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List of Figures vii

List of Examples ix
List of Tables x
Preface to the Irish Edition xi
Acknowledgements xiii

1 General Introduction 1
Historical background of quantity surveying; functions of bill
of quantities; contract documentation; processes used in quantity
surveying work; other measurement approaches; agreed rules
of measurement; national standard building elements; other
functions of the quantity surveyor; changes in quantity
surveying techniques.

2 Measurement Procedures 12
General rules; basic principles; tabulated rules; dimensions
paper; measurement procedures; entering dimensions; spacing
of items; waste; order of dimensions; timesing; deductions;
measurement of irregular figures; alterations to dimensions;
figured dimensions; numbering and titles of dimension sheets;
order of taking-off; adjustment of openings and voids; descriptions;
number of units; measurement of similar items; extra over items;
deemed to be included items; accuracy in dimensions; drawn
information; use of schedules; standard products; take-off lists;
query sheets; preambles; provisional sums; prime cost sums;
work in special conditions; composite items; worked examples.

3 Mensuration Applications 28
Introduction; girth of buildings; rectangular buildings; buildings
of irregular outline; measurement of areas; irregular areas;
trapezoids; segments; bellmouths, as at road junctions;
measurement of earthworks; sloping site excavation; cuttings
and embankments; measurement of pitched roofs; lengths of
rafters; lengths of hips and valleys; roof coverings.

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iv Contents

4 Substructure 41
Preliminary investigations; general items; site preparation;
excavation to reduce levels; excavation of foundation trenches;
disposal of excavated material; surface treatments; basement
excavation; concrete foundations; concrete beds; precast
concrete floors; other substructure work; brick and block walling;
facework; damp-proof courses; damp-proof membranes; insulation;
worked example; take-off list.

5 Brick, Block and Stone Walling 69

Measurement of brick and block walling; measurement generally;
external walls; internal walls; chimney breasts and stacks;
incidental works; damp-proof courses; rough and fair cutting;
projections; special bricks/blocks; surface features; facework
ornamental bands; facework quoins; composite walls; metal
sheet cladding; rubble walling; natural stone; worked examples.

6 Fires, Flues and Vents 108

Chimney breasts and stacks; brickwork and blockwork in breasts
and stacks; flues; fireplaces; flues to gas-fired appliances; vents;
worked examples.

7 Floors and Partitions 116

Suspended floors; suspended concrete slabs; suspended timber
floors; plates; floor joists; joist strutting; floorboarding; partitions;
stud partitions; system partitions; worked examples.

8 Pitched and Flat Roofs 142

Introduction; pitched roofs; covering materials; interlocking tiles;
slates, plain tiles, roof void ventilation; measurement of roof
coverings; flashings; roof timbers; flat roofs; roof timbers; asphalt;
built-up felt; sheet metal; rainwater goods; worked examples.

9 Internal Finishes 199

Sequence of measurement; wall finishes; floor finishes; skirtings
and picture rails; ceiling finishes; painting and decorations;
worked example.

10 Windows 237
Order of measurement; windows; window schedules; worked
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Contents v

11 Doors 253
Order of measurement; doors; door frames; worked examples.

12 Staircases and Fittings 272

Timber staircases; standard timber staircases; metal staircases;
fittings; standard joinery fittings; worked example.

13 Water, Heating and Waste Services 285

Order of measurement; drawings for water supply and waste
services installations; connection to water mains; pipework
generally; water storage tanks or cisterns; holes for pipes;
sanitary appliances; builder’s work in connection with services
installations; schedules of water and waste services; heating and
hot water installations; worked example.

14 Electrical Services 316

General approach to measurement; general rules; mains supply;
transport installations; equipment; fittings; cables; conduit,
trunking, cable trays and busbar trunking; final sub-circuits;
sundries and builder’s work; worked example.

15 Drainage 328
Order of taking-off; drains; excavation of pipe trenches; disposal
of water, beds and surrounds and vertical casings; drain pipes; pipe
accessories; manholes/inspection chambers; sundries and associated
works; sewage disposal plant; septic tanks; cesspits; soakways;
worked example.

16 External Works 354

Roads, drives and paths; grassed areas; fencing and gates; trees,
shrubs and hedges; worked example.

17 Bill Preparation and Production 374

Presentation of a bill of quantities; structure of a bill of
quantities; preliminaries; preambles clauses or specification;
measured work; provisional, prime cost sums and contingencies;
dayworks; collection and summaries; processes involved in the
preparation of a bill of quantities; alternative formats of bills of
quantities; computer applications; building software services; CATO
enterprise; building information modelling; general conclusions.
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vi Contents

Appendix 1: List of Abbreviations 393

Appendix 2: Mensuration Formulae 394
Appendix 3: Metric Conversion Table 396
Appendix 