLOH

geologiceFRPSRQHQWHúLstructuravQWUXWRWXOGLIHULW GHRSDUWHúLDOWDDY LL'kPERYL HL3HQWUX


D VWDELOL R OHJ WXUD vQWUH FHOH GRX  S UHUL RSXVH V-a propus a considera grupa Bucegilor ca un

VHFWRU GH WUDQ]L LH vQWUXFkW VH DSURSLH FD DOWLWXGLQH GH &DUSD LL 0HULGLRQDOL LDU FD IRUPD LL

JHRORJLFHúLVWLODOFXW ULORUGH&DUSD LL2ULHQWDOL

  ÌQWUH &DUSD LL 0HULGLRQDOL úL JUXSHOH PXQWRDVH GH OD YHVW OLPLWD XUPHD]  XQ WUDVHX vQ XQJKL

GUHSW FXORDUXO 7LPLú  &HUQD GH OD 2UúRYD SkQ  OD &DUDQVHEHú LDU vQ FRQWLQXDUH VSUH HVW SH
-
YDOHD %LVWUHL úL vQ 'HSUHVLXQHD +D HJXOXL 'HúL PXQ LL GLQWU R SDUWH úL DOWD D DFHVWRU FRULGRDUH
-
VXQW DOF WXL L GLQ DFHOHDúL IRUPD LL JHRORJLFH úL VXQW vQUXGL L DWkW FD YHFKLPH FkW úL FD VWUXFWXUD

diIHUHQ D GH vQ O LPH ILLQG IRDUWH PDUH FDP  P vQ PHGLH vQWUH &DUSD LL 0HULGLRQDOL úL

0XQ LL%DQDWXOXL VHFRQVLGHU F OLPLWDDFHDVWDHVWHXQDQLPDGPLV 

 /D QRUG0XQ LL$SXVHQLDMXQJSkQ OD%DUF XúLSkQ ODFRWXO6RPHúXOXLGLQFRORGHFDUHGH

cDUH VH SLHUG vQWUH GHDOXUL VXE IRUPD XQRU FXOPL VFXQGH DOF WXLWH GLQ úLVWXUL FULVWDOLQH FDUH vQ

DQVDPEOXS VWUHD] WRWXúLFDUDFWHUHFROLQDUH

,&DUSD LL2ULHQWDOL

Caractere generale. &DUSD LL 2ULHQWDOL SUH]LQW  OXQJLPHD úL OLPHD FHDPDL PDUH GLQWUe

VHFWRDUHOHFDUSDWLFHúLDX RULHQWDUHDJHQHUDOD GHODQRUG -vest spre sud-HVWFXH[FHS LD&DUSD LORU


&XUEXULLRULHQWD LSLH]LúID GHDFHúWLD(LSUH]LQW XUP WRDUHOHFDUDFWHUH

Ca altitudine RFXSD XQ ORF PLMORFLX vQWUH FHOH WUHL UDPXUL DOH &DUSD LORU URPkQHúWL

GHS úLQGP GRDUvQSX LQHORFXUL vQ0XQ LL5RGQHLúL & OLPDQL 6SUH FXUEXUD DYkQGGUHSW

D[D YDOHD 2LWX]XOXL  DFHúWL PXQ L VFDG vQ vQ O LPH YkUIXULOH ORU FHOH PDL VHPH H DELD GHS úLQG

1.600 sau 1.700m.


6WUXFWXUD SHWURJUDILF  D &DUSD LORU 2ULHQWDOL HVWH FRPSOH[  ùLVWXULOH FULVWDOLQH

FRQVLGHUDWHSULQWUHFHOHPDLYHFKLIRUPD LLJHRORJLFHGHSHS PkQWXO ULLDOF WXLHVFvQMXP WDWHD

ORU QRUGLFD R DGHY UDW  PHGLDQD FDUH FXSULQGH FXOPLOH FHOH PDL vQDOWH SHQWUX FD OD VXG GH

REkUúLLOH7URWXúXOXLV GLVSDU vQDGkQFLPHUHDS UkQGGRDUFDSHWHFHUHVWUkQVHODFHO ODOWFDS WDO

FDWHQHL vQ 3HUúDQL ÌQ ODWXUD YHVWLFD VSUH 7UDQVLOYDQLD VH LQGLYLGXDOL]HD]  úLUXO PXQ LORU

YXOFDQLFL DOF WXL L vQ PDUH SDUWH GLQ DQGH]LWH úL SLURFODVWLWH úL FDUH VH întrerupe în dreptul
1 V XGXOXL úL VH WHUPLQD OD VXG vQ YHFLQ WDWHD 7XúQDGXOXL ÌQ ODWXUD HVWLFD URFLOH VHGLPHQWDUH

FXWDWHvQIkúLLSDUDOHOHFXQRVFXWHVXEGHQXPLUHDJHQHUDOL]DW GHIOLúFDS W RH[WHQVLXQHWRWPDL

mare spre sectorul curburii unde ajung dominante.


Orientarea culmilor FDUH VXQW vQ JHQHUH SDUDOHOH DúD FXP DUDWD úL PXOWH FXUVXUL DOH
UkXULORU SUH]LQW  vQ FHD PDL PDUH SDUWH D &DUSD LORU 2ULHQWDOL GLUHF LD 19-6( FX H[FHS LD

VHFWRUXOXL FXUEXULL XQGH RULHQWDUHD FXW ULORU HVWH SHUSHQGLFXODU  SH DFHDVWD Y LOH WUDYHUVkQG

WUDQVYHUVDOPXQ LL

1XP UXO PDUH DO GHSUHVLXQLORU úL Y LOH ODUJL constituie una din trasaturile caracteristice
DOH&DUSD LORU2ULHQWDOL'HSUHVLXQLOHVXQWGH GLPHQVLXQLIRDUWHGLIHULWH XQHOHGHPDUH vQWLQGHUH

(ca Depresiunea 0DUDPXUHúXOXL RUL FHD D %UDúRYXOXL  DOWHOH PLFL FXSULQ]kQG GRDU R VLQJXUD
localitate (de felul celei de la Borsec), altele sunt lungite sau ramificate de-D OXQJXO Y LORU FD
Depresiunea Câmpulungului Moldovenesc), cunoscute sub denumirea populara de
“câPSXOXQJXUL´IUHFYHQWHvQDFHúWLPXQ LúLvQ6XEFDUSD L
0XO LPHD pasurilor de culme GH RELFHL vQDOWH OD SHVWH  P vPELQDWH FX WUHF WRULOH

de vale mult mai joase -vQWUXFkWPXOWHUkXUL DXIHUDVWUXLWWUDQVYHUVDOXQD VDXGRX GLQPXO LPHD


culmilor paUDOHOH DOHDFHVWRU PXQ L - asigura legaturile transcarpatice continue din vechi timpuri
istorice.
'LYL]LXQLOH&DUSD LORU2ULHQWDOLDSDUOHVQHGHGLIHUHQ LDWGDF  LQHPVHDPDSHGHRSDUWH

GHRULHQWDUHDJHQHUDODDFXOPLORUúLDVWUXFWXULLSHWURJUDILFHSUHFXPúLGHúLUXOGHSUHVLXQLORUFDUH

le despart, individualizându-VHODFRQWDFWXOIRUPD LXQLORUJHRORJLFHGLIHULWH


$SOLFkQGFULWHULLOHDU WDWHGHRVHELPXUP WRDUHOHJUXSHFXGLYL]LXQLOHORU

D *UXSDQRUGLF VHvQWLQGHGHODKRWDUXOGHQRUGDO ULLSkQ OD]RQDGHO VDUH%kUJ X -


Dorna-Câmpulung-*XUD +XPRUXOXL vQ FXSULQVXO F UHLD VH GHVSDUW OD YHVW 'HSUHVLXQHD

0DUDPXUHúXOXL FX PXQ LL vQFRQMXU WRUL DOF WXL L GLQ URFL YXOFDQLFH úL IOLú OD YHVW GLQ úLVWXUL

FULVWDOLQHODVXGúLHVW LDUODHVWGHDFHúWLD2EFLQHOHEXFRYLQHQHDOF WXLWHvQFHDPDLPDUHSDUWH

GLQIRUPD LXQLOHVHGLPHQWDUHDOHIOLúXOXL

/D VXG 'HSUHVLXQHD 0DUDPXUHúXOXL HVWH vQFKLVD GH 0XQ LL 5RGQHL FDUH SUH]LQW  R

RULHQWDUHREOLF ID GHD[D&DUSD LORU2ULHQWDOLILLQGFHLPDLvQDO LPXQ LGLQFXSULQVXODFHVWRUD

WUHFkQGGHP 9kUIXO3LHWURVXOP &XOPLOHOXLVXQWDFRSHULWHFXvQWLQVHS úXQLDOSLQH

SH DORFXUL VXQW vQV  SULSRURDVH WLYLWH FX FLUFXUL JODFLDUH FDUH vL GDX XQ SLWRUHVF GHRVHELW )LLQG

DOF WXL L GLQ úLVWXUL FULVWDOLQH SUH]LQW  R PDVLYLWDWH DVHP Q WRDUH GRDU FX FHD GLQ &DUSD LL

0HULGLRQDOL 0XQ LL 5RGQHL QX VXQW VWU E WX L GH F L UXWLHUH GHFkW SH OD H[WUHPLW L  OD HVW SULQ

SDVXO3ULVORSVSUHYDOHD%LVWUL HLúLODYHVWSULQSDVXOùHWUHIVSUH7UDQVLOYDQLD

/DYHVWGHYDOHD%LVWUL HL$XULLúLODVXG HVWGH0XQ LL 5RGQHLVHDIODRFXOPH PXQWRDVD


-
IRUPDW WRWGLQúLVWXULFULVWDOLQHQXPLW  Suhard, care trece de 1.900 m altitudine în Vârful Omu.
&D úL 0XQ LL 5RGQHL DUH vQWLQVH S úXQL DOSLQH OLPLWD VXSHULRDUD D S GXULORU VH DIO  PDL MRV GH

1.600 m altitudine.
ÌQSDUWHDDSXVHDQ VHvQWLQGPXQ LLYXOFDQLFL 2DúXOXLúL7LEOHúXOXL , care sunt mai scunzi
GHFkWFHLODO L8OWLPXOIRUPDWvQPDUHP VXUDGLQURFLDOHIOLúXOXLúLQXPDLFXFkWHYDVWU SXQJHUL

de roci vulcaQLFH vúL vQDO  YkUIXO YXOFDQLF  OD SHVWH  P $FHúWL PXQ L SUH]LQW  vQ JHQHUH

IRUPH GH FRQXUL HURGDWH FD QLúWH FO L XULDúH GDU OLSVLWH GH FUDWHUH 1XPHURDVH Y L vQOHVQHVF

trecerile de-D FXUPH]LúXO ORU (L VXQW ERJD L vQ PHWDOH QHIHURDVH H[SORDWDWe cu deosebire la
poalele lor dinspre sud, unde s-a dezvoltat marele centru al metalurgiei neferoase de la Baia
0DUH 6SUH DSXV HL vQFKLG R PLFD GHSUHVLXQH DUD 2DúXOXL FX R SRSXOD LH FDUH úL-D S VWUDW

YDOHQ HOHHWQRJUDILFHFRVWXPHRELFHLXULúLIROFORr deosebit de frumoase.

ÌQWUH DFHúWL PXQ L 'HSUHVLXQHD 0DUDPXUHúXOXL QX HVWH XQLIRUPD -RV SH DOELLOH UkXULORU

SULQFLSDOH 7LVD 9LúHX ,]D úL 0DUD  SkQ  OD  P DOWLWXGLQH VH GHVI úRDU  R ]RQD DJULFROD FX

VDWHVWU YHFKL3HGHDOXULOHGLQWUHPXQ LLYXOFDQLFLúLFKLDUPLFLRJRDUHGHFDUWRILúLRY ]HVWHFX

GHRVHELUHR]RQDDFUHúWHULLDQLPDOHORU

Obcinile bucovinene VXQW FXOPL GH PXQ L SX LQ vQDOWH - P  SDUDOHOH FD QLúWH
YDOXULvPSLHWULWHODU V ULWGH9DOHD%LVWUL HL$XULL&XSX LQHH[FHS LLHOHVXQWIRUPDWHGLQURFLOH

PDL VODEH DOH IOLúXOXL GRDU vQ SDUWHD GH YHVW SUHGRPLQD úLVWXULOH FULVWDOLQH  &XOPLOH VXQW
GRPRDOHvPS GXULWHSkQ SHYkUIXULPDLDOHVFXPROLGFXSULQ]kQGúLERJDWHIkQH H'HODYHVWOD

HVWVHGHVI úRDU 

Obcina MestHF QLúXOXL vQWUH %LVWUL D $XULH úL 0ROGRYD HVWH DOF WXLWD vQ PDUH SDUWH GLQ

úLVWXUL FULVWDOLQH FHHD FH H[SOLFD SUH]HQWD PLQHUHXULORU QHIHURDVH H[SORDWDW  OD )XQGX

0ROGRYHL 2EFLQD)HUHGHXOXLvQWUH0ROGRYDúL0ROGRYL DúL2EFLQD0DUHFHDPDLU V ULWH ana,


FDUHDELDGHS úHúWHPvQ O LPH

=RQD GHSUHVLRQDU  &kPSXOXQJ -Dorna-%kUJ X HVWH IRUPDW  GLQWU XQ úLU GH GHSUHVLXQL
-
LQWUDPRQWDQH *XUD +XPRUXOXL &kPSXOXQJ 'RUQHORU OD FDUH VH DGDXJ  VSUH YHVW ]RQD

PXQ LORU VFXQ]L DL %kUJ XOXL  OHJDWH vQWUH HOH SULQ WUHF WRUL GH FXOPH 'HSUHVLXQHD DFHDVWD

WUDQVYHUVDOD HVWH VWU MXLWD OD VXG GH 0DVLYXO *LXPDO X DOF WXLW GLQ úLVWXUL FULVWDOLQH úL 0DVLYXO

5DU XGRPLQDWGHSLWRUHúWLOHVWkQFLFDOFDURDVH3LHWUHOH'RDPQHLLPSRUWDQWORFWXULVWLF

Depresiunea Câmpulung-Gura Humorului DOF WXLHúWH GH IDSW R XQLWDWH FDUH VH

SUHOXQJHúWH WHQWDFXODU SH YDOHD 0ROGRYHL úL D DIOXHQ LORU HL (D VH GDWRUHD]  SDU LDO XQRU UXSWXUL

WHFWRQLFHúLSUH]LQW RODUJDGHVI úXUDUHDWHUDVHORUPDUJLQDOHFHHDFHDIDYRUL]DWDúH]DUHDVDWHOR r


mari.
Depresiunea Dornelor HVWH FX PXOW PDL ODUJD 0XQ LL GLQ MXU DX vQ O LPLFDUH VH DSURSLH

VDXGHS úHVFP 5RGQHL6XKDUG*LXPDO X& OLPDQL LDUIXQGXOGHSUHVLXQLLVHJ VHúWHOD

HVWH  P DOWLWXGLQH FHHD FH H[SOLFD FOLPDWXO UHFH úL XPHG 3ULQ SDVXUL GH FXOPH VH OHDJ  FX

7UDQVLOYDQLD 7LKX D VDX %kUJ X  FX &kPSXOXQJ 0ROGRYHQHVF 0HVWHF QLú  FX LQXWXO

1HDP XOXL 3 OWLQLú  úL FKLDU PDL GHSDUWH FX 0DUDPXUHúXO 3ULVORS  'H DLFL úL UROXO GH PDUH

U VSkQWLHGHGUXPXULWUDQVFDUSDWLFSHFDUH -l are.
5HJLXQHDHVWHERJDWDvQ] F PLQWHGHPDQJDQH[SORDWDWHOD,DFREHQLúL9DWUD'RUQHL/D

3RLDQD6WDPSHLVHDIODWXUED6WD LXQHDEDOQHDUD9DWUD'RUQHLFXDSHFDUERJD]RDVHELFDUERQDWH

HVWH XQD GLQWUH FHOH PDL F XWDWH GLQ DU  0XQ LL %kUJ XOXL UDU W rec de 1.000 m altitudine.
3UHGRPLQDQWH VXQW URFLOH IOLúXOXL JUHVLL úL PDUQH  FDUH GDX IRUPD WHúLWD VL GRPRDOD D FXOPLORU

'LQORFvQORFVHvQDO L]RODWHYkUIXULYXOFDQLFHvQIRUPDGH³FO L´FXPHVWH+HQLX0DUH

E  *UXSD FHQWUDO  LQH GH OD ]RQD GH O VDUH PDL VXV DU WDW  SkQ  OD YDOHD 2LWX]XOXL úL

'HSUHVLXQHD %UDúRYXOXL (D VH GHVSDUWH GH DVHPHQHD vQ GRX  SULQ GHSUHVLXQLOH GH SH 0XUHúXO

VXSHULRU *LXUJHXO  úL 2OWXO VXSHULRU &LXFXO  OD YHVW PXQ LL YXOFDQLFL & OLPDQL -Harghita, iar
dincolo de depreVLXQLOHODUJLPHQ LRQDWHVHDIOD0XQ LL0ROGRYHLDOF WXL LGLQúLVWXULFULVWDOLQHúL

IOLú

6SUH GHRVHELUH GH úLUXO PXQ LORU YXOFDQLFL GLQ YHVWXO 0DUDPXUHúXOXL DFHúWLD VXQW PDL

IDOQLFL úL DX S VWUDW vQF  PXOWH FUDWHUH YL]LELOH úDSWH VXQW DSURDSH vQWUHJL . Într-unul din ele, pe
0XQWHOH &LRPDWX 0DUH FHO PDL VXGLF YXOFDQ GLQ DFHDVWD JUXSD OkQJ  VWD LXQHD % LOH 7XúQDG 

XQGH FUDWHUXO D U PDV vQWUHJ V DX DGXQDW DSHOH SORLORU úL DOH L]YRDUHORU IRUPkQG /DFXO 6IkQWD
-
Ana.
&X WRDWH FD DFHúWL YXOFDQL úL -au încetat activitatea de la începutul cuaternarului, ei mai
HPDQDúLDVW ]LJD]H PDLDOHVELR[LGGHFDUERQ FDUHPLQHUDOL]HD] vQDGkQFDSHOHGHLQILOWUD LH

GkQG QDúWHUH OD DSHOH PLQHUDOH 3H DORFXUL JD]HOH S WUXQG VL SULQ FU SDWXULOH VFRDU HL FD GH

exemplX vQ SHúWHULOH GH OkQJ  % LOH 7XúQDG 6XQW XOWLPHOH PDQLIHVW UL DOH YXOFDQLORU VWLQúL

FXQRVFXWHVXEQXPHOHGHPRIHWHFDUHVHIDFVLP LWHSkQ GHSDUWHvQH[WHULRUXOFDWHQHLYXOFDQLFH

(“aureola mofetica”).
/D QRUG GH 0XUHú 0XQ LL & OLPDQ UHSUH]LQW  FHO PDL vQDOW PDVLY YXOFDQLF GLQ DU 

9kUIXO OXL 3LHWURVX DWLQJH P úL VH vQDO  FD R FXSROD GHDVXSUD VSLQ ULL  ODUJL D DFHVWXL

PXQWH 5RFLOH YXOFDQLFH DOF WXLWRDUH GDX SULQ DOWHUDUHD IHOGVSD LORU IRUPH VXUSULQ] WRDUH FX

aspecte zoomorfe, apreciate dH WXULúWL 0DL OD VXG VH vQWLQG 0XQ LL *XUJKLXOXL, cu Vârful Saca,
apoi Harghita FX PDL PXOWH FUDWHUH YL]LELOH & WUH VXG IRUPD LD YXOFDQLFD VH GHVSDUWH vQ GRX 
IkúLLSHFDUH2OWXOOHVWU EDWHIRUPkQGGHILOHHSLWRUHúWLOD5DFRúvQYHVWúLOD7XúQDGvQ est.

$FHVWODQ YXOFDQLFSRDWHILWUHFXWSULQSDVXULGHFXOPHFXPHVWHFHOGHOD9O KL DúLSULQ

GHILOHH MRDVH GH YDOH FXP HVWH FHO DO 0XUHúXOXL vQWUH 7RSOL D úL 'HGD FDUH IDFH OHJ WXUD VSUH

Transilvania.
'HSUHVLXQLOH *LXUJHXOXLúL &LXFXOXL au luaW QDúWHUH GXS  FH V-DX vQ O DW PXQ LL YXOFDQLFL
de la vest (depresiuni de baraj vulcanic). În cuprinsul lor s-au adunat apele formând în cuaternar
ODFXUL PDUL GH PXQWH SH IXQGXO F URUD V-DX GHSXV DOXYLXQLOH úL SLHWULúXULOH FDUDWH GH UkXUL GLQ

PXQ LL vQFRQMXU WRUL 3H DORFXUL ODYHOH YXOFDQLFH V-DX H[WLQV úL SH ODWXUD GH HVW D FHORU GRX 

GHSUHVLXQL F SWXúLQG FRQWDFWXO VSUH úLVWXULOH FULVWDOLQH úL VSUH PXQ LL IOLúXOXL LDU OD YHVW VSUH

7UDQVLOYDQLDIRUPD LXQLOHYXOFDQLFHDOF WXLHVFXQSODWRXODPDO titudine.


La nord se întinde Depresiunea Giurgeului FX vQ O LPHD PHGLH GH  P VWU E WXWD GH

0XUHúXO 6XSHULRU FDUH FXUJH OHQHú GDWRULWD SDQWHL VODEH D DOELHL ÌQDLQWkQG VSUH 7RSOL D YDOHD

0XUHúXOXL VH DGkQFHúWH GLQ FH vQ FH vQ VHGLPHQWHOH GHSUHVLXQLL SUHJ WLQGX -se parca pentru
LQWUDUHDvQGHILOHXODGkQFGLQDYDO FXORDUXO7RSOL D -Deda).
Depresiunea Ciucului VH OHDJ  FX FHD GH OD QRUG SULQWU R WUHF WRDUH SX LQ vQDOW  2OWXO
-
FDUHDFRORHVWHvQF XQUkXPLFGUHQHD] VSUHVXGDFHDVW GHSUHVLXQHFDUH se desparte prin mici
pinteni de munte în trei compartimente.
0XQ LL0ROGRYHLVXQWP UJLQL LODYHVWGH'HSUHVLXQLOH*LXUJHXOXLúL&LXFXOXLODQRUGGH

zona depresionara Câmpulung-'RUQDODVXGGHvQJXVWDUHDGHSHYDOHD2LWX]XOXLúL'HSUHVLXQHD


%UDúRYXOXL LDU OD HVW VXQW GHVS U L L GH 6XEFDUSD L SULQWU XQ SDQW  DSURDSH FRQWLQXX GH OD *XUD
-
+XPRUXOXLSkQ OD3LDWUD1HDP úL7J2FQD&XWRDWHFDQXDXDFHHDúLvQI LúDUHSHVWHWRWPXQ LL

DFHúWLDDXWRWXúLXQHOHWU V WXULFRPXQHFXOPLFHVHPHQ LQvQPHGL e la 1.200-PY LODUJL

ELQH SRSXODWH XQ DQXPLW SLWRUHVF EOkQG GDW PDL DOHV GH S GXULOH vQ DOWHUQDQ  FX IkQH H SH

FXOPLOH GRPRDOH DOH PXQ LORU 7RWXúL DOF WXLUHDOLWRORJLF  VH SXQH GHVWXOGH FODU vQ HYLGHQWD ÌQ

SDUWHD GHQRUGHVWPXQ LL6WkQLúRDUHLvQFDUHSUHGRPLQDURFLOHIOLúXOXLVHDVHDP Q FX2EFLQLOH

EXFRYLQHQH SUH]HQWkQG FXOPL VFXQGH SDUDOHOH vPS GXULWH  ÌQ SDUWHD FHQWUDOD 0XQ LL %LVWUL HL

XQGH SUHGRPLQ  FULVWDOLQXO VH DVHDP Q  FX *LXPDO XO 6XKDUGXO úL FKLDU FX 0XQ LL 5RGQHL

avânG IRUPH JUHRDLH SODWIRUPH ODUJL GH FXOPH úL YkUIXUL SURHPLQHQWH %XGD FX ILLQG FHO PDL
vQDOW ODYHVWXQGHDSDUFkWHYDSHWLFHHUXSWLYH0XQ LL*LXUJHXOXLVHDSURSLHvQPXOWHSULYLQ HFX

ODQ XOYXOFDQLF

3ULYL L vQ OLQLL PDUL DFHúWL PXQ L VH SRW GHVSDU L vQ WUHL ODQ XUL SDUDOHOH FX GLUHF LD QRUG -
vest-sud-HVW 0XQ LL*LXUJHXOXL+ úPDúX0DUH&LXFXOXLúL1HPLUDODDSXV ODQ XOFHQWUDO

IRUPDWGLQ0XQ LL%LVWUL HL7DUF XúL&HDKO XSHFDUHVHvQúLUXLHFHOHPDLPDULvQ O LPLGDUFDUH

a fost fragmentDW SULQ vQDLQW ULOH WUDQVYHUVDOH DOH %LVWUL HL úL DOH DIOXHQ LORU HL SULQFLSDOL   ÌQ

VIkUúLWXQDGHY UDWXOXFORQJLWXGLQDOIRUPDWGLQY LOH%LVWUL HLúL7DUF XOXLGHVSDUWHDFHúWLPXQ L

GH XOWLPXO ODQ  PXQWRV DOF WXLW GLQ FXOPL VFXQGH FD 0XQ LL 6WkQLúRDUHL *RVPDQX úL %HU]XQ 

7RDWDDFHDVWDDULHPXQWRDVDVFDGHvQvQ O LPHGHODQRUGVSUHVXGF WUHGHSUHVLXQHD%UDúRYXOXL

9 LOHFDUHVWU EDW DFHúWLPXQ LVXQW GHGRX  IHOXULXQHOHORQJLWXGLQDOH FXPHVWH%LVWUL D

vQ DPRQWHGH%LFD]úL7DUF X FDQLú te culoare cu largi trepte de terase, altele transversale, cum
HVWH%LVWUL DGHOD%LFD]OD3LDWUD1HDP

Pe YDOHD %LVWUL HL , cunoscuta prin pitorescul ei de neîntrecut, s-a construit un baraj de


SHVWH  P vQ O LPH FDUH UH LQH DSHOH XQXL PDUH ODF ,]YRU
ul Muntelui. În aval de acesta se
GHVI úRDU  R DGHY UDWD JKLUODQGD GH PLFL ODFXUL úL KLGURFHQWUDOH vQ FDVFDGD FRQVWLWXLQG XQXO

GLQWUHFHOHPDLPDULFRPSOH[HHQHUJHWLFHGLQ DU 

Pe YDOHD 7URWXúXOXL vQFKLV  VSUH HVW GH PXQ LL PLFL DL %HU]XQ XOXL VH vQWL nde
'HSUHVLXQHD &RP QHúWL 'LQ VXEVROXO HL VH H[SORDWHD]  F UEXQH EUXQ 3H ED]D DFHVWXLD

IXQF LRQHD]  OD &RP QHúWL R WHUPRFHQWUDO  $SHOH 8]XOXL IRUPHD]  úL HOH XQ ODF GH DFXPXODUH

ILLQG VW YLOLWH SULQWU -un baraj recent construit, pentru alimentarea centralelor industriale de pe
YDOHD7URWXúXOXL

6SUH VXG &DUSD LL 2ULHQWDOL SLHUG GLQ vQ O LPH WHUPLQkQGX -se digitat în câmpul neted al
'HSUHVLXQLL %UDúRYXOXL SULQ FXOPL L]RODWH FDUH vQ SX LQH ORFXUL WUHF GH  P DOWLWXGLQH OD

YHVW0XQ LL3HUúDQLvQFXSULQVXOF URUDVHDIO PLFDGHSUHVLXQHGHOD5DFRúPDLODHVWvQFRWXO

PDUHDO2OWXOXLVXQW0XQ LL%DUDROWvQWUHUXS LGHGHSUHVLXQHDFXDFHODúLQXPH

F  *UXSD VXGLF  VDX &DUSD LL &XUEXULL SH FDUH XQLL JHRJUDIL R GLIHUHQ LD]  FD R XQLWDWH

VHSDUDW HVWHFXSULQV vQWUHOLPLWHOHLQGLFDWH 9DOHD2LWX]XOXL 'HSUHVLXQHD%UDúRYXOXL úLYDOHD


-
Prahovei-6HUFDLD /DUJD GHSUHVLXQH LQWHULRDUD D %UDúRYXOXL VFXIXQGDWD OD VIkUúLWXO WHU LDUXOXL úL
vQFHSXWXO FXDWHUQDUXOXL D LPSULPDW DFHVWRU PXQ L GLQ YHFLQ WDWH DIOD L vQ DFHHDúL SHULRDGD vQ

vQ O DUH FDUDFWHUH SDUWLFXODUH GLVSDUL LD FULVWDOLQXOXL DSURDSH vQWUHJXO VHFWRU ILLQG DOF WXLW GLQ

IRUPD LLOHIOLúXOXLY LOHFDUHDXXQFDUDFWHUSUHGRPLQDQWORQJLWXGLQDOODQRUGGHYDOHD2LWX]XOXL

FDS W PDLWRDWHXQFDUDFWHUGHY LWUDQVYHUVDOHvQ]RQDFXUEXULL&DXUPDUHWUHF WRULOHVXQWPDL

MRDVHvQ&DUSD LL&XUEXULL 2LWX]%LúFD0DUH%X] XGHS úLQGGRDUFXSX LQPDOWLWXGLQH 

&DUSD LL &XUEXULL VDX JUXSD VXGLFD DOF WXLHVF GDWRULWD FDUDFWHUHORU ORU QDWXUDOH R X nitate
DWkW GH ELQH GLIHUHQ LDWD GH FHOHODOWH VHFWRDUH DOH &DUSD LORU 2ULHQWDOL vQFkW XQLL FHUFHW WRUL úL

FRQVLGHU FDILLQG R JUXS  DSDUWH ÌQ &DUSD LL&XUEXULL vQ O LPHD PXQ LORUFUHVWH WUHSWDW GHODHVW

XQGHDELDGHS úHVFPVSUHYHVWXQGHWUHFGHPvQ0XQ LL&LXFDú

'DWRULWDDUFXLULLORUEUXúWHPXOWHGLQWUHFDUDFWHULVWLFLOHPXQ LORUGHODQRUGvQGHRVHELFHOH

DOH RULHQW ULL FXW ULORU VH VFKLPED LDU vQ PLMORFXO ]RQHL PXQWRDVH V -a format prin scufundare o
larga depresiune interioara - DeSUHVLXQHD%UDúRYXOXL
0XQ LL &XUEXULL VXQW DOF WXL L DSURDSH vQ vQWUHJLPH GLQ URFLOH IOLúXOXL SULQWUH FDUH vQ

SDUWHD DSXVHDQD VH LYHVF FRQJORPHUDWH FH GDX IRUPH GH UHOLHI SLWRUHúWL FXP VXQW 7LJ LOH GH SH

&LXFDúÌQSDUWHDU V ULWHDQDvQV SUHGRPLQDJUHVLLOHúLPDUQHOHFDUHGDXXQUHOLHIPRQRWRQ

$FHúWL PXQ L VXQW DGkQF IUDJPHQWD L GH UkXULOH FX QLYHOXUL GH ED]D MRDVH vQ &kPSLD

5RPDQD WLSLFHVXQW9DOHD%X] XOXLúLD FHORUGRLDIOXHQ L%LúFD0DUH úL%LúFD 0LFDSUHFXPúL

FHD D 2LWX]XOXL  9 LOH DFHVWHD DX vQOHVQLW GLQ WLPSXUL YHFKL FLUFXOD LD GLQWU -o parte în alta a
PXQ LORU &HOH PDL FXQRVFXWH WUHF WRUL VXQW %UDWRFHD vQ SUHOXQJLUHD Y LL 7HOHDMDQXOXL YDOHD

%X] XOXLvQDYDOGHÌQWRUVXUD%X] XOXLúL2LWX]XOWRDWHVWU E WXWHGHúRVHOHPRGHUQL]DWH

ÎntrHYDOHD3UDKRYHLúLFHDD7HOHDMDQXOXLVHvQWLQGGRX FXOPLGHPXQ LFDRWUHDSWDPDL

vQDO FHGHS úHúWHPDOWLWXGLQHDOF WXLWHGLQ0XQ LL%DLXOXLODYHVWúL&LXFDúXOXLODHVWFX

 P ÌQ ODWXUD ORU QRUGLFD VH vQúLUXLH 0XQ LL ÌQWRUVXULL FDUH FXOPLQHD]  vQ GRX  PDVLYH GH

LQWHUHV WXULVWLF 3RVW YDUXO OD YHVW GH YDOHD 7LPLúXOXL FX UHQXPLWD VWD LXQH GH DOWLWXGLQH 3RLDQD

%UDúRYXOXLúL3LDWUD0DUHODHVWGHDFHDYDOHFXIRUPHFDUVWLFHGHRVHELWGHLQWHUHVDQWHFXPHVWH

DYHQXO³/DVF UL´$PELLPXQ LFRQVWLWXLHED]HWXULVWLFHGHVHDPDvQSUHMPD%UDúRYXOXL

8UPHD]  R JUXS  PDL VFXQG  GH PXQ L FDUH IRUPHD]  0XQ LL %X] XOXL (L FXSULQG OD

YHVW0XQ LL6LULXOXLFDUHGHS úHVFFXSX LQPDOWLWXGLQHLDUODHVW0XQ LL3RGX&DOXOXLGH

altitudine úL PDL UHGXV  6SUH QRUG VH DIOD PLFD GHSUHVLXQH LQWUDPRQWDQD ÌQWRUVXUD %X] XOXL vQ

FXSULQVXOF UHLDUkXO%X] XvúLDGXQ QXPHURúLPLFLDIOXHQ LúLVHUHFXUEHD] VSUHVXGWUDYHUVkQG

PXQ LL

0DL OD HVW 0XQWHOH 3HQWHOHX úL 0XQ LL 9UDQFHL DOF WXL L SUHGRPLQDQW GLQ JUHVLL VDOW 

GRDU FX SX LQ SHVWH  P DOWLWXGLQH ÌQWUXFkW DFHúWLD GLQ XUPD VXQW JUHX GH VWU E WXW GLQWU -o
SDUWH vQ DOWD úL VXQW DFRSHUL L FX S GXUL DX FRQVWLWXLW vQ YUHPXUL LVWRULFH R DGHY UDWD FHWDWH

QDWXUDOD FX SRWHFL E W WRULWH GRDU GH SDVWRUL ÌQ SUH]HQW VXQW LQWHJUD L vQ UH HDXD UXWLHUD

modernizata dând la iveala aspecte de un remarcabil pitoresc (Cascada Putnei, Cheile de la


/HSúD 

'HSUHVLXQHD %UDúRYXOXL P UJLQLWD OD VXG úL HVW GH &DUSD LL &XUEXULL LDU OD QRUG GH

capetele digitaOH DOH &DUSD LORU 2ULHQWDOL HVWH XQD GLQWUH FHOH PDL vQWLQVH GHSUHVLXQL

LQWUDFDUSDWLFHIRUPDW  SULQ VFXIXQGDUHD UHFHQWDD VFRDU HL WHUHVWUH úL S WUXQGHUHD DSHORU ODFXVWUH

care au persistat acolo în cuaternarul vechi. Depunerile de sedimente explica netezimea reliefului
DFHVWHL GHSUHVLXQLFX DVSHFW GH úHV LQWUDPRQWDQ úL SUH]HQWD QLVLSXULORU GHOD 5HFLFDUH IRUPHD] 

mici dune.
6SUHHVWF WUH0ROGRYDHVWHSDVXO2LWX] VSUHVXGF WUH0XQWHQLDVXQW SDVXULOH%X] X

%UDWRFHD3UHGHDOVSUH DUD) J UDúXOXLHVWHSDVXO 9O GHQLLDUVSUHQRUGFHODO7XúQDGXOXL/D

DFHDVWDU VSkQWLHPDUHGHGUXPXULV DGH]YROWDWYHFKLXORUDú%UDúRYDMXQVDVW ]LXQXOGLQWUHFHOH


-
PDL PDUL úL PDL SXWHUQLFH FHQWUH LQGXVWULDOH DOH ULL ÌQ FXSULQVXO DFHOHDúL GHSUHVLXQL VXQW PDL

mXOWHRUDúHGHYHQLWHFHQWUHLQGXVWULDOHSURVSHUH6 FHOH&RGOHD6I*KHRUJKH7J6HFXLHVF
,,&DUSD LL0HULGLRQDOL

Caractere generale &DUSD LL 0HULGLRQDOL UHSUH]LQW  VHFWRUXO FHO PDL vQDOW úL PDL PDVLY

GLQ FXSULQVXO&DUSD LORU5RPkQHúWLÌQDPEHOHS U LXQGH VHOHDJ FXFHOHODOWHUDPXULFDUSDWLFH

se termina prin DEUXSWXUL úL FXORDUH GHSUHVLRQDUH OD HVW VSUH YDOHD 3UDKRYHL XQGH VH vQDO 

LPSUHVLRQDQWXO DEUXSW DO %XFHJLORU LDU OD YHVW OD YDOHD 7LPLúXOXL úL 0HKDGLFHL FDUH IRUPHD] 

DGHY UDWH FXORDUH WHFWRQLFH XQGH VH WHUPLQD WRW SULQ SRYkUQLúXUL UHSH]L FH GRPLQ  FX  P

FHOHPDLvQDOWHYkUIXULGLQPXQ LLVFXQ]LDL%DQDWXOXL

ÌQ OHJ WXUD FX OLPLWHOH GH QRUG úL GH VXG XQGH VXQW GH DVHPHQHD GHSUHVLXQL WHFWRQLFH

adânci, umplute cu depuneri nHRJHQHúLFXDWHUQDUHHVWHGHUH LQXWvQF RFDUDFWHULVWLF ODU V ULW

GH 2OW DFHúWL PXQ L SUH]LQW  VSUH QRUG XQ DEUXSW F WUH 'HSUHVLXQHD ) J UDúXOXL úL VH DSOHDF 

treptat spre sud; pe când la apus de Olt este invers, abruptul se afla spre Depresiunea
SXEFDUSDWLFD2OWHDQDGHODVXG LDU F GHUHDWUHSWDWDDvQ O LPLORUHVWHVSUHQRUGDGLF VSUHYDOHD
0XUHúXOXLXQGHDFHVWVHFWRUPRQWDQFDS W FHDPDLPDUHH[WLQGHUH

ÌQWUH OLPLWHOH DU WDWH &DUSD LL 0HULGLRQDOL RFXSD R VXSUDID D GH WUHL RUL  úL MXP WDWH P ai
PLFD GHFkW D &DUSD LORU 2ULHQWDOL GDU UHSUH]LQW  FDUDFWHUH PXOW PDL XQLWDUH GHFkW DFHúWLD ,DW 

principalele lor caracteristici :


Sunt FHLPDLvQDO LGLQWUHPXQ LLQRúWULWUHFkQGvQPXOWHYkUIXULGHPDOWLWXGLQH'H
asemenea sunt cei mai masiviDGLF FHLPDLSX LQIUDJPHQWD LGHY LúLGHSUHVLXQLFXWRDWHFDQX
SUH]LQW GHFkWRO LPHGHNP FDUHVFDGHODMXP WDWHvQGUHSWXOFXOPLL) J UDúXOXL 

6XQWIRUPD LvQFHDPDLPDUHSDUWHGLQúLVWXULFULVWDOLQHFXLQWUX]LXQLJUDQLWLFH , purtând


deDVXSUDRFXYHUWXUDGHGHSXQHULVHGLPHQWDUHYHFKL SDOHR]RLFHúLPH]R]RLFH DOF WXLWHvQPXOWH

ORFXULGLQFDOFDUHGXUHFDUHLQWURGXFvQSHLVDMDVSHFWHSLWRUHúWLFXSRYkUQLúXULúLSHúWHUL

&DUDFWHULVWLF  HVWH GH DVHPHQHD úL VWUXFWXUD FXWDW  vQ SkQ]H GH úDULDM DGLF  vQ FXWH GH

PDUL GLPHQVLXQL U VWXUQDWH XQHOH SHVWH DOWHOH  úL O V ULOH D[LDOH. Una dintre acestea este în
GUHSWXO Y LL WUDQVYHUVDOH D 2OWXOXL DOWD vQ GUHSWXO Y LL -LXOXL úL D WUHLD GH
-a lungul culoarului
Bran-5XF U (OH SUH]LQW  vQVHPQ WDWH SHQWUX vPS U LUHD &DUSD LORU 0HULGLRQDOL vQ SDWUX PDVLYH

distincte
ÌQDFHúWLPXQ LDSDUFODULQGLYLGXDOL]DWHSHFXOPL largi platforme XúRURQGXODWHHWDMDWHOD
DOWLWXGLQLGLIHULWH3ODWIRUPD%RU VFXODFLUFDPvQ O LPHQHWHGDWDSLVDWDGHSDMLúW i alpine,
Platforma Râu-ùHV OD - P PDL IUDJPHQWDWD úL 3ODWIRUPD *RUQRYL D OD  P
vQ O LPH XúRU RQGXODWD FX IkQH H úL DúH] UL RPHQHúWL ÌQWUH HOH VH SXQ vQ HYLGHQWD SRYkUQLúXUL

înclinate.
3H FXOPLOH DFHVWRU PXQ L DSDU IUHFYHQWH urme ale gKH DULORU FXDWHUQDUL, sub forma de
F OG UL FLUFXULJODFLDUH RULGHY LSU S VWLRDVHFXYHUVDQ LYHUWLFDOLúLSHDORFXULFXPRUHQHSULQ

FDUH VH VFXUJHDX OLPELOH JKH DULORU GH RGLQLRDU  vQ FXSULQVXO ORU H[LVWD DVW ]L FHOH PDL PXOWH úL

mai frumoase lacurL JODFLDUH GLQ &DUSD LL QRúWUL DYkQG DSH OLPSH]L úL FRQVWLWXLQG SXQFWH GH
DWUDF LHWXULVWLFD

&X WRDWD vQ O LPHD úL PDVLYLWDWHD ORU &DUSD LL 0HULGLRQDOL DX FkWHYD WUHF WRUL MRDVH :
7XUQX5RúXúL&R]LD P SHYDOHD2OWXOXL/DLQLFL P SH-LX0HULúRU P DSURDSH

GH L]YRDUHOH 6WUHLXOXL GH PDUH vQVHPQ WDWH SHQWUX FLUFXOD LDWUDQVFDUSDWLFD (OH DX IRVW W LDWH GH

Y L WUDQVYHUVDOH FDUH DXIRORVLW YHFKL O V ULD[LDOH DGkQFLQGX VH SH ORF SULQ DQWHFHGHQ D DVWIHO
-
ca au aspectul unor defilee îngustH ÌQ DIDUD DFHVWRU WUHF WRUL QX OLSVHVF QLFL SDVXULOH GH FXOPH

ÌQWUHDFHVWHDGHPDUHFLUFXOD LHvQWUHFXWDXIRVW*LXYDODvQFXORDUXO%UDQ 5XF UúL9kOFDQXOFHO


-
de-DOGRLOHDGHS úLQGPDOWLWXGLQH
0XQ LL DFHúWLD DX SX LQH GHSUHVLXQL /RYLúWHD SH 2OW 3HWURúDQL SH -LXO VXSHULRU +D HJXO

SH6WUHL  LQkQGVHDPDGHY LOHWUDQVYHUVDOHúLGHO V ULOHD[LDOH&DUSD LL0HULGLRQDOLVHGLYLGvQ

SDWUXPDULJUXSH%XFHJLúL) J UDúvQWUH3UDKRYDúL2OW3DUkQJúL*RGHDQXvQWUH2OWúLFXORDUXO

7LPLú &HUQD 6HSDUDUHD ORU HVWH FODUD vQWUH %XFHJL úL ) J UDú VH DIO  FXORDUXO %UDQ 5XF U vQWUH
-
) J UDú úL 3DUkQJ YDOHD WUDQVYHUVDO  D 2OWXOXL FX GHSUHVLXQHD /RYLúWHD -Lotru, tocmai în
PLMORFXOPXQ LORULDUvQWUH3DULQJúL*RGHDQXYDOHD-LXOXLVXSHULRUFXGHSUHVLXQHD3HWURúDQLúL

YDOHD6WUHLXOXLFX DUD+D HJXOXL

0XQ LL %XFHJL FXSULQG GRX  S U L GLVWLQFWH OD HVW vQWUH 3UDKRYD úL ,DORPL D %XFHJLL

propriu-]LúL DOF WXL L GLQ FRQJORPHUDWH FXOPLQHD]  vQ 9kUIXO 2PX OD  P LDU OD YHVW vQWUH

,DORPL DúL'kPERYL DVXQW0XQ LL/HDRWD P DOF WXL LvQPDUHSDUWHGLQúLVWXULFULVWDOLQH

([LVW  IRUPH SLWRUHúWL FX DEUXSWXUL VWkQFRDVH FXP HVWH FHO GH OD %XúWHQL -Sinaia, dominat de
9kUIXO&DUDLPDQSHúWHULFXPHVWHFHDD,DORPL HLFKHL 7 WDUX= QRDJD2U]H a), ori piscuri cu
IRUPH FLXGDWH GDWRULWH HUR]LXQLL úXYRDLHORU úL YkQWXOXL %DEHOH 6ILQ[XO  ÌQ /HDRWD úLVWXULOH

FULVWDOLQH GDX GLPSRWULY  IRUPH JUHRDLH GDU FX Y L vQJXVWH vQV  I U  SLWRUHVFXO FHORU GLQ

Bucegi.
Culoarul Bran-5XF U este, de fapt, o GHSUHVLXQH ODUJ RQGXODW  OD  -1.300 m
vQ O LPH )D  GH PXQ LL IDOQLFL GH SH PDUJLQL FDUH WUHF GH  P vQ O LPH UHJLXQHD DFHDVWD

GHVWXOGHMRDV DIRVWGLQWLPSXULVWU YHFKLIRORVLW FDORFGHWUHFHUHvQWUH'HSUHVLXQHD%UDúRYXOXL

úL DUD5RPDQHDVFD&DVWHOHOHPHGLHYDOH FHOGHOD%UDQVDXFHOUXLQDWGHOD3RGXO'kPERYL HL 

DWHVW vQVHPQ WDWHDFLUFXOD LHLvQYUHPXULOHVWU YHFKL

0XQ LL )J UDúXOXL VXQW IRUPD L GLQ GRX  FXOPL DSURDSH SDUDOHOH  FHD GH OD QRUG -

) J UDúXO SURSULX
-zis se reprezint  FD XQ ]LG XULDú FX VSLQDUHD vQ ODPD GH IHU VWU X FX PXOWH
piscuri ce trec de 2.500m (Moldoveanu 2.544 m, Negoiu 2.535 m). Aceasta culme are un
FDUDFWHU PDVLY QHILLQG LQWHUVHFWDWD GH QLFL R YDOH WUDQVYHUVDOD PDL DGkQFD SH FDUH VD VH IDF 

trecerea dintr-o parte în alta a muntelui. Spre deosebire de aceasta, culmea de sud este ceva mai
MRDVD úL GHVS U LW  GH DIOXHQ LL $UJHúXOXL vQ PDL PXOWH PDVLYH L]RODWH vQWUH FDUH &R]LD vQ

DSURSLHUHGH2OW*KLWXODHVWGH$UJHúúL,H]HUXOFHOPDLvQDOWúLPDLDPSOXGH]YROWDWvQO UJLPH

GLQWUHWRDWHVLWXDWODHVWvQWUH5kXO'RDPQHLúL'kPERYL D

ÌQ YHFLQ WDWHD OXL L]RODW GH YDOHD VXSHULRDUD D 'kPERYL HL VH DIO  Piatra Craiului, o
FUHDVW vQDOW  KRUVW GHFDOFDUHMXUDVLFH P 

0XQ LL GH OD VXG PDL VFXQ]L vúL GDWRUHD]  SLWRUHVFXO DSDUL LHL LFL FROR D FDOFDUHORU vQ

S U LOH GH OD QRUG GH &kPSXOXQJ RUL D JQDLVXOXL RFXODU GH &R]LD FDUH GD GH DVHPHQHD VWkQFL

DEUXSWH GH R UDUD IUXPXVH H úL Y L vQJXVWH VWUDQJXODWH FXP VXQW FKHLOH $UJHúXOXL vQ FDUH V -a
coQVWUXLWEDUDMXOODFXOXLGHDFXPXODUH9LGUDUXDOSULQFLSDOHLKLGURFHQWUDOHGHSH$UJHú
Grupa Parângului VH vQWLQGH vQWUH 2OW úL -LX DYkQG FHD PDL PDUH O LPH GLQ &DUSD LL

0HULGLRQDOL  SHVWH  NP  (VWH IRUPDW GLQ PDL PXOWH FXOPL U VILUDWH UDGLDO GLQ PD sivul central
3DUkQJX FHO PDL vQDOW GLQWUH WRDWH FDUH FXOPLQHD]  vQ 9kUIXO 3DUkQJX 0DUH GH  P  6SUH

QRUG F WUH 0XUHú VH vQWLQG 0XQ LL ùXUHDQX VDX 6HEHúXOXL FX YkUIXO OXL 3 WUX VSUH QRUG -est,
vQWUH YDOHD 6HEHúXOXL úL D 6DGXOXL VH vQGUHDSW  0XQ LL &LQGUHO FX 9kUIXO &LQGUHOX  VSUH HVW

0XQ LL /RWUXOXL FX PDL PXOWH YkUIXUL GH SHVWH  P úL vQ VIkUúLW OD VXG GH YDOHD /RWUXOXL

0XQ LL & S kQLL $SURDSH vQ vQWUHJLPH DFHúWL PXQ L VXQW IRUPD L GLQ úLVWXUL FULVWDOLQH FX

intruziuni granitice, ceeD FH H[SOLFD H[LVWHQWD IRUPHORU JUHRDLH PDVLYH 1XPDL vQ 0XQ LL

& S kQLLúLF WUHREkUúLLOH6WUHLXOXLDSDUIkúLLGHFDOFDUHFDUHVFKLPE SULYHOLúWLOH&XOPLOHVXQW

vQJHQHUHWHúLWHFDQLúWHSODWRXULIRDUWHODUJLFXIUXPRDVHSDMLúWLDOSLQH

Culmile înDOWH FX GHRVHELUH FHOH DOH 3DUkQJXOXL SUH]LQW  FLUFXUL JODFLDUH 6H FXQRVF úL

Y LOH SU S VWLRDVHSHFDUHVHGHVI úXUDX vQXOWLPDSHULRDG  JODFLDU  :XUP  JKH DULLFDúLXQHOH

lacuri glaciare. Cel mai cunoscut este Lacul Gâlcescu.


'HSUHVLXQHD /RYLúWHD -Lotru GH RULJLQH WHFWRQLFD HVWH VLWXDWD GH R SDUWH úL GH DOWD D
2OWXOXL vQWUH PXQ LL GLQ JUXSD 3DULQJXOXL úL FHL DL ) J UDúXOXL FXQRVFXW  vQ YHFKLPH VXE

GHQXPLUHD GH DUD /RYLúWHL $FHDVWD GHSUHVLXQH vQ FDUH V-DX GHSXV IRUPD LXQL VHGLPHQWDUH DUH

un reOLHIFXFROLQHGRPRDOHSHFDUHVHvQWLQGIkQH HSRPHWXULúLVDWH
Grupa Godeanu VH SUH]LQW  FD XQ EORF WULXQJKLXODU XULDú FX XQ FDS W FDUH VH DSURSLH GH

'XQ UHDOWXO DMXQJH OD&DUDQVHEHú úL DO WUHLOHD OD 3HWURúDQL )LLQG vQFRQMXUDW GLQWRDWH S U LOH G e
LQXWXUL MRDVH VSUH VXG 'HSUHVLXQHD 6XEFDUSDWLFD 2OWHDQD OD YHVW FXORDUXO 7LPLú -Cerna, la
QRUG FXORDUXO %LVWUHL úL 'HSUHVLXQHD +D HJXOXL  DFHVW JUXS GH PXQ L DSDUH FD XQXO GLQWUH FHOH

PDLVHPH HúLPDLELQHLQGLYLGXDOL]DWHGLQ&DUSD LL0HULGLRQDOL

'LQ DFHDVW  JUXS  IDF SDUWH 0XQ LL 9kOFDQXOXL úL 0XQ LL 0HKHGLQ L /D QRUG GH UkXULOH

-LX úL &HUQD FDUH FXUJ vQ GLUHF LL RSXVH XUPHD]  FXOPLOH FHOH PDL vQDOWH 5HWH]DW FDUH DWLQJH

2.509 m în vârful Peleaga, Godeanu cu cele mai largi platforme de culmH LDU VSUH YHVW 0XQ LL
&HUQHLGLQFRORGHFDUHVHvQDO 0XQ LL DUFXOXL$O WXULGHHLVWDL]RODW0XQWHOH0LF

'HSUHVLXQHD 3HWURúDQLFXQRVFXWD úL VXE GHQXPLUHD GH³9DOHD -LXOXL´ HVWH vQJXVWD GRDU

GH Fk LYDNLORPHWUL úLOXQJ  GHNPILLQGVWU MXLWDGLQ WRDWHS U LOHGH PXQ L)RUPDW SULQWU -o
VFXIXQGDUH OHQWD úL ULWPLFD GHSUHVLXQHD úL D PHQ LQXW PXOWD YUHPH FDUDFWHUXO GH L]RODUH UHODWLYD
-
vQWUH PXQ LLDU -LXO FDUH R GUHQHD]  VSUH VXG D IHUHVWUXLW  XQ GHILOHX DWkWGH vQJXVW /DLQLFL  FD

fiind singXUDFDOHGHFLUFXOD LH


'HSUHVLXQHD +D HJXOXL HVWH FHD PDL ODUJD DULH GHSUHVLRQDUD GLQ &DUSD LL 0HULGLRQDOL

GUHQDW GH6WUHLúLDIOXHQWXOVDX5kXO0DUH&XSULQV vQWUHPXQ LLvQDO L 5HWH]DWXOODVXG0XQ LL

ùXUHDQX OD HVW úL 3RLDQD 5XVFD  OD YHVW  GHSUHVLXQHD D IRVW vQ HUD WHU LDUD XQ JROI GH PDUH vQ

FXSULQVXOF UXLDV DXGHSXVVHGLPHQWHIRUPDWHGLQDUJLOHQLVLSXULPDUQHSLHWULúXUL


-

,,,&DUSD LL2FFLGHQWDOL

Caractere generale. 0XQ LL GLQ YHVWXO ULL SUH]LQW  DOWLWXGLQL VF ]XWH, care rareori trec
GHPODVXGGH0XUHúúLGHPODQRUGGHDFHDVW YDOH QXPDLH[FHS LRQDOvQ0DVLYXO

%LKRUXOXL  6SHFLILF  HVWH GH DVHPHQHD F GHUHD ORU vQ WUHSWH GLQ FH vQ FH PDL MRDVH vQVSUH YHVW

XQGHDFHúWLPXQ LDMXQJDGHY UD LPXQFHLFXvQ O LPLFXSULQVHvQWUHúLP

2DOW FDUDFWHULVWLF RFRQVWLWXLH marea diversitate a rocilorFDUHvLDOF WXLHVF,QVXOHOHGH

úLVWXUL FULVWDOLQHIRUPHD]  REXQ SDUWHDDFHVWRUPXQ L5XSWHúLSU EXúLWHSHDORFXULDX GDWORF

ILH DSDUL LHL URFLORU YXOFDQLFH fie depunerilor de roci sedimentare. Între cele sedimentare mai
IUHFYHQWHVXQWFDOFDUHOHFDUHGDXXQSLWRUHVFPXOWDSUHFLDW$úDVHH[SOLF GHFHKDUWDJHRORJLF 

DDFHVWRUPXQ LDSDUHFDXQDGHY UDWPR]DLFVWUXFWXUDOVLPLQHUDORJLF

'DWRULW FXORDUHORUODUJLFDUHvLGHVSDUW FXPHVWHDO7LPLúXOXLvQWUH&DUDQVHEHúúL/XJRM

SUHFXP úL DO 0XUHúXOXL  VXEvPS U LUHD DFHVWRU PXQ L HVWH OHVQH GH I FXW 'HRVHELP DVWIHO

0XQ LL%DQDWXOXL0XQ LL3RLDQD5XVF úL0XQ LL$SXVHQL

0XQ LL %DQDWXOXL se întind între FXORDUXO 7LPLú-&HUQD GHILOHXO 'XQ ULL úL R EXFO  FRWLW 

GHOD%X]LDúSkQ ODQRUGGH%RFúDúLvQYHVWF WUH'HDOXULOH%DQDWXOXLúL&kPSLD7LPLúXOXL

&XORDUXO7LPLú -CernaRULHQWDWSHGLUHF LDQRUG-VXGDSURDSHUHFWLOLQLXSDUHV ILHIRUPDW

printr-o rupWXU WHFWRQLF &XWRDWHF HVWHVWU MXLWGHPXQ LFHGHS úHVFPODHVWúLP

OD YHVW IRUPHOH GH UHOLHI GLQ FXSULQVXO DFHVWXL FXORDU VH DVHDP Q  FX FHOH GLQ LQXWXULOH

GHOXURDVH FOLQH GRPRDOH úL Y L ODUJL ÌQ FXSULQVXO DFHVWXL FXORDU XQ SUDJ SX LQ vQDOW GHVSDUWH

DSHOH7LPLúXOXLFDUHFXUJVSUHQRUGGHDIOXHQ LL&HUQHLGLQVSUHVXG(VWHWUHF WRDUHD'RPDVQHD

QXPLW SHYUHPHDURPDQLORU³3RDUWD2ULHQWDOLV³ GHXQGHDU PDVQXPHOHGH³3RDUWD³XQXLVDWGH

DFROR 3ULQDFHVWFXORDUVWU E WXWGHRFDOH IHUDWDúLGHRVRVHDPRGHUQDVHIDFHOHJ WXUDvQWUH

%DQDWXOQRUGLFúL'XQ UH
'HILOHXO 'XQ ULL HVWH FHD PDL OXQJD úL PDL SLWRUHDVFD YDOH WUDQVYHUVDOD GLQ (XURSD 

NP  )OXYLXO úL D FURLW XQ GUXP P UH IRUPDW GLQ SRU LXQL vQJXVWHFDUHDMXQJ SH
- alocuri doar la
150- P úL GLQ O UJLUL FD QLúWH ED]LQH FDUH GHS úHVF FKLDU  NP $LFL VH UHPDUF  SUH]HQ D

FRPSOH[HORUKLGURHQHUJHWLFH3RU LOHGH)LHU,úL,,

0XQ LL %DQDWXOXL VXQW IRUPD L GLQ GRX  FXOPL PDL vQDOWH vQ SDUWHD U V ULWHDQD FDUH WUHF

SX LQ GH  P  $OPDMXO úL 6HPHQLFXO  úL GLQ FkWHYD FXOPL GH PXQ L PLFL PXQFHL  FX

altitudini între 500-700 m, în partea apuseana.


0XQ LL$OP MXOXL, cu vârful Svinecea Mare, la 1.224 m, se întind de-DOXQJXO'XQ ULLLDU

0XQ LL 6HPHQLFXOXL, ceva mai seme L  9kUIXO 3LDWUD *R]QHL-1.447 m ), mai la nord, fiind

GHVS U L L SULQ GHSUHVLXQHD $OP MXOXL $PEHOH FXOPL PXQWRDVH VXQW IRUPDWH GLQ úLUXUL FULVWDOLQH

úLIkúLLGHFDOFDUHRULHQWDWHGHODQRUGODVXGÌQFXSULQVXODFHVWRUPXQ LDSDUSDQWHDEUXSWHY LOH

iDXDVSHFWGHFKHLLDUSHúWHULOHúLGROLQHOHFUHHD] XQUDUSLWRUHVFGHúLVXQWSX LQvQDO LDXFXOPL

JRODúHFXS úXQLDVHP Q WRDUHFHORUDOSLQH0DLMRVSHSDQWHGRPRDOHVHvQWLQGSULQWUHIkQH H

S GXULGHIDJúLVWHMDU U úLQRDVHOHVXQWRUDULWDWH ).
'HSUHVLXQHD $OP MXOXL VDX %R]RYLFL FDUH VH O UJHúWH vQWUH FHL GRL PXQ L HVWH vQFKLVD

DSURDSHGLQWRDWHS U LOH1HUDFDUH úLDGXQDDIOXHQ LLGHDFRORvúLJ VHúWHLHúLUHDSULQQLúWHFKHL


-
V OEDWLFH JUHXDFFHVLELOH SHQWUX FLUFXOD LH ùRVHDXD DSXFD V pre est, peste munte, spre Mehadica,
SULQSDVXO3DUYRYD$LFLVXQWvQWLQVHOLYH]LGHSRPLIUXFWLIHULúLVHFUHVFYLWHGHUDVDSHQWUXODSWH

0XQ LL VHFXQGDUL FRPSOHWHD]  FX R WUHDSWD PDL MRDVD F WUH YHVW DFHDVWD SDUWH D

%DQDWXOXL PXQ LL FDOFDURúL DL $QLQHL LDU PDL OD QRUG GH DFHúWLD 0XQ LL 'RJQHFHD úL 0XQ LL

Locvei.

0XQ LL 3RLDQD 5XVF . 0XQ LL DFHúWLD DOF WXLHVF XQ PDVLY GHVS U LW GH FHLODO L SULQ

coridoare largi, pardosite cu depuneri sedimentare, sau prin defilee: la sud se afla culoarul
Bistrei, la sud-vest “golful” de câmpie la Lugojului, la nord-YHVWYDOHDODUJDD%HJ LLDUODQRUG
YDOHD 0XUHúXOXL F WUH FDUH PDVLYXO SUH]LQW  SDQWH DEUXSWH 6SUH HVW VH DIOD 'HSUHVLXQHD

+D HJXOXL

)RUPD L GLQ úLVWXUL FULVWDOLQH LDU SH DORFXUL GLQ FDOFDUH 0XQ LL 3RLDQD 5XVFD DSDU GH

GHSDUWH FX XQ SURILO XúRU ERPEDW OD PLMORF $SHOH O DX IUDJPHQWDW SULQ Y L DGkQFL RULHQWDWH
-
UDGLDO 0LQHUHXULOH GH ILHU H[SORDWDWH OD *KHODUL úL 7HOLXFX ,QIHULRU  DOLPHQWHD]  FHQWUXO

VLGHUXUJLF +XQHGRDUD ÌQ SDUWHD GH VXG OD 5XúFKL D VH H[SORDWHD]  PLQHUHXUL GH SOXPE úL FHD

PDLIUXPRDVDPDUPXUD GLQ DUDQRDVWU  6DWHOHVXQWU VSkQGLWHPDLPXOWSHFXOPLvQWUXFkWY LOH

VXQWvQJXVWHúLDEUXSWH

Culoarul Bistrei UXSWXUD WHFWRQLFD VXSXVD XOWHULRU HUR]LXQLL DSHORU FXUJ WRDUH IDFH

OHJ WXUDGLQWUHYDOHD7LPLúXOXLúL DUD+D HJXOXLSULQSDVXO3RDUWDGH)LHUD7UDQVLOYDQLHL9DOHD

%LVWUHLHVWHODUJDFXWHUDVHúLFXVDWHPDULIUXPRDVH

0XQ LL $SXVHQL  OD QRUG GH 0XUHú UHSUH]LQW  VHFWRUXO FHO PDL vQDOW úL PDL ELQH
,
individualizat.)LLQGvQFRQMXUD LGHUHJLXQLMRDVH-FXORDUXO0XUHúXOXLODVXGúLHVWFkPSLDODYHVW
- SDU FKLDU PDL vQDO L GHFkW VXQW vQ UHDOLWDWH 'H IDSW QXPDL vQ SDUWHD FHQWUDOD 0XQ LL %LKRUXOXL
WUHF GH  P vQ O LPH UHVWXO FXOPLORU VXQW FX PXOW PDL VFXQGH vQ SX LQH ORFXUL GHS úLQG

 P 'LQ DFHVW PDVLY vQDOW FDUH UHSUH]LQW  XQ QRG KLGURJUDILF SHQWUX QXPHURDVH UkXUL PDUL

FHOHWUHL&ULúXUL6RPHúXO0LFúL$ULHúXO 

'XS vQ O LPHDúLFDUDFWHUHOHUHOLHIXOXL0XQ LL$SXVHQLVHvPSDUWvQWUHLJUXSH

a.0XQ Li BihoruluiPDLvQDO LFXYkUIXULFDUHWUHFGHPFXIRUPHPDLPDVLYHLDUvQ


MXUFXRVHDPDGHPXQ LPLFLÌQWUHDFHúWLD0XQ LL0HWDOLIHUL, în partea sud-HVWLFDGHS úHVFGRDU

SHDORFXULPLDUPXQFHLLGLQSDUWHDGHYHVWúLGHQRUGGHVS U L i prin depresiunile-golfuri,

VXQWúLPDLVFXQ]LXQLLDELDGHS úLQGPDOWLWXGLQH

%LKRUXO FHO PDL vQDOW JUXS DO 0XQ LORU $SXVHQL HVWH IRUPDW GLQ WUHL PDVLYH SULQFLSDOH

orânduite, în triunghi, ca o cetate naturala: la vest, vârful Bihor, în Bihorul propriu-zis, este cel
mai înalt (1.849 m), la nord 9O GHDVD, iar la est Muntele Mare, care se apropie de acesta ca
DOWLWXGLQH $FHDVWD JUXSD GH PXQ L DUH R DOF WXLUH JHRORJLFD IRDUWH IHOXULWD FXSULQ]kQG úLVWXUL
FULVWDOLQHúLJUDQL HFHHDFHH[SOLFDSURILOXOPDVLYDOXQRUFXOPLGDUúLIUHFYHQWHIkúLLFDOFDURDVH

FDUHGDXRPDUHYDULHWDWHGHIRUPHFDUVWLFH DEUXSWXULSLWRUHúWLFKHLSHúWHULFkPSXULGHGROLQH 

9HVWLWH SHQWUX IUXPXVH HD ORU VXQW vQGHRVHEL ³&HW LOH 3RQRUXOXL´ FD R FHWDWH IHUHFDWD vQFKLVD

GLQWRDWHS U LOHGHVWkQFLLQWUDUHDILLQGSRVLELODGRDUSULQXQHOHSHúWHUL

'LQ ORF vQ ORF FRQXUL YXOFDQLFH FXP HVWH 9O GHDVD XQ DGHY UDW SLORQ FDUH GRPLQD WRDWH

FXOPLOHGLQMXUÌQDFHDVWDPDUHYDULHWDWHDUHOLHIXOXLPXOWSUH XLWDOSHLVDMHORU%LKR rului. Aceste


ORFXUL RIHU  PXOWH SXQFWH GH DWUDF LH SHúWHUD FX JKHDWD GH OD 6F ULúRDUD VDX FHD HWDMDWD GH OD

0H]LDGVWD LXQHDGHvQ O LPHGHOD6WkQDGH9DOH

&D úL &DUSD LL 0HULGLRQDOL HUR]LXQHD vQGHOXQJDWD D QLYHODW SODWIRUPH ODUJL HWDMDWH OD

altitXGLQL GLIHULWH PDL vQDO  &kUOLJDWD )DUFDú PDL MRDVD 0 JXUL 0 ULúHO  SH vQWLQVXO F URUD
- -
H[LVW IkQH HVDWHULVLSLWHvQPLFLJUXSXULGHFDVHúLFKLDUVHP Q WXUL6SUHVXG0XQ LL%LKRUXOXL

VH SUHOXQJHVF FX 0XQWHOH * LQD YHVWLW SHQWUX ³7kUJXO GH )HWH´ R QHGHH D PXQWHOXL XQGH SR L

DGPLUDFRVWXPHOHQD LRQDOHGDQVXULOHFKHP ULOHGHWXOQLFH

b. 0XQ LL 0HWDOLIHUL VXQW PDL VFXQ]L VSLQ ULOH ORU PHQ LQkQGX VH vQWUH  úL  P
-
1XPHURDVHOH LYLUL YXOFDQLFH WHU LDUH GLQ FXSULQVXO IRUPD LXQLORU VHGLPHQWDUH cutate explica
ERJ LDORUvQPLQHUHXULQHIHURDVHPDLDOHVDXUR DUJLQWLIHUH3DUWHDU V ULWHDQDDDFHVWXLFRPSOH[
-
PXQWRV GLQWUH YDOHD $PSRLXOXL úL FHD D $ULHúXOXL HVWH FXQRVFXWD VXE QXPHOH GH 0XQ LL

7U VF XOXL PDL SLWRUHúWL GHFkW SULPLL GDWRULWD LYLULL FDOFDUHORU 9HVWLWD SULQ IUXPXVH HD HL HVWH

'HWXQDWD*RDODVWkQFDIRUPDW GLQFRORDQHYHUWLFDOHGHED]DOWGHFODUDWDPRQXPHQWDOQDWXULL

'DWRULWD PLQHUDOL] ULORU SULFLQXLWH GH DSDUL LD ODYHORU YXOFDQLFH PXQ LL DFHúWLD FXSULQG

PDUHD ERJ LH D PLQHUHXUL lor auro-DUJLQWLIHUH H[SORDWDWH OD *XUD %DU]D 6DFDULPE $OPDúXO
0DUH SUHFXP úL PLQHUHXUL FXSULIHUH RUL GH SOXPE úL ]LQF 'DWRULWD PLúF ULORU WHFWRQLFH V-au
IRUPDWFkWHYDPLFL GHSUHVLXQLFXPVXQWFHOHGHOD%UDG*XUDKRQ =ODWQD% L DFDUHvQOHVQHVF

FLUFXOD LD vQ WRDWH GLUHF LLOH úL DX I FXW FD GLQ YUHPXUL YHFKL DFHúWL PXQ L VD ILH ELQH SRSXOD L

3ULYL L GH GHSDUWH 0XQ LL 0HWDOLIHUL VH vQI LúHD]  FX QXPHURDVH YkUIXUL FRQLFH SXUWkQG SH

SDQWHOHPDLOLQHRJRDUHúLIkQH H

c. 0XQ LL &ULúXULORU, din paUWHD GH YHVW D 0XQ LORU $SXVHQL UHSUH]LQW  SDUWHD FHD PDL

FRERUkW  D ORU SULQWUH FDUH PDULOH WHU LDUH S WUXQGHDX GLQVSUH 'HSUHVLXQHD 3DQRQLFD VXE IRUPD

XQRU JROIXUL 1XPDL UDUHRUL PXQ LL DFHúWLD WUHF GH P DOWLWXGLQH LDU GHSUHVLXQLOH VXQW vQ

genere, MRDVH FLUFD P  RFXSDWH FX KROGH 6XFFHVLXQHD DFHDVWD GH FXOPL úL GHSUHVLXQL

constituie caracteristica lor principala.


0XQ LL =DUDQGXOXL VH J VHVF VSUH VXG FX VSLQDUHD O LW  FD XQ SRG OD -600 m

DOWLWXGLQH SHVWH FDUH GRDU FkWHYD P JXUL DWLQJ  m. Marginea lor apuseana se termina abrupt
GHDVXSUDFkPSLHL3HXQvQJXVWW SúDQGHODSRDOHOHORUVHvQWLQGHYHVWLWDSRGJRULHD$UDGXOXLGH

la Pâncota, Siria-satul lui Slavici -SkQ OD5DGQD

3H &ULúXO $OE VH GHVFKLGH R YDOH ODUJD FXQRVFXWD GLQ WLPSXUL VWU YHFKL VXE QXPHOH GH

DUD =DUDQGXOXL FDUH FXSULQGH GH IDSW QX QXPDL GHSUHVLXQHD FDUH VH GHVFKLGH vQ SkOQLH FL úL

XQHOH GHSUHVLXQL PDL PLFL DIODWH vQ LQWHULRUXO PXQ LORU FXP VXQW FHOH GH OD *XUDKRQ  úL %UDG

SUHFXPúLLHúLUHDvQFkPSLH

0XQ LL &RG ru-Moma FHL PDL vQDO L GLQWUH DFHúWL PXQ L GLQ YHVW VXQW DOF WXL L GLQ URFL

IRDUWHIHOXULWH SUHGRPLQkQGWRWXúLODQRUGFHOHVHGLPHQWDUH vQWUHFDUHFDOFDUHOH LDUPDLODVXG

URFLOHYXOFDQLFH'LQDFHúWLPXQ LVHH[SORDWHD] FDOFDUHRUQDPHQWDOH OD0RQHDVDúL9DúF X 

3H &ULúXO 1HJUX VH DIOD 'HSUHVLXQHD %HLXúXOXL ODUJD XQ DGHY UDW FkPS QHWHG OD SDUWHD

GHYHVWXQSLHPRQWVHJPHQWDWGHUkXULvQSDUWHDGHHVW3UHWXWLQGHQLVXQWFXOWXULDJULFROHúLVDWH

PDULIUXPRDVHFXSRU LvQDOWHFDGHFHWDWH

0XQ LL3 GXUHD&UDLXOXLGHúLVFXQ]L  P RIHU SULYHOLúWLSLWRUHúWLILLQGIRUPD L


-
GLQ FDOFDUH YHVWLWH SHúWHULOH 0H]LDG GH OD QRUG GH %HLXú úL 9DGXO &ULúXOXL ÌQ FXSULQVXO DFHVWRU

PXQ L VH J VHVF FHOH PDL GH VHDPD ] F PLQWH GH EDX[LWD GLQ DUD QRDVWU  SH ED]D F URUD D OXDW

QDúWHUHúLVHGH]YROWDLQGXVWULDDOXPLQLXOXL

La nord de Depresiunea Vad-%RURG GH SH &ULúXO 5HSHGH SULQ FDUH VH IDFH OHJ WXUD
feroviara Oradea-&OXM XUPHD]  0XQWHOH ùHV DOF WXLW vQ vQWUHJLPH GLQ úLVWXUL FULVWDOLQH FX
spinarea lDUJD FX QHWH]LPL FD GH FkPSLH 6SUH HVW VXQW 0XQ LL 0HVHúXOXL FD R GLDJRQDOD
orientata spre nord-HVWWUDQVYHUVDO3RGLúXOXL6RPHúDQÌQXQJKLXOGLQWUH0XQ LL0HVHúXOXLùHVVH
DIOD 'HSUHVLXQHD ùLPOHXOXL vQFKLVD OD QRUG GH 0 JXUD ùLPOHXOXL XQ IUDJPHQW GH úLVWXUL

FULVWDOLQHFXPVXQWPXOWHúLPDLODQRUGvQV FXDOWLWXGLQLPLFLGHGHDOXUL

2.2.2. 6XEFDUSD LL
4

&DUDFWHUH JHQHUDOHúLVXEGLYL]LXQL 6XEFDUSD LL IRUPHD] RIkúLHPDLMRDV ODPDUJLQHD

PXQ LORU SUH]HQWkQG FDUDFWHUHOH XQRU PXQ L PDL PLFL úL PDL WLQHUL , cum s-a spus “un nou val
FDUSDWLF´ DG XJDW PXQ LORU SULQ FXW UL UHFHQWH FDUH V DX SURGXV OD VIkUúLWXO SOLRFHQXOXL úL
-
vQFHSXWXO FXDWHUQDUXOXL 6WUXFWXUD ORU JHRORJLF  VH FRPSXQH GLQ URFL vQ JHQHUH PDL VODEH GHFkW

cele din munte (gresii, marne, argile), dDU FX VWUDWXULOH FXWDWH GHVWXO GH SXWHUQLF vQ O DWH SH

DORFXULSkQ ODYHUWLFDO 6XQWvQJHQHUDOPDLVFXQ]LGHFkWPXQ LL UDUHRULGHS úHVFP GDU

OHLPLWDIRUPHOHGHUHOLHI]YHOWHFXSDQWHDFFHQWXDWHÌQYDULD LDUHOLHIXOXLVHGHRVHEHVFvQ O LP i
PDL VHPH H L]RODWH - QXPLWH P JXUL FXOPL SUHOXQJL FD QLúWH PXQWLúRUL - numite muscele,
SUHFXP úL SRU LXQL PDL MRDVH - GHSUHVLXQL $OWLWXGLQHD UHGXVD úL UHOLHIXOPDL VFXQG GLQ FXSULQVXO

GHSUHVLXQLORUFUHHD] 6XEFDUSD LORUDVSHFWHGHvQUXGLUHFX]RQHOHGHOXURDVHSHFkQGvQ O LPLOHFH

VHSDUDGHSUHVLXQLOHDPLQWHVFGHPXQ L,DW SHQWUXFH6XEFDUSD LLVXQWFRQVLGHUD LFDIDFWUDQ]L LD

GLQWUHPXQ LúLGHDOXUL

)RUPH WLSLFH SUH]LQW  6XEFDUSD LL QXPDL vQ SDUWHD GH OD HVW úL VXG D DUFXOXL FDUSDWLF ÌQ

partea DSXVHDQ  QX H[LVW  R ]RQ  VXEFDUSDWLF  &kPSLD GH 9HVW S WUXQ]kQG SULQWUH PXQ L VXE
forma depresiunilor - golfuri ÌQ LQWHULRUXO DUFXOXL FDUSDWLF WUHFHUHD GH OD PXQ L OD 3RGLúXO
Transilvaniei se face printr-XQ úLU GH GHSUHVLXQL úL vQ O LPL DVHP Q WRDUH vQ XQHOH SULYLQ H FX
6XEFDUSD LLGDUvQFHDPDLPDUHSDUWHSULQVLPSOHGHSUHVLXQLGHFRQWDFWvQWUHPXQ LúLGHDOXUL

6XEFDUSD LLvQFHSGHODYDOHD0ROGRYHLIDFRFRO&DUSD LORU2ULHQWDOLúL0HULGLRQDOLúLVH

termina la valea Motrului. Mai la nord de valHD0ROGRYHLOHJ WXUDGLQWUHPXQ LúLSRGLúVHIDFH


aproape brusc, lipsind o zona subcarpatica propriu-]LV  'RDU PLFD GHSUHVLXQH GH OD &DFLFD FX
DSDUL LDV ULLGLQFXSULQVXOHLSUH]LQW XQHOHFDUDFWHUHDSURSLDWHGHFHOHVXEFDUSDWLFH'LQFRORGH

valea MoWUXOXL vQ 2OWHQLD GH VXE PXQWH DSDUH R VWUXFWXUD GLIHULWD FX SUHOXQJLUHD IRUPD LXQLORU
YHFKLFULVWDOLQH 3RGLúXO0HKHGLQ L FDUHSUH]LQW GHDVHPHQHDROLPLWDDDULHLVXEFDUSDWLFH

& WUH PXQWH OLPLWD 6XEFDUSD LORU HVWH vQ JHQHUDO XúRU GH XUP ULW deoarece muntele
SUH]LQW  VSUH H[WHULRU SDQWH GHVWXO GH DFFHQWXDWH SH OLQLD RUDúHORU 3LDWUD 1HDP  0RLQHúWL 7J

2FQD 1XPDL vQ SRU LXQHD FXSULQVD vQWUH 6O QLFXO %X] XOXL úL 'kPERYL D OLPLWD GLQWUH PXQ L úL

6XEFDUSD LHVWHPDLDQHYRLHGH XUP ULW GHRDUHFHFk LYD SLQWHQLGHPXQWHS WUXQG SLH]LúvQ]RQD

VXEFDUSDWLF 

6SUHSRGLúXO0ROGRYHLOLPLWD6XEFDUSD LORUHVWHLQGLFDWDDSUR[LPDWLYGHYDOHD0ROGRYHL

úL vQ FRQWLQXDUH GH YDOHD 6LUHWXOXL FDUH UHSUH]LQW  FXORDUH IRDUWH ODUJL FX WHUDVH PDUJLQDOH 6SUH

CâmpLD 5RPkQ  OLPLWD HVWH GH DVHPHQHD FODUD ILLQG IRUPDW  GLQWU XQ SRYkUQLú DFFHQWXDW OD
-
SHULIHULD F UXLD VH vQúLU  RUDúHOH %X] X 3ORLHúWL 7kUJRYLúWH úL R QHvQWUHUXSWD JKLUODQGD GH VDWH

'LQFRORGH'kPERYL DvQV ]RQDVXEFDUSDWLFDHVWHVWUkQVOHJDWDGH3RGLúXO*HWLFDVWIHOFDQXVH

SRDWH WUDJH vQWUH HOH GHFkW R OLPLWDFRQYHQ LRQDODSH OD &XUWHD GH $UJHú % GHQL %LVWUL D 7kUJXO
-
&DUEXQHúWLORU%DLDGH$UDP 

LQkQGVHDPDGHGLIHUHQ LHULOHDU WDWHúLGHDVSHFWHOHUHOLHIXOXLGLQGLIHULWHS U LDOH]RQHL

VXEFDUSDWLFHDFHDVWD VHGHVSDUWHvQWUHLVHFWRDUHúLDQXPH  6XEFDUSD LL0ROGRYHL vQWUHYDOHD

4
Op. cit., pg.35-40
0ROGRYHL úL vQ O LPLOH GLQWUH YDOHD 7URWXúXOXL úL YDOHD ùXúL HL    6XEFDUSD LL &XUEXULL vQWUH

DFHDVWDOLPLWDúLYDOHD'kPERYL HLúL 6XEFDUSD LL*HWLFLvQWUH'kPERYL DúL0RWUX

 6XEFDUSD LL0ROGRYHLDMXQJSkQ  OD NPO LPHúLVH FDUDFWHUL]HD] SULQWU-XQúLUGH

depresiuni mari, delimitate spre exterior prin culmi marginale. De la nord spre sud, principalele
GHSUHVLXQLVXQW1HDP &UDF X-%LVWUL DúL7D]O X-&DúLQ

'HSUHVLXQHD 1HDP XOXL VWU E WXWD GH YDOHD 1HDP XOXL VDX 2]DQHL úL vQFKLVD VSUH QRUG-

HVW GH &XOPHD 3OHúXOXL  P  HVWH FD R FHWDWH QDWXUDOD ÌQ XQWUXO HL 7kUJX-Neamt este unul

GLQWUHFHOHPDLYHFKLRUDúHDOH0ROGRYHLvQSUHDMPDF UXLDVHDIOD&HWDWHD1HDP XOXLGHFDUHVH

OHDJ  DWkWHD DPLQWLUL GH OXSWH úL UH]LVWHQWD URPDQHDVFD vQ ID  FRWURSLWRULORU $O WXUL HVWH úL VDWXO

OXL &UHDQJD +XPXOHúWL FRQWRSLW vQ SUH]HQW FX XQHOH PHúWHúXJXUL vQWUH FDUH FHO OD HV WXULORU

GHVFULV úL vQ $PLQWLULOH OXL ,RQ &UHDQJD /D SRDOHOH PXQ LORU VH vQúLU  JKLUODQGD FXQRVFXWHORU

P Q VWLUL 1HDP  6HFX $JDSLD 9 UDWHF HWF XQHOH GDWkQG GLQ SULPHOH YHDFXUL DOH LVWRULHL

Moldovei, cu monumentele de arta veche de o inegalabila valoare. Spre sud, depresiunea aceasta
HVWHvQFKLVDGH'HDOXO&RUQLELQHvPS GXULW

'HSUHVLXQHD &UDF X %LVWUL D XUPHD]  PDL OD VXG GXS  R úD MRDV  OkQJ  % OW
- HúWL

$OXQJLWDSHFLUFDGHNPGHRSDUWHúLGHDOWDDY LL&UDF XOXLúLvQFRQWLQXDUHGH DOXQJXOY LL-


%LVWUL D DFHDVWD GHSUHVLXQH DSDUH FD XQ XOXF OD SRDOHOH PXQ LORU $UH XQ UHOLHI FROLQDU ILLQG

GHVFKLVD VSUH HVW F WUH 3RGLúXO 0ROGRYHL 'RDU FkWHYD PLFL P JXUL PDUFKHD]  OLPLWD  VSUH

SRGLúXO GH OD HVW 'DWRULWD UHOLHIXOXL SX LQ DFFLGHQWDW DJULFXOWXUD DUH DLFL R ODUJD H[
tindere.
Industria a luat o mare dezvoltate la Piatra-1HDP  úL vPSUHMXULPL 6 YLQHúWL 5R]QRY  2
DGHY UDWDVDOE GH KLGURFHQWUDOHVHvQúLU GH-DOXQJXO%LVWUL HLSkQ OD%DF X vQDYDOGHFHDPDL

mare de la Stejaru, din zona de munte.


'HSUHVLXQHD 7D]O X-&DúLQ HVWH PDL OXQJ  úL PDL MRDVD GHFkW SUHFHGHQWD ÌQ SDUWHD HL

FHQWUDOD XQGH VH VWUkQJ vQ P QXQFKL 7URWXúXO 7D]O XO 2LWX]XO úL &DúLQXO QX DUH GHFkW  P

DOWLWXGLQH 6SUH HVW HVWH ELQH vQFKLVD GH &XOPHD 3LHWULFLFD PDVLYD FD XQ PLF PXQWH DOF WXLWD

chiar dintr-XQ VkPEXUH GH URFL DOH IOLúXOXL /D VXG HVWH vQFKLVD GH DOWD vQ O LPH 2XúRUXO ELQH

vPS GXULWD ÌQ GHFXUVXO DQLORU úL DFHDVWD GHSUHVLXQH D F S WDW XQ SXWHUQLF FDUDFWHU LQGXVWULDO ÌQ

SDUWHD HL QRUGLFD WUHFkQG úL GH PXQWH VH H[SORDWHD]  ] F P inte petrolifere, cu centrul la
0RLQHúWL /D 7kUJX 2FQD VH H[SORDWHD]  VDUHD ÌQ FHQWUXO DFHVWHL GHSUHVLXQL HVWH VLWXDW RUDúXO

2QHúWLFXXQPDUHFRPELQDWDOLQGXVWULHLFKLPLFHSUHFXPúLDOWHvQWUHSULQGHUL

  6XEFDUSD LL &XUEXULL FXSULQúL vQWUH YDOHD ùXúL HL úL YDOHD 'kPERYL HL VXQW PXOW PDL

FRPSOHFúL GHFkW SULPLL ILLQG DOF WXL L GLQ FHO SX LQ GRX  úLUXUL GH GHSUHVLXQL GHVS U LWH SULQWU -o
PHGLDQ  GH FXOPL VHPH H LQWHQV FXWDWH 6H GHRVHEHVF DVWIHO XQ úLU GH GHSUHVLXQL VXEFDUSDWLFH

interne, cu caracteUH VSHFLILF VXEFDUSDWLFH úL XQ úLU GH GHSUHVLXQL VXEFDUSDWLFH H[WHUQH VDX
LQWUDFROLQDUH FX UHOLHI GHOXURV úL FXWDUH PDL SX LQ LQWHQVD D VWUDWXULORU S PkQWXOXL $FHDVWD

VWUXFWXUDFRPSOH[DVHGDWRUHD] VXFFHVLXQLLPDLPXOWRUFXW ULSkQ ODFHOHIRDUWHUHFHQ te, numite


YDODKLFH FDUH DX DF LRQDW vQ DFHVW VHFWRU vQ XOWLPD HWDSD D SOLRFHQXOXL úL FKLDU OD vQFHSXWXO

cuaternarului.
'XS  FDUDFWHULVWLFLOH UHOLHIXOXL úL JUDGXOXL GH FRPSOH[LWDWH D VWUXFWXULL JHRORJLFH

6XEFDUSD LL&XUEXULLVHvPSDUWvQWUHLVHFWRDUHXQXOODHVWSkQ ODYDOHD6O QLFXOXLDOWXOPLMORFLX

vQWUH6O QLFúL7HOHDMHQGHFRPSOH[LWDWHPD[LP DOWUHLOHDvQWUH7HOHDMHQúL'kPERYL D

a. În primul sector 9UDQFHD HVWH GHSUHVLXQHD VXEFDUSDWLFD FHD PDL WLSLFD 0DL PDUH úL
mai bine închisa spre exWHULRUSULQPHGLDQDGHvQ O LPL5 FKLWDúX0DUHúL5 LX GLQFRORGHFDUH
GXS XQHOHPLFLGHSUHVLXQLLQWUDFROLQDUH 9LGUDúL0HUD VHvQDO 0 JXUD2GREHúWLORU P 

DOF WXLWD GLQ GHSXQHUL SOLRFHQH UHFHQWH FDUH DX VXIHULW R SXWHUQLFD vQ O DUH SH YHUWLFDO  vQ

FXDWHUQDU 6LQJXUD GHVFKLGHUH VSUH LQXWXULOH MRDVH DOH 0ROGRYHL GH VXG HVWH YDOHD vQJXVWD D

3XWQHL FDUH vPSUHXQD FX DIOXHQWXO VDX = EDOD DGXQD DSHOH DFHVWHL GHSUHVLXQL )LLQG SXWHUQLF

GHVS GXULWD vQ WUHFXW LDU URFLOH GLQ FDUH HVWH DOF WXLW S Pk ntul Vrancei fiind mai fragil (gresii,
PDUQH úL DUJLOH  HUR]LXQHD úL DOXQHF ULOH GH WHUHQ DX OXDW SURSRU LL vQJULMRU WRDUH ÌQ SUH]HQW VH

GXFH R DF LXQH VXV LQXWD GH UHvPS GXULUH D 9UDQFHL úL DPHOLRUDUH D WHUHQXULORU GHJUDGDWH 0DL
spre sud, depresiunile sunt în genere mai mici, îndeosebi cele ale Subcarpatilor interni din
YHFLQ WDWHDPXQ LORU /DHVW GH FXOPLOH FDUHvQFKLG GHSUHVLXQLOHLQWUDFROLQDUH VH vQWLQGH R SULVSD

piemontana înclinata spre câmpie de-D OXQJXO F UHLD VH vQúLU  PDULOH SRGJRULL GH OD 3DQ ciu,
2GREHúWL&RWHúWLHWF

b. ÌQWUH6O QLFúLYDOHD7HOHDMHQXOXLFRPSOH[LWDWHDWHUHQXOXLVSRUHúWHSULQS WUXQGHUHDvQ

6XEFDUSD L  D XQRU SLQWHQL GH PXQWH FXP HVWH 3LQWHQXO ,Y QH X 'HSUHVLXQLOH FX FDUDFWHU

WHFWRQLF VXQW DOXQJLWH SLH]Lú ID  GH GLUHF LD Y LORU DVWIHO vQFkW UH]XOWD XQ UHOLHI SXWHUQLF

IUDJPHQWDW FX PLFL GHSUHVLXQL DOXQJLWH FXP HVWH FHD GH OD 3ROLFLRUL FXQRVFXW  SULQ YXOFDQLL

QRURLRúL &XOPLOH GLQVSUH FkPSLH GH H[HPSOX ,VWUL D  DSDU LPSXQ WRDUH SULQ DOWLWXGLQHD úL

aspectele lor în coQWUDVW FX QHWH]LPHD FkPSLHL /D SRDOHORU SH W SúDQXO SLHPRQWDQ vQVRULW DO

0L]LOXOXLVHvQúLUXLHDOWHPDULSRGJRULLFXQRVFXWHvQDQVDPEOXVXEGHQXPLUHDGH'HDOXO0DUH

c.6HFWRUXO6XEFDUSDWLORUGLQWUH7HOHDMHQúL'kPERYL D este strangulat la nord de PloiHúWL


SULQ S WUXQGHUHD FkPSLHL SkQ  DSURDSH GH &kPSLQD 6LVWHPXO FXWHORU GLDSLUH H[SOLF  SUH]HQ D

] F PLQWHORUGHSHWUROFXPVXQWFHOHGHOD9 OHQLLGH0XQWH&kPSLQDúL3XFLRDVD

$O WXUL GH SODQWD LLOH YLWLFROH úL SRPLFROH UHVXUVHOH VXEVROXOXL VXQW GH asemenea,
LPSRUWDQWHSHWUROXOVHH[SORDWHD] LQWU XQPDUHQXP UGHVFKHOHvQFHSkQGGHSHYDOHD%X] XOXL
-
SkQ  OD YDOHD 'kPERYL HL OLJQLWXO FDUH SXQH vQ PLúFDUH PDUL WHUPRFHQWUDOH FXP HVWH FHD GH OD

'RLFHúWL VDUHD DIODWD GLQ DEXQGHQ D H[SORDWDW  OD 6O QLF  URFLOH GH FRQVWUXF LH HWF 5HJLXQHD

DFHVWDDGHYHQLWvQWLPSXQDGLQWUHUHJLXQLOHFHOHPDLSXWHUQLFLQGXVWULDOL]DWHDOH ULL

 6XEFDUSD LL*HWLFLFXSULQúL vQWUH'kPERYL DúL 0RWUXVHDVHDP Q FXFHLGHFXUEXUD

prin marea fragmentare a reliefXOXL úL SULQ GXEOXO úLU GH GHSUHVLXQL GDU VH GHRVHEHVF SULQ
GLVSDUL LD SLQWHQLORU GH PXQWH FDUH PDL OD HVW S WUXQG GHSDUWH vQ 6XEFDUSD L úL SULQ OLSVD XQHL

FXOPLH[WHULRDUH6HFWRUXOJHWLFVHFDUDFWHUL]HD] SULQOHJDUHDVWUkQVDGLQWUH6XEFDUSD LúL]RQD de


SODWIRUP  GH OD VXG 3RGLúXO *HWLF  DFHDVWD GLQ XUP  SUH]HQWkQG SH DORFXUL XQ SRYkUQLú DEUXSW

VSUHQRUG6HSRWLGHQWLILFDDVWIHOXQúLUGHGHSUHVLXQLVXEFDUSDWLFHODPDUJLQHDPXQ LORUFDUHDX

pe alocuri caracterul unor depresiuni de contact, un brâuGHvQ O LPLFXVWUXFWXUDFXWDWDFHWUHFGH

 P DOWLWXGLQH OD VXGXO F URUD SkQ  OD PDUJLQHD SRYkUQLW  D 3RGLúXOXL *HWLF VH vQúLUXLH

depresiuni intracolinare.
Între depresiunile de sub munte, cea mai bine dezvoltata este Depresiunea
Câmpulungului, îQ PLMORFXO F UHLD VH DIOD RUDúXO FX DFHODúL QXPH DúH]DUH VWU YHFKH vQ ID D
culoarului transcarpatic Bran-5XF U 6SUH VXG GHSUHVLXQHD HVWH vQFKLVD GH PDVLYXO VXEFDUSDWLF
0DW X P úLUXOGHSUHVLXQLORUGHVXEPXQWHFRQWLQXDFXFHDGHOD$UHIXSH$UJHú+RUH]X

SH %LVWUL D 7LVPDQD SH UkXO FX DFHODúL QXPH HWF ÌQ FXSULQVXO DFHVWRU GHSUHVLXQL -mai ales în
nordul Olteniei - HVWH XQ FOLPDW EOkQG GDWRULWD DG SRVWXOXL RIHULW GH PXQ L FHHD FH H[SOLFD

DSDUL LD XQRU SODQWH WHUPRILOH SUHFXP OLOLDFXO V OEDWLF FDVWDQXO FRPHVWLELO GH OD 7LVPDQD ú D

ùLUDJXO DFHVWRU GHSUHVLXQL HVWH vQWUHUXSW SH DORFXUL GH FXOPL SUHOXQJL úL vQDOWH PXVFHOH  FDUH

FRQWLQXDPXQ LLVSUHVXGFXPVXQWFHOHGLQWUH5kXO'RDPQHLúL%HFKHD 0XVFHOHOH3O WLFLL ELQH

vPS GXULWH

Brâul în O LPLORUVXEFDUSDWLFHFXWDWVHFRQWLQX vQYHVWGH0DW XSkQ OD2OW'LQFRORGH

2OW SkQ  OD %LVWUL D VLWXD LD VH FRPSOLFD SULQ DOXQHFDUHD OLQD D XQHL DULSL GH PXQWH FDUH IDFH

WUDQ]L LHLQVHQVLELODVSUH6XEFDUSD L0DLGHSDUWHvQV EUkXOvQ O LPLORUV ubcarpatice se pune bine


vQHYLGHQ vQGHRVHELvQ0 JXUD6O WLRDUHLSHQWUXDVF GHDWUHSWDWvQDOWLWXGLQHODYHVW

Între depresiunile de la marginea sudica, cea mai întinsa este Depresiunea Târgu Jiu-
&kPSX0DUHIRDUWHODUJ úLMRDV FDXQIUDJPHQWGHFkPSLHvQFXSULQVXOF UHLD-LXOvúLDGXQDXQ

P QXQFKLGHDIOXHQ L/DVXGHVWHvQFKLV GH'HDOXO%UDQFDUHGHúLVFXQGSUH]LQW VWUDWXULXúRU

ERPEDWHúLGHPDUJLQHDvQDO D3RGLúXOXL*HWLF

În mare parte, sectorul Subcarpatilor Getici este o importanta zona pomicola. În


GHSUHVLXQHD 7kUJX -LX FXOWXUD FHUHDOHORU PDL DOHV D SRUXPEXOXL  úL FHD D OHJXPHORU RFXSD

VXSUDIH H vQWLQVH 'LQ VXEVROXO DFHVWRU GHDOXUL OD VXG GH &kPSXOXQJ VH H[SORDWHD]  OLJQLWXO OD

Ocnele Mari, care sta la baza industriei chimice de la Govora; de asemenea sunt valoroase apele
PLQHUDOHGHOD2O QHúWL*RYRUDúL& OLP QHúWL

2.2.3. LQXWXULOHGHOXURDVHúLGHSRGLú

Caractere generale. 'HDOXULOH FRQVWLWXLH R DOW  WUHDSW  GH UHOLHI D ULL PLMORFLH FD

vQ O LPHvQWUHPXQ LúLFkPSLHÌQ PRGFRQYHQ LRQDOGHDOXULOHVXQWFXSULQVHvQWUHúL P

DOWLWXGLQH 'DU OLPLWHOH DFHVWHD GH vQ O LPH QX VXQW FRQWLQXH SHVWH WRW ÌQ XQHOH ORFXUL GHDOXULOH

GHS úHVFvQDOWHOHU PkQVXEDFHVWHOLPLWHGHDOWLWXGLQH8QHOHDXFDUDFWHUSLHPRQWDQ 'HDOXULO e


9HVWLFH SDUWHGLQSRGLúXO*HWLF DOWHOHV -au format prin scufundarea unor catene muntoase, ale
F URU UHVWXUL PDL DSDU GLQ IRUPD LXQLOH VHGLPHQWDUH FDUH OH-DX vQHFDW 3RGLúXO 6RPHúDQ  R DOWD

FDWHJRULH R UHSUH]LQW  PXQ LL YHFKL SXWHUQLF HURGD L DMXQúL OD DOWLWXGLQH GH GHDOXUL 3RGLúXO

'REURJHL GH 1RUG  úL vQ ILQH R DOWD JUXSD GH GHDOXUL V D IRUPDW SULQ PRGHODUHD GH F WUH DSHOH
-
5
FXUJ WRDUHDXQRUGHSR]LWHVHGLPHQWDUH 3RGLúXO0ROGRYHL HWF

LQXWXULOH GHOXURDVH SUH]LQW  úL R VHULH GH WU V WXUL FRPXQH VXQW DOF WXLWH vQ JHQHUDO GLQ

URFL PRL IULDELOH vQWUH FDUH SUHGRPLQD DUJLOHOH QLVLSXULOH JUHVLLOH H[FHS LH I FkQG DSDUL LLOH

JUDQLWLFH GLQ QRUGXO 'REURJHL RUL GLQ 'HDOXULOH GH 9HVW 6WUDWXULOH FRPSRQHQWH DX S VWUDW R

VWUXFWXUD RUL]RQWDOD VDX XúRU vQFOLQDWD úL QXPDL DUDUHRUL SUH]LQW  R RQGXODUH OXQJD 3RGLúXO

7UDQVLOYDQLHL  VDX FXW UL VWUkQVH FD vQ 3RGLúXO 'REURJHL GH 1RUG $GkQFLPHD Y LORU ID  GH

QLYHOXO FXOPLORU HVWH PDL UHGXV  GHFkW vQ 6XEFDUSD L QHGHS úLQG vQ JHQHUDO  P 3DQWHOH VXQW

în geneUDOPDLUHGXVHY LOHODUJLLDUGHDOXULOHDXDSURDSHSHVWHWRWLQWHUIOXYLLvQWLQVHFXFXOPLOH

rotunjite sau netede.


ÌQ LQXWXULOH GHOXURDVH DúH] ULOH RPHQHúWL VXQW YHFKL GH]YROWkQGX -se din vremuri
GHS UWDWHODDG SRVWXOS GXULORUÌQWUHVXUVHOHVXEVR lului, mai caracteristice sunt: gazele naturale,
OLJQLWXO úL SH DORFXUL FKLDU SHWUROXO SRGLúXO *HWLF  $JULFXOWXUD VH FDUDFWHUL]HD]  PDL DOHV SULQ

SUHGRPLQDUHDFXOWXULORUGHFkPSSRPLFXOWXUDúLYLWLFXOWXUDHWF

ÌQWUXFkWVXEUDSRUWJHQHWLFúLFDDVSHFWHGHUHOLHI LQXWXULOHGHOXURDVHDXWU V WXULGLVWLQFWH

OHWUDWDPGXS DúH]DUHDORUJHRJUDILFD

,3RGLúXO7UDQVLOYDQLHLúLGHSUHVLXQLOHPDUJLQDOH

În interiorul arcului carpatic s-D SURGXV R VFXIXQGDUH OHQW  &D XUPDUH VFRDU D FDUH V-a
adâncit treptat SkQ  OD - P D vQFHSXW D VH FRQVROLGD OD VIkUúLWXO HUHL PH]R]RLFH
GDWRULW  HIRUWXULORU GH FXWDUH úL ULGLFDUH D &DUSD LORU (D D IRVW WUHSWDW LQYDGDWD GH DSHOH PDULORU

6HGLPHQWDWD vQ SDOHRJHQ úL QHRJHQ HD D FRQWLQXDW VD VH VFXIXQGH /D vQFHSXWX l cuaternarului,
vQWUHDJD GHSUHVLXQH WUDQVLOYDQ  V D XPSOXW GH VHGLPHQWH VL QXPDL SH PDUJLQL PDL U P VHVHU 
-
FkWHYDODFXULPDULF WUHGHSUHVLXQLOHGLQWUHPXQ L

&XWDUHD úL vQ O DUHD PXQ LORU FRQWLQXDWH SkQ  OD vQFHSXWXO FXDWHUQDUXOXL D GHWHUPLQDW

apari LDXQRUVHFWRDUHGHIkúLLFXWDWH$FHVWHDDXXQUHOLHIPDLSURHPLQHQWúLGHVSDUWvQFXSULQVXO
'HSUHVLXQLL 7UDQVLOYDQLHL WUHL ]RQH GLIHULWH D  SH PDUJLQH R ]RQD GH GHSUHVLXQLDVHP Q WRDUH

5
Idem, pg.40-50
pe alocuri celor subcarpatice, b) în interior o zona de podiú 3RGLúXO 7UDQVLOYDQLHL XQGH
VWUDWXULOH DX U PDV  DSURDSH RUL]RQWDOH SUH]HQWkQG GRDU XúRDUH EROWLUL GRPXUL  FDUH FRQ LQ

] F PLQWH GH JD] PHWDQ   F   OD QRUG YHVW GH Y LOH 6RPHúXOXL 0DUH úL 6RPHúXOXL 0LF XQGH VH
-
WHUPLQDFXWHOHGLDSLUHR]RQDGHPXQ LVFXIXQGD LúLvQHFD LvQVHGLPHQWHQHRJHQHFXQRVFXWDVXE

GHQXPLUHDGH3RGLúXO6RPHúDQFXUHOLHIúLVWUXFWXU FRPSOH[ 

D 'HSUHVLXQLOHGLQMXUXO3RGLúXOXL7UDQVLOYDQLHL SUH]LQW WU V WXULGLIHULWHSHFHOHWUHL

ODWXULDOHSRGLúXOXL

/D YHVW F WUH 0XQ LL $SXVHQL VH vQWLQGH 'HSUHVLXQHD $OED ,XOLD -Turda, ca un culoar
orientat nord sud, de-D OXQJXO F UXLD FXUJH 0XUHúXO úL $ULHúXO LQIHULRU (O VH SUH]LQW  FD XQ

DPILWHDWUXGHGHDOXULúLWHUDVHFHVHDSOHDF vQWUHSWHSkQ ODDOELDODUJ DUkXOXL$FHDVWD regiune


vQVRULWD úL LQWHQV SRSXODWD FXSULQGH FXOWXUL DJULFROH úL SRGJRULL YHVWLWH ([SORDWDUHD V ULL GH OD

2FQD 0XUHú D GDW QDúWHUH LQGXVWULHL FKLPLFH &LUFXOD LD SH GUXPXULOH PDUL GLQ OXQJXO DFHVWXL

FXORDU DX I FXW VD VH GH]YROWH XQ úLU GH YHFKL RUDúH ca: Turda, Aiud, Alba Iulia etc., cu
PRQXPHQWHLVWRULFHúLXQLW LLQGXVWULDOHGLYHUVH

3H PDUJLQHD VXGLF  OD SRDOHOH 0XQ LORU &LQGUHOXOXL úL ) J UDúXOXL VH DIO  GRX 

GHSUHVLXQL PDUL ELQH LQGLYLGXDOL]DWH 'HSUHVLXQHD 6LELXOXL úL 'HSUHVLXQHD ) J UDúXOX i, în


FXSULQVXO F URUD &LELQXO úL 2OWXO DGXQD QXPHURúL DIOXHQ L GLQ PXQ L /D QRUG 3RGLúXO

7UDQVLOYDQLHL VHvQDO  SULQWU R SDQW ELQH PDUFDW LDUODPDUJLQHDORU GLQVSUHPXQWHDPEHOHDX


-
ODUJLSULVSHSLHPRQWDQHSHFDUHVHvQúLUXLHVDWHPDULúLIUXPRDVHFXVWU YHFKLWUDGL LLS VWRUHúWL

ÌQ FXSULQVXO GHSUHVLXQLL FX DFHODúL QXPH 6LELXO V D GH]YROWDW GH WLPSXULX FD RUDú vQVHPQDW FX
-
PHúWHúXJXUL vQGHRVHEL vQ UDPXUD HV WXULORU  úL PXOWLSOH OHJ WXUL GH FRPHU  vQ WLPS FH

'HSUHVLXQHD ) J UDúXOXL FXQRVFXWD úL VXE QXPHOH GH  DUD 2OWXOXL!! HUD PDL PXOW R ]RQD

DJUDUDGRPLQDWDGHFHWDWHD) J UDúXOXLDVW ]LUHVWDXUDWDúLDPHQDMDWDFDPX]HX

&DXUPDUHDDFWLYLW LLYXOFDQLFHGLQFXDWHUQDUDOXDWQDúWHUHODSRDOHOHPXQ LORUYXOFDQLFL

un platou vulcanic de o UHPDUFDELOD QHWH]LPH OD DSUR[LPDWLY  P DOWLWXGLQH DOF WXLW GLQ

DJORPHUDWH YXOFDQLFH IRUPD LXQL YXOFDQRJHQ VHGLPHQWDUH  ÌQWUH SRGLúXO 7UDQVLOYDQLHL úL DFHVW
-
SODWRX FXW ULOHGLDSLUHSHGHRSDUWHHUR]LXQHDSHGHDOWDSDUWHDXLQGLYLGXDOL]DWGHSUHVLXQLúL

vQ O LPLFXFDUDFWHULVWLFLDVHP Q WRDUHFHORUGLQ6XEFDUSD L8QúLUGHvQ O LPLPHGLDQHSDUDOHOH

FX PDUJLQLOHSODWRXOXL YXOFDQLFFXPVXQW 0 JXUD5H] 'HDOXOùLFORGXOXL'HDOXO%LFKHúXHWF

FX DOWLWXGLQL FH VH DSURSLH VDX GHS úHVF  P FRQWLQXDWH OD QRUG GH 0XUHú FX 'HDOXULOH

ùLHXOXLGHVSDUWXQúLUDJGHGHSUHVLXQLFXFDUDFWHUVXEFDUSDWLFODHVWúLXQDOGRLOHDúLUFXDVSHFWH

LQWUDFROLQDUH OD OLPLWD 3RGLúXOXL 7UDQVLOYDQLHL OD YHVW 3ULQWUH SULPHOH PDL ELQH LQGLYLGXDOL]DWH

sunt: Depresiunea Homoroadelor la sud, Depresiunea Odorhei pe Târnava Mare, Depresiunea


3UDLG SH 7kUQDYD 0LFD 'HSUHVLXQHD 9 OHQLL GH 0XUHú SH UkXO FX DFHODúL QXPH LDU OD QRUG

'HSUHVLXQHD%LVWUL HLIRUPDW GHIDSWGLQWU -un complex de mici compartimente separate de culmi


SURHPLQHQWH /D YHVW vQ O LPLOH DPLQWLWH VH vQúLU  DOWH GHSUHVLXQL FHOH LQWUDFROLQDUH SULQWUH FDUH

PHQ LRQDP SH FHD GH OD 5HJKLQ SH 0XUHú FHD GH OD 0DJKHUDQL -Arid, ca un culoar transversal
Y LL 7kUQDYD 0LF  FHD GH OD 5XSHD vQ VXG HWF ÌQ XQHOH GLQWUHDFHVWH GHSUHVLXQL VH H[SORDWHD] 

VDUHD 3UDLG  vQ DOWHOH vQGHRVHEL vQ FHOH FROLQDUH VH H[SORDWHD]  JD]XO PHWDQ 6kQJHRUJLX GH

3 GXUHúD 

E  3RGLúXO 7UDQVLOYDQLHL HVWH DVWIHO ELQH FRQWXUDW SULQ GHSUHVLXQLOH DU WDWH VSUH QRUG

DMXQJkQGSkQ ODFXORDUXOFHORUGRX 6RPHúH0XUHúXOGHVSDUWHDFHVWSRGLúvQGRX S U L3DUWHD

GH OD QRUG HVWH FXQRVFXWD VXE QXPHOH GH &kPSLD 7UDQVLOYDQLHL LDU FHD GH OD VXG GH 0XUHú

FXSULQGH 3RGLúXO 7kUQDYHORU VWU E WXW GH OD HVW OD YHVW GH DIOXHQ LL 0XUHúXOXL FX DFHVW nume,
FXSULQ]kQG VSUH VXG vQWUHDJD SRU LXQH SkQ  OD 2OW vQ FDGUXO F UXLD VH FXSULQGH FD R GLYL]LXQH

3RGLúXO+kUWLEDFLXOXL

1. Câmpia Transilvaniei DUH R DOWLWXGLQH  PHGLH GH  P GDU QX HVWH QHWHGD FL IRUPDW  GLQ

GHDOXULFXSDQWHOLQHúLFXOPLWHúLWH$FHDVW vQI LúDUHDUHOLHIXOXLVHGDWRUHD] VXEVROXOXLDUJLORV

úLPDUQRVDOUHJLXQLL3 GXULOHRFXS VXSUDIH HUHGXVHHOHVHvQWkOQHVFGRDUvQSDUWHDQRUGLFDPDL

vQDOW 
1XPHOH GH FkPSLH QX VH GDWRUHD]  UHOLHIXOXL FDUH HVWH GHVWXO GH vQDOW úL DFFLGHQWDW FL XWLOL] ULL

DJULFROHDWHUHQXULORU*D]HOHQDWXUDOHUHSUH]LQW SHQWUXVXGXOFkPSLHL!!RLPSRUWDQWDUHVXUVD

naturala.
 3RGLúXO 7kUQDYHORU VH GLVWLQJH GH &kPSLD 7UDQVLOYDQLHL vQ SULPXO UkQG SULQ DOF WXLUHD

geologica, în aceasta regiune întâlnindu-se o mai mare varietate de roci (argile, nisipuri, gresii,
WXIXUL YXOFDQLFH HWF  IRUPH GH UHOLHI PDL VHPH H UkXUL PDL ERJDWH  ILLQG GUHQDW GH FHOH GRX 

7kUQDYH FH L]YRU VF GLQ PXQ L &XOPLOH GHDOXULORU VXQW vQGHREúWH WHúLWH  úL DFRSHULWH FX S GXUL

PeSDQWHOHGRPRDOHVHvQWLQGGHDVHPHQHDOLYH]LGHSRPLIUXFWLIHULúLYLLÌQDFHDVWDUHJLXQHV-au
GH]YROWDW RUDúH GLQWUH FDUH XQHOH PDL S VWUHD]  úL DVW ]L DVSHFWH PHGLHYDOH  %ODM 0HGLDú

6LJKLúRDUD  (OH DX GHYHQLW vQ SUH]HQW LPSRUWDQWH FHQWUH DOH LQGXVWULHL FKLPLFH úL DOH LQGXVWULHL

PDWHULDOHORUGHFRQVWUXF LL

 3RGLúXO +kUWLEDFLXOXL 3DUWHD VXGLFD D DFHVWXL SRGLú PDL vQDO  úL PDL ELQH vPS GXULWD HVWH

FXQRVFXWD VXE QXPHOH GH 3RGLúXO +kUWLEDFLXOXL GXS  UkXO FDUH R VWU EDWH 0DL OD YHVW GXS  R

zona MRDVD GH OHJ WXUD vQWUH 'HSUHVLXQHD 6LELXOXL úL YDOHD 7kUQDYHL 0DUL  VH vQWLQGH SkQ  OD

0XUHú3RGLúXO6HFDúHORUFXRDOWLWXGLQHPDLUHGXVDúLGHRUHPDUFDELODQHWH]LPH

%RJ LD PDUHD3RGLúXOXL7UDQVLOYDQLHLRFRQVWLWXLHJD]XO PHWDQFDUHVHH[SORDWHD] din


EROWLULOH VWUDWXULORU GRPXUL  XQGH HO VH vQJU P GHúWH SULQ URFLOH SRURDVH DWkW vQ &kPSLD

7UDQVLOYDQLHL FkW úL vQ 3RGLúXO 7kUQDYHORU úL VW  OD ED]D SXWHUQLFHL LQGXVWULL FKLPLFH GLQ DFHDVWD

SDUWHD ULL

F  3RGLúXO 6RPHúDQ &XSULQV vQWUH 0XQ LL $SXVHQL úL FDWHQD YXOFDQLFD GLQ YHVWXO

0DUDPXUHúXOXL 3RGLúXO 6RPHúDQ HVWH R ]RQD  vQ FDUH PXQ LL V DX VFXIXQGDW úL VWDX VXE
-
VHGLPHQWH JURDVH SDOHRJHQH úL QHRJHQH $O WXUL GH XQHOH P JXUL FULVWDOLQH ùLPOHXO &RúHLXO

&RGUXO  SUHGRPLQ  UHOLHIXO GH GHDOXUL VFXOSWDWH vQ XPSOXWXUD VHGLPHQWDUD QRXD U PDV   FX

WUDWHOHRUL]RQWDOHVLDVWIHOUHJLXQHDDIRVWvQFDGUDWDOD]RQHOHGHSRGLú

6SUH ODQ XO YXOFDQLF *XWkL - LEOHú DSDU GHSUHVLXQL VXEPRQWDQH ELQH LQGLYLGXDOL]DWH

'HSUHVLXQHD %DLD 0DUH OD SRDOHOH *XWkLXOXL úL 'HSUHVLXQHD / SXúXOXL OD SRDOHOH LEOHúXOXL

vQFKLV  OD VXG GH &XOPHD %UH]HL vQDO  GH SHVWH  P GH DOF WXLUH PDL QRXD LDU OD YHVW GH

GHDOXO FULVWDOLQ 3UHOXFD 3ULPD HVWH R LPSRUWDQWD UHJLXQH SRPLFROD 7RW DFROR VH vQúLUD ERJDWHOH

H[SORDW UL GH PLQHUHXUL QHIHURDVH GLQ vPSUHMXULPLOH RUDúXOXL %DLD 0DUH 6SUH VXG -vestul
3RGLúXOXL 6RPHúDQ OD SRDOHOH 0XQ LORU $SXVHQL VXQW GHSUHVLXQLOH PDUJLQDOH DOH ùLPOHXOXL úL

+XHGLQXOXL 'XS  DVSHFWHOH FDUDFWHULVWLFH DOH UHOLHIXOXL úL DOH VWUXFWXULORU JHRORJLFH 3RGLú ul
6RPHúDQVHvPSDUWHvQXUP WRDUHOHVHFWRDUH

1. La nord-vest, limitat intr-R SDUWH GH &kPSLD GH 9HVW LDU vQ FHDODOW  SDUWH GH úLUXO P JXULORU
FULVWDOLQH ùLPOHX-Culmea Codrului, se afla Dealurile Crasnei. Ele au o altitudine care rar trece

de 350 m, cuSULQGvQF S GXULGHVWXOGHvQWLQVH UHVWXULGLQYHFKHD6LOYDQH!!DGRFXPHQWHORU


PHGLHYDOH  ODQXUL GH FHUHDOH úL OLYH]L GH SRPL IUXFWLIHUL ÌQGHRVHEL vQ PDUJLQHD VXGLFD GH-a

OXQJXO Y LL %DUF XOXL VH H[SORDWHD]  OLJQLWXO ÌQWUH P JXULOH FX DVSHFW GH KRUVW VH J VHVF

'HSUHVLXQHD6RPHúXOXLSH&UDVQDVXSHULRDUD'HSUHVLXQHD6 ODMXOXLGH DOXQJXOUkXOXLFXDFHODúL


-
QXPH DIOXHQW DO 6RPHúXOXL LDU OD SRDOHOH 0XQ LORU *XWkL 'HSUHVLXQHD %DLD 0DUH &X WRDWH FD

QXVXQWGHFkWQLúWHGHSUHVLXQLLQWUDFROLQDUHDFH stea au un relief variat, datorita soclului muntos


SHFDUHVHVSULMLQ 

2. La sud-HVW GH -XJXO LQWUDFDUSDWLF!! GXS  GHSUHVLXQHD LQWUDFROLQDU  D $OPDúXOXL FX

] F PLQWHGHF UEXQHEUXQVHvQWLQGH3RGLúXO6RPHúHORU , care ca structura este un plan înclinat


GLQ IRUPD LL DOH PLRFHQXOXL LQIHULRU DUJLOH QLVLSRDVH úL FRQJORPHUDWH  FDUH VH vQWLQGH SkQ  OD

IkúLD FXW ULORU GLDSLUH GH GLQFROR GH OLQLD  FHORU GRX  6RPHúH &D UHOLHI HVWH R ]RQD GHOXURDVD

vQDO GH PGDUFXY LODUJLúLFOLQXULGRPRDOHDVWIHOFDUHSUH]LQW RUHJLXQHDJULFROD


-
DVHP Q WRDUHvQXQHOHSULYLQ HFX&kPSLD7UDQVLOYDQLHL
II. Dealurile Vestice
$FHVWHD FRQVWLWXLH XQ IHO GH ERUGXU  vQWUH PDUJLQHD PXQWRDV  úL &kPSLD GH 9HVW &XP

vQV  PXQFHLL VH WHUPLQ  VSUH DSXV SULQWUH HL S W runzând depresiunile-golfuri, prispa acestor
GHDOXUL HVWH IRDUWH LQHJDO  FD O UJLPH SH DORFXUL FKLDU vQWUHUXSW  'HDOXULOH 9HVWLFH V
-au format
SULQ GHSXQHUL GH SLHWULúXUL QLVLSXUL DUJLOH DGXVH GH DSH GLQ PXQWH FD QLúWH SULVSH OD SRDOHOH

PXQ LORU SLHPRQWXUL SXWHUQLFVHJPHQWDWHGHDSHúLWUDQVIRUPDWHvQFROLQH

'XS FXPPXQ LLGLQYHVWXOW ULLQXIRUPHD] XQúLUXQLWDUúLGHDOXULOHP UJLQDúHSUH]LQW 

vQWUHUXSHULGLQWUHFDUHGRX VXQWPDLFODUHXQDvQGUHSWXOJROIXOXLGHFkPSLHGHSH7LPLú -Bega,


carH VH vQWLQGH SkQ  OD /XJRM D GRX  vQ GUHSWXO 0XQ LORU =DUDQGXOXL FDUH VH vQWLQGH PXOW VSUH
vest, terminându-VHDEUXSWvQFkPSLH5H]XOW DVWIHOWUHLJUXSHGHGHDOXUL
D 'HDOXULOH &ULúHQH , de 200 -  P DOWLWXGLQH FX R PDL ODUJ  GH]YROWDUH OD SRDOHOH 0XQ LORU

3 GXUHD&UDLXOXL úL&RGUX 0RPD ÌQWUHDFHVWHDPDLFXQRVFXWH VXQW 'HDOXULOH 2UDGHL LDU PDLOD

VXG 'HDOXULOH *KHSLúXOXL VDX 7 úQDGXOXL GH OD SRDOHOH 0XQ LORU 3 GXUHD &UDLXOXL (OH SUH]LQW 

FXOPLQHWHGHúLY LODUJL SHDORFXULGH - 2 km). Din lRFvQORFVXQWvQWUHUXSWHSULQDSDUL LDXQRU


P JXUL DOF WXLWH GLQ URFL GXUH ILH HUXSWLYH FXP VXQW FHOH GH OD YHVW GH 0XQ LL &RGUX-Moma
XQHOH DMXQJ SkQ  OD PDUJLQHD FkPSLHL OkQJ  ,QHX úL 3kQFRWD  ILH GLQ URFL FDOFDURDVH FXP VXQW

cele din Dealurile GhepLúXOXL


b. Dealurile Lipovei VH vQWLQG vQWUH UkXULOH %HJD úL 0XUHú ILLQG IRUPDWH GLQ URFL VHGLPHQWDUH
QHRJHQH FX SX LQH DSDUL LL GH URFL GXUH FXP VXQW ED]DOWHOH GH OD /XFDUH  H[SORDWDWH vQ FDULHUH

'HDOXULOHDFHVWHDFDUHGHS úHVFXúRUPvQ O LPH doar de-a lungul unui aliniament paralel cu


YDOHD 0XUHúXOXL úL VH DSOHDF  WUHSWDW VSUH VXG SkQ  VH SLHUG vQ DSURSLHUH GH YDOHD %HJ L vQ

&kPSLD /XJRMXOXL 3 GXULOH GH VWHMDU FDUH vQ YHFKLPH IRUPDX FRGUL GHúL DX IRVW vQ PDUH SDUWH

GHIULúDWHVDWHOHúLVHP Q WXULOHXUFkQGX VHSkQ SHFXOPLOHGHDOXULORU


-
c. Dealurile Banatului vQWUH 'XQ UH úL 7LPLú FDS W  R PDL PDUH GH]YROWDUH VSD LDO  OD VXG GH

/XJRM vQ 'HDOXULOH %X]LDúXOXL FX XQHOH LYLUL GH úLVWXUL FULVWDOLQH OkQJ  E LOH %X]LDú 'HDOXO

Silagiului ), prHFXPúLODSRDOHOH0XQ LORU'RJQHFHDvQ'HDOXULOH7LUROXOXL


ÌQ DQVDPEOX 'HDOXULOH 9HVWLFH VH SUH]LQW  DVWIHO FD R WUHDSW  GH O UJLPH YDULDELO  vQWUH

PXQ L úL FkPSLH UHSUH]HQWkQG R ]RQ  vQ FDUH FXOWXUD FHUHDOHORU VH vPELQ  FX FXOWXUD SRPLORU

fructiferiFX YL D-de-YLHúL FUHúWHUHD YLWHORU GH UDVD EXQ  ÌQ PXOWH ORFXULH[LVW FDULHUH GH SLDWU 

PDLDOHVDFRORXQGHDSDUURFLOHPDLGXUHGHRULJLQHHUXSWLY 

,,,3RGLúXO*HWLF

$FHDVWD HVWH R UHJLXQH GHOXURDV FDUH LQH GH OD PDUJLQHD 6XEFDUSD LORU SkQ la câmpie.
/D QRUG VH OHDJ  VWUkQV FX 6XEFDUSD LL *HWLFL SH R OLPLW  FDUH WUHFH SH OkQJ  LFOHQL % EHQL-

%LVWUL D SH 2OW &XUWHD GH $UJHú WHUPLQkQGX -se pe alocuri printr-XQ SRYkUQLú RULHQWDW VSUH QRUG
FDUH GRPLQ  FHO GH DO GRLOHD úLU GH GHSUHVLXQL VXEFDUSDWLFH LQWUDFROLQDUH  & WUH VXG PDUJLQHD
-
HVWHFODU GHOD'UREHWD 7XUQX6HYHULQSkQ ODHVWGH3OHQL DXQGHGHDOXULOHVHWHUPLQ SULQWU
- -un
DEUXSWFDUHGRPLQ FkPSLD0DLvQFRORvQV GHDOXULOHVHDSOHDF XúRUVSUHVXGDVWIHOF VHLDFD

OLPLW DSUR[LPDWLY OLQLDFDUHWUHFHSHODQRUGGH&UDLRYD6ODWLQD3LWHúWL'LQFRORGHDFHVWRUDú

PDUJLQHDSRGLúXOXLHVWHGHDVHPHQHDFODU SkQ OD* HúWL

3RGLúXO *HWLF HVWH IRUPDW GLQ VWUDWXUL VHGLPHQWDUH GH UH]LVWHQ H GLIHULWH DUJLOH PDUQH

SLHWULúXUL úL Q
isipuri, gresii s.a.), depuse în ultima parte a pliocenului pe un fundament cristalin
carpatic, peste care s-DX DúWHUQXW VWUDWXUL VHGLPHQWDUH WHU LDUH (OH VXQW DFRSHULWH FX SLHWULúXUL
GHSXVHGHUkXULOHFDUHVHYDUV vQODFXO&kPSLHL5RPkQHvQFRQWLQXDUetragere în cuaternar.
ÌQJHQHUDO3RGLúXO*HWLFFRERDU GHODQRUGVSUHVXGGHOD PSkQ ODPFX
-
DFFHQWXDW SDUDOHOLVP DO Y LORU 2 FDUDFWHULVWLF  D OXL HVWH WRFPDL VXFFHVLXQHD GH Y L DGkQFL GH

100-PODUJLFDQLúWHFRULGRDUHSHDORFXUi cu terase marginale, pe care s-DX DúH]DWVDWHOHúL


XQGH VH IDFH DJULFXOWXU  SUHFXP úL SRGLúXO VDX VSLQ ULOH O LWH DOH GHDOXULORU DFRSHULWH vQF  vQ

PDUH SDUWH FX S GXUL &LUFXOD LD VH IDFH PDL PXOW GH D OXQJXO Y LORU 8UFXúXULOH úL FRERUkúXULOH
-
dintreRYDOH úLDOWDVXQWDQHYRLRDVH FHHDFHH[SOLF L]RODUHDUHODWLY GLQWUHúLUXOVDWHORUGH SHR

YDOHúLFHOGHSHDOW YDOHGLQDSURSLHUH

9DOHD 2OWXOXL XQ DGHY UDW FRULGRU OXQJ IRORVLW GLQ YUHPXULOH GDFR URPkQH úL DSRL
-
IHXGDOHSHQWUXRLQWHQV FLUFXOD LHGHSHVWHPXQ LSkQ OD'XQ UHvPSDUWH3RGLúXO*HWLFvQGRX 

3DUWHDGHODU V ULWGH2OWHVWHPDLvQJXVW úLDFRSHULW FXJURDVHSLHWULúXULGH&kQGHúWL

ÌQFXSULQVXOHLVHGLIHUHQ LD] WUHLVXEGLYL]LXQLSULQFLSDOH

¾ 3ODWIRUPD$UJHúXOXLXQGHUkXOFXDFHODúLQXPHvúLDGXQ XQP QXQFKLGHDIOXHQ LODQRUGGH

3LWHúWL

¾ 3ODWIRUPD&kQGHúWLODVXG HVWGHDFHDVWDFDXQWULXQJKLvQWUH$UJHúHO'kPERYL DúLDEUXSWXO


-
spre câmpie;
¾ Platforma Cotmeana spre sud-YHVW vQWUH $UJHú úL 2OW %LQH vPS GXULWH SkQ  vQ YUH muri
UHFHQWH úL UHODWLY L]RODWH GH PDULOH F L GH FLUFXOD LH DFHVWH UHJLXQL DX FRQVWLWXLW vQ WUHFXW

VSHFLILFH ORFXUL GH FRQWLQXLWDWH D SRSXOD LHL GH PRúQHQL S VWU WRDUH GH GDWLQL VWU PRúHúWL

RFXSD LLWUDGL LRQDOHúLGHFRVWXPHSRSXODUH

Partea de apus de Olt se împarte la rândul ei în:


¾ 3ODWIRUPD6WUHKDLHLGHVS U LWHSULQ

¾ 3ODWIRUPD-LXOXLFXSULQV vQWUH*LORUWúL0RWUX3HVWHWRWVXQWVDWHYHFKLFXGHQVLWDWHPDUHGH

SRSXOD LH

,93RGLúXO0HKHGLQ L

/D YHVW GH SRGLúXO *HWLF vQWUH YDOHD 0RWUXOXL úL 'XQ UH VH vQWLQGH 3RGLúXO 0HKHGLQ L

'HúL QX DUH GHFkW vQ O LPHD XQRU GHDOXUL   P  HVWH IRUPDW GLQ URFL
- UL GH PXQWH

SUHGRPLQkQGúLVWXULOHFULVWDOLQHvQDGkQFLPHúLFDOFDUHOHVSUHVXSUDID D5HOLHIXOHVWHIRUPDWGLQ

FXOPL GH DFHHDúL vQ O LPH úL GLQ Y L DGkQFL úL vQJXVWH FX FKHL úL SRQRDUH 8QLF vQ IHOXO VDX HVWH

SRGXO QDWXUDO GH OD 3RQRDUH GLQ DSURSLHUH GH %DLD GH $UDP  1XPHURDVH SHúWHUL úL VRKRGROXUL

Y L I U  DSD  FRPSOHWHD]  GHFRUXO FDUVWLF DO DFHVWHL UHJLXQL 3HúWHUD 7RSROQL D DUH SHVWH  km
lungime.
2JRDUHOH úL VDWHOH VXQW DúH]DWH PDL PXOW SH FXOPL 9HJHWD LD FDUH FXSULQGH XQHOH VSHFLL

PHULGLRQDOH FDUSLQL DPRMGUHDQXOOLOLDFXOV OEDWLF DUDW RQXDQ GHFOLPDWEOkQG2FXSD LDGH

ED]  D ORFXLWRULORU  HVWH FUHúWHUHD YLWHORU FXOWXUD SRPLORU IUXFWLIHUL H[SORDWDUHD IRUHVWLHU  úL SH

alocuri fabricarea varului.

93RGLúXO0ROGRYHL

&HOPDLvQWLQVGLQWUH LQXWXULOHGHOXURDVHDOH ULL3RGLúXO0ROGRYHLVHP UJLQHúWHODYHVW

FX 2EFLQHOH EXFRYLQHQH úL FX ]RQD VXEFDUSDWLF  LDU OD HVW cu valea Prutului. În partea de sud,
3RGLúXO0ROGRYHLVHvQWLQGHSkQ OD1LFRUHúWL -Târgu Bujor.
ÌQMXP WDWHDOXLQRUGLF VHVSULMLQ SHXQIXQGDPHQWSRGLOLFDOF WXLWGLQURFLIRDUWHYHFKL

vQFHSkQG FX JUDQLWH SUHFDPEULHQH  WRDWH UkQGXLWH FD R VWLY  GH straturi orizontale deasupra.
3DUWHDVXGLF VHDIO VFXIXQGDW vQDGkQFSUHOXQJLUHDDULHLKHUFLQLFHQRUG -dobrogene cu aplecarea
JHQHUDO  D VWUDWXULORU vQ DFHHDúL GLUHF LH &DUDFWHULVWLF  HVWH vQ OHJ WXUD FX DFHDVWD vQFOLQDUH

succesiunea de cueste (povârnLúXUL vQ SDQW  DFFHQWXDW  RULHQWDWH LQYHUV vQFOLQ ULL VWUDWXULORU 

SUHFXP úL GLUHF LD DSURDSH SDUDOHOD D UkXULORU SULQFLSDOH GH OD QRUG -vest spre sud-est în cea mai
PDUHSDUWHDSRGLúXOXL

ÌQFXSULQVXODFHVWXLSRGLúVHGHRVHEHVFWUHLPDULVXEGLYL]LXQLúLDQXPH3RGLúXO6XFHYHL

&kPSLD -LMLHL 0ROGRYHL  úL 3RGLúXO %kUODGXOXL GLIHUHQ LDWH QX QXPDL FD IRUPD GH UHOLHI úL FD

KDLQ YHJHWDO FLvQDQXPLWHSULYLQ HFKLDUVXEUDSRUWHFRQRPLF

D 3RGLúXO 6XFHYHL SDUWHD FHD PDL vQDOW  D 3RGLúXOXL 0ROGRYHL VH vQWLQGH GLQ YHFLQ WDWHD

REFLQHORU SkQ  OD HVW GH 6LUHW SkQ  OD OLPLWD RUDúHORU 'RURKRL %RWRúDQL +kUO X 7kUJX )UXPRV

PHQ LQkQGX -se în medie la 450 m altitudine, dar apropiindu-VH SH DORFXUL GH  P 9 LOH
6XFHYHLúL6LUHWXOXLGHVSDUWDFHVWSRGLúvQPDLmulte masive deluroase, între care mai înalte sunt
'HDOXO &LXQJL  P  OD PDUJLQHD GH YHVW úL 'HDOXO 0DUH OD HVW úL GHSUHVLXQL 'HSUHVLXQHD

5 G X L  VDX úHL FDUH vQOHVQHVF FLUFXOD LD vQWUH Y LOH SULQFLSDOH FXP HVWH ùDXD %XFHFLL  &HOH

GLQWkL DOF WXLWH GLQ URFL PDL UL JUHVLL úL FDOFDUH RROLWLFH vQ DPHVWHF FX DUJLOH úL QLVLSXUL  DX

UH]LVWDWPDLELQHODHUR]LXQHSUH]HQWkQGSURHPLQHQ HvQUHOLHI

b. Câmpia Jijiei sau Câmpia MoldoveiDUHRDOWLWXGLQHPLMORFLHGHPDS UkQGFDRvQWLQV 

]RQ  MRDV  FROLQDU  3UHFXPS QLQG DUJLOHOH úL PDUQHOH GHDOXULOH VXQW SX LQ SURHPLQHQWH WHúLWH

FX VSLQ ULOH FD QLúWH SODWRXUL LDU Y LOH ODUJL FHHD FH G  UHOLHIXOXL XQ DVSHFW VODE RQGXODW $SHOH

ILLQG PLFL úL FX WHQGLQ D GH VHFDUH vQ WLPSXO YHULL ORFXLWRULL OH DX VW YLOLW GLQ YUHPXUL YHFKL
-
FUHkQG LD]XUL 9HJHWD LD QDWXUDO  HVWH FHD GH VLOYRVWHS  SkOFXULOH GH S GXUH ILLQG UDUH $FXP

&kPSLD -LMLHL 0ROGRYHL  HVWH R LPSRUWDQW  ]RQ  DJULFRO  vQ FDUH SUHGRPLQ  FXOWXULOH GH JUkX

porumb, sfecla-de-]DK U úL IORDUHD VRDUHOXL ÌQ VXEVROXO HL VH J VHVF XQHOH URFL XWLOH FD QLVLSXO

FXDU RVOD0LRUFDQL SH3UXW vQWUHEXLQ DWSHQWUXVWLFODGHEXQ FDOLWDWHJLSVXOvQSDUWHD GHQRUG

úLFDOFDUHOHSH3UXW XUPDUHDOHXQRUUHFLIHGLQIRVWHOHP ULFDOGHPLRFHQH

F 3RGLúXO %kUODGXOXL VH vQWLQGH OD VXG GH ,DúL vQWUH 6LUHW úL 3UXW (VWH R UHJLXQH vQDOW  SH

DORFXULGHSHVWHPFXY LDGkQFLFXXUFXúXULJUHOHúLFLUFXOD LHDQHYRLRDV (VWHDOF WXLWGLQ

roci YDULDWH FDOFDUH RROLWLFH JUHVLL úLDUJLOH vQ SDUWHD GH QRUG LDU vQ VXG WRW PDL IUHFYHQWH ILLQG

QLVLSXULOH 3 GXULOHFDUHDOF WXLDXvQWUHFXWFRGULLvQWLQúLV DXUHVWUkQVWUHSWDWvQVXSUDID DDVW ]L


-
fiind mai dese doar în partea de la nord de Vaslui, FXQRVFXW  VXE QXPHOH GH 3RGLúXO &HQWUDO

0ROGRYHQHVF úL PDL UHVWUkQV vQ SDUWHD GLQVSUH %kUODG úL 6LUHW QXPLW  &ROLQHOH 7XWRYHL XQGH

Y LOH SUH]LQW  XQ SDUDOHOLVP FDUDFWHULVWLF 3H VWkQJD %kUODGXOXL VXQW 'HDOXULOH ) OFLXOXL F WUH

HVWXOF URUDSkQ ODOXQFD3UXWXOXLVHDIO 'HSUHVLXQHD(ODQXOXLFXDOWLWXGLQHPDLUHGXV  P 

úL S GXUL SX LQH UHSHWkQG vQ PLF FDUDFWHUHOH &kPSLHL -LMLHL 6SUH VXG 3RGLúXO 0ROGRYHL VH

DSOHDF WUHSWDWVSUH]RQDGHVFXIXQGDUHOHQW D&kPSLHL6LUHWXOXL,QIHULRU

9,3RGLúXO Dobrogei
6LWXDWvQWUH'XQ UH UPXO0 ULL1HJUHúLJUDQL DGHVXGD ULL3RGLúXO'REURJHLHVWHFHO

PDL FRPSOH[ úL PDL YHFKL GLQWUH LQXWXULOH GH SRGLú DOH ULL QRDVWUH&X WRDWHF  vQ DOWLWXGLQH VH

PHQ LQHQXPDLvQWUHPvQSDUWHDFHQWUDO úLPvQYkUIXOFHOPDLvQDOWGLQQRUGSUH]LQW 

IRUPH GH UHOLHI úL R DOF WXLUH JHRORJLF  IRDUWH YDULDW  GH OD DVSHFWH GH PXQ L PLFL vQ SDUWHD GH

nord-YHVW SkQ  OD FHOH GH FkPSLH v QDOW  vQ SDUWHD FHQWUDO  GH OD IRUPD LXQLOH JHRORJLFH
considerate printre FHOHPDLYHFKLDOHVFRDU HLWHUHVWUH úLVWXULOHYHU]LFDUHGDWHD] GHODvQFHSXWXO
SDOHR]RLFXOXL SkQ ODIRUPD LXQLOH QHRJHQHúLORHVVXOFXDWHUQDUFDUHOHDFRSHU FD RPDQWLH SH

WRDWH FHOHODOWH ÌQ SDUWHD QRUGLF  DFHVWH IRUPD LXQL VXQW SXWHUQLF FXWDWH pe când în partea
FHQWUDO úLVXGLF HOHDXU PDVRUL]RQWDOH

'XS  FDUDFWHUHOH GLIHUHQ LDOH DU WDWH 3RGLúXO 'REURJHL VH vPSDUWH vQ GRX  GLYL]LXQL

0DVLYXO 'REURJHL GH 1RUG PDL vQDOW PDL YHFKL úL PDL FRPSOH[ FD DOF WXLUH 3RGLúXO 'REURJHL
de Sud, cu aOWLWXGLQHPDLPLF FXUHOLHIúLDOF WXLUHJHRORJLF PDLVLPSO 

a. Masivul Dobrogei de Nord UHSUH]LQW  XQ UHVW GH PXQ L YHFKL FXWD L vQ ID]HOH EDLNDOLDQ  OD

VXGúLKHUFLQLF ODQRUG&XWRDWHF VXQWDOF WXL LGLQURFL UL JUDQLWHFDOFDUHYHFKLúLVWX ri verzi


HWF  DX VXIHULW R SXWHUQLF  HUR]LXQH vQ GHFXUVXO HUHORU JHRORJLFH úL DX IRVW IUDJPHQWD L SULQ

UXSWXUL WHFWRQLFH DVWIHO F  vQ SUH]HQW DX vQ O LPL GH GHDOXUL ÌQ PDUH SDUWH OD VXG úL OD HVW  HO

SUH]LQW  FXOPL QHWHGH IDSW FDUH vQGUHSW HúWH JUXSDUHD DFHVWXL PDVLY vQWUH SRGLúXUL )LLQG WRWXúL

vQFRQMXUDW GH LQXWXUL PDL MRDVH VXE  P vQ OXQFD úL 'HOWD 'XQ ULL  úL UXSWXUL GH IDOLH SH

PDUJLQHHODSDUHFDXQKRUVWFXDVSHFWGHVWXOGHVHPH PDLDOHVvQSDUWHDGH19

3DUWHDFHDPDLULGLFDW RIRUPHD] FXOPLOH3ULFRSDQXOXL FX9kUIXO*UHFL úL1LFXOL HOXOXL

din partea de nord-YHVW DOF WXLW PDL DOHV GLQ JUDQLWH úL FDOFDUH 1XPDL DLFL UHOLHIXO S VWUHD] 

DVSHFWHGHPXQ LVFXQ]LÌQUHVWFKLDUvQQRUGXO'REURJHLFXOPLOHVXQWGHVWXOGHMRDVH  -200


m  úL SUH]LQW  VSLQ UL URWXQMLWH $úD VXQW 'HDOXULOH 7XOFHLFDUH VFDG WUHSWDW VSUH HVW GH -a lungul
EUD XOXL6IkQWX*KHRUJKH3 U LOHGHODVXG HVWúLVXGSUH]LQW RQHWH]LPHPXOWPDLPDUH3RGLúXO
-
%DEDGDJXOXL úL 3RGLúXO &DVLPFHL XOWLPXO DOF WXLW GLQ úLVWXUL YHU]L FHOH PDL YHFKL IRUPD LXQL

JHRORJLFHFDUHDSDUODVXSUDID vQ DUDQRDVWU 

E 3RGLúXO 'REURJHL GH 6XG VH vQWLQGH OD VXG GH OLQLD +kUúRYD -Capul-Midia, unde Dobrogea
SUH]LQW  R DOWLWXGLQH UHGXV  VXE  P  3DUWHD FHD PDL MRDV  VH DIO  vQ ]RQD FHQWUDO  vQWUH

&HUQDYRG  úL &RQVWDQ D $OF WXLW GLQWU XQ IXQGDPHQW GH URFL GXUH úLVWXUL FDOFDURDVH úL JUHVLL 
-
3RGLúXO'REURJHLGH6XGHVWHDFRSHULWvQPDUHSDUWHFXORHVVÌQXQHOHORFXULFDOFDUHOHGH]JROLWH

GH ORHVV VH SXQ vQ HYLGHQ  SULQ DEUXSWXUL úL VWkQFL $FHDVWD H[SOLF  DSDUL LD Y LORU FX YHUVDQ L

SRYkUQL L DFROR XQGH VH WDLH PDVD GH FDOFDU VDX GH ORHVV vQGHRVHEL vQ 3RGLúXO 2OWLQHL úL vQ

3RGLúXO1HJUX9RG 

2.2.4. &kPSLLOHúLOXQFLOH
&kPSLLOH vPSUHXQ  FX OXQFLOH úL 'HOWD 'XQ ULL FRQVWLWXLH FHOH PDL QRL úL PDL MRDVH

S PkQWXUL DOH 5RPkQLHL /D XQ ORF HOH RFXS  FFD  GLQ VXSUDID D ULL QRDVWUH FDUDFWHULVWLFD

HFRQRPLF ILLQGGDW GHDJULFXOWXU vQFkPSLHúLOXQFLGHSHVFXLWúLH[SORDWDUHDVWXIXOXLvQ'HOWD

'XQ ULL

&kPSLLOHGLQ DUDQRDVWU DXvQWUHúLPDOWLWXGLQH1XPDLvQSX LQHORFXULVHvQDO 

SkQ  OD  P GH H[HPSOX OD VXG GH 3LWHúWL úL GH 7kUJRYLúWH  &HD PDL FRERUkW  SDUWH GLQ

FkPSLD ULLVHDIO vQWUH)RFúDQLúL*DOD L

&kPSLLOHRFXS úLVXGXO ULL(OHV -au format prin depunerHDGHVHGLPHQWHvQP ULOHFDUH

DX DFRSHULW SkQ  OD VIkUúLWXO FXDWHUQDUXOXL LQXWXULOH DFHVWHD GH VFXIXQGDUH 'XS  UHWUDJHUHD

DSHORUODFXVWUHUkXULOHDXDúWHUQXWvQDOELLOHORU VFKLPE WRDUHDOXYLXQLúL SLHWULúXUL 'HDVXSUDV -a


DG XJDWRPDQWLHGHORHVVSH ste care s-DXIRUPDWVROXULOHURGLWRDUHÌQWUHY LúLFkPSLLGLIHUHQ D

de altitudine nu trece de 30-40 m.6

I. Câmpia de Vest
) FkQG SDUWH GLQ PDUHD &kPSLH 3DQRQLF  &kPSLD GH 9HVW RFXS  vQ DUD QRDVWU  R IkúLH

vQJXVW  GH  -60 km). Ea are o înclinare IRDUWH VODED GLQ FDUH FDX]  DSHOH UkXULORU DX FXUVXUL

PHDQGUDWH FX DOELLOH DELD VFKL DWH SXWkQG LHúL GLQ PDWF  OD FHOH PDL PLFL FUHúWHUL IDSW SHQWUX

care ele au fost îndiguite.

6
Idem, pg.50-53
7UHEXLH WRWXúLGHRVHELWHGRX IHOXUL GH LQXWXUL vQFXSULQVXO&kPSLHLGH Vest: unele ceva
PDLvQDOWH WUHFkQGODP DFRSHULWHFXRPDQWDGHORHVVFDUHU PkQIHULWHGHLQXQGD LLDOWHOH

joase (80-P SULPRUGLDOPO úWLQRDVHFXDSHGLYDJDQWHFDUH úLVFKLPEDXSHYUHPXULDOELLOHúL


-
vúLVWU PXWDXJXULOHGHY UVDUH&DQDOL]DWHúLGUHQDWHHOHDXIRVWWUDQVIRUPDWHvQWHUHQXULDJULFROH

GHSULPRUGLQDXvQV DSDIUHDWLF IRDUWHDSURDSHGHVXSUDID FHHDFHFRQGXFHODvQPO úWLQLULúL

V U WXU UL

ÌQWUH S U LOH MRDVH LQWU  &kPSLD 6RPHúXOXL FX UkXUL FDUH WUHF GLQWU -o albie în alta (cum
HVWH&UDVQD úLXQGHVHvQWkOQHVF]RQHFXWHQGLQ GHvQPO úWLQLUH OD/LYDGDVDXSHYDOHD,HUXOXL

VD  DSRL &kPSLD &ULúXULORU úL &kPSLD 7LPLúXOXL FDUH DX vQFHSXW V  ILH GUHQDWH GLQ VHFROXO DO

XVIII-OHD SULQ FUHDUHD GH FDQDOH úL OXFU UL GH GHVHFDUH &X YHDFXUL vQ XUP  DFHVWH S U L DOH

FkPSLHLHUDXLQXQGDWHvQILHFDUHSULP YDU úLU PkQHDXWRDW YDUDVXEVW SkQLUHDDSHORUVW WXWHúL

DPLDVPHORUG XQ WRDUH

ÌQWUHS U LOHvQDOWHDOHFkPSLHLDPLQWLP&kPSLD&DUHLORUDSURDSHGHJUDQL DFRSHULW cu


GXQH GH QLVLS FDUH GDX XQ UHOLHI Y OXULW SH FDUH VH FXOWLY  vQ SUH]HQW YLL úL SRPL IUXFWLIHUL GH

DVHPHQHD &kPSLD $UDGXOXL SUHFXP úL XQHOH SRU LXQL GLQ YHFLQ WDWHD GHDOXULORU OD QRUG GH

7LPLúRDUD &kPSLD9LQJ L VDXODVXG &kPSLD* WDLHL $FRSHU ite cu loess, aceste câmpii înalte
DXVROXULURGLWRDUHúLVXQWIHULWHGHLQXQGD LL

,,&kPSLD5RPkQ

Întinzându-se de-D OXQJXO 'XQ ULL GH OD 'UREHWD 7XUQX 6HYHULQ SkQ  OD 7HFXFL &kPSLD
-
5RPkQ  VH O UJHúWH WUHSWDW GH OD YHVW VSUH HVW & WUH QRUG VH vQWLQGH SkQ  OD PDUJLQHD 3RGLúXOXL

*HWLF 3OHQL D &UDLRYD 6ODWLQD 3LWHúWL  DSRL SkQ  OD OLPLWD 6XEFDUSD LORU 7kUJRYLúWH QRUG GH

3ORLHúWL %X] X 5kPQLFX 6 UDW 3DQFLX  úL 3RGLúXO 0ROGRYHL ÌQ DSURSLHUH GH 3LWHúWL SUH]LQW 

vQ O LPLOH FHOH PDL PDUL vQWUH 200- P  FRERUkQG WUHSWDW DWkW VSUH VXG F WUH /XQFD 'XQ ULL

FkWúLVSUHHVWF WUH6LUHWXOLQIHULRUXQGHVHDIO SDUWHDFHDPDLMRDV   -20 m).


ÌQUHOLHIXO&kPSLHL5RPkQHGHRVHELPGRX IRUPHY LOHúLFkPSXULOH9 LOHDSDUFDQLúWH

FXORDUH ODUJL úL XPHGH PDL FDUDFWHULVWLFH YDOHD 2OWXOXL YDOHD $UJHúXOXL úL YDOHD ,DORPL HL  FX

YHJHWD LH KLGURILO  úL FXOWXUL LULJDWH GH D OXQJXO F URUD VH vQúLUXLH PDL vQWRWGHDXQD  QXPHURDVH
-
VDWH &kPSXULOH RFXS  LQWHUIOXYLLOH úL VH SUH]LQW  FD QLúWH SODWRXUL QHWHGH FXOWLYDWH FX FHUHDOH úL

SODQWH LQGXVWULDOH $FHDVW  IUDJPHQWDUH D &kPSLHL 5RPkQH SULQ Y L DGkQFLWH R GHRVHEHúWH GH

&kPSLDGH9HVWPXOWPDLQHWHG vQFDUHUkXULOHFXUJSULQDOELLSX LQDGkQFLWH

2 DOW  SDUWLFXODULWDWH D &kPSLHL 5RPkQH R G  GLUHF LD GH V curgere a râurilor, în partea
DSXVHDQ HOHILLQGRULHQWDWHGHODQRUGODVXGSHGLUHF LDPHULGLDQHORU -LXO2OWXO 3HP VXUDFH

QH GHS UW PVSUHHVWHOHVH RULHQWHD] WUHSWDWGHOD QRUG


-vest la sud-HVW $UJHúXO úLDIOXHQ LLOXL 
apoi de la vest la est ,DORPL D  úL FKLDU GH OD VXG-vest spre nord-HVW %X] XO úL 5kPQLFXO 
$FHDVW RULHQWDUHvQHYDQWDLDSULQFLSDOHORUY LGHPRQVWUHD] F vQWUHDJD&kPSLH5RPkQ VXIHU 

RDSOHFDUHOHQW F WUH]RQDGHVFXIXQGDUH)RFúDQL *DOD L -


'XS  DOWLWXGLQH RULHQWDUHD Y LORU O LPHD FkPSXULORU GLQWUH Y L úL DOWH FDUDFWHULVWLFL

YHJHWD LHDGkQFLPHDDSHORUVXEWHUDQHHWF VHGHOLPLWHD] vQ&kPSLD5RPkQ PDLPXOWHS U L

A. Câmpia Olteniei OD YHVW GH 2OW FDUH FRERDU  vQ WUHSWH ODUJL WHUDVH  VSUH 'XQ UH XQGH DSDU
dune de QLVLS IL[DWH SULQ SODQWD LL GH VDOFkP úL YLL ÌQ FXSULQVXO HL VH GHRVHEHVF &kPSLD
% LOHúWLORUODYHVWGH-LXúL&kPSLD5RPDQD LORUvQWUH-LXúL2OW

% &kPSLD * YDQX -Burdea vQWUH $UJHú úL DIOXHQWXO V X &kOQLúWHD DUH Y L DGkQFL úL GHVH SkOFXUL

GH S GXUH HVWH WRWXúL V UDF  vQ L]YRDUH SkQ]D DFYLIHU  DIOkQGX -se la mare adâncime. Câmpia
%XUQD]XOXLvQWUH'XQ UHúL&kOQLúWHDHVWHQHWHG úLvQDOW FDXQSODWRX
&&kPSLD9O VLHLGLQvPSUHMXULPLOH%XFXUHúWLORUDUHRUH HDKLGURJUDILF PDLGHQV 3HYUHPXUL

erD DFRSHULW  GH FRGUL XULDúL FRGULL 9O VLHL  OD DG SRVWXO F URUD V D GH]YROWDW RUDúXO %XFXUHúWL
-
8OWHULRUS GXULOHDXIRVWGHIULúDWHDVW ]LU PkQkQGGRDUSkOFXULUHVWUkQVHFDUHFUHHD] WRWXúLXQ

cadru pitoresc la nordul capitalei, cu locuri de agrement úL SXQFWH WXULVWLFH 6QDJRY

& OG UXúDQL 

' &kPSLD % U JDQXOXL OD HVW GH YDOHD 0RVWLúWHL HVWH QHWHG  FX YHJHWD LH GH VWHS  úL FOLP 

VHFHWRDV  'RDU FkWHYD Y L PDL vQVHPQDWH ,DORPL D & OP XL  WUDYHUVHD]  DFHDVW  FkPSLH

URGLWRDUHDFRSHULW FXRFXYHUWXU JURDV GHORHVVúLFXVROXULFHUQR]LRPLFH$SDIUHDWLF VHDIO 

pe alocuri la mare adâncime.


&D úL vQ &kPSLD GH 9HVW DLFL VH vQWkOQHVF úL IkúLL GH GXQH vQ SDUWHD HVWLF  D &kPSLHL

Române: la sud de Tecuci (la Hanu-&RQDFKL  OD YHVW GH %U LOD GH -a OXQJXO & OP XLXOXL úL D

,DORPL HLFkWúLvQSDUWHDHLDSXVHDQ  vQVXGXO&kPSLHL2OWHQLHL 0XOWHGLQWUHQLVLSXULOHDFHVWHD

HUDXSkQ QXGHPXOWQHIL[DWHFRDPHOHGXQHORUvQDLQWkQGODILHFDUHYkQWPDLWDUHFDvQWU -un mic


SXVWLX 3ODQWD LLOH VDX FXOWXUL
le agricole specifice au fixat aceste nisipuri pe cea mai mare parte
GLQ VXSUDIH HÌQXOWLPDSHULRDG V-DWUHFXW SHDORFXUL 2OWHQLDVXGLF FKLDUODQLYHODUHDGXQHORU

úLLQWURGXFHUHDLULJD LLORU

Caracteristice sunt, de asemenea, crovurile, mici depresiuni de tasare în loess, care se


vQWkOQHVFPDLSUHWXWLQGHQLSHFkPSXULOHGLQWUHY LvQFXSULQVXOORUSHUVLVWkQGvQGHOXQJDSHOHGLQ

SORLúLGLQ WRSLUHD] SH]LORU6ROXULOHGHFURYXUL DMXQJGLQDFHDVWDFDX] GHIHUWLOLWDWHVF ]XW ÌQ

prezent ele sunt drenate prin scurgerea apelor stagnante.


2 DOWD FDUDFWHULVWLF  PDL DOHV vQ SDUWHD HVWLF  D &kPSLHL 5RPkQH R GDX ODFXULOH V UDWH ,
FDUHDFFHQWXHD] DVSHFWXOGHVWHS 8QHOHGLQWUHHOHVXQWIRORVLWHSHQWUXE L /DFXO6 UDWGHOkQJ 

%U LOD (OHV -au format prin ULGLFDUHDV UXULORUGDWRULW HYDSRU ULLDSHORUvQSHULRDGHOHVHFHWRDVH

úLFDOGHDOHDQXOXL

III. Luncile
3HY LOHSULQFLSDOHORUUkXULSUHFXPúLGH DOXQJXO'XQ ULLSHREXQ SDUWHDFXUVXOXLV X
-
GLQ DUD QRDVWU  VH DIO  GRPHQLXO OXQFLORU 6XQW S PkQWXUL QRL FO GLWH GLQ DOXYLXQLOH GHSXVH GH

UkXULODILHFDUHUHY UVDUH6ROXULOHY LORUVXQWvQJHQHUHURGLWRDUH/DDFHVWDDMXW PXOWXPH]HDOD

FDUHVHPHQ LQHPDLWRWWLPSXODQXOXLFKLDUvQSHULRDGHOHGHVHFHW /XQFLOHVXQWGHRELFHL FkQG

nu sunt prea QLVLSRDVH EXQHSHQWUXDJULFXOWXU úLGDXUHFROWHGHRVHELWH

&HOH PDL vQWLQVH OXQFL VH DIO  GH D OXQJXO Y LORU 'XQ ULL 6RPHúXOXL 0XUHúXOXL -LXOXL
-
2OWXOXL $UJHúXOXL ,DORPL HL 6LUHWXOXL úL 3UXWXOXL 0XOWH GLQWUH HOH VXQW IRORVLWH GLQ YUHPXUL

GHS UWDWHSHQWUXFXOWXULOHGHSRUXPE]DU]DYDWXULHWFGkQGSURGXF LHULGLFDW  )LLQGvQV H[SXVH

LQXQGD LORU OXQFLOH VH DUDX úL VH VHP QDX vQ WUHFXW PDL WkU]LX GXS  SORLOH GH OD VIkUúLWXO

SULP YHULL FDUH SURGXFHDX UHY UV UL 'HúL PDL vQWkU]LDWH UHFROWHOH HU au bogate, deoarece
XPH]HDODOXQFLLvQO WXUDSULPHMGLDVHFHWHORUGHYDU 

ÌPSRWULYD UHY UV ULORU FDUH SULFLQXLDX PDUL SDJXEH DSURDSH vQ ILHFDUH DQ V -a acordat, în
XOWLPXO GHFHQLX R GHRVHELW DWHQ LH OXFU ULORU GHvQGLJXLUH úL GHVHF ULDOH]RQHORU LQXQGDE ile. S-
DX vQGLJXLW VXSUDIH H PDUL GH WHUHQ vQ OXQFD LQXQGDELO  D 'XQ ULL D -LXOXL 2OWXOXL 0XUHúXOXL

6LUHWXOXL3ORLOHH[FHS LRQDOHGLQDQLLúLDXDU WDWvQV F XQHOHGLJXULYHFKL PDLDOHV

cele ce datau din secolul trecut) trebuie reconsolidDWH úL vQ O DWH $PSOH OXFU UL VH H[HFXW  vQ

SUH]HQWSHQWUXDVLJXUDUHDEXQHLORUIXQF LRQ ULúLDULGLF ULLGHQRLGLJXULvQYHGHUHDHYLW ULLDOWRU

FDODPLW L ÌQ SUH]HQW VH HIHFWXHD]  PDUL OXFU UL KLGURDPHOLRUDWLYH SH 0XUHú úL SH 7kUQDYH

SUHFXPúLSH3U ut.
/XQFD 'XQ ULL FHD PDL vQWLQV  úL FHD PDL vQVHPQDW  VXE UDSRUW HFRQRPLF GLQWUH WRDWH

începe de la Drobeta-7XUQX 6HYHULQ úL LQH SkQ  DSURDSH GH 7XOFHD GH XQGH vQFHSH 'HOWD ÌQWUH
Drobeta-7XUQX6HYHULQúL&DODIDW/XQFD'XQ ULLHVWHvQWUHUXSW SHDORFXULGHvQ O LPLúLQXWUHFH
GHNPO LPHvQWUH&DODIDWúL*LXUJLXVHO UJHúWHWUHSWDWSkQ ODúLFKLDUNP0XOWHJkUOHúL

lacuri din cuprinsul luncii au fost secate.


/D VXG GH & O UDúL FDS W  XQ FDUDFWHU GHRVHELW DSHOH IOXYLXOXL VH GHVSDUW vQ GRX  EUD H

SULQFLSDOH FDUH FXSULQG SH DPEHOH ODWXUL ]RQD GH OXQF  PXOW O UJLW   -25 km). Localnicii
QXPHVF DFHVWH SRU LXQL E OWL  %DOWD ,DORPL HL úL %DOWD %U LOHL  5HFHQW V
-a introdus termenul de
LQVXOH SHQWUX VSD LXO GHVHFDW GLQWUH EUD HOH IOXYLXOXL Din apropiere de Tulcea, unde apele
IOXYLXOXLVHGHVSDUWvQWUHLEUD HvQFHSHDOWUHLOHDVHFWRUGHOWD

ÌQ /XQFD 'XQ ULL V DX I FXW DPSOH OXFU UL GH vQGLJXLUL úL GHVHF UL GH PODúWLQL úL E OWL
-
XQHOHIRDUWHvQWLQVHFXPHUDX6XKDLD*UHDFD& O UDúLHWF , redându-se agriculturii circa 400 000
ha teren arabil.

,9'HOWD'XQ ULL

'HOWD HVWH UHJLXQHD FHD PDL MRDV  D ULL FXSULQV  vQWUH FHOH WUHL EUD H &KLOLD 6XOLQD úL

6IkQWX*KHRUJKHODFDUHVHDO WXU úLVHFWRUXOODJXQHORU5D]LPXOXL$UHRVXSUDID  de 4 340 km


(inclusiv oglinda apelor).
ÌQ FXSULQVXO 'HOWHL SRU LXQLOH GH XVFDW RFXSD R VXSUDID  UHVWUkQV  vQ PHGLH  -15%),
DSHOH ILLQG GRPLQDQWH FKLDU vQ UHJLP GH DSH VF ]XWH ÌQ SHULRDGHOH GH LQXQGD LH XVFDWXO PDL

RFXS GRDUGLQVXSUDID D'HOWHL .


'XS DOWLWXGLQHvQUDSRUWFXQLYHOXOPLMORFLXDODSHORUUHOLHIXO'HOWHLVHSRDWHvPS U LvQ

JULQGXUL UHSUH]HQWkQG SRU LXQLOH FHOH PDL ULGLFDWH OLEHUH GH DSH VDX QXPDL SHULRGLF LQXQGDWH

PODúWLQLFDUHVWDXREXQ SDUWHGLQDQDFRSHULWHFXDSHSX LQDGkQFLvQVIkUúLWODFXULOHúLEUD HOH

fluviale, cu ape permanente.


GrindurileVXQWGHWUHLIHOXULORQJLWXGLQDOHVDXIOXYLDOHFDUHVHDOLQLD] GHRSDUWHúLGH

DOWD D EUD HORU 'XQ ULL úL JkUOHORU ILLQG IRUPDWH GLQ PDOXUL ILQH GHSXVH OD UHY UV UL / L mea lor
QXWUHFHRELúQXLWGHP*ULQGXULOHPDULQHVDXWUDQVYHUVDOHVXQWIRUPDWHGLQQLVLSXULúLVFRLFL

PDULQH (OH VXQW U VSkQGLWH vQ MXP WDWHD U V ULWHDQ  D 'HOWHL 'XQ ULL PDL PDUL ILLQG /HWHD

&DUDRUPDQ úL 6 U WXULOH )LLQG vQDOWH SkQ  OD  -7 m), VXQW IHULWH FKLDU GH LQXQGD LLOH FHOH PDL

PDUL3HHOHQLVLSXULOHSXUWDWHGHYkQWIRUPHD] SHDORFXULGXQHPLúF WRDUH/D/HWHDVXQWS GXUL

E WUkQH GH VWHMDU vQ DPHVWHF FX DOWH HVHQ H FHHD FH UHSUH]LQW  R UDULWDWH SHQWUX 'HOW  XQGH PDL

IUHFYHQWH VXQW S GXULOH GH V OFLL úL SORSL $ WUHLD FDWHJRULH R IRUPHD]  JULQGXULOH FRQWLQHQWDOH

FDUH VXQW UHVWXUL GLQ S PkQWXO %XJHDFXOXL GH  QRUG U PDVH vQ LQWHULRUXO 'HOWHL &HO PDL

LPSRUWDQW HVWH JULQGXO &KLOLD FDUH DUH úL R vQ O LPH PDL PDUH  P GHDVXSUD QLYHOXOXL P ULL 

3HJULQGXULVXQWDúH]DWHVDWHOHúLFKHUKDQDOHOHLDUSHPLFLSRU LXQLVHSUDFWLF DJULFXOWXUD

0ODúWLQLOH RFXS  S U LOH PDL MRDVH (OH FXSULQG XQ DPHVWHF GH GHSXQHUL IOXYLDOH úL

PDULQH OD FDUH VH DGDXJ  UHVWXUL RUJDQLFH 3ULQ vQGLJXLUH XúRDUD XQH le au putut fi scoase de sub
LQXQGD LLúLIRORVLWHWRWDOVDXSDU LDOvQDJULFXOWXU  GHH[HPSOXRVWURYXO7 WDUXRVWURYXO%DELQD -
&HUQRYFD $OWHOHVXQWSHUPDQHQWDFRSHULWH FXDSHúLLQYDGDWHGH VWXI'HDOWIHO PDUHDERJ LHD

]RQHORUPO úWLQRDVHRFRQVWLWXLHVWXIXOFDUHLQYDGHD] VXEIRUP GHSODXUSOXWLWRUúLXQHOHODFXUL

sau gârle.
Lacurile VXQW GH PDL PXOWH WLSXUL &HOH PDL RELúQXLWH vQ 'HOW  VXQW JKLROXULOH FX DSH

GXOFL 0HUKHL0DWL D7UHL,H]HUHVDvQWUHJULQGXO&KLOLDúL/HWHD)RUWXQDúL*RUJRYD


în partea
FHQWUDO  D 'HOWHL 5RúX OD HVW  FDUH QX WUHF GH   P DGkQFLPH úL ODJXQHOH 5D]LP *RORYL D
-
Zmeica, Sinoe), provenite din vechi golfuri marine închise prin cordoane litorale. Acestea
FRQVWLWXLH PDULOH GRPHQLL GH SHVFXLW GH OD JXULOH 'XQ ULL úL LQXWXO FX FHOH PDL YDULDWH VSHFLL GH

S V ULRULJLQDUHGLQUHJLXQHDL]YRDUHORU1LOXOXLSkQ ODFHOHGLQ]RQDVXESRODU 

'LQWUH EUD HOH 'XQ ULL &KLOLD WUDQVSRUW  FHD PDL PXOW  DS    XUPDW GH 6IvQWXO

*KHRUJKH  úLGH6XOLQDFXFHOHPDLSX LQHDSH  )D GHWUHFXWVHFRQVWDW RFRQWLQX 

VSRULUHDDSHORU6XOLQHLvQGHWULPHQWXOFHORUODOWHGRX JXUL

ÌQ FHHD FH SULYHúWH DOXYLRQDUHD vQ 'HOW  HD VH SURGXFH SH GRX  F L SULQ DOXYLRQ ULOH

DGXVH GH IOXYLX úL SULQ GHSXQHULOH PDULQH 'XS  FDOFXOHOH I FXWH 'XQ UHD WUDQVSRUW  vQ PHGLH

cam 79,5 milioane tone de aluviuni în fiecare an, pe care le depune în cuprinsul Deltei sau la
LHúLUHD vQ PDUH $úD VH H[SOLF  UDSLGD vQDLQWDUH D 'HOWHL PDL FX VHDPD vQ GUHSWXO JXULL &KLOLD

FDUH SRDUW  FHOH PDL PXOW e ape, unde s-D IRUPDW R GHOW  VHFXQGDU  /D JXUD 6IkQWXO *KHRUJKH

vQDLQWDUHD HVWH PXOW PDL UHGXV  $FROR DOXYLXQLOH vPSLQVH GH FXUHQWXO PDULQ DX vQDO DW R LQVXO 

DOXQJLW  SDUDOHOH FX UPXO QXPLW  ,QVXOD 6DFDOLQ LHúLW  GLQ DSHOH P ULL vQ DQXO  úL

DPSOLILFDW  DSRL PHUHX vQ OXQJLPH GH OD Fk LYD NLORPHWUL OD DSURDSH  NP /D JXUD 6XOLQHL

FUHúWHUHD XVFDWXOXL VH IDFH SHUSHQGLFXODU ID  GH OLQLD UPXOXL GDWRULW  H[WHQVLXQLL vQ ODUJ D

GLJXULORU SULQ FDUH VHFDXW  UHGXFHUHDIHQRPHQXOXL GHFROPDWDUH FXDOXYLXQL DGXVH GH SH %UD XO

6WDPEXO GH OD QRUG 'DUVXQW úL ORFXUL XQGH PDUHD GLVWUXJH XVFDWXO vQDLQWkQG vQ FXSULQVXO GHOWHL

GHH[HPSOXvQWUH6XOLQDúL6IkQWXO*KHRUJKH 
3
CLIMA

3.1. FACTORII DE CARE DEPINDE CLIMA ROMÂNIEI


/RFDOL]DUHDJHRJUDILF D ULLQRDVWUHvQ]RQDFOLPHLWHPSHUDWHVHFDUDFWHUL]HD] vQGHWDOLX

SULQ PDUHD YDULHWDWH GH QXDQ H $FHDVWD SUHFXP úL FRPSOH[LWDWHD IUDJPHQWDUHD úL RULHQWDUHD

UHOLHIXOXLHVWHGHWHUPLQDW SHQWUXGLYHUVLWDWHDSURFHVHORUDWPRVIHULFH

&OLPD ULL QRDVWUH GHSLQGH DVWIHO GH GRX  FDWHJRULL GHIDFWRUL JHQHUDOL úL ORFDOL )DFWRULL

JHQHUDOL VXQW DúH]DUHD JHRJUDILFD úL FLUFXOD LD PDVHORU GH DHU GHDVXSUD XVFDWXOXL HXUDVLDWLF LDU

FHLORFDOLUHOLHIXO DOWLWXGLQHDúLRULHQWDUHDFXOPLORU GLIHUHQ DGHODWLWXGLQHvQWUHQRUGXOúLVXGXO


7
ULLSUHFXPúLYHFLQ WDWHD0 ULL1HJUH

Factori generali8
D $úH]DUHD JHRJUDILF  D ULL QRDVWUH vQ ]RQD FOLPHL WHPSHUDWH VH FDUDFWHUL]HD]  SULQ

PDQLIHVW UL RVFLODQWH DOH HOHPHQWHORU DWPRVIHULFH WHPSHUDWXU  YkQWXULOH SUHFLSLWD iile. Pe
WHULWRULXO ULLQRDVWUHVHvQWkOQHVFDWkWLQIOXHQ HDOHFOLPDWXOXLWHPSHUDWGLQDSXV GLPLQXDWHPXOW

SULQ GHS UWDUHD GH UPXO 2FHDQXOXL $WODQWLF úL GH UHOLHIXO PXQWRV SHVWH FDUH VH SURSDJ  PDVHOH

GH DHU RFHDQLF ILHFDUH ODQ  PXQWRV UH LQkQG R SDUWH GLQ SORL  FkW úL LQIOXHQ H DOH FOLPDWXOXL

WHPSHUDWFRQWLQHQWDO GLQU V ULW DFHVWHD GLQ XUP  ILLQG SUHFXPS QLWRDUH FX GHRVHELUHvQ WLPSXO

iernii).
'HúL DUDQRDVWU VHDIO UHODWLYDSURDSHGH0DUHD0HGLWHUDQ LQIOXHQ DHLVHVLPWHGHVWXO

de slab la QRLvQWUXFkW$OSLL'LQDULFL0XQ LL5RGRSLúL%DOFDQLQHL]ROHD] GHDFHDVWD1XPDLR

SRU LXQH GLQ YHVWXO 2OWHQLHL úL GLQ VXGXO %DQDWXOXL SULPHúWH XúRDUH LQIOXHQ H VXEPHGLWHUDQHHQH

LHUQLEOkQGHúLWRDPQHOXQJLFXSORLOHWkU]LL 

E &LUFXOD LD DWPRVIHUHL  0DVHOH GH DHU FDUH FLUFXO  SH GHDVXSUD
. ULL QRDVWUH LQIOXHQ HD] 

GLUHFW FOLPD HL &kQG DFHVWH PDVH VH SURSDJ  GLQVSUH RFHDQ VXQW XPHGH LDU FkQG RULJLQHD ORU

HVWHFRQWLQHQWDO VXQWPDLXVFDWH

ÌQ SHULRDGD FDOG  D DQXOXL DFHVWH PDVH SRUQHVF RELúQXLW GL nspre Atlantic, din centrul de
PDUH SUHVLXQH VLWXDW vQ ]RQD ,QVXOHORU $]RUH DQWLFLFORQXO D]RULF  F WUH FHQWUXO GH PLQLP 

SUHVLXQH FH VH IRUPHD]  vQ ]RQD 0HGLWHUDQHL VDX vQ VXG -vestul Asiei. Aerul oceanic, trecând
SHVWH DUD QRDVWU  vQF UFDW FX YDSRUL GH DS  IDYRUL]HD]  SORLOH GH OD VIkUúLWXO SULP YHULL úL

vQFHSXWXOYHULLWRFPDLFkQGSODQWHOHDXPDLPDUHQHYRLHGHDS SHQWUXFLFOXOORUYHJHWDWLY

ÌQSHULRDGDUHFHDDQXOXLGLPSRWULY GDWRULW U FLULLXVFDWXOXLVHIRUPHD] vQQRUGXO$VLHL

úL DO (XURSHL un centru de mare presiune (anticiclonul siberian), în regiunea Mediteranei aerul
U PkQkQG PDL FDOG úL GHFL PDL XúRU ]RQD GH PLF  SUHVLXQH  ÌQ VLWXD LD DFHVWD DHUXO PDL GHV úL

PDLUHFHGLQQRUGVHSXQHvQ PLúFDUHF WUH ]RQD GHPLQLP SUHVLXQHD0HGLWHUD nei. Pe deasupra

7
Idem, pg.57-62
8
*** (1983), Geografia României, vol I - *HRJUDILDIL]LF (G$FDGHPLHL%XFXUHúWL
ULLQRDVWUHVHVFXUJDVWIHOPDVHGHDHUUHFHFDUHIDFFDWHPSHUDWXUDV VFDG EUXVFLDUYkQWXOLD

IRUPHYLROHQWH EDWH&ULY XO 

Factori locali
a. ReliefulLQWURGXFHQXDQ HORFDOHSULQDOWLWXGLQHúLRULHQWDUH6HúWLHFDODRDOWLWXdine mai
PDUH WHPSHUDWXUD HVWH PDL FRERUkW  úL SORLOH PDL DEXQGHQWH GH DVHPHQHD F  YkQWXULOH VXIHU 

GHYLD LLGDWRULW UHOLHIXOXLGUHQkQGX VHSULQGHILOHHúLY LODUJL2ULHQWDUHDUHOLHIXOXLúLvQVSHFLDO


-
DODQ XULORUGHPXQ LDGXFHDVWIHOPRGLILF ULFOLPDWXOXL&DUSD LLDS U SDUWHDDSXVHDQ D ULLGH

H[FHVHOH FOLPDWXOXL FRQWLQHQWDO GH DVHPHQHD SH YHUVDQ LL GH YHVW PXQ LL QRúWUL SULPHVF

SUHFLSLWD LLPDLDEXQGHQWHGHFkWSHFHLRULHQWD LVSUHHVW

E 'LIHUHQ D GH ODWLWXGLQH vQWUH QRUGXO úL VXGXO ULL LQWURGXFH GRDU R XúRDU  YDULD LH GH

FOLPDW FDUH VH PDQLIHVW  SULQWU R GXUDW  PDL OXQJ  D LHUQLORU vQ QRUG GHFkW vQ VXG SUHFXP úL
-
printr-RGLIHUHQ PHGLHGHWHPSHUDWXU DQXDO GHSHVWH °C (11°&vQVXGXO ULL °C în nord).
3ULP YDUD DSDUHFXFLUFDWUHLV SW PkQLPDLWLPSXULX vQVXGGHFkWvQQRUGvQVFKLPEWRDPQDvúL

DUDW  SULPHOH HL VHPQH EUXPD EXUQL H F GHUHD IUXQ]HORU  PDL GHYUHPH vQ QRUG ÌQIORULUHD

SODQWHORUúLFRDFHUHDIUXFWHORURULDFHUHDOHORUVXQWFXSHVWHGRX V SW PkQLPDLWLPSXULLvQV udul


GHFkWvQQRUGXO ULL'LPSRWULY SULPHOHvQJKH XULVHSURGXFFX GRX VDXFXWUHLV SW PkQLPDL

devreme în nordul decât în sudul României.


F 0DUHD 1HDJU  ILLQGR PDUH GH WLSFRQWLQHQWDODUH R LQIOXHQ  UHGXV DVXSUD FOLPHL GLQ

UHJLXQLOH vQFRQMXU WRDUH ,QIOXHQ D HL DVXSUD FOLPDWXOXL ULL QRDVWUH VH UHGXFH OD R IkúLH vQJXVW 

de-D OXQJXO UPXOXL úL FRQVW  GLQ IRUPDUHD EUL]HORU PDULQH úL GLQWU R XúRDU  vQGXOFLUH D
-
WHPSHUDWXULL vQ WLPSXO LHUQLL $VWIHO GH SLOG  OD 0DQJDOLD PHGLD WHUPLF  D OXQLL FH lei mai reci
(ianuarie) este de 1°& SH FkQG vQ &kPSLD 5RPkQ  HVWH GH -3°& 0DUHD QX DUH vQV  LQIOXHQ 

DVXSUD SUHFLSLWD LLORU FDUH SH OLWRUDO FDG vQ FDQWLWDWH IRDUWH UHGXV  IDSW FH VH H[SOLF  SULQ

FLUFXOD LDJHQHUDO DPDVHORUDWPRVIHULFHGHODYHVWODHVWODDWLWXGLQHD ULLQRDVWUH ORFDOGLQVSUH

uscat spre mare).

3.2. CARACTERISTICILE PARAMETRILOR CLIMATICI


A. Temperatura aeruluiSRDWHILXUP ULW SULQPHGLDHLDQXDO PHGLLOHOXQDUHúLFHOHSH

DQRWLPSXUL SUHFXP úL SULQ WHPSHUDWXULOH H[WUHPH 7RDWH DFHVWHDVH GLIHUHQ LD]  DWkWvQ UDSRUWFX

DOWLWXGLQHDFkWúLFXODWLWXGLQHD

7HPSHUDWXUD PHGLH DQXDO °


 vQ DUD QRDVWU  HVWH FXSULQVD vQWUH  & SH UPXO P ULL GH -a
°
OXQJXO 'XQ ULL úL vQ SDUWHD GH VXG D &kPSLHL %DQDWXOXL úL  & SHFXOPLOH &DUSD LORU P ai sus de
 P 'DF  VH XUP UHúWH KDUWD L]RWHUPHORU DQXDOH VH FRQVWDW  F  DFHVWHD XUPHD] 

°
vQGHDSURDSH ]RQHOH GH UHOLHI $VWIHO L]RWHUPD DQXDO  GH  & GHOLPLWHD]  vQ JHQHUDO /XQFD

'XQ ULL ID  GH FkPSLH /LPLWD GLQWUH &kPSLD 5RPkQ  úL GHDOXUL HVWH PDUFDW  DSUR[LPDWLY GH

izoterma de 10°&LDUOLPLWDGLQWUHGHDOXULúLPXQ LGHL]RWHUPDGH°C.

Temperaturile medii anotimpuale. În OXQLOH GH LDUQ  WHPSHUDWXUD PHGLH HVWH QHJDWLY  vQ

WRDW  DUD I FkQG H[FHS LH QXPDL FRO XO GH VXG
-est în jurul Mangaliei, preFXP úL XQHOH SRU LXQL
GLQVXGXO%DQDWXOXLÌQOXQDFHDPDLUHFHLDQXDULHPHGLDWHUPLF YDULD] vQWUH°C (Mangalia)

úL -10°&SHFXOPLOHvQDOWHDOHPXQ LORU3HKDUWDL]RWHUPHORUGLQOXQDLDQXDULHVHGLVWLQJHR]RQD

cu temperaturi de -3°&SkQ OD-4°C, care se întinde dinspre nord-est, din Moldova, peste Câmpia
5RPkQ  'LUHF LD DFHVWHLD FRUHVSXQGH FX GHSODVDUHD DHUXOXL UHFH FRQWLQHQWDO &HD PDL VF ]XW 

WHPSHUDWXU vQUHJLVWUDW SHWHULWRULXO5RPkQLHLDIRVWGH – 38.5°&OD%RGOkQJ %UDúRYSHGDWD


de 25 LDQXDULH  H[SOLFDW  SULQ LQYHUVLXQHD WHUPLF  VSHFLILF  PXOWRU GHSUHVLXQL LQWUD úL -
VXEPRQWDQHSUHFXPúLSULQS WUXQGHUHDVLPXOWDQ D&ULY XOXLSULQWUHPXQ L

5HJLPXOWHUPLFGHYDU °
LQGLF  &vQFkPSLH úL °-15°C la mai mult de 1 000 m în zona
muntoDV 3ODQWHGHVSHFLLIRDUWHYDULDWHDXDVWIHOVXILFLHQW F OGXU FDV FUHDVF úLV VHFRDF 
Temperatura medie a lunii mai calde (iulie) atinge 23°&vQ/XQFD'XQ ULLúL°C pe culmile cele
PDLvQDOWHDOH&DUSD LORU ODPDOWLWXGLQH XQGHUHJLPXOtermic se apropie de cel de tundra,

FHHDFHH[SOLF YHJHWD LDSDMLúWLORUDOSLQH7HPSHUDWXULOHFHOHPDLULGLFDWHGLQ DUDQRDVWU  SHVWH

40°C) s-DX vQUHJLVWUDW vQ &kPSLD 5RPkQ  0D[LPD DEVROXW  V -a semnalat la 10 august 1951 la
VWD LD ,RQ 6LRQ GLQ MXGH XO %U LOD FkQG WHUPRPHWUXO D XUFDW OD  °C, fenomen rar care se
H[SOLF  SULQ S WUXQGHUHD DHUXOXL WURSLFDO GLQ ]RQD QRUG DIULFDQ  úL D XQRU FRQGL LL ORFDOH GH
-
LQVROD LH$VHPHQHDWHPSHUDWXULH[WUHPHVHvQUHJLVWUHD] GRDUH[FHS LRQDO

3ULP YDUD úL WRDPQD , FD DQRWLPSXUL GH WUDQ]L LH SUH]LQW  VXE DVSHFWXO WHPSHUDWXULORU

YDORUL PHGLL vQWUH FHOH GH YDU  úL FHOH GH LDUQ  vQUHJLVWUkQGX VH WRWXúL XQHRUL vQJKH XUL úL EUXPH
-
WLPSXULLG XQ WRDUHVHP Q WXULORUDOWHRUL]LOHF OGXURDVHFDGHYDU 

Caracterul climatXOXL ULL QRDVWUH HVWH PDL ELQH SXV vQ HYLGHQ  SULQ GLIHUHQ D GLQWUH

WHPSHUDWXUDPHGLHDOXQLLFHOHLPDLFDOGH LXOLH úLDFHOHLPDLUHFL LDQXDULH DGLF  amplitudinea


WHUPLF PHGLH , care este de 25°-26°&vQ&kPSLD5RPkQ  &vQ&kPSLDGH9HVWFXGHS UWDWH
LQIOXHQ H RFHDQLFH  úL FRERDU  OD °-18°& vQ PXQ L 6H FRQVWDW  UROXO DWHQXDW DO PXQWHOXL úL
DFFHQWXDUHD FRQWLQHQWDOLVPXOXL vQ FkPSLD GLQ HVWXO ULL 'LIHUHQ D GLQWUH WHPSHUDWXUD PLQLP 

DEVROXW  -38.5°&  úL WHPSHUDWXUD PD[LP  DEVROXW  °&  G  DPSOLWXGLQHD PD[LP  FDUH vQ DUD

°
QRDVWU  HVWH GHVWXO GH DFFHQWXDW   &  GDU FX WRWXO vQWkPSO WRDUH FHHD FH SXQH WRWXúL vQ

HYLGHQ QXDQ DGHcontinentalism termicDFOLPDWXOXLGLQ DUDQRDVWU 

B. Vânturile DX XQ UHJLP GHWHUPLQDW GH SR]L LD úL IUHFYHQ D DULLORU FLFORQDOH úL

DQWLFLFORQDOHFDUHLQIOXHQ HD] FLUFXOD LDJHQHUDO DPDVHORUGHDHUGHDVXSUD(XURSHL/DQRLHOH

DX GRX  GLUHF LL SULQFLSDOH GLQ VHFWRUXO YHVWLF vQ VSHFLDO YDUD  úL GLQ VHFWRUXO QRUG -estic sau
nordic (iarna).
Dar factorii geogrDILFL ORFDOL úL FX GHRVHELUH UHOLHIXO SURYRDF  PRGLILF UL vQVHPQDWH vQ

GLUHF LD úL LQWHQVLWDWHD YkQWXULORU RUL GDX QDúWHUH OD FHQWUL ORFDOL GH PD[LP  úL PLQLP  SUHVLXQH

FDUH OD UkQGXO ORU IRUPHD]  YkQWXUL ORFDOH 'LQ LQWHUIHUHQ D FHORU GRX  FDX]H SULQ cipale
FLUFXOD LDJHQHUDO úLUHOLHIXO LDXQDúWHUHODQRLXUP WRDUHOHYkQWXULPDLFXQRVFXWH

&ULY XO FDUH EDWH LDUQD GLQVSUH HVW úL QRUG -est (uneori, îndeosebi în nordul Moldovei,
FKLDUGHODQRUG LDQDúWHUHGDWRULW ORFDOL] ULLXQXLFHQWUXGHPD[LP SUHVLXQHvQQRUGXO$VLHLúL

DO (XURSHL DQWLFLFORQXO VLEHULDQ  SUHFXP úL D XQXL FHQWUX GH PLQLP  SUHVLXQH vQ 0DUHD

0HGLWHUDQ (VWHXQYkQWUHFHúLXVFDWGDUFDUHXQHRULGHYLQHDWkWGHYLROHQWvQFkWSURYRDF PDUL

GLVWUXJHUL SH XQGH EDWH  U VWRDUQ  FRSDFL GHVFRSHU  FDVH UXSH ILUH WHOHIRQLFH &kQG EDWH

&ULY XO WHPSHUDWXUD FRERDU  EUXVF $FHVW YkQW HVWH G XQ WRU DJULFXOWXULL GHRDUHFH VSXOEHU  úL

WURLHQHúWH] SDGDO VkQGVHP Q WXULOHGHWRDPQ SUDGDJHUXOXL

Vântul de vest HVWH R FRPSRQHQW  D FLUFXOD LHL JHQHUDOH D DWPRVIHUHL (O DUH VXUVD GH

IRUPDUH vQ DQWLFLFORQXO D]RULF PDL UDU vQ VHFWRUXO PDL QRUGLF DO $WODQWLFXOXL 3HQGXOHD]  YDUD

spre nord-vest, iar iarna spre sud-YHVW 9DUD EDWH SH OD QRUGXO $OSLORU LDUQD SHVWH 0HGLWHUDQ 
aducând ploi sau XQHRULODSRYL  0DVDGHDHUIRUPDW GHDVXSUD RFHDQXOXL HVWHvQJHQHUHERJDW 
vQ YDSRUL GH DSD $FHVWD HVWH  XQ YkQW F OGX  úL XPHG SURYRFkQG PDL DOHV SUHFLSLWD LLOH GH OD

ILQHOHSULP YHULLúLvQFHSXWXOYHULL

Austrul EDWH GLQVSUH 0HGLWHUDQ  vQ WRDWH DQRWLPSXULOH 9DUD HVWH XQ YkQW XVFDW SHQWUX F 

vQ ]RQDPHGLWHUDQ HVWHVHFHW DGXFkQGF OGXUL úLVHFHW 7RDPQDúL LDUQDvQVFKLPEDGXFHDHU

PDLXPHGFXSORLP UXQWH
&RúDYD HVWH XQ YkQW UHFH úL XVFDW FDUH FRERDU  GLQ $OSLL 'LQDULFL F WUH 'XQ UH úL DMX nge
XQHRULSkQ vQ%DQDW(VWHXQYkQWS JXELWRUSULQYLROHQ DOXLúLFDUHEDWHPDLDOHVSULP YDUD

Vântul MareHVWHXQIHOGHIRHKQDO ULLQRDVWUH%DWHSHVWHFXOPLOH&DUSD LORU0HULGLRQDOL

úL FRERDU  vQ GHSUHVLXQLOH GH VXE PXQWH +D HJ 6HFDú 6LELX úL ) J UDú  ÌQ FRERUkUHD VD SH

YHUVDQ LL &DUSD LORU 0HULGLRQDOL vQ YDOHD 2OWXOXL VH vQF O]HúWH WRSLQG ] SDGD úL DGXFkQG

SULP YHULWLPSXULL8QHRULvQV GHYLQHIRDUWHYLROHQWúLXVFDWGRERUkQGFRSDFLL

Nemira se simte în sud-estul Transilvaniei mai ales în 'HSUHVLXQHD%UDúRY1XHVWHGHFkWR


FRPSRQHQW D&ULY XOXLFDUHU ]EDWHDFRORSULQ]RQDPDLMRDV D2LWX]XOXL$FHDVWDGHQXPLUHR

DUHGXS PXQWHOHFHVWU MXLHúWHSDVXO2LWX]

Brizele marine VXQW YkQWXUL FX SHULRGLFLWDWH ]LOQLF  6H VLPWOD UPXO 0 ULL 1
egre. Seara,
DHUXO U FRURV DO P ULL S WUXQGH SHVWH XVFDWXO ILHUELQWH vQ ]RUL XVFDWXO U FLQGX -se mai repede,
YkQWXO VXIOD VSUH PDUH $FHVWH YkQWXUL SO FXWH SULQ SRWROLUHD DUúL HORU ]LOHL P UHVF YDORDUHD

WHUDSHXWLF DVWD LXQLORUGHSHOLWRUDO

C. PrecipiWD LLOH DUDQRDVWU SULPHúWHDQXDOvQPHGLHRFDQWLWDWHGHPPSUHFLSLWD LL

DGLF OSHPHWUXOS WUDWGHWHUHQ 'DUUHSDUWL LDSUHFLSLWD LLORUQXHVWHXQLIRUP QLFLvQWLPS

QLFLvQVSD LX

ÌQ FXUVXO  DQXOXL FDQWLW LOH FHOH PDL PDUL FDG OD VIkUúLWXO SULP YHULL úL OD vQFHSXWXO YHULL

(mai-LXQLH  FkQG DUD QRDVWU  VW  VXE LQIOXHQ D PDVHORU GH DHU RFHDQLF GDWRULWH DQWLFLFORQXOXL

$]RUHORU úL  D FLFORQXOXL ,VODQGHL $WXQFLFDGHFDP R WUHLPH LDU SH DORFXUL SkQ ODMXP WDWH GLQ

FDQWLWDWHD DQXDO  GH SUHFLSLWD LL &HOH PDL UHGXVH SUHFLSLWD LL FDG LDUQD OXQD FHD PDL V UDF  vQ

SUHFLSLWD LLILLQGIHEUXDULH'XS PRGXOFXPVXQWGLVWULEXLWHvQWLPSSUHFLSLWD LLOHVHGHVSULQGvQ

DUDQRDVWU GRX WLSXULSULQFLSDOH de regim pluvial:


1.Tipul continental, în FDUH FDQWLWDWHD GH SUHFLSLWD LL FUHúWH WUHSWDW GLQ IHEUXDULH DWLQJkQG
PD[LPXP vQ LXQLH GXS  FDUH vQFHSH V  VH UHGXF  $FHVWD HVWH WLSXO FHO PDL U VSkQGLW vQ DUD

QRDVWU úLVHvQWkOQHúWHvQFHQWUXOvQQRUGXOvQHVWXOvQVXG HVWXO


- ULL

2. Tipul submediteranean FDUH VH FDUDFWHUL]HD]  SULQ GRX  PD[LPH XQXO vQ PDL DOWXO vQ

RFWRPEULH SULPXO HVWH PDL DFFHQWXDW FHO GLQ RFWRPEULH PDL VODE ÌQWUH DFHVWHD VH HYLGHQ LD] 

GRX  SHULRDGH GH PLQLP  DF LXQH XQD vQ IHEUXDULH DOWD vQ DXJXVW $FHVW WLS DSDUH F a
reprezentativ în sud-YHVWXO2OWHQLHLúLvQ%DQDW
5HSDUWL LD SUHFLSLWD LLORU SH WHULWRULXO ULL HVWH LQIOXHQ DW  vQ SULPXO UkQG GH DOWLWXGLQH

&DQWLWDWHD FHD PDL PDUH GH SUHFLSLWD LL FDGH vQ UHJLXQLOH PXQWRDVH -1 400 mm anual).

Dealurile primesc, în genere, cam 700 mm anual. În Câmpia de Vest cad anual circa 600 mm. În
&kPSLD5RPkQ FHDPDLvQWLQV úLPDLLPSRUWDQWDUHJLXQHDJULFRO D ULLFDGPPvQSDUWHD

FHQWUDOD úL  PP vQ HVWXO HL &HOH PDL SX LQH SUHFLSLWD LL FDP  PP DQXDO FDG vQ Delta
'XQ ULLúLvQ'REURJHDFHQWUDODúLHVWLF 

3UHFLSLWD LLOH DX DúDGDU vQ DUD QRDVWU  XQ UHJLP QHUHJXODW FD úL YkQWXULOH 7UHEXLH V 

UHPDUF PIDSWXOF YDORULOHPHQ LRQDWHVXQWYDORULPHGLLGHGXVHGLQWU RSHULRDG GHSHVWHGH


-
DQL GH REVHUYD LL PHWHRURORJLFH ([LVW  DQL vQ FDUH  FDG FDQWLW L GXEOH úL FKLDU PDL PDUL ID  GH

FHOH QRUPDOH SURYRFkQG FUHúWHUL H[WUDRUGLQDUH DOH QLYHOXOXL UkXULORU úL LQXQGD LL FDWDVWURIDOH

FXP D IRVW vQ DQLL  úL vQ   úL  DO L DQL PDL VHFHWRúL vQ FDUH GLPSRWULY  QX FDGH GHFkW

MXP WDWH GLQ FDQWLWDWHD DQXDOD GH SUHFLSLWD LL 'DF  SUHFLSLWD LLOH H[FHVLYH VXQW G XQ WRDUH

VHFHWHOHSRWDYHDXUP ULGHDVHPHQHDIRDUWHJUDYH

3HQWUX D SUHYHQL DWkW FDODPLW LOH SURGXVH GH SORLOH H[FHVLYH FkW úL FHOH SURYRFDWH GH

secete, s-D LQL LDW R PDUH DF LXQH GH DPHQDMDUH D FXUVXULORU GH DS  SULQ EDUDMH úL ODFXUL GH

DFXPXODUHvQGLJXLULGHVHF ULHWFvQ]RQHOHúLSHUkXULOHFHOHPDLH[SXVHODLQXQGD LLSUHFXPúL


FUHDUHDXQRUPDULVLVWHPHGHLULJD LLvQ]RQHOHFHOHPDLDIHFWDWHGHVHFHW FXPVXQW% U JDQXOúL

Dobrogea.

5(*,81,ù,7,385,&/,0$7,&(

'LQ FHOH DU WDWH V D SXWXW YHGHD FD WHPSHUDWXUD YkQWXULOH úL SUHFLSLWD LLOH DX YDORUL
-
GHRVHELWH vQ GLIHULWH S U L DOH ULL úL F  vQ GLVWULEXLUHD IDFWRULORU FOLPDWLFL UHOLHIX
l joaca un rol
SUHSRQGHUHQW 'LQ vPELQDUHD DFHVWRU HOHPHQWH VH GLIHUHQ LD]  SH VXSUDID D ULL QRDVWUH PDL

PXOWHUHJLXQLFOLPDWLFHúLDQXPH

Climatul de munte FDUH DFRSHU  FHD PDL PDUH SDUWH GLQ ]RQD PXQWRDV  FX H[FHS LD

PXQ LORUP UXQ L úLFDUHVHvPSDUWHvQGRX HWDMHFOLPDWLFH

Etajul climatic alpin VLWXDW GHDVXSUD OLPLWHL VXSHULRDUH D S GXULORU FDUDFWHUL]DW SULQ
temperaturi medii anuale sub 0 °&YHULVFXUWH úLLHUQLOXQJL -9 luni). Vânturile sunt puternice.
3UHFLSLWD LL SHVWH   PP vQ FHD PDL PDUH SDUWH D DQXOXL F ]kQG VXE IRUP  GH QLQVRDUH úL

ODSRYL  9HJHWD LD FDUDFWHULVWLF  R IRUPHD]  SDMLúWLOH DOSLQH $FHVW HWDM FOLPDWLF VH vQWkOQHúWH vQ

PXQ LL 5HWH]DW 3DUkQJ ) J UDú %XFHJL SDUWH GLQ &DUSD LL 0ROGRYHL SUHFXP úL vQ & OLPDQL

RodnDúL0DUDPXUHú
Etajul montan propriu-zis FDUH RFXS  PXQ LL FX vQ O LPL PLMORFLL VH FDUDFWHUL]HD]  SULQ
temperaturi medii anuale cuprinse între 0 °&úL°&FXGLIHUHQ HPRGHUDWHvQWUHYDU úLLDUQ FX
SUHFLSLWD LL vQWUH  úL   PP DQXDO 9HJHWD LD FDUDFWHULVWLF  R FRQVWLWXLH S GXUHD GH IDJ úL

FHD GH U úLQRDVH /D PXQWH VH vQUHJLVWUHD]  PDUL YDULD LL ORFDOH GHWHUPLQDWH GH DOWLWXGLQH GH

RULHQWDUHD FXOPLORU GH DG SRVWXO SH FDUH DFHVWHD vO RIHU  ]RQHORU PDL MRDVH HWF 7UHEXLH

VXEOLQLDW  GH DVHPHQHD LQYHUVLXQLOH GH WHPSHUDWXU  FX VWDJQ UL GH DHU UHFH SH IXQGXO

GHSUHVLXQLORU ELQH vQFKLVH vQ SHULRDGHOH GH FDOP DWPRVIHULF FXP VXQW GH SLOG  'HSUHVLXQLOH

*LXUJHX&LXF%UDúRYúL3HWURúDQL

Climatul de dealuri VH FDUDFWHUL]HD]  SULQ WHPSHUDWXUL PHGLL D nuale de 8°-10 °C,
SUHFLSLWD LL vQWUH  úL  PP DQXDO DYkQG DGHVHD XQ UHJLP WRUHQ LDO 9HJHWD LD FDUDFWHULVWLF 

HVWHFHDDS GXULORUGHVWHMDUúLIDJ

Climatul de câmpie VH vQWkOQHúWH QX QXPDL vQ FkPSLL FL úL vQ ]RQD GHDOXULORU PDL MRDVH úL
se caractHUL]HD] SULQWHPSHUDWXULOHFHOHPDLULGLFDWHYDUD,DUQDHVWHPDLVFXUW GHFkWvQFHOHODOWH
UHJLXQL LDU YkQWXULOH PDL IUHFYHQWH 3UHFLSLWD LLOH VXQW PDL UHGXVH - PP  úL FDG RELúQXLW

ODVIkUúLWXOSULP YHULLúLvQFHSXWXOYHULL9HJHWD LDFDUDFWHULVWLF RIRUPHD] VWHSDVDXVLOYRVWHSD

ÌQ QRUGXO ULL vQ 0DUDPXUHú 2EFLQHOH %XFRYLQHL úL 3RGLúXO 6XFHYHL VH PDQLIHVW 

LQIOXHQ H DOH climatului scandinavo-baltic din nordul Europei caracterizat prin temperaturi
PRGHUDWHGHYDU SULQLHUQLPDLOXQJLúLIULJXURDVHSULQSUHFLSLWD LLERJDWHWRWWLPSXODQXOXL

Clima litoralului maritim se resimte pe 15-25 km de-D OXQJXO OLWRUDOXOXL $LFL YDULD LLOH
DQXDOH DOH WHPSHUDWXULL VXQW PDL PRGHUDWH GHFkW vQ &kPSLD 5RPkQ  LHUQLOH VXQW PDL EOkQGH

verile în genere cu PXOWH]LOHVHQLQH úLU FRULWH VSUHVHDUD GHEUL]DP ULL'HúL SORX SX LQURXD

úL FHD D PDULQ  DWHQXHD]  DVSULPHD VHFHWHORU GH DLFL 6LVWHPXO GH LULJD LL &DUDVX úL 6LUHW SULQWUH

FHOH PDL PDUL GLQ DUD DVLJXUD DFXP 'REURJHL FHQWUDOH úL % U JDQXOXL GH 1RU d recolte constant
bogate.
4
HIDROGRAFIA

&X H[FHS LD FkWRUYD UkXUL PLFL GLQ 'REURJHD FDUH VH YDUV  GLUHFW vQ PDUH WRDWH FHOHODOWH

DSH FXUJ WRDUH GLQ DUD QRDVWU  VXQW FROHFWDWH GH 'XQ UH úL GHYHUVDWH vQ 0DUHD 1HDJU  SULQ

LQWHUPHGLXO DFHVWXL IOXYLX 5H HDXD KLGURJUDILFD GLQ DUD QRDVWU  VXIHU  LQIOXHQ D GLUHFW  D

UHOLHIXOXLúLDFOLPDWXOXL

Relieful D LPSXV vQ PDUH SDUWH GLUHF LD GH FXUJHUH D UkXULORU $SHOH FDUH L]YRU VF GLQ

&DUSD L SRUQHVF UDGLDO VSUH FHOH GRX  UHJLXQL MRDVH GH OD PDUJLQH &kPSLD GH 9HVW úL & âmpia
5RPkQ vQVXG'DWRULWDVXFFHVLXQLLIRUPHORUGHUHOLHIúLDOF WXLULLJHRORJLFHDWHULWRULLORUSHFDUH

OHVWU EDW SHFXUVXO UkXULORUSULQFLSDOHFXL]YRDUHOH vQ&DUSD LVHSRWGHRVHELWUHLVHFWRDUHXQXO

superior în zona montana, unul mijlociu în zonDGHOXURDVDúLXQXOLQIHULRUvQFkPSLL


Clima úL vQGHRVHEL GLVWULEX LD FDQWLWDWLY  úL vQ WLPS D SUHFLSLWD LLORU LQIOXHQ HD]  GHELWXO

UkXULORUúLUHJLPXOGHVFXUJHUH5HJLPXOGHVFXUJHUHPDLHVWHLQIOXHQ DWGHUHJLPXOvQJKH XULORUúL

de intensitatea evapRUD LHL ÌQWUXFkW UkXULOH GH OD QRL VH DOLPHQWHD]  vQ SULPXO UkQG GLQ

SUHFLSLWD LL úL PDL SX LQ GLQ L]YRDUHOH VXEWHUDQH UHJLPXO ORU GH VFXUJHUH XUPHD]  vQ OLQLL PDUL

UHJLPXO SUHFLSLWD LLORU $VWIHO SULP YDUD úL WRDPQD VH SRW SURGXFH YLLWXUL úL LQXQGD ii, iar vara
DSHOH VH UHGXF DIOXHQ LL -LMLHL %kUODGXOXL  RUL VHDFD GH WRW & OP XLXO  'XQ UHD vQV úL VXIHU 

PDULYDULD LLGHGHELW&DXUPDUHUkXULOHGLQ5RPkQLDDXXQUHJLPGHVFXUJHUHGHWLSFRQWLQHQWDO

UHJLP WRUHQ LDO  FX GHELWH PDUL SULP YDUD úL OD vQFHSXWXO YHULL FkQG SUHFLSLWD LLOH DMXQJ

PD[LPH úLIRDUWHPLFLODVIkUúLWXOYHULLúLWRDPQD

&HD PDL UDU  UH HD KLGURJUDILF  VH vQWkOQHúWH vQ ]RQHOH GH FkPSLH ÌQ % U JDQ úL vQ

'REURJHD GH VXG VXQW PLFL vQWLQGHUL I U  VFXUJHUH vQ UH HDXD RELúQXLW  G
e râuri (regiuni
semiendoreice), apa adunându-VHvQDGkQFXULOHIRUPDWHODVXSUDID DFkPSLHLQXPLWHFURYXULVDX
E OWLQG SH QHWH]LPHD FkPSXULORU FHHD FH SULFLQXLHúWH SDJXEH DJULFXOWXULL ÌPSRWULYD DFHVWXL

neajuns s-DX HIHFWXDW DPSOH OXFU UL GH V SDUH D XQor rigole de scurgere spre râurile cele mai
apropiate, asigurându-VHDVWIHO FXOWLYDUHD DFHVWRUP UXQWH GDU QXPHURDVH WHUHQXUL H[SXVH E OWLULL
9
úLV U WXU ULL

'81 5($

'XQ UHD HVWH DO GRLOHD IOXYLX PDUH DO (XURSHL /XQJLPHD FXUVXOXL V X HVWH GH   0 km,
GLQWUH FDUH   DGLF    XG  WHULWRULXO ULL QRDVWUH ,]YRU úWH GLQ 0XQ LL 3 GXUHD 1HDJU 

*HUPDQLD FXOHJHDSHOHGHSHYHUVDQ LLQRUGLFLDL$OSLORUGLQ&DUSD L$OSLL'LQDULFLúL%DOFDQL

WUHFH SULQ RSW UL úL XG  WUHL FDSLWDOH 9LHQD %XGDSHVWD úL %HOJUDG  úL DOWH QXPHURDVH RUDúH úL

FHQWUH LQGXVWULDOH (D VWU EDWH UHJLXQL FX UHOLHI úL SHLVDM IHOXULW úL FX UHVXUVH HFRQRPLFH YDULDWH

'DWRULW  FRQGL LLORU JHRJUDILFH GHRVHELWH SULQ FDUH WUHFH FXUVXO 'XQ ULL SRDWH IL vPS U LW vQ WUHL

sectoare :

9
Bran, Florina (1999), Geografie economic WHULWRULDO D5RPkQLHL$6(%XFXUHúWLSJ -70.
Cursul superior sau sectorul alpin, FDUH LQH GH OD L]YRDUH SkQ  OD %UDWLVODYD $FROR

'XQ UHD FXUJH SULQ PXQ LL vQDO L GLQ VLVWHPXO DOSLQ úL PXQ LL WRFL L GH OD QRUG GLQ VLVWHPXO

KHUFLQLF 3ULQFLSDOLL DIOXHQ L VH DGXQ  GLQ $OSL FX GHELWH PDUL vQ WRLXO YHULL GHRDUHFH vúL DX

L]YRDUHOHvQJKH DULLGHvQ O LPH0DLLPSRUWDQ L,OOHU/HFK,VDUúLvQGHRVHEL,QQXOFHOPDLPDUH

GLQWUHDFHúWLD

Cursul mijlociu sau sectorul panonic HVWH FXSULQV vQWUH %UDWLVODYD úL %D]LDú ÌQ DFHVW
VHFWRU IOXYLX VWU EDWH ODUJD 'HSUHVLXQH 3DQRQLF  XQGH QX SULPHúWH GHFkW DIOXHQ L FX WRWXO

QHvQVHPQD L FHHD FH H[SOLF  VF GHUHD GHELWXOXL $ELD vQ PDUJLQHD GH VXG D DFHVWHL GHSUHVLXQL

SULPHúWHFHLPDLSXWHUQLFLDIOXHQ LDOV L'UDYDúL6DYD GLQ$OSL 0RUDYD GLQ$OSLL'LQDULFL úL

7LVD GLQ&DUSD L 

Cursul inferior sau sectorul carpato-balcanic LQH GH OD %D]LDú SkQ  OD Y UVDUH $FHVWD

HVWH FHO PDL LPSRUWDQW SHQWUX QRL GHRDUHFH SH WRW DFHVW SDUFXUV IOXYLXO XG  S PkQWXO ULL

QRDVWUHÌQFDGUXODFHVWXLDVHGHRVHEHVFXUP WRDUHOHVH
ctoare secundare :
6HFWRUXO %D]LDú-Drobeta-Turnu Severin, care corespunde cu defileului carpatic (144 km).

$FRORXQGH'XQ UHDVWU EDWH]RQHGHSUHVLRQDUHVDXURDGHvQURFLPRLYDOHDDWLQJHO LPLSkQ OD

NPLDUXQGHWDLHvQFXUPH]LúFXOPLPXQWRDVHDOF WXLWHGLQURFLGXUHYDOHDVHvQJXVWHD] PXOW

DMXQJkQGODFkWHYDVXWHGHPHWUL6WkQFLOHGHSHIXQGYLWH]DPDUHDDSHORUúLSDQWDDFFHQWXDW DX

vPSLHGLFDWIRDUWHPXOWvQWUHFXWQDYLJD LDSULQGHILOHX3ULQFRQVWUXLUHDVLVWHPXOXLKLGURHQHUJHWLF

úL GH QDYLJD LH GH OD 3RU LOH GH )LHU  -1972 s-D SXV SH GH R SDUWH vQ YDORDUH LPHQVXO V X

SRWHQ LDO KLGURHQHUJHWLF úL V D UH]ROYDW SH GH DOW  SDUWH SUREOHPD QDYLJD LHL SULQ GHILOHX FX
-
ajutorul ecluzelor laterale.
Sectorul Drobeta-Turnu Severin – & O UDúL
. 6F SDW GLQ VWUkPWRDUHD PXQ LORU IOXYLXO vúL

UHGXFHYLWH]DvúLO UJHúWHFRQVLGHUDELOYDOHDúLODV RSDUWHGLQDOXYLXQLIRUPkQGRVWURDYHGLQWUH

FDUH 2VWURYX 0DUH HVWH FHO PDL vQVHPQDW 3H WRDWD DFHDVWD GLVWDQ  IOXYLXO FXUJH SH XQ VLQJXU

EUD SHVXEPDUJLQHD3RGLúXOXL3UHEDOFDQLFDYkQGGH -a lungul malului stâng (malul românesc) o


OXQF ODUJ 

6HFWRUXO& O UDúL %U
- LODVHFDUDFWHUL]HD] SULQGHVSOHWLUHDDSHORUvQGRX EUD H SULQFLSDOH

FDUHFXSULQGvQWUHHOHDSURDSH WRDWDOXQFDODUJ vQ XQHOH ORFXULGHSHVWHNPvQWUH & O UDúLúL

+kUúRYD SULQV  vQWUH 'XQ UHD 9HFKH úL %UD XO %RUFHD VH GHVI úRDU  %DOWD ,DORPL HL SHVWH FDUH

WUHFH FDOHD IHUDWD SH SRGXO GLQWUH )HWHúWL úL &HUQDYRG  ÌQ DSURSLHUH GH +kUúRYD DSHOH VH DGXQD

într-R VLQJXU  DOELH $LFL V -a construit recent impresionantul pod de la Giurgeni-Vadu Oii, alta
UHDOL]DUH D WHKQLFLL URPkQHúWL 'XS  Fk LYD NLORPHWUL DSHOH IOXYLXOXL VH GHVSDUW GLQ QRX vQ GRX 

EUD H'XQ UHD9HFKHúL%UD XO&UHPHQHDvQWUHFDUHVHDIO %DOWD%U LOHLF UHLDvQXUPDDVDQ ULL

SDU LDOHVHPDLQXPHúWHúL0DUHD,QVXODD%U LOHL

6HFWRUXO%U LOD 0DUHD1HDJU /D%U LODDSHOHVHDGXQ LDU úLLQWU RVLQJXU DOELHúLFXUJ


- -
DVWIHOSkQ ODSULPDELIXUFD LH &HDWDOXO&KLOLHL XQGHvQFHSH'HOWD'HOD%U LODSkQ ODY UVDUH

pot cirFXOD SH 'XQ UH YDSRDUH PDULWLPH DYkQG DVLJXUDW  R DGkQFLPH SHQWUX SHVFDM PLQLP GH

 P $FHVWXL VHFWRU L VH PDL VSXQH úL 'XQ UHD PDULWLP  'H OD 3 WO JHDQFD DSHOH VH vPSDUW vQ

GRX  EUD H %UD XO &KLOLD OD QRUG úL 7XOFHD OD VXG ÌQ DYDO GH 7XOFHD cel de-DO GRLOHD EUD  VH
vPSDUWH OD UkQGXO V X vQ %UD XO 6XOLQD FRUHFWDW úL WUDQVIRUPDW vQ FDQDO  SULQ PLMORF úL %UD XO

6IkQWX *KHRUJKHFDUHFXUJH SHODPDUJLQHDPDVLYXOXLGREURJHDQOD VXGvQWUHFHOHWUHLEUD HVH

GHVI úRDU FHOPDLQRXS PkQWDO ULLQRDVWUHGHOWDLPHQVGRPHQLXDOSHVFXLWXOXLúLDOVWXIXOXL

,PSRUWDQ D HFRQRPLF - 'XQ UHD HVWH FHD PDL vQVHPQDW  FDOH GH QDYLJD LH IOXYLDO  D

(XURSHL2SDUWHGLQVFKLPEXOGHP UIXULGLQWUH(XURSD&HQWUDODúL2ULHQWXO$SURSLDWVHIDFHSH

'XQ UHúLvQFRQWLQXDUHSH0DUHD1HDJUD3HQWUX DUDQRDVWU HDUHSUH]LQW RLPSRUWDQWDDUWHUD

GHOHJ WXU FX(XURSD&HQWUDODSHQWUXH[SRUWúLLPSRUWSUHFXPúLRFDOHGHWUDQ]LWvQWUH(XURSD

GHU V ULWúLFHQWUDODFHHDFHDGXFH
ULLQRDVWUHYHQLWXULvQVHPQDWHdin taxele de tranzit.

Pe malul românesc s-DX GH]YROWDW PDL PXOWH RUDúH-SRUWXUL vQ FXSULQVXO F URUD DX IRVW
DPSODVDWHúLLPSRUWDQWHRELHFWLYHLQGXVWULDOHFDUHOH-au adus îndeosebi în ultimul sfert de veac o

DPSOLILFDUHDIXQF LLORUHFRQRPLFH
4.2. AFLUE1 ,,'81 5,,

3H WHULWRULXO ULL QRDVWUH DIOXHQ LL 'XQ ULL VH vPSDUW GXS  DUWHUHOH FROHFWRDUH vQ

XUP WRDUHOH JUXSH JUXSD GH YHVW FX DIOXHQ LL 7LVHL JUXSD GH VXG -vest, cuprinzând râurile din
%DQDWFDUHVHYDUV GLUHFWvQ'XQ UHJUXSDGHVXGFXSULQ]kQGDSHOHSHFDUHOHSULPHúWH'XQ UHD

între Drobeta-7XUQX6HYHULQúL%U LODJUXSDGHHVWIRUPDWDGLQDSHOH0ROGRYHLDGXQDWHGH6LUHW

úL3UXW

Grupa de vest HVWH FROHFWDW  GH UkXO Tisa FDUH L]YRU úWH GLQ &DUSD LL 3 GXURúL SH
teritoriul Rusiei, în apropieUHGHL]YRDUHOH3UXWXOXL3HRPLF SRU LXQHIRUPHD] JUDQL DGHQRUG
D ULL QRDVWUH úL LQWU  vQ &kPSLD 3DQRQLF  I FkQG XQ FRW XQJKLXODU SH WHULWRULXO 8QJDULHL GXS 

FDUH LD GLUHF LD JHQHUDOD QRUG VXG 6H YDUV  vQ 'XQ UH SH WHULWRULXO ,XJRVODYLHL XQGH D
- fost
LQDXJXUDWUHFHQWXQPDUHEDUDMFDUHDOLPHQWHD] FDQDOXO'7' 'XQ UH -Tisa-'XQ UH SUHFXPúL

RvQWUHDJ UH HDGHFDQDOHDGLDFHQWHFXROXQJLPHGHNPFDUHVWU EDWH&kPSLD9RLYRGLQHLvQ

VFRSXULGHQDYLJD LHKLGURDPHOLRUD LLúLLULJD LH

9LúHXO , FDUH L]YRU úWH GLQ 0XQ LL 5RGQHL vúL DGXQD PDMRULWDWHD DIOXHQ LORU GH SH YHUVDQ LL

YHVWLFLDL0XQ LORU0DUDPXUHúXOXL$SURDSHSDUDOHODPDLODYHVWHVWH Iza, cu afluentul sau Mara,


FDUHDGDWQXPHOHSURYLQFLHL/DY UVDUHD,]HLvQ7LVDHVWHDúH]DWRUDúXO6LJKHWX0DUPD LHL

6RPHúXO este primul mare afluent al Tisei. Prin 6RPHúXO0DUHúLDIOXHQ LLDFHVWXLDùLHXOFX


%LVWUL D DGXQ  DSHOH GLQ  PXQ LL 5RGQD úL & OLPDQL 3ULQ 6RPHúXO 0LF FROHFWHD]  DSHOH GLQ

0XQ LL %LKRUXOXL L]YRDUHOH OXL SXUWkQG QXPHOH GH 6RPHúXO &DOG úL 6RPHúXO 5HFH SH FDUH V -au
FRQVWUXLWGRX ODFXULGHDFXPXODUH )kQWkQHOHúL7DUQL D FXGRX PDULKLGURFHQWUDOH

3H6RPHúXO0LFHVWHDúH]DWRUDúXO&OXM 1DSRFD5kXULOH6RPHúXO0DUHúL6RPHúXO0LFVH
-
XQHVF OkQJ  'HM GH XQGH  VWU EDW 3RGLúXO 6RPHúDQ vQ ]LJ]DJ GDWRULWD VWUXFWXULL OXL JHRORJLFH

$FROR PDL SULPHúWH FD DIOXHQW PDL LPSRUWDQW SH / SXú 3H XQXO GLQWUH DIOXHQ LL PDL PLFL DL

acestuia, râul Firiza, s-DFRQVWUXLWXQODFGHDFXPXODUHFDUHDVLJXUDDSDQHFHVDU SHQWUXXQLW LOH


industriale GH OD %DLD 0DUH ÌQ FkPSLD MRDVD GH OD 6DWX 0DUH 6RPHúXO DUH XQ FXUV OHQHú úL
LQVWDELO3HQWUXDQXSURYRFDLQXQGD LLDIRVWFDQDOL]DWúLvQGLJXLW$OWDIOXHQWHVWH&UDVQDFDUHvQ

GHFXUVXOWLPSXOXL úL DVFKLPEDW Y UVDUHDFkQGvQ6RPHúFkQGGLUHFWvQ


- Tisa, ori uneori chiar în
UkXO%DUF XSULQYDOHD,HUXOXLGLYDJkQGSHVXSUDID DQHWHG DFkPSLHL

&ULúXULOHFXOHJWRDWHDSHOHGHSHYHUVDQWXOYHVWLFDO0XQ LORU$SXVHQL%D]LQXOKLGURJUDILF

DO &ULúXULORU HVWH IRUPDW GLQ SDWUX UkXUL SULQFLSDOH FDUH VH XQHVF GRX  FkWH GRX  úL DSRL WRDWH

ODRODOW SHWHULWRULXO8QJDULHLvQDLQWHGHY UVDUHDvQ7LVD&HOPDLQRUGLFúLPDLPLFHVWH%DUF XO

FDUHDGXQ DSHOHGLQ0XQWHOHùHVúLWUDYHUVHD] XQLPSRUWDQWED]LQFDUERQLIHU

&ULúXO 5HSHGH L]YRU úWH GH SH YHUVDQWXO QRUG YHVWLF DO 0XQ LORU %LKRUXOXL WUHFH SULQ
-
'HILOHXOGHOD&LXFHDSHFDUHHOvQVXúLO DIHUHVWUXLWvQOHVQLQGSULQDFHDVWDFLUFXOD LDGLQWU
- -o parte
vQ DOWD D 0XQ LORU $SXVHQL ÌQ PXQWH DUH XQ FXUV UHSHGH FXP vL DUDW  úL QXPHOH ILLQG LPSRUWDQW
-
sub raport eneUJHWLFODIHOúLDIOXHQ LLV L'U JDQúL,DGDÌQFkPSLHFXUVXOV XVHOHQHYHúWHEUXVF

SURYRFkQG XQHRUL LQXQGD LL S JXELWRDUH 7UHFH SULQ RUDúXO 2UDGHD 3H UkXO SH &ULúXO 5HSHGH V -a
construit hidrocentrala de la Astileu.
&ULúXO 1HJUX L]YRU úWH WRW GLQ 0XQ LL %LKRUXOXL 'XS  FH VWU EDWH 'HSUHVLXQHD %HLXúXOXL

LHVH vQ &kPSLD GH 9HVW XQGH SDQWD VH UHGXFH UkXO SLHUGH PXOW  DS  FDUH VH LQILOWUHD]  vQ

DOXYLXQLOHERJDWHDGXVHGLQPXQWH$IRVWQHFHVDUV ILHFDQDOL]DW

&ULúXO$OEL]YRU úWHGHVXEYkUIXO9XOFDQGLQ0XQ LL0HWDOLIHULVWU EDWH'HSUHVLXQHD%UDG

XQGH DSHOH OXL VHUYHVF LQGXVWULD DXULIHUD GH OD *XUD %DU]D 7UDYHUVHD]  DSRL vQ OXQJ DUD

=DUDQGXOXLW LQGVFXUWHGDUSLWRUHúWLGHILOHH

0XUHúXO FHO PDL PDUH UkX DO 7UDQVLOYDQLHL úL DO GRLOHD FD P ULPH DO ULL GXS  6LUHW 

L]YRU úWH GLQ+ úPDúXO0DUHDSURDSHGHL]YRDUHOH2OWXOXLVWU EDWH'HSUHVLXQHD *LXUJHXúLLHVH

GLQ PXQ L SULQ GHILOHXO 7RSOL D 'HGD ÌQ 3RGLúXO 7UDQVLOYDQLHL GHYLQH XQ FXORDU ODUJ FDUH IDFH
-
OLPLWD GLQWUH &kPSLD 7UDQVLOYDQLHL úL 3RGLúXO 7kUQDYHORU 'LQFROR GH $OED ,XOLD LQWUD LDU úL vQ

PXQ LIRUPkQGXQSLWRUHVFGHILOHXvQWUH0XQ LL$SXVHQLúL3RLDQD5XVF ,HVHvQ&kPSLDGH9HVW

GLQFRORGH/LSRYDFXXQGHELWPHGLXGHOPVúLS U VHúWH DUDOkQJ %HED9HFKHY UVkQGX -


se în Tisa lânJ 6]HJHG 8QJDULHL 
ÌQ GUXPXO VDX WUHFH SH OkQJ  7kUJX 0XUHú $OED ,XOLD 'HYD úL $UDG $IOXHQ LL V L PDL GH

VHDPD VXQW 7kUQDYD 0DUH úL 7kUQDYD 0LF  DPEHOH FX L]YRDUH vQ PXQ LL YXOFDQLFL $ULHúXO FHO

PDLPDUHDIOXHQWSHGUHDSWDFDUHVHYDUV vQ0XUHúL]YRU úWHGLQ0XQ LL%LKRUXOXLVWU EDWH DUD

0R LORU úL LHVH vQ ]RQD GHOXURDVD vQ OkQJ  7XUGD 9DOHD DFHVWXL UkX V SDWD vQ PDUH SDUWH vQ

FDOFDUH HVWH XQD GLQWUH FHOH PDL SLWRUHúWL GLQ DUD QRDVWU  5HQXPLWH SULQ SLWRUHVFXO ORU VXQW

Cheile Turzii de SHYDOHD+DVGDWHORU PLFDIOXHQWDO$ULHúXOXL 


Ampoiul DGXQ  DSHOH GLQ 0XQ LL 7UDVF XOXL úL 0XQ LL 0HWDOLIHUL WUHFH SULQ =ODWQD
Y UVkQGX-VH vQ 0XUHú OkQJ  $OED ,XOLD 'LQ &DUSD LL 0HULGLRQDOL 0XUHúXO SULPHúWH FD DIOXHQ L

principali pe 6HEHúúLSHStrei,vQED]LQHOHF URUDVHDIO vQFRQVWUXF LHPDULODFXULGHDFXPXODUH


LDU GLQ 0XQ LL 3RLDQD 5XVFD SH &HUQD 6WUHLXO VWU EDWH DUD +D HJXOXL úL ORFDOLWDWHD LQGXVWULDO 

& ODQLDU&HUQHDRUDúXO+XQHGRDUD/D7HOLXF &LQFLV &HUQDDIRVWEDUDW UHDOL]kQGX-se un lac

de acumulare pentru alimentarea cu apa a Combinatului siderurgic Hunedoara.


BegaQXPLW vQWUHFXW7LPLúHOHVWHXOWLPXODIOXHQWSHVWkQJDDO7LVHL,]YRU úWHGLQ0XQ LL
3RLDQD 5XVF  LDU vQ FkPSLH FXUJHD OHQHú úL U VILUDW 3HQWUX UHJXODUL]DUHD FXrsul a fost canalizat

vQF GLQVHFROXODO;9,,,-OHDGHYHQLQGXQFDQDOQDYLJDELO3HQWUXPHQ LQHUHDXQXLQLYHOFRQVWDQW

VXQW vQGUXPDWH vQ HD úL R SDUWH GLQ DSHOH 7LPLúXOXL %HJD WUDYHUVHD]  RUDúXO 7LPLúRDUD

FRQWULEXLQGODSLWRUHVFXODFHVWXLRUDú

Grupa de sud-vest cuprinde râuri mici, dintre care 7LPLúXO este cel mai important.
,]YRUHúWH GLQ 0XQ LL 6HPHQLFXOXL úLVH vQGUHDSW  VSUH QRUG SULQFXORDUXOWHFWRQLF 7LPLú -Cerna,
XQGH SULPHúWH5kXO5HFHGLQ*RGHDQX/kQJ /XJRMLQWU vQ FkPSLHXQGHFXUJHOHQHúúLU VILUDW

úL VH YDUV  vQ 'XQ UH SH WHULWRULXO 5 ,XJRVODYLD $IOXHQ LL V L PDL LPSRUWDQ L VXQW %LVWUD

3RJDQLúXOúL%kU]DYD$FHVWDGLQXUPDDOLPHQWHD] FXDS RUDúXO5HúL DúLSXWHUQLFDVDLQGXVWULH

siderurgica. Pentru a putea îndeplini mai bine aceasta IXQF LHV-DXFUHDWOD9 OLXJúLOD6HFXGRX 

lacuri de acumulare.
&DUDVXO úL 1HUD L]YRU VF GLQ 0XQ LL %DQDWXOXL 3ULPXO VWU EDWH R ]RQD FDOFDURDVD vQ FDUH

vúL VDSD R YDOH SLWRUHDVFD &KHLOH &HUQHL  LQWUD vQ FXORDUXO 7LPLú &HUQD VH XQHúWH FX 0HKDGLFD
-
úLVHYDUV vQ'XQ UHOkQJ 2UúRYDGXS FHVWU EDWHIUXPRDVDVWD LXQH% LOH+HUFXODQH

Grupa de sud FXSULQGH UkXULOH FH L]YRU VF GLQ &DUSD LL 0HULGLRQDOL FX H[FHS LD 2OWXOXL

FDUHYLQHGLQ&DUSD LL2ULHQWDOL3ULQFLSDOHOHUkXULFHIDFSDUWHGLQDFHDVWDJUXS VXQW-LXO2OWXO

$UJHúXOúL,DORPL D

JiulVH IRUPHD] GLQGRX UkXULFDUHVWU EDW 'HSUHVLXQHD3HWURúDQL vQVHQVRSXV-LXOFDUH

vúL WUDJH L]YRUXO GLQ HVWXO 0XQ LORU *RGHDQX úL VWU EDWH FHD PDL PDUH SDUWH GLQ GHSUHVLXQH úL

DIOXHQWXO VDX -LH X FDUH L]YRU úWH GLQ 3DUkQJ DGXQkQG XQ vQWUHJ P QXQFKL GH DSH GLQ HVWXO

GHSUHVLXQLL'XS FHVWU SXQJH&DUSD LLSULQWU XQXOGLQWUHFHOHPDLOXQJLúLPDLIUXPRDVHGHILOHH


-
GLQ DU  /DLQLFL  -LXO LQWU  vQ GHSUHVLXQHD VXEFDUSDWLF  GH OD 7kUJX -LX XQGH SULPHúWH SH

7LVPDQD FXXQDOWP QXQFKLGH DIOXHQ L$SURDSH GHLHúLUHD vQFkPSLHOD)LOLDúLODXQDOWSXQFW

GHFRQYHUJHQ VWUkQJHWUHLPDULDIOXHQ L0RWUXOSHGUHDSWD*LORUWXOSHVWkQJDúLFHYDPDLMRV

SH $PDUDGLD 6H YDUV  vQ 'XQ UH OkQJ  %HFKHW DYkQG XQ GHEL t de 86 m /s. Apele Jiului sunt
IRORVLWHGHFHQWUDOHOHFDUERQLIHUHGLQ'HSUHVLXQHD3HWURúDQLGHFHQWUDOHOHLQGXVWULDOHGLQ2OWHQLD

7kUJX-LX&UDLRYD VDXGHPDULOHWHUPRFHQWUDOHGHOD3HWURúDQL5RJRMHOXúL,úDOQL D

Oltul, unul dintre cele mai complexeUkXULDOH ULLL]YRU úWHGLQ+ úPDúXO0DUH &DUSD LL

2ULHQWDOL  FXUJH OD vQFHSXW VSUH VXG SULQ 'HSUHVLXQHD &LXFXOXL XQGH HVWH vQF  XQ UkX PLF ÌQ

GHILOHXO GH OD 7XúQDG vúL UHFDS W  DVSHFWXO GH UkX GH PXQWH SHQWUX FD LQWUkQG vQ 'HSUHVLXQHD

%UDúRYXOXL V  FXUJ  GLQ QRX OHQW úL vQWRUWRFKHDW $FROR SULPHúWH SULPLL DIOXHQ L PDL GH VHDP 

5kXO 1HJUX úL %kUVD 7UDYHUVHD]  DSRL 0XQ LL 3HUúDQL SULQ GHILOHXO GH OD 5DFRú GXS  FDUH

SULPHúWHFHOHGRX +RPRURDGH

6WU EDWH'HSUHVLXQHD) J UDúXOXLúLvQDLQWHGHDWUHFHGH&DUSD LL0HULGLRQDOLSULPHúWHUkXO

&LELQ XQLW FX +kUWLEDFLX FDUH YLQH GLQ VXGXO 3RGLúXOXL 7kUQDYHORU  úL 5kXO 6DGXOXL XQ UkX

vijelios de munte, pe care s-D FRQVWUXLW SULPD KLGURFHQWUDOD GLQ DU  OD  LDU PDL UHFHQW
hidrocentrala Sadu V. De DFROR DSXF  EUXVF VSUH VXG IHU VWUXLQG &DUSD LL 0HULGLRQDOL XQGH

IRUPHD]  DO WUHLOHD úL FHO PDL OXQJ GHILOHX DO V X vQWUH 7XUQX 5RúX úL &R]LD ÌQ 'HSUHVLXQHD

/RYLúWHL HVWHFRQIOXHQW FX /RWUX SHFDUH V DFRQVWUXLW FHDPDL PDUH KLGURFHQWUDO  GH SH UkXU
- ile
LQWHULRDUHGLQ DUDFXXQPDUHODFGHDFXPXODUH9LGUDvQPLMORFXOXQXLSHLVDMGHPDUHDOWLWXGLQH

$SURDSH GH LQWUDUHD vQ FkPSLH SULPHúWH SH 2OWH  DMXQJkQG OD XQ GHELW PHGLX GH  P V úL VH

YDUV vQ'XQ UHOkQJ 7XUQX0 JXUHOH3HFXUVXO2OWXOXLDvQFHSXWFRQVWUXF LDXQXLvQWUHJúLUGH

ODFXUL GH DFXPXODUH úL KLGURFHQWUDOH SkQ  OD Y UVDUHD vQ 'XQ UH $FXPXO ULOH DFHVWHD YRU IRORVL

SHQWUX UHJXODUL]DUHD GHELWHORU SHQWUX QDYLJD LH úL SHQWUX LULJDUHD FkPSLHL LQFOXVLY GLQ ED]LQXO

Vedei.
$UJHúXO DGXQ  WRDWH DSHOH FDUH VH IRUPHD]  SH YHUVDQWXO GH VXG DO 0XQ LORU ) J UDú /D

LHúLUHD vQ FkPSLH OkQJ  3LWHúWL SULPHúWH XQ SULP JUXS GH DIOXHQ L SH 9kOVDQ úL UkXO 'RDPQHL

XQLWFX5kXO7kUJXOXLúL$UJHúHOÌQFkPSLHDUHRDGRX ]RQ GHDGXQDUHDDIOXHQ LORU1 eajlovul


FX *ODYDFLRFXO úL &kOQLúWHD D F UHL GLUHF LH YHVW -est a continuat-R úL $UJHúXO vQWUH &RPDQD úL
%XGHúWL 3H VWkQJD PDL SULPHúWH vQ DFHLDúL ]RQ  GH DPSOD FRQIOXHQ  SH 'kPERYL D XQLW  FX

&ROHQWLQDFDUHWUHFSULQFDSLWDOD ULL6HYDUV vQ'XQ UHOkQJ 2OWHQL D FXXQGHELWGHPV 

3H FXUVXO VXSHULRU DO UkXOXL $UJHú V D FRQVWUXLW PDUHOH ODF GH DFXPXODUH 9LGUDUX úL R
-
LPSRUWDQW  KLGURFHQWUDO  FRQWLQXDW  vQ DYDO FX R VDOED GH DOWH  KLGURFHQWUDOH PDL PLFL FH

IRUPHD] VLVWHPXOKLGURHQHUJHWLFD l acestui râu.


,DORPL D L]YRU úWH GLQ 0XQ LL %XFHJL GLQWU R YDOH JODFLDU  GH VXE 9kUIXO 2PX 6WU EDWH
-
FkWHYD FKHL SLWRUHúWL 7 WDUX = QRDJD 2U]HD  V SDWH vQ FDOFDUH úL FRQJORPHUDWH ÌQ ]RQD GH

PXQWH SULPHúWH SH ,DORPLFLRDUD /D 7kUJRYLúWH XQGH S U VHú te dealurile, apuca spre est, mai
SURQXQ DW GHFkW $UJHúXO OD 3LWHúWL &HO PDL GH VHDPD DIOXHQW DO VDX HVWH 3UDKRYD FDUH FXOHJH

WRDWH DSHOH GLQWUH %XFHJL úL 0XQ LL &LXFDúXOXL SULQ DIOXHQ LL V L 'RIWDQD úL 7HOHDMHQXO 0DL

GHSDUWH FRQIOXHD]  úL &ULFRYXO 6 U at, un râu capricios care aproape seaca în toiul verii.
7UDYHUVkQG% U JDQXOUkXO,DORPL DVXSRUWDGRJRDUHDúLXVF FLXQHDYHULORUGLQDFHDVWDVWHS GLQ

FDUHFDX]DvQORFVDFUHDVF GHELWXOVDXVFDGHXúRUVSUHY UVDUH PV PDLDOHVFDDSHOHvL

sXQWIRORVLWHSHSDUFXUVúLODLULJD LL
3H SDUFXUVXO VXSHULRU DO,DORPL HLIXQF LRQHD]  GRX  X]LQH KLGURHOHFWULFH OD 'REUHúWL úL OD

0RURHQL vQ6XEFDUSD LVWU EDWHvPSUHXQ FXDIOXHQ LL V LRLPSRUWDQW  ]RQ SHWUROLIHU  FXPDUL

centre ale industriei prelXFU WRDUH 7kUJRYLúWHúL3ORLHúWL úLDLQGXVWULHLPHWDOXUJLFH

3H OkQJ  UkXULOH FX VFXUJHUH SHUPDQHQW  JUXSD GH VXG PDL FXSULQGH R VHULH GH UkXUL PLFL

FX L]YRDUHOHvQFkPSLHVDXvQ3RGLúXO*HWLFFDUHQXDX DSDGHFkWvQ SHULRDGHOHSORLRDVHVHFkQG

complHWvQFHOHVHFHWRDVH6HFDUHDDFHVWRUUkXULVHSURGXFHGLQGRX FDX]HDDOLPHQWDULLDSURDSH

H[FOXVLY GLQ SUHFLSLWD LL úL D IDSWXOXL FD vQWUHJXO ORU ED]LQ GH DOLPHQWDUH HVWH VLWXDW vQ ]RQH FX

FOLPDW VHFHWRV GHFL FX XQ ELODQ  KLGURORJLF GHILFLWDU ÌQ DFHDV ta categorie intra Vedea, unita cu
7HOHRUPDQXO0RVWLúWHD& OP XLXOHWF

Grupa de estFXSULQGHDSHOHFHL]YRU VFGHSHYHUVDQWXOHVWLFDO&DUSD LORU2ULHQWDOLúLGLQ

3RGLúXO0ROGRYHLFROHFWDWHúLWUDQVSRUWDWHVSUH'XQ UHGH6LUHWúL3UXW .
SiretulL]YRU úWHGHSHWHULWRULXO5XVLHLLQWU vQ DU OkQJ RUDúXO6LUHWúLVWU EDWHPDLvQWkL

3RGLúXO 6XFHYHL DSRL IRUPHD]  XQ FXORDU ODUJ vQWUH 6XEFDUSD L úL 3RGLúXO 0ROGRYHL 'H OD

0 U úHúWL LQWUD vQ &kPSLD 5RPkQ  Y UVkQGX VH vQ 'XQ UH OkQJ  *DOD L FX XQ GHELW
- mediu de
 P V ILLQG VXE DFHVW UDSRUW FHO PDL PDUH UkX DO ULL (O DUH XQ ED]LQ DVLPHWULF SULPLQG

DIOXHQ L PDUL QXPDL SH GUHDSWD FDUH DGXQD DSHOH GLQ &DUSD LL 2ULHQWDOL 'LQWUH DFHúWLD PDL GH

seama sunt :
Suceava FDUH L]YRU úWH GLQ 2EFLQHOH EXFRYLQHQH VWU EDWH 'HSUHVLXQHD 5 G X L WUHFH SH

VXE]LGXULOHYHFKLLFDSLWDOHD0ROGRYHL 6XFHDYD úL VHYDUV vQ6LUHW OkQJ /LWHQL úLSULPHúWHFD

DIOXHQW SULQFLSDO SH 0ROGRYL D ÌQ DYDO GH *XUD +XPRUXOXL IDFH OLPLWD GLQWUH 6XEFDUSD L úL

3RGLúXO0ROGRYHL'LQDOELD0ROGRYHL OD7LPLúHúWL VHDOLPHQWHD] FXDS RUDúHOH,DúLúL5RPDQ

úLVHYDUV vQ6LUHWOkQJ DFHVWGLQXUP RUDú


%LVWUL DFHOPDLIUXPRVUkXDO0ROGRYHLúLFHOPDLPDUHGLQWUHDIOXHQ LL6LUHWXOXLL]YRU úWH

GLQ 0XQ LL 5RGQHL ÌQ 'HSUHVLXQHD 'RUQHORU SULPHúWH XQ P QXQFKL GH DIOXHQ L SULQWUH FDUH SH

'RUQD úL 1HDJUD 6DUXOXL $SRL vQWUH PDVLYHOH *LXPDO X úL 3LHWURVXO %LVWUL HL LQWU  vQWU -o vale
vQJXVW  úL SULSRURDV  SOLQ  GH VWkQFL XQGH IRUPHD]  YHVWLWHOH FKHLDOH %LVWUL HL /D +DQJX YDOHD

VHO UJHúWHDWkWGHPXOWvQFkWVHDP Q FXRDGHY UDW GHSUHVLXQHXQGHSULPHúWHSH%LVWULFLRDUD

'HSUHVLXQHD+DQJXHVWHDVW ]LRFXSDW GHPDUHOHODFGHDFXPXODUH,]YRUXO0XQWHOXLOXQJGH

NP vQ FDUH VH DGXQ   PLOLDUGH P GH DS  úL FDUH DOLPHQWHD]  KLGURFH ntrala de la Stejaru. În
DYDOGHEDUDM%LVWUL DSULPHúWH UkXO%LFD]FDUH vQED]LQXOVDXVXSHULRU DV SDWFHOH PDLSLWRUHúWL

FKHLGLQ DU &KHLOH%LFD]XOXLÌQDLQWHGHDDMXQJHOD3LDWUD 1HDP XQGHLHVHGLQPXQWH%LVWUL D


-
PDLSULPHúWHGLQVXGSH7DUF XLDUvQ]RQDVXEFDUSDWLF SH&UDF X'H -a lungul cursului sau în
DYDO GH 6WHMDUX VH vQúLU  R VDOE  GH  KLGURFHQWUDOH PDL PLFL XOWLPHOH GRX  DIOkQGX VH OkQJ 
-
%DF XvQDLQWHGHY UVDUHD%LVWUL HLvQ6LUHWFXXQGHELWPHGLXGHPV

7URWXúXO L]YRU úWH GLQ 0XQ LL &LXFXOXL FUHkQG R DFFHVLELO  WUHFHUH GLQ 0ROGRYD vQ

7UDQVLOYDQLD SULQ SDVXO *KLPHú 6WU EDWH 'HSUHVLXQHD &RP QHúWL XQGH SULPHúWH FD DIOXHQW

Uzul, pe care s-D FRQVWUXLW XQ PDUH ODF GH DFXPXODUH S U VHúWH PXQ LL OD 7kUJX-2FQD /kQJ 
noul oraú2QHúWLSULPHúWHFDvQWU-RSLD GHDGXQDUHDDSHORUWUHLPDULDIOXHQ L7D]O XO2LWX]XO
úL&DúLQXOGXS FDUHVHYDUV vQ6LUHWOkQJ $GMXG

Putna vPSUHXQ FX0LOFRYXODGXQ DSHOHGLQ'HSUHVLXQHD9UDQFHLúLYHFLQ W LOHDFHVWHLD

ÌQFkPSLHPDLSULPHúWHSH5DPQDXQUkXOH FXGHELWYDULDELOSkQ ODVHFDUH

Râmnicul L]YRU úWH GLQ 6XEFDUSD LL GH OD FXUEXUD WUHFH SH OkQJ  RUDúXO 5kPQLFXO 6 UDW úL

VH YDUV  vQ 6LUHW vQ ]RQD GH VFXIXQGDUH GH OD 1 PRORDVD &D WRDWH UkXULOH vQ GHDOXUL GXS 

trecerea anotimpulXL SORLRV DUH GHELWH IRDUWH VF ]XWH úL DS  V UDW  GDWRULW  LQWHUFHSW ULL XQRU

terenuri salifere).
%X] XOHVWHXOWLPXODIOXHQWDO6LUHWXOXLSHSDUWHDGUHDSW (OLDQDúWHUHSHYHUVDQWXOQRUGLF

DO &DUSD LORU &XUEXULL &XUJH PDL vQWkL VSUH QRUG SkQ  OD ÌQWRUV WXUD %X] XOXL DSRL VH DUFXLHúWH

EUXVF VSUH VXG W LQG úLUXO FDUSDWLF SH WRDWD O LPHD OXL FUHkQG R LPSRUWDQW  YDOH WUDQVYHUVDO 

$SURDSHGHLHúLUHDGLQPXQ LSULPHúWHDIOXHQ L%DVFD0DUHúL%DVFD0LFDFDUHDXIHUDVWUXLWúLHL

Y LWUDQVYHUVDOHSULQPXQ LÌQ]RQDVXEFDUSDWLF PDLSULPHúWHSH%DVFD&KLRMGXOXLLDUODLHúLUHD

vQ FkPSLH SH 6O QLF 'H DLFL SkQ  OD Y UVDUHD vQ 6LUHW %X] XO QX PDL DUH DIOXHQ L GH VHDPD úL

curge în mari meandre întortocheate.


Bârladul este singurul afluent al Siretului diQ 3RGLúXO 0ROGRYHL 'DWRULW  FOLPDWXOXL

DFFHQWXDW FRQWLQHQWDO UkXO DUH XQ UHJLP GH VFXUJHUH IRDUWH YDULDELO FX SHULRDGH GH LQXQGD LL úL

PDUL VF GHUL 9DVOXLXO 7XGRYD úL =HOHWLQXO SULQFLSDOLL V L DIOXHQ L VXQW DVHP Q WRUL vQ DFHDVWD

SULYLQ 

Prutul izvRU úWH GLQ 5XVLHL GLQ &DUSD LL 3 GXURúL vQ DSURSLHUH GH L]YRDUHOH 7LVHL $FHVW

UkXIRUPHD] FHDPDLPDUHSDUWHDKRWDUXOXLGHHVWDO ULLQRDVWUHSkQ ODY UVDUHDVDvQ'XQ UH

ODHVWGH*DOD LFXXQGHELWSHMXP WDWHDO6LUHWXOXL PV $UHRYDOHODUJ úLPO úWLQRDV 

3UXWXO DUH DIOXHQ L SX LQL úL PLFL FHO PDL LPSRUWDQW HVWH Jijia FDUH GUHQHD]  &kPSLD

0ROGRYHL'LQWUHDIOXHQ LL-LMLHLPDLvQVHPQDWHVWH%DKOXLXOFDUHWUHFHSULQ,DúL$YkQGXQUHJLP

de scurgere capricios, ce producea pe vremuri mDUL LQXQGD LL V-DX I FXW SH %DKOXL OXFU UL

KLGURWHKQLFH FDUH vPSLHGLF  LHúLUHD GLQ PDWF  -LMLD VH YDUV  vQ 3UXW GXS  FH FXUJH vQ DFHLDúL

OXQF SDUDOHOFXUkXOSULQFLSDODSURDSHNP

5( ($8$+,'52*5$),& $'2%52*(,

$FHDVW UHJLXQHHVWHUDUDúLV UDFDvQDSH&OLPDWXOGHVWHSDIDFHFDUkXULOHVD VHFHvQDLQWH

FDHOHVDDMXQJ ODY UVDUHDYkQGGHELWHWHPSRUDUH3X LQHUkXULGREURJHQHVHYDUV VSUH'XQ UH

WRDWHvQV DXDSDQXPDLFkQGSORXDúLRSLHUGvQDLQWHGHDDMXQJHvQIOXYLXvQOLPDQHOHGH
la gura
lor. Mai important este râul Carasu, care cuprinde în prezent canalul magistral al sistemului de
LULJD LLFXDFHODúLQXPHDOLPHQWDWGLQ'XQ UH
ÌQ0DUHD1HDJUDVDXvQODFXULOHGHSH UPVHYDUV UkXULOH7HOL DúL7DL DFDUHL]YRU VFGLQ

Masivul Nord-'REURJHDQúLGHEXúHD] vQ/DFXO%DEDGDJ6ODYDFDUHVHYDUV vQ/DFXO*RORYL D

úL&DVLPFHDDOLPHQWkQG/DFXO7DVDXO

4.4. LACURILE
6XSUDID DWRWDO DODFXULORUGLQ5RPkQLDHVWHGHFLUFDNPFHHDFHUHSUH]LQW GLQ

WHULWRULXO ULL/DFXULOHQDWXUDOHGLQ DUDQRDVWU VHSRWFODVLILFDvQIXQF LHGHPDLPXOWHFULWHULLúL

DQXPH DúH]DUHD JHRJUDILFD RULJLQHD FKLXYHWHORU FRPSR]L LD FKLPLFD D DSHORU WHPSHUDWXUD ORU

'XS  DúH]DUHD JHRJUDILFD HOH VH vPSDUW vQ ODFXUL GH PXQWH ODFXUL GH GHDOXUL úL ODFXUL GH FkPSLH

úLGHOXQFD

A. Lacurile de munteVXQWGXS RULJLQHGHPDLPXOWHIHOXUL


Lacurile glaciare U VSkQGLWH SH FXOPLOH FDUSDWLFH FDUH VH DSURSLH VDX GHS úHVF  P

altitudine. Ele s-au format prin adunarea apelor de izvoare(sau din topiUHD ] SH]LORU  vQ

DGkQFLWXULOHV SDWHGHJKH DULLGLQSHULRDGDFXDWHUQDU /DFXULOHDXGHRELFHLvQWLQGHUHPLFD FHO

PDL PDUH GLQ WRDWH %XFXUD DUH  KD  úL DGkQFLPL GHVWXO GH PDUL FHO PDL DGkQF = QRDJD DUH

P $SHOHORUVXQWOLPSH]LúLUHFLGDWRULWDDOWLWXGLQLLODFDUHVHJ VHVF&HOHPDLQXPHURDVH

ODFXULJODFLDUHVHDIO vQ&DUSD LL0HULGLRQDOLÌQ&DUSD LL2ULHQWDOLDSDUQXPDLvQPXQ LL5RGQHL

3ULQFLSDOHOH ODFXUL JODFLDUH VXQW %XFXUD = QRDJD 3HOHDJD VD vQ PXQ LL 5HWH]DW *kOFHVFX vQ

ParkQJ%kOHD&DSUD8UOHD3RGUDJXOHWFvQ) J UDú/DODúL%XK LHVFXvQ0XQ LL5RGQHL

Lacurile vulcanice VH IRUPHD]  GLQ DFXPXODUHD DSHORU GLQ SUHFLSLWD LL VDX GLQ L]YRDUH vQ
craterele unor vulcani stins. Asemenea lacuri sunt rare pe glob (se mai întâlnHVFvQ,WDOLDVXGLF 
ÌQ DUDQRDVWU H[LVWDQXPDLXQXO/DFXO6IkQWD$QDSH0XQWHOH&LRPDWXO0DUHGHOkQJ 7XúQDG

FXFRQWXUXODSURDSHFLUFXODUFXPHVWHúLFUDWHUXO

Lacurile de baraj natural VH IRUPHD]  SULQ VW YLOLUHD Y LORU GDWRULWD XQRU DOXQHF UL VD u
VXUS UL GH VWkQFL   &kQG PDWHULDOXO FDUH DOF WXLHúWH VW YLODUXO HVWH IULDELO H[LVWHQWD ODFXOXL DVWIHO

IRUPDWHVWHGHVFXUWDGXUDWDGHRDUHFHDSHOHURGUHSHGHEDUDMXOQDWXUDOúLVHVFXUJODYDOH FXPV -
DvQWkPSODWFX/DFXO1RYDWGLQ0DUDPXUHú 'LQWUHQX meroasele lacuri de baraj natural de la noi,
FHOPDLGHVHDPDHVWH/DFXO5RúXFDUHV-a format prin alunecarea unui pinten de munte în albia

%LFD]XOXLVXSHULRUVW YLOLQG-o. Fenomenul s-DSHWUHFXWvQDQXOúLDGDWSHLVDMXOXLRQRWDGH

originalitate. AO WXULDOXDWQDúWHUHRIUXPRDVDVWD LXQHFOLPDWHULFDFDUHvLSRDUWDQXPHOH


%/DFXULOHGHGHDOúLSRGLú sunt de mai multe feluri :
,D]XULOH GLQ &kPSLD 0ROGRYHL úL GLQ &kPSLD 7UDQVLOYDQLHL s-au format în albiile râurilor,

prin bararea acestora mai rar în mod natural, de cele mai multe ori de mana omului. Bararea
QDWXUDO VHSURGXFHILHSULQDOXYLXQLOHERJDWHSHFDUHOHGHSXQODWHUDODIOXHQ LLvQWLPSXOYLLWXULORU

PDUL ILH SULQ DOXQHFDUHD YHUVDQ LORU &HOH PDL PXOWH LD]XUL V DX IRUPDW vQV  SULQ FRQVWUXLUHD
-
LH] WXULORU GH F WUH RP0DL LPSRUWDQWH VXQW LD]XULOH GLQ &kPSLD 7UDQVLOYDQLHL = X GH &kPSLH

7DJD&DWLQD*HDFDVDXGLQ&kPSLD0ROGRYHL'U FúDQL1HJUHQL3RGX,ORDLHLHWF

/DFXULOHV s-DXIRUPDWILHSULQXPSOHUHDFXDSDDYHFKLORURFQHS U VLWH (Turda, Ocna


UDWH

6LELXOXL2FQD0XUHú7HOHJD6O QLF-3UDKRYDHWF ILHSULQSU EXúLUHDvQPRGQDWXUDODVWUDWHORU

GH VDUH /DFXO 8UVX GH OD 6RYDWD  2ULFDUH DU IL RULJLQHD ORU SULQ FDOLW LOH FXUDWLYH DOH DSHORU

DFHVWHDDXvQOHVQLWFUHDUHDGHVWD LXQLED lneare.


Lacurile carstice 3ULQ SU EXúLUHD SODIRQXOXL SHúWHULORU VH IRUPHD]  OD VXSUDID D R
depresiune în care de multe ori se aduna apa, formând lacuri. Un asemenea lac este cel de la
3RQRDUHGLQ3RGLúXO0HKHGLQ L

C. Lacurile de câmpieVXQWGXS RULJLQHDúLSR]L LDORUJHRJUDILFDFHOHPDLYDULDWH


Dintre acestea lacurile de stepa sunt formate în depresiunile rezultate prin tasarea loess-
XOXL FURYXUL  $SURDSH WRDWH VXQW VLWXDWH vQ HVWXO &kPSLHL 5RPkQH vQWUH ,DORPL D úL 6LUHW $X
DSHOH V UDWH úL SH IXQG Q PRO RUJDQLF IRORVLWRU VXE UDSRUW WHUDSHXWLF &HOH PDL FXQRVFXWH VXQW

/DFXO6 UDW,DQFD0RYLOD0LUHVLL vQ&kPSLD%U LOHL

Lacurile de lunca HUDX SkQ  QX GHPXOW FHOH PDL QXPHURDVH 0XOWH DX IRVW VHFDWH vQ

XOWLPHOHGRX GHFHQLL'LQWUHHOHVHGHRVHEHVFGRX FDWHJRULLE O LOHúLOLPDQXULOHIOXYLDOH

% O LOH s-DXIRUPDWSULQHIHFWXOLQXQG ULLS U LORUPDLMRDVHDOXQFLLGHF WUHUkXVDXIOXYLX

vQ SHULRDGHOH GHFUHúWHUH RUL SULQ HIHFWXO VFKLPE ULL DOELHL úL S U VLULL XQRU FRWXUL PHDQGUH  VDX

EUD H 'HFL E O LOH VXQW ODFXUL GH OXQFD VXSXVH IOXFWXD LLORU GH QLYHO DOH UkXULORU FDUH OH

DOLPHQWHD]  (VWH FD]XO ODFXULORU /XQFD %DQXOXL 3UXQGX VD GLQ DOELD 3UXWXOXL &HOH PDL

LPSRUWDQWHE O LVHDIO vQV vQ/XQFD'XQ ULL0DMRULWDWHDDXIRVWGHVHFDWHWRW al ; doar câteva se


PDL S VWUHD]  PXOW UHGXVH vQVXSUDID D %LVWUHWX6XKDLD  ÌQ 'HOWD E O LOH PDL LPSRUWDQWH VXQW

Gorgova, Merhei, Dranov s.a., însemnate pentru pescuit.


Limanele fluviale DX OXDW QDúWHUH SULQ EDUDUHD FX DOXYLXQL D XQRU DIOXHQ L PLFL GH F WUH
râurile principale care-L FROHFWHD]  $SDU FX GHRVHELUH vQ &kPSLD 5RPkQ  RUL SH PDOXO VWkQJ DO
'XQ ULL &HOH PDL LPSRUWDQWH OLPDQH IOXYLDOH VXQW  $PDUD SH VWkQJD ,DORPL HL OkQJ  6ORER]LD

FX Q PROXUL WHUDSHXWLFH 6QDJRY úL & OG UXúDQL SH GUHDSWD ,DORPL HL IRORVLWH FD ODFXUL GH

DJUHPHQW úL DOWHOH SH %X] X -LUO X $PDUD %DOWD $OE  3H PDOXO VWkQJ DO 'XQ ULL VH SRW

PHQ LRQDOLPDQXO0RVWLúWHDúL%UDWHú XOWLPXOUHVWUkQVPXOWvQVXSUDID DSULQOXFU ULGHvQGLJXLUH

úLGHVHFDUH LDUSHPDOXOGREUR gean, Bugeac, Oltina s.a.


Limanele maritimeVHvQúLU GH DOXQJXO
- UPXOXLGREURJHDQDO0DULL1HJUHvQFHSkQGGHOD

VXG GH 'HOWD 'XQ ULL SkQ  OD 0DQJDOLD 6 DX IRUPDW SULQ EDUDUHD Y LORU FDUH VH GHVFKLGHDX
-
RGLQLRDU  GLUHFW vQ PDUH SULQ FO GLUHD XQRU FRUGR ane de nisip. Cele mai cunoscute sunt:
%DEDGDJ 7DVDXO 6LXWJKLRO FX DSD GXOFH YHQLWD SULQ L]YRDUHOH FDUVWLFH SH VXE 3RGLúXO

'REURJHDQ  $JLJHD 7HFKLUJKLRO FX DSH V UDWH úL Q PRO WHUDSHXWLF LDU PDL OD VXG OLPDQXO

Mangalia, alimentat de bogate izvoare carstice, iar spre coada lacului, izvoare sulfuroase termale.
În jurul acestora s-DXGH]YROWDWFXQRVFXWHOHVWD LXQLEDOQHDUH (IRULH7HFKLUJKLRO0DQJDOLDHWF 
Înrudite cu limanele sunt lagunele, provenite prin închiderea cu cordoane litorale a unor
fosWH JROIXUL PDULWLPH ([HPSOXO FHO PDL WLSLF HVWH FRPSOH[XO 5D]LPXOXL 5D]LP *RORYL D
=PHLFD 6LQRH  FDUH vQ DQWLFKLWDWH IRUPDX XQ JROI GHVFKLV vQJ GXLQG QDYLJD LD YDVHORU PDULQH

SkQ  OD PDUJLQHD ORU DSXVHDQD XQGH +LVWULD HUD XQ vQIORULWRU SRUW PDULWLP
. Peste secole, când
golful a început a se închide, iar apele transformate în ape moarte de laguna se împotmoleau,
viata acestor porturi s-DVWLQV$VW ]LDFHVWHODJXQHDXRDGkQFLPHUHGXVD -3 m). Alimentate
FXDSHGXOFLGLQ'XQ UHvQSDUWHDHQRUGVunt bogate în peste.

Lacurile artificiale. Pentru valorificarea energiei apelor, în scopul alimentarii uzinelor


hidroelectrice, s-DXFRQVWUXLWPDLPXOWHODFXULDUWLILFLDOH ODFXULGHUHWHQ LH &HOHPDLLPSRUWDQWH
VXQW ,]YRUX 0XQWHOXL SH %LVWUL D 9LGUDUX SH $UJHú 9LGUD SH /RWUX HWF $OWHOH V-DX I FXW vQ

scopul alimentarii cu apa (pe valea Uzului, a Doftanei, pe Prut la Stanca-6WHI QHúWLHWF
ÌPSUHMXUXO &DSLWDOHL SULQ EDUDUHD VXFFHVLYD D DOELHL &ROHQWLQD DX IRVW DPHQDMDWH úL

transformate în locuri de VSRUW úL DJUHPHQW ODFXULOH % QHDVD +HU VWU X )ORUHDVFD 7HL

&ROHQWLQD3DQWHOLPRQ FDUHQXVXQWGHFkWQLúWH PDULLD]XUL ÌQDFHODúLVFRSDIRVW FRQVWUXLWODFXO

'XPEUDYDGHOkQJ 6LELX

9DORULILFDUHD ODFXULORU 'XS  FDOLWDWHD DSHL ODFXULOH SRW IL IRORV ite pentru dezvoltarea
SLVFLFXOWXULL FHOHFXDSDGXOFH RULSHQWUXLULJD LL/DFXULOHDF URUDSDFRQ LQHV UXULPLQHUDOHúL

Q PROXUL VXQW IRORVLWH SHQWUX WUDWDPHQWH vQ MXUXO ORU GH]YROWkQGX-VH VWD LXQL EDOQHDUH

(Techirghiol, Amara, Lacul Ursu de la SovaWD/DFXO6 UDWGHOkQJ %U LODúLDOWHOH 'H-a lungul
anilor s-DX I FXW VWXGLL SHQWUX YDORULILFDUHD SLVFLFROD D ODFXULORU GH PXQWH SULQ SRSXODUHD ORU FX
VRLXULGHS VWU YLDGDSWD LODDSHVWDJQDWHúLUHFL
0$5($1($*5

2ULJLQH úL HYROX LH MareD 1HDJUD FD úL 0DUHD &DVSLF  úL /DFXO $UDO VXQW UHVWXUL GLQ

IRVWD 0DUH 6DUPDWLFD FDUH VH vQWLQGHD vQ PLRFHQ GLQ FHQWUXO (XURSHL SkQ  vQ $VLD &HQWUDOD

3ULQ vQ O DUHD 0XQ LORU &DUSDWL úL &DXFD] 0DUHD 6DUPDWLFD V D UHGXV WUHSWDW úL V D GHVS U LW vQ
- -
maiPXOWHED]LQHL]RODWHGLQWUHFDUHXQHOHDXGLVS UXWXOWHULRUFRPSOHFW %D]LQXO9LHQHL0DUHD

3DQRQLFD %D]LQXO 7UDQVLOYDQLHL HWF  U PkQkQG SkQ  DVW ]L QXPDL FHOH WUHL PDUL DPLQWLWH PDL

sus, reduse mult ca întindere.


'XS  LQGLYLGXDOL]DUHD HL 0DUHD 1HDJUD D DYXW R HYROX LH ]EXFLXPDWD $ IRVW FkQG PDL

vQWLQVD GHFkW DVW ]L úL XQLWD FX 0DUHD &DVSLFD SULQWU R VWUkPWRDUH PDULQD FkQG PDL UHVWUkQVD úL
-
izolata ca un lac. În prima parte a cuaternarului s-a produs scufundarea uscatului din zona
actualei Mari Egee (JHLGD  úL D SUDJXOXL FDUH vQFKLGHD VWUkPWRDUHD %RVIRU ÌQ IHOXO DFHVWD
0DUHD 1HDJUD D LQWUDW vQ OHJ WXUD FX 0DUHD 0HGLWHUDQD úL GHFL FX vQWUHJXO RFHDQ SODQHWDU 'LQ

DFHD SHULRDGD OHJ WXUD FX 0DUHD &DVSLF  V D vQWUHUXSW GHILQLWLY LDU FHOH GRX  PDUL DX
- avut
HYROX LLGLIHULWH0DUHD1HDJUDvQOHJ WXUDFXRFHDQXOSODQHWDU0DUHD&DVSLF FDXQED]LQL]RODW

vQWLPSFHQLYHOXO0DULL1HJUHVHvQDOW ODIHOFDvQWUHJXORFHDQSODQHWDU FDUHvQXOWLPLLGH

ani s-D vQ O DW FX P  QLYHOXO 0DULL &DVSLFH FRERDU  vQ SUH]HQW ILLQG FX P PDL MRV GHFkW DO

0DULL 1HJUH  6XSUDID D DFWXDOD D 0DULL 1HJUH vPSUHXQD FX 0DUHD $]RY HVWH GH  NP 

GHFLDSURDSHGHGRX RULPDLvQWLQVDGHFkW DUDQRDVWU 

Caractere generale.10 &D XUPDUH D HYROX LHL VDOH JHRORJLFH 0DUHD 1HDJUD úL-a definit
unele caractere proprii, care-LFRQIHU RDQXPLWDRULJLQDOLWDWHÌQSULPXOUkQGGHúLDUHOHJ WXUDFX
oceanul planetar, Marea Neagra este o mare de tip continental supusa influentei uscatului
vQFRQMXU WRU 7HPSHUDWXUD DSHORU GH OD VXSUDID D XUPHD]  HYROX LD DQXDOD D WHPSHUDWXULL

XVFDWXOXLGLQMXUFXIRDUWHPLFLGLIHUHQ H

Are insule SX LQH úL PLFL PDL FXQRVFXWD ILLQG LQVXOD ùHUSLORU vQ GUHSWXO JXULORU 'XQ ULL
DYkQG GRDU  KD VXSUDID D 0DUHD 1HDJUD DUH UPXULOH SX LQ FUHVWDWH cu golfuri larg deschise

(Golful Odessei, Golful Balcic, Golful Burgas etc.),fiind aproape lipsita de peninsule, singura
mai mare fiind Crimeea, iar mai la est peninsula Taman, care închide strâmtoarea Kerci.
&HO PDL VSHFLILF vQV  GLQWUH WRDWH FDUDFWHUHOH 0DULL 1HJUH FDUH GHDOWIHO vL FRQIHU 

originalitatea, este lipsa schimbului de aer pe verticalaGDWRULWDH[LVWHQWHLDGRX VWUDWXULGHDSD

XQXO OD IXQG PDL V UDW  úL GHFL PDL JUHX DOWXO OD VXSUDID D JURV GRDU GH  P PDL SX LQ V UDW

Sub acest aspect0DUHD1HDJUDUHSUH]LQW XQLFXOFD]vQOXPH&DX]DDFHVWHLVXSUDSXQHULSDUHVD

ILHFXUHQWXO GH GHVF UFDUHDDSHL V UDWH GLQ 0HGLWHUDQD YHQLWD SULQ%RVIRU DSD FDUH VHVFXUJH OD

IXQG  úL PDUHD FDQWLWDWH GH DSD GXOFH DGXVD GH IOXYLL FH VH H[WLQGH OD VXSUDID D DFHVWHD

GHYHUVHD] DQXDOPGHDSDGXOFH 

'XS  adâncime 0DUHD 1HDJUD SRDWH IL vPS U LW  vQ GRX  XQLW
L SULQWU-R OLQLH FDUH OHDJ 

9DUQD FX &ULPHHD /D VXG IXQGXO P ULL FRERDU  EUXVF OD  
-2 000 m, atingând adâncimea
maxima de 2 211 m aproape de coasta Asiei Mici; la nord, fundul marii este format de o
SODWIRUPD FRQWLQHQWDOD FH FRERDU  GRPRO GH OD UP VSUH LQWHULRU úL FDUH DOW GDW  D FRQVWLWXLW R

YHFKH FkPSLH OLWRUDO  ÌQ DFHDVWD ]RQD DGkQFLPHD QX DMXQJH QLF LHUL OD  P LDU OD JXULOH

fluviilor, datorita aluviunilor ce se depun, adâncimea scade sub 10 m. Pe aceasta platforma


continentala s-DXLGHQWLILFDWY LúLLQWHUIOXYLLFDUHFRQWLQXDSHFHOHGHSH UP
TemperaturaDSHORUGHODVXSUDID DHVWHGLUHFWLQIOXHQ DWDGHWHPSHUDWXUDDWPRVIHUHLSkQ 

OD R DGkQFLPH GH  P 0DL MRV HD U PkQH DSURDSH QHVFKLPEDW  WRW WLPSXO DQXOXL 9DUD
0
WHPSHUDWXUD PDULL OD VXSUDID D SRDWH DMXQJH SkQ  OD  & LDU LDUQD VFDGH VXE  . În mod
H[FHS LRQDOvQDQLLIRDUWHJHURúLvQJKHD OD UPGLVWDQ DSkQ ODPD[L mum 1 km.

10
Bran, Florina (1997), (FRVLVWHPXO0 ULL1HJUH7ULEXQDHFRQRPLF QU
Salinitatea.3 WXUDGHODVXSUDID DDUHRVDOLQLWDWHGHvQDSURSLHUHGHJXULOH'XQ ULLúL

 vQ ODUJ LDU OD DGkQFLPL PDUL DMXQJH OD   DúDGDU R VDOLQLWDWH PXOW PDL UHGXVD GHFkW D

0DULL 0HGLWHUDQH DSURDSH   'LVWULEX LD VDOLQLW LL în adânc este diferita fata de celelalte
PDUL úL RFHDQH DOH JOREXOXL DSD PDL V UDWD OD IXQG LDU PDL SX LQ V UDWD úL PDL XúRDUD OD

VXSUDID 

$FHVW IDSW vPSLHGLFD VFKLPEXO GH DHU SH YHUWLFDOD GHFL R DHULVLUH QRUPDOD D DSHORU  úL

S WUXQGHUHDR[LJHQXOXLvQVWUDWXULOHDGkQFLIDYRUL]kQGDVWIHOvQF UFDUHDDSHORUFXJD]HWR[LFH +

6 'LQDFHDVWDFDX]DVXEPYLDWDQXPDLHVWHSRVLELODSHQWUXYLH XLWRDUHOHPDULQHRELúQXLWH

putând trai doar bacterii anaerobe.


&XUHQ LL 'XS  FHUFHW UL vQGHOXQJDWH V -a observat ca în Strâmtoarea Bosfor exista doi
FXUHQ LGHGLUHF LHLQYHUVDXQXOODVXSUDID DFDUHWUDQVSRUWDDSHOHSX LQV UDWHGLQ0DUHD1HDJUD

VSUH0HGLWHUDQDDOWXOvQDGkQFLPHFDUHWUDQVSRUWDDSHOHV UDWHDOH0HGLWHUDQHLvQ0DUHD1HDJUD

$FHúWLDVXQW curHQ LLGHFRPSHQVDUH.


Vântul de nord-estFUHHD] úLHOXQFXUHQWRFD]LRQDOODVXSUDID DPDULL'XS FXPDXDU WDW

FHUFHW ULOHPDLQRLDFHVWDQXUHSUH]LQW vQV XQFXUHQWXQLWDUFXPVHFUHGHDPDLGHPXOWFLGRDU

WURQVRDQH RFD]LRQDOH GH FXUHQ L RULHQWDWH SDUDOHO FX UPXO 'HVWXO GH UDU DFHVWH IUDJPHQWH VH

contopesc intr-XQFLUFXLWvQMXUXO0DULL1HJUH$FHDVWDGHSODVDUHGHDSHvúLDUHRULJLQHDvQFROWXO
de nord-YHVWDO0DULLvQJROIXO2GHVVHL XQGHVHDGXQDFHDPDLPDUHFDQWLWDWHGHDSHIOXYLDOHúL
unde vânWXOGRPLQDQWLPSULPDGLUHF LDGHSODV ULL
Viata în Marea Neagra 3 WXUD GH DSD GH OD IXQG QHDHULVLW  OLSVLWD GH YLDWD DELRWLFD 

UHSUH]LQW GLQYROXPXOGH DSDDOED]LQXOXL1XPDL GLQYROXPXO GHDS SRDWHvQWUH LQH

YLD D 'LQ DFHDVWD FDX]D IDXQD


Marii Negre este cantitativ redusa, caracteristica fiind sub acest
aspect lipsa formelor abisale(de mare adâncime)
Fauna Marii Negre cuprinde patru grupe principale de animale: forme proprii, relicve din
fosta Mare Sarmatica, ramase de pe vremea când era L]RODWD GH 0DUHD 0HGLWHUDQ  GDU vQ
OHJ WXU FX&DVSLFD GLQWUHDFHVWHIRUPHFHDPDLLPSRUWDQWDHVWHIDPLOLD VWXULRQLORUPRUXQXOúL

QLVHWUXOFHGDX LFUHQHJUHSH WRW JOREXODFHúWLDQXVHJ VHVF GHFkWvQ0DUHD1HDJUD úLvQ0DUHD

&DVSLF IRUPHPHGLWHUDQHHQHFDUHLQWUDSULQ%RVIRUvQDQRWLPSXOFDOGDMXQJkQGSkQ vQDSHOH

QRDVWUH OLWRUDOH vQWUH FDUH VFUXPELD DOEDVWUD VD GHRVHELWH GH VSHFLLOH FDUH U PkQ úL LDUQD SH

SODWIRUPDQRDVWU FRQWLQHQWDODFDVSRUWXOSUHFXPúL XQHOHIRUPHGHDS GXOFHFDUH se întâlnesc


la gurile fluviilor (gingirica).
ÌQ DIDUD GH SHúWLL FRPXQL IDXQD 0DULL 1HJUH SUH]LQW  VSHFLL LQWHUHVDQWH FXP VXQW FDOXO -
de-mare, pisica-de-PDUH LDU GLQWUH PDPLIHUH IRFD GH 0DUHD 1HDJUD FDUH WU LHúWH OD (FUHQH vQ

%XOJDULDSUHFXPúLXQHOHVSHFLLGHGHOILQ SRUFXOGHPDUH EDFKLDUúLXQPLFUHFKLQ FkLQHOHGH

PDUH  )ORUD 0DULL 1HJUH DOF WXLWD GLQ DOJH YHU]L URúLL úL EUXQH VH GH]YROWD QXPDL SkQ  OD R

adâncime de 75-PXQGHS WUXQGHOXPLQDVRDUHOXL

UPXOURPDQHVFDO0DULL1HJUH are ROXQJLPHGHNPúLVHvPSDUWHvQGRX VHFWRDUH

Sectorul nordic FXSULQV vQWUH JXUD &KLOLHL úL &DSXO 0LGLD HVWH XQ UP MRV IRUPDW GLQ

ODJXQH úL PODúWLQL vQFKLVH GH SHULVLSXUL FRUGRDQH OLWRUDOH  FRQVWUXLWH GH YDOXULOH úL FXUHQ LL

marini pe fundul pu LQ DGkQF DO PDULL L]ROkQG 'HOWD úL ODJXQHOH 5D]LPXOXL GH PDUH 2UDúXO
6XOLQDúLSRUWXOGHSHVFDUL6IkQWX*KHRUJKHVXQWFHOHPDLLPSRUWDQWHDúH] ULGLQDFHVWVHFWRU

Sectorul sudic FXSULQV vQWUH &DSXO 0LGLD úL 9DPD 9HFKH HVWH XQ UP vQDOW FX IDOH] 
V SDW  vQ VWUDWXULOH GH ORHVV úL FDOFDU VDUPDWLF 'H D OXQJXO DFHVWXL
- UP VH vQúLUXLH OLPDQHOH 

7DúDXO6LXWJKLRO7HFKLUJKLROúL0DQJDOLD3HOkQJ QXPHURDVHVDWHPDULúLRUDúHV-au dezvoltat

DLFLFXQRVFXWHOHVWD LXQLEDOQHDUH0DPDLD(IRULH1HSWXQ9HQus, Mangalia etc.

$PEHOH VHFWRDUH VXQW OLSVLWH GH UDGH QDWXUDOH &RQVWDQWD FHO PDL LPSRUWDQW SRUW PDULWLP DO ULL

QRDVWUHúLFHOPDLPDUHGLQ0DUHD1HDJUDHVWHDSURDSHvQvQWUHJLPHXQSRUWFRQVWUXLWGHRP$YDQWDMDWGH

DúH]DUHD OD JXUD SULQFLSDOXOXL EUD  QDYLJDELO DO GHOWHL  6XOLQD XUPHD]  VD FDSHWH R LPSRUWDQWD PDL PDUH

SUHOXkQG R SDUWH vQVHPQDWD D WUDQVSRUWXULORU PDULWLPH úL OD IHO 0DQJDOLD XQGH VH FRQVWUXLHúWH vQ SUH]HQW

XQPDUHúDQWLHUQDYDO
5
9(*(7$ ,$)$81$ù,62/85,/( (/(0(17(/(9,( - ,,Ì1

&21&(3 ,$(&26,67(0,&

%LRVIHUD HVWH UHSUH]HQWDW  SULQ IORU  úL IDXQ  OD FDUH VH DGDXJ  VROXO vQ FDUH DFHVWHD VH

vQWUHS WUXQG FX FRPSRQHQWHOH QDWXULL DELRWLFH URFD UHOLHI FOLPD DSH HWF  FUHkQG XQ vQYHOLú -
VLQWH] FXFDUDFWHUHVSHFLILFHSULQIRUPDUHDGHHFRVLVWHPH

3HQWUX D vQ HOHJH PDL ELQH VSHFLILFXO DQVDPEOXULORU HFRVLVWHPLFH GLQ DUD QRDVWU  HVWH

QHFHVDUVDXUP ULPPDLvQWkLVHSDUDWFHOHWUHLFRPSRQHQWHYHJHWD LHIDXQDVROXULXUPkQGFDvQ

DSOLFD LLOH FDUH VH SRW IDFH vQ SHLVDMXO JHRJUDILF DO ORFDOLW LL XQGH IXQF LRQHD]  úFRDOD VD VH

XUP UHDVF vPELQDUHDHOHPHQWHORUYLH LLFXFHOHDOHQDWXULLDELRWLFHúLFXIDFWRUXOWUDQVIRUPDWRU -


omul.11

9(*(7$ ,$

5HSDUWL LD JHRJUDILFD D GLIHULWHORU VSHFLL GH SODQWH VDX D DVRFLD LLORU GH VSHFLL HVWH

FRQGL LRQDW GHFOLPDVROVLUHOLHIÌQWUXFkWDFHVWHHOHPHQWHSUH]LQW YDULD LLODGLVWDQWHPLFLWDUD

QRDVWU  DUH R YHJHWD LH ERJDWD VL IRDUWH GLIHULWD GH OD XQ ORF OD DOWXO ÌQ FRPSRQHQWD YHJHWD LHL

VSRQWDQH GH OD QRL VH vQWkOQHVF HOHPHQWH DSDU LQkQG FHORU PDL YDULDWH GRPHQLL IORULVWLFH VL

anume: elementele specifice EuURSHL &HQWUDOH S GXULOH GH IDJ  DOH (XURSHL 5 V ULWHQH VWHSHOH

FX JUDPLQHH  HOHPHQWH PHULGLRQDOH FDVWDQXO FRPHVWLELO F USLQL D PRMGUHDQXO úD  HOHPHQWH

GLQ LQXWXULOH VXEFDUSDWLFH FRQLIHUHOH PROLGXO LQ VSHFLDO  SUHFXP VL HOHPHQWH EDOFDQLFH FkWHY a
VSHFLLGHVWHMDUJkUQL HWF 6HvQWkOQHVFGHDVHPHQHDXQHOHUHOLFWH HQGHPLVPH GLQYUHPXULOH

JODFLD LXQLLFXDWHUQDUH DILQXOMQHDS QXOVLDOWHOH 

'DWRULWD FRQGL LLORU ORFDOH GH UHOLHI FOLPD VRO úL DSD IUHDWLFD vQ FXSULQVXO XQRU ]RQH GH

YHJHWD LH SRW DS UHD DVRFLD LL GLIHULWH GH FHOH DOH DOWLWXGLQLL UHVSHFWLYH DVRFLD LL D]RQDOH 

3ULQFLSDOHOH]RQHGHYHJHWD LHVXQW

a. Zona stepeiIRUPDW GLQSODQWHLHUERDVHPDLERJDWDGHFkWVWHSHOHSURSULX-zise din sud-


estul continentului, formând la noi pajiúWLFRQWLQXHVHDIO ODSHULIHULDHLYHVWLF vQ% U JDQúLvQ
'REURJHD FHQWUDOD úL VXGLF  (D DFRSHU  UHJLXQLOH FX GHILFLW GH XPLGLWDWH FDUH vQJUHXQHD] 

GH]YROWDUHD YHJHWD LHL OHPQRDVH ÌQ DUD QRDVWU  VWHSHOH DX IRVW WUDQVIRUPDWH vQF  GLQ VHFROXO

XIX-lHDvQWHUHQXULDJULFROHLDUSHPLFLOHSRU LXQLUDPDVHQHFXOWLYDWHYHJHWD LDV-a schimbat sub


LQIOXHQWD S úXQDWXOXL &HOH PDL U VSkQGLWH VSHFLL GH SODQWH LHUERDVH GLQ VWHSHOH QRDVWUH VXQW

S LXúXO SLUXO FUHVWDW QHJDUD SHOLQL D HWF &ROLOLD SODQWD VSHF ifica stepelor din estul
FRQWLQHQWXOXL vúL DUH OLPLWD YHVWLF  SH WHULWRULXO ULL QRDVWUH 6H vQWkOQHVF úL FkWHYD VSHFLL

OHPQRDVHVFXQGHFDSRUXPEDUXOFLUHúXOSLWLFP FHúXO3ULQGH]YROWDUHDDúH] ULORURPHQHúWLDX

11
Bran, Florina (1998), (FRORJLHJHQHUDO úLSURWHF LDPHGLXOXL Ed. $6(%XFXUHúWLSJ-115.
DS UXW vQ FXSULQVXO DFHVWRUD PXO L DUERUL GH S GXUH úL SRPL IUXFWLIHUL FDUH FUHVF ELQH 'HVWXO GH

IUHFYHQWDSDUFKLDUPLFLSkOFXULGHS GXUH

b. Zona silvostepei IDFH WUHFHUHD GH OD VWHSD OD ]RQD IRUHVWLHU  SULQWU-un amestec de
YHJHWD LH LHUERDVD úL OHPQRDVD ÌQ OLQLL PDUL VLOYRVWHSD HVWH O
ocalizata în câmpie, dar pe alocuri
S WUXQGH úL vQ SDUWHD LQIHULRDUD D GHDOXULORU FD GH SLOGD SH GHDOXULOH MRDVH DOH %X] XOXL DOH

'REURJHL DOH FHORU GLQ VXGXO 0ROGRYHL úL GLQ &kPSLD -LMLHL 0ROGRYHL  &HD PDL FDUDFWHULVWLFD

YHJHWD LH GH VLOYRVWHSD VH vQWkOQHúWH vQ &kPSLD 5RPkQ  vQ ED]LQXO 0RVWLúWHL vQWUH VSHFLLOH

DUERUHVFHQWHFDUDFWHULVWLFHVXQWVWHMDUXOSXIRVVWHMDUXOEUXP ULX WHLXODOEúD6SHFLLOHLHUERDVH

VXQWDFHOHDúLSHFDUHOHvQWkOQLPvQ]RQDVWHSHLGDUVLOYRVWHSDDVXIHULWSURIXQGHWUDQVIRUP ULSULQ

luarea in cultura a acestor terenuri.


F=RQDIRUHVWLHU  RFXS  FHD PDLPDUHSDUWHD ULLQRDVWUHvQFHSkQGGLQFkPSLHXQGHvúL

DUH OLPLWD LQIHULRDUD SkQ  OD DOWLWXGLQL GH      P SH PXQWH FDUH PDUFKHD]  OLPLWD
-
VXSHULRDUD 2GDW  FX FUHúWHUHD DOWLWXGLQLL úL VFKLPEDUHD FRQGL LLORU FOLPDWLFH VH PRGLILFD úL

FRPSRQHQWD S GXULL 8QHOH VSHFLL IRUHVWLHUH XUFD OD R DQXPLWD vQ O LPH FHGkQG PDL VXV ORFXO

DOWRUD =RQD S GXULL VH VXEvPSDUWH DVWIHO SH YHUWLFDOD vQ WUHL HWDMH DO VWHMDUXOXL DO IDJXOXL úL DO

coniferelor.
Subzona stejarului VH vQWLQGH DSUR[LPDWLY vQWUH  úL  P XUFkQG FkWHRGDW  úL OD
altitudini mai mari. Dintre speciile de stejari, îndeosebi gorunul urca în altitudine chiar la peste
PvQ6XEFDUSD LVDXFKLDUvQPXQ LSHYHUVDQ LLORUvQVRUL L GHH[HPSOXSH0XQWHOH&R]LD 

$FHDVWD VXE]RQ  VH vQWLQGH FD XQ EUkX vQJXVW OD SRDOHOH 0XQ LORU $SXVHQL R SDUWH GLQ 3RGLúXO

7UDQVLOYDQLHL 3RGLúXO *HWLF SDUWHD FHQWUDOD D &DSLHL 5RPkQH VXGXO 0ROGRYHL úL QRUGXO

Dobrogei. În aceastD VXE]RQ  SUHGRPLQD VSHFLLOH GH VWHMDU GLQ FDUH FHO PDL U VSkQGLW HVWH

JRUXQXO DSRL VWHMDUXO SHGXQFXODW FHUXO JkUQL D HWF ÌQ DVRFLD LH FX VWHMDUXO FUHVF úL DOWH VSHFLL

FD XOPXO FDUSHQXO IUDVLQXO WHLXO úL FKLDU IDJXO FDUH FRERDU  FkWHRGDW  GLQ HW ajul imediat
VXSHULRU ÌQ DIDUD HOHPHQWHORU DUERUHVFHQWH VH PDL vQWkOQHVF XQLL DUEXúWL FXP VXQW DOXQXO

sângerul, cornul etc.


Subzona fagului este intermediara între cea a stejarului, cu care se amesteca la limita
LQIHULRDUDúLVXE]RQD FRQLIHUHORUFXFDUHVH DPHVWHFDOD OLPLWDVXSHULRDUDÌQVWDUH SXUDS GXULOH

GH IDJ RFXSD vQ O LPLOH GLQWUH   P ÌQ DPHVWHF FX FRQLIHUHOH XQHRUL FKLDU vQ I JHWH SXUH
-
XUFD SkQ  OD   P DOWLWXGLQH 3 GXULOH GH IDJ FHOH PDL vQWLQVH VH vQWkOQHVF vQ 6XEFDUSD L vQ

PoGLúXO6XFHYHLvQFkWHYDSHWHFHSHGHDOXULOHvQDOWHGLQ3RGLúXO&HQWUDO0ROGRYHQHVFvQ0XQ LL
%DQDWXOXLvQ0XQ LL$SXVHQL3RLDQD5XVFD3RGLúXO6RPHúDQVXG-HVWXO3RGLúXOXL7UDQVLOYDQLHL

ÌQDVRFLD LHFXIDJXOPDLDOHVODSDUWHDLQIHULRDUDDVXE]RQHL cresc: carpenul, gorunul, teiul, iar

ODSDUWHDVXSHULRDUDSDOWLQXOIUDVLQXOúLPHVWHDF QXO

Subzona coniferelor XUPHD]  PDL VXV GH VXE]RQD IDJXOXL RFXSkQG vQ O LPLOH vQWUH 
-1
PvQ&DUSD LL2ULHQWDOLúLvQWUH-PvQ&DUSD LL0HULGLRQDOi. Speciile componente

FHOH PDL U VSkQGLWH VXQWPROLGXO úL EUDGXO 3ULPXO RFXSD vQWLQGHULPDULvQ&DUSD LL 2ULHQWDOLvQ

WLPS FH EUDGXO HVWH PDL U VSkQGLW vQ &DUSD LL 0HULGLRQDOL 0DL UDU VH vQWkOQHVF SLQXO ODLFHOH úL

zâmbrul.
d. Zona alpina, deasupra liPLWHL S GXULL SH SODWRXULOH úL SH FXOPLOH vQDOWH DOH PXQ LORU

QRúWUL O    P  VH SUH]LQW  VXE IRUPD XQRU  SDMLúWL FX FRPSRQHQWD IORULVWLFD YDULDWD
-
LQFOX]kQGvQDIDUDVSHFLLORULHUERDVHúLXQHOHVSHFLLOHPQRDVHSLWLFHVDXWkUkWRDUH=RQDDOSLQDVH

vPSDUWHvQGRX VXEHWDMHDOSLQSURSULX ]LVVDXDOSDMLúWLORUvQFDUHSUHGRPLQDVSHFLLOHLHUERDVHúL


-
FHO VXEDOSLQ FDUH FXSULQGH úLDUEXúWLL SLWLFL 6XEHWDMXO SDMLúWLORU RFXSD S U LOH FHOH PDL vQDOWHDOH

PXQ LORU vQ JHQHUDO SHVWH   P vQ 0XQ LL %XFHJL DL ) J UDúXOXL 3DUkQJXOXL 5HWH]DWXOXL

*RGHDQX 5RGQD 6SHFLLOH LHUERDVH PDL GHV vQWkOQLWH VXQW FRDUQD UXJLQD SDUXúFD vPSHVWUL DWH

ici-colo cu flori viu colorate - JHQ LDQD FLXER LFD-FXFXOXL FORSR HL URJR]XO-de-munte. În mod
sporadic se întâlneVFúLDUEXúWLSLWLFL
La partea inferioara (subalpina  VSUH OLPLWD S GXULORU U úLQRDVH DSDU IUHFYHQWH SkOFXUL GH
DUEXúWL WkUkWRUL FD MQHDS QXO LHQXS UXO SLWLF SUHFXP úL DUEXúWL SLWLFL VPkUGDUXO PHULúRUXO
D]DOHHD DUJLQ LFD  6SHFLLOH LHUERDVH GLQ DFHDVWD  VXE]RQD VXQW UHSUH]HQWDWH SULQ ILUX  úL

SRúLF 

H 9HJHWD LD D]RQDO  HVWH UHSUH]HQWDWD GH YHJHWD LD OXQFLORU úL E O LORU FDUH S WUXQGH

WHQWDFXODU vQ WRDWH ]RQHOH DPLQWLWH FX H[FHS LD FHOHL DOSLQH 9HJHWD LD OXQFLORU úL E O LORU HVWH

compusa din VSHFLL LHUERDVH úL OHPQRDVH FDUDFWHULVWLFH LXELWRDUH GH PXOWD XPH]HDOD  VWXIXO
SDSXUD URJR]XO SLSLULJXO QXI UXO VWkQMHQHOXO GH EDOWD OD FDUH VH DGDXJ  VSHFLL GH JUDPLQHH úL

DOWH SODQWH S WUXQVH GLQ ]RQHOH OLPLWURIH 'LQWUH VSHFLLOH OHPQRDVH FHOH PDL U VSkQGLWH VXQW

VDOFLD SORSXO DOE úL QHJUX DQLQXO HWF 3H JULQGXULOH PDL ]YkQWDWH XQGH DSD IUHDWLFD HVWH PDL

DGkQFDDSDUúLVSHFLLPDL SX LQLXELWRDUHGHXPH]HDODFD VWHMDUXO XOPXOHWF &HOHPDLvQWLQVH

areale cu YHJHWD LHGHOXQFD se întâlneVFvQYDOHDúL'HOWD'XQ ULLSUHFXPúLSHY LOHDIOXHQ LORU

V L SULQFLSDOL 3UXWXO 6LUHWXO ,DORPL D $UJHúXO 2OWXO -LXO FD úL DOH UkXULORU PDUL GLQ $UGHDO

0XUHúXO&ULúXULOH6RPHúXO 

8QHOH VSHFLL GH OXQFD SUH]LQW  YDORDUH HFRQRPLFD VWXIXO úL SORSXO QHJUX KLEULG FDUH G 

OHPQ IRORVLW vQ LQGXVWULH  'H DOWIHO vQWUHDJD YHJHWD LH RIHU  HFRQRPLHL QD LRQDOH LPSRUWDQWH

PDWHULL SULPH S GXULOH GDX OHPQXO SHQWUX FKHUHVWHD SODFDMH úL IXUQLUH SHQWUX PRELOD FHOXOR]D

HWF S úXQLOH úL IkQH HOH FRQVWLWXLH R LPSRUWDQW  ED]  IXUDMHU  PXOWH SODQWH DX IRORVLWH

PHGLFLQDOH PXúH HO VXQ WRDUH DQJKLQDUH IORUL GH WHL HWF  LDU DOWHOH VXQW FROHFWDWH SHQWUX

industria alimentara (fragi, afine, zmeura, mure, alune etc.).

5.2. FAUNA
&XWRDWDERJ LDGHVSHFLLIDXQD ULLQRDVWUHHVWHUHODWLYUHFHQW (OHPHQWHOHIDXQLVWLFHGH

FOLPD FDOGD FDUH WU LDX SH WHULWRULXO ULL QRDVWUH vQ QHRJHQ  HOHIDQW PDVWRGRQ ULQRFHU WDSLU

JD]HOH HWF  DX GLVS UXW FX WRWXO GLQ SOHLVWRFHQXO LQIHULRU SULPD SDUWH D FXDWHUQDUXOXL  GDW orita
12
PDULORUVFKLPE ULFOLPDWLFHSURGXVH .
&HD PDL PDUH SDUWH D IDXQHL DFWXDOH DúD -numitele specii europene sau central-europene,
VXQW SURYHQLWH GH IDSW GLQ LQXWXULOH PHGLWHUDQHHQH (OH V DX H[WLQV vQ S U LOH QRDVWUH vQ
-
postglaciar (holocen), începând FXFLUFD  PLL GH DQLvQ XUPD 7UHSWDWDX S WUXQV úL DOWH VSHFLL

&HOH PDL QRL LQWURGXVH SULQ FRORQL]DUH VXQW FHUEXO ORS WDU úL ID]DQXO PDUPRWD LDU SULQ LYLUL

VSRQWDQHEL]DPXOGLQYHVWXO ULLúLvQ]RQD'XQ ULLLQIHULRDUHFkLQHOHHQRWvQ'HOWD'XQ U ii etc.


3ULQ DGDSW ULOH OD FRQGL LLOH FOLPDWLFH úL GH UHOLHI DOH ULL QRDVWUH V -a produs, printr-o
VHOHF LHQDWXUDO  RHWDMDUHDIDXQHL WHUHVWUHSHDOWLWXGLQHvQUDSRUW úLFXFRPSRQHQWHOHYHJHWD LHL

2HWDMDUHvQWUXFkWYDDVHP Q WRDUHVHFRQVWDWDúLODIDXQDDSHORULQWHULRDUH UkXULúLODFXUL 

5 VSkQGLUHD JHRJUDILFD D IDXQHL ÌQ UDSRUW FX GLIHUHQ LHULOH WHULWRULDOH VH GHRVHEHVF SH

WHULWRULXO ULLQRDVWUHFRPSOH[HIDXQLVWLFHGHOXQFDGHVWHSDGH]RQDIRUHVWLHU úLGH]RQDDOSLQD

D )DXQD OXQFLORU úL D E O LORU este constituita, în primul rând, din animale strâns legate
SULQ PRGXO ORU GH YLDWD GH DSD GDU úL GLQ DQLPDOH WHUHVWUH FDUH VH DG SRVWHVF vQ S GXULOH VDX

VWXI ULúXO OXQFLL 0DL UHSUH]HQWDWLYH VXQW YLGUD QXUFD úL EL]DPXO GLQ SULPD FDWHJRULH YXOSHD úL

PLVWUH XOGLQFHDGH DGRX SUHFXPúLQXPHURDVHVSHFLLGHS V ULGHEDOW  FXGHRVHELUHvQOXQFD


-
úL 'HOWD 'XQ ULL  SULQWUH FDUH SHOLFDQLL F OLIDULL DOEL úL URúLL  VWkUFLL OHEHGHOH UDWHOH JkúWHOH

HWF  SUHFXP úL QXPHURDVH VSHFLL U SLWRDUH Y ulturul pescar, vulturul codalb), sau specii
FkQW WRDUH SULYLJKHWRDUHD GH VWXI FkUVWHLL HWF  0XOWH GLQWUH DFHVWHD VXQW PLJUDWRDUH

deplasându-se -GXS DQRWLPS - spre tarile calde ale sudului sau spre cele reci, boreale.

12
Idem
b. Fauna stepelor cuprinde înGHRVHEL UR] WRDUH FD SRSkQG XO KkUFLRJXO RUEHWHOH VDX

F HOXO S PkQWXOXL úRDUHFLL GH FkPS GLKRUXO VD )UHFYHQW vQWkOQLW HVWH LHSXUHOH LDU GLQWUH

S V UL PDL UHSUH]HQWDWLYH VXQW GURSLD WRW PDL UDUD  VSXUFDFLXO DVHP Q WRU FX GURSLD GDU PDL

mic, SUHSHOL D SRWkUQLFKHD GXPEU YHDQFD HWF 'URSLD úL VSXUFDFLXO  VSHFLL YDORURDVH GLQ SXQFW
de vedere faunistic, aflându-VH SH FDOH GH GLVSDUL LH VXQW RFURWLWH GH OHJH FD PRQXPHQWH DOH
naturii.
F)DXQDS GXULORUGHIRLRDVH este amestecata, cuprinzând peOkQJ HOHPHQWHOHVSHFLILFHGH

S GXUH - SULQWUH FDUH PLVWUH XO úL YLH]XUHOH LDU GLQWUH PDPLIHUHOH GH SUHGD OXSXO YXOSHD SLVLFD

V OEDWLFD - úL VSHFLL S WUXQVH ILH  GLQ VLOYRVWHSD FD LHSXUHOH ILH GLQ HWDMXO U úLQRDVHORU FD

YHYHUL DMGHUXOF SULRDUD'LQWUHS V ULPDLWLSLFHVXQWFLRF QLWRDUHDSL LJRLXOFLQWH]DJDL DVD

G 3 GXULOH GH U úLQRDVH DG SRVWHVF PDPLIHUH PDUL SULQWUH FDUH FHUEXO XUVXO UDVXO VDX

PDL P UXQWH FD MGHUXO úL YHYHUL D LDU GLQWUH S V UL FRFRVXO GH PXQWH LHUXQFD FRFRV ul de
PHVWHDF Q SHFDOHGHGLVSDUL LH 0XOWHGLQWUHDFHVWHDQLPDOHDXGLVS UXWvQDOWH ULDOH(XURSHL

úL FRQVWLWXLH HOHPHQWH GH LQWHUHV YkQ WRUHVF GHRVHELW GH SUH XLWH XUVXO UDVXO OXSXO  5HFHQW V -a
UHLQWURGXVvQPXQ LLQRúWUL]LPEUXOFDUHGLVS UXV e în secolul al XVIII-lea.
e. Fauna alpina DGDSWDWD FRQGL LLORU FOLPDWLFH DVSUH DOH PDULORU vQ O LPL FDUSDWLFH

S VWUHD] XQHOHUHOLFYHGLQJODFLDOXOWkU]LXFXPHVWHFDSUDQHDJUDFDUHWU LHúWHSHYkUIXULOHFHOH

PDLvQDOWHGLQ&DUSD LL0HULGLRQDOLÌQYUHPHDGLQXUPDDIRVWUHSRSXODWDvQ %XFHJLSH&HDKO X

VL vQ 0XQ LL 5RGQHL GH XQGH GLVS UXVH vQF  vQDLQWHD FHOXL GH DO GRLOHD U ]ERL PRQGLDO 'LQWUH
-
S V UL PDL UHSUH]HQWDWLYH VXQW DFYLOD GH PXQWH úL ] JDQXO FHO PDL PDUH YXOWXU HXURSHDQ

DSURDSH GLVS UXW SUHFXP úL XQHOH SDVDUHOH FD IOXWXUDúXO -de-SLDWU  FDUH VH DJ D SH DEUXSWXULOH

VWkQFRDVHvQF XWDUHDGHLQVHFWHúD6HPDLDGDXJ XQHOHVSHFLLGHUHSWLOHIOXWXULFROHRSWHUHHWF

f. Fauna acvatica SUH]LQW  XQ LQWHUHV HFRQRPLF GHRVHELW vQ SULPXO UkQG , prin speciile de
SHúWL &D úL IDXQD WHUHVWUD HD VH JUXSHD]  vQ DVRFLD LL FDUDFWHULVWLFH HWDMDWH GXS  DOWLWXGLQH VL

FDOLWDWHDSHORU6HGHRVHEHVFDVWIHOR]RQDDS VWU YXOXLVLWXDWDvQDSHOHUHSH]LúLUHFLDOHUkXULORU

GH PXQWH UHSUH]HQWDWD SULQ S VWU YXO LQGLJHQ úL FHO FRORQL]DW PDL UDU SULQ ORVWUL D FDUH WU LHúWH

QXPDLvQDSHOHGLQQRUGXO&DUSD LORU2ULHQWDOLILLQGRFURWLWDGHOHJH

Cleanul ocupa sectoarele de altitudine mijlocie în râurile mari. Mreana este mai frecvent
întâlnita în sectoarele GHFkPSLHDOHUkXULORUPDULvQFDUHPDLWU LHVFFUDSXOúLDOWHVSHFLL OLSDQXO
FOHDQXO &UDSXOHVWHFDUDFWHULVWLFvQFXUVXO'XQ ULLúLvQGHOWDIOXYLXOXLSUHFXPVLQvQVHFWRDUHOH

LQIHULRDUHDOHDIOXHQ LORUV LSULQFLSDOL3HOkQJ FUDSFDUHFRQVWLWXLHVSHFLDGRPLQDQWDúLFHDPDL

YDORURDVDPDLWU LHVFSO WLFDURúLRDUDFDUDVXOúWLXFDELEDQXOHWF

$O WXULGHVSHFLLOHGHDSDGXOFHvQ'HOWDúLvQVHFWRUXOLQIHULRUDO'XQ ULLS WUXQGúLXQHOH

specii marine FD QLVHWUXO PRUXQXO S VWUXJD FHJD SHQW ru a-úL GHSXQH LFUHOH WRDWH DFHVWHD
FRQVWLWXLHIRQGXOYDORURVGHSHVFXLWDO ULLQRDVWUH

0DUHD1HDJUDDUHRIDXQDYDULDWDGDUGLQFDX]DFRQGL LLORUGHVDOLQLWDWHúLGHVWUDWLILFDUHD

DSHORUQXP UXOH[HPSODUHORUDSDUHUHODWLYUHGXV)DXQDSLVFLFRODHVWH reprezentata prin scrumbii


DOEDVWUH KDPVLL VWDYUL]L JXYL]L FDOFDQL úL VSHFLLOH GLQ IDPLOLD VWXULRQLORU PRUXQXO QLVHWUXO

FHJDS VWUXJD FDUHPLJUHD] VH]RQLHUSHJXULOH'XQ ULL

g. Animale rareÌQ DUDQRDVWU H[LVWDFkWHYDVSHFLLGHDQLPDOHUDUHFDUHDXGLVS UXWvQDOWH

S U L DOH (XURSHL (OH VXQW SXVH VXE RFURWLUHD OHJLORU QHSXWkQG IL YkQDWH VDX GLVWUXVH vQWUH

DFHVWHD VXQW GURSLD VSXUFDFLXO SHOLFDQXO HJUHWD ] JDQXO HWF 2 FRPLVLD VSHFLDOD &RPLVLD

pentru ocrotirea monumentelor naturii, de SH OkQJ  $FDGHPLD 5RPkQ  VH RFXSD FX RFURWLUHD úL

FHUFHWDUHDúWLLQ LILF DDFHVWRUD

5.3. SOLURILE
&RQGL LLOH SULQFLSDOH GH IRUPDUH úL HYROX LH D VROXULORU vQ DUD QRDVWU  - în primul rând
YHJHWD LD úL FOLPD  GLIHU  vQ IXQF LH GH UHOLHI úL GH VXEVWUDWXO JHRORJLF URFD SDUHQWDO  $FHVWHD
-
GHWHUPLQD R ]RQDUH YHUWLFDOD D VROXULORU SH WHULWRULXO ULL DVHP Q WRDUH FX FHD D FOLPHL úL
YHJHWD LHL &D XUPDUH GH OD FkPSLH VSUH PXQWH VH vQWkOQHVF ]RQH FX VROXUL GLIHULWH IRUPDWH VXE
13
LQIOXHQWDFRQGL LLORUQDWXUDOHGHFOLPDúLGHYHJHWD LHFDUHSRDUWDGHQXPLUHDGHVROXUL]RQDOH

În interiorul acestor zone, datorita existentei unor factori locali (relief, roca, apa freatica
HWF VHIRUPHD] SHVXSUDIH HPDLPLFLVROXULLQWUD]RQDOH

Pe luncile râurilor, în toate ]RQHOH GH VROXUL VH vQWkOQHúWH R FDWHJRULH GH VROXUL WLQHUH vQ

FXUVGHIRUPDUHSHDOXYLXQLOHGHSXVHGHDSHOHGHLQXQGD LHúLVXELQIOXHQWDXPLGLW LLDFFHQWXDWH

GLQDFHOHORFXUL$FHVWHDIRUPHD] FDWHJRULDVROXULORUD]RQDOH

Solurile zonale se împart în VROXULGHVWHSDGHVLOYRVWHSDGHS GXUHúLDOSLQH

a. Solurile de stepaVHvQWkOQHVFvQUHJLXQLOHFXSUHFLSLWD LLUHGXVH VXEPPDQXDO úLFX


temperatura medie anuala ridicata (peste 9°& XQGHYHJHWD LDFDUDFWHULVWLFDRIRUPHD] SODQWHOH
ierboase. 'LQ FDWHJRULD VROXULORU GH VWHSD IDF SDUWH VROXULOH E ODQH GH VWHSD FHUQR]LRPXULOH GH
PDL PXOWH IHOXUL SkQ  OD FDVWDQLL úL QHJUH  $FHVWH VROXUL VXQW ERJDWH vQ VXEVWDQ H QXWULWLYH

KXPXV DVWIHOFDvQFRQGL LLOHGHSUHFLSLWD LLVXILFLHQWHGDXUHFROWH bogate. Din cauza regimului


FOLPDWLF VHFHWRV WHUHQXULOH FX DVWIHO GH VROXUL DX QHYRLH GH LULJD LL (OH VH vQWkOQHVF vQ &kPSLD

5RPkQ  vQ 'REURJHD vQ &kPSLD 0ROGRYHL vQ &kPSLD GH 9HVW úL SH PLFL VXSUDIH H vQ &kPSLD

Transilvaniei.
b. Solurile de silvostepa FXSULQG FD  WLS SULQFLSDO FHUQR]LRPXO OHYLJDW FDUH VH IRUPHD] 
intr-XQ FOLPDW PDL XPHG VXE R YHJHWD LH OHPQRDVD GH S GXUH VWHMDU  úL LHUERDVD (VWH XQ VRO
GHVWXO GH ERJDW vQ KXPXV FHHD FH H[SOLF  IHUWLOLWDWHD OXL ULGLFDWD 6H vQWkOQHúWH vQ HVWXO úL sudul

0ROGRYHL vQ SDUWHD FHQWUDOD D &kPSLHL 5RPkQH vQ 2OWHQLD GH VXG vQ &kPSLD GH 9HVW úL vQ

Câmpia Transilvaniei.
F 6ROXULOH GH S GXUH LQFOXGH WLSXULOH DUJLORLOXYLDOH FHQXúLL úL EUXQ URúFDWH vQ ]RQD
-
GHOXURDVD úL VROXULOH EUXQH úL EUXQH DFLGH vQ FHD PDL PXQWRDVD PHUJkQG vQ VXV SkQ  OD VROXULOH

SRG]ROLFH $FHVWHD VH IRUPHD]  vQ UHJLXQLOH FX FOLPDW XPHG VXE R YHJHWD LH IRUHVWLHU  6XQW

V UDFH vQ VXEVWDQ H QXWULWLYH KXPXV  GH DFHHD DX R IHUWLOLWDWH PDL UHGXVD QHFHVLWkQG

vQJU ú PLQWH FKLPLFH úL RUJDQLFH 'LQWUH DFHVWHD VROXULOH SRG]ROLFH VH IRUPHD]  LQWU -un climat
PDLUHFHúLPDLXPHGDVRFLLQGX VHFXRYHJHWD LHIRUHVWLHU GHIDJúLU úLQRDVH(OHDXRFXORDUH
-
FHQXúLH úL GDX R UHDF LH DFLGD 3RG]ROXULOH RFXSD UHOLHIXO FHO PDL DFFLGHQWDW DO ULL GH alurile
vQDOWH úL PXQ LL  $FROR XQGH S GXUHD D IRVW GHIULúDWD DFHVWH VROXUL VXQW OHVQH VS ODWH GH SORL

3HQWUXDG URDGHERJDWHSRG]ROXULOHDXQHYRLHGHDPHQGDPHQWHúLvQJU ú PLQWH

d. Solurile alpineEUXQHDFLGHRFXSDVXSUDIH HOHFHOHPDLvQDOWHDOHPXQ LORUQRúWUL(OHVH


IRUPHD]  LQWU-XQ FOLPDW XPHG úL UHFH VXE R YHJHWD LH LHUERDVD SDMLúWLOH DOSLQH  SH DORFXUL

WXUERDV  6H vQWkOQHVF vQ &DUSD LL 0HULGLRQDOL úL SH XQHOH FXOPL vQDOWH GLQ &DUSD LL 2ULHQWDOL

GHDVXSUDOLPLWHLS GXULORUGHFRQLIHUH

e. Solurile intrazonaleFXSULQGV U WXULOHO FRYLúWLOHúLUHQG]LQHOH

6 U WXULOHVXQWVROXULFHFRQ LQV UXULVROXELOHvQGHRVHELGHVRGLX(OHVHvQWkOQHVFPDLDOHV

vQ ]RQDGHVWHS  XQGHDSDIUHDWLF VHDIO  ODPLFDDGkQFLPH LDU FLUFXOD@LDHLSHYHUWLFDO a se face


GDWRULWD HYDSRUD LHL LQWHQVH 3H DFHVWH VROXUL VH GH]YROW  R YHJHWD LH V UDF  VSHFLILF  FX

VDOLFRUQLD  ÌQWUXFkW DFHVWH VROXUL DX R SURGXFWLYLWDWH VF ]XW  HOH WUHEXLH DPHOLRUDWH SHQWUX D

SXWHDILIRORVLWHvQDJULFXOWXU 

/ FRYLúWLOH sunt solurL vPELEDWH FX PXOW  DS  GLQ FDX]D OLSVHL XQHL SDQWH GH VFXUJHUH RUL

GLQFDX]DDSHORUIUHDWLFHFDUHDMXQJSkQ ODVXSUDID 'HúLVXQWERJDWHvQVXEVWDQ HQXWULWLYHHOH

13
Bran, Florina, Dincu I. (1997), 3HGRORJLHDPHOLRUDWLY (G$6(%XFXUHúWLSJ-31.
QXSRWILIRORVLWHGDWRULW H[FHVXOXLGHDS úLDOLSVHLGHDHUD LH3HQWUXDSXWHDI i puse în valoare,
VH IDF OXFU UL GH GUHQDUH &HOH PDL vQWLQVH O FRYLúWL VH vQWkOQHVF vQ 'HOWD úL /XQFD 'XQ ULL vQ

&kPSLDMRDV D%DQDWXOXLúLD&ULúXULORU

f. Solurile azonaleVXQWUHSUH]HQWDWHSULQGRX WLSXUL


Solurile aluviale, de lunca, tinere, în curs de formare sau chiar aluviuni crude. Ele sunt de
RELFHL ERJDWH vQ VXEVWDQ H KU QLWRDUH úL GH DFHHD FXOWLYDWH GDX SURGXF LL PDUL FkQG QX VXQW

LQXQGDWH ÌQ XOWLPHOH GRX  GHFHQLL DX IRVW VFRDVH GH VXE LQXQGD LL SULQ vQGLJXLUL VXSUDIH H

însemnate în luncLOH'XQ ULL2OWXOXL3UXWXOXL6RPHúXOXL0XUHúXOXLúL&ULúXULORU


Solurile nisipoase se întâlnesc la noi în ]ara în regiunile de dune din sudul Olteniei, pe
PDOXO'XQ ULLSHPDOXO-LXOXLvQ% U JDQGH-DOXQJXO ,DORPL HL DO& OP XLXOXLDO %X] XOXLúL

SHOLWRUDOXO0 ULL1HJUHVDXvQ&kPSLDGH9HVWODVXGGH&DUHL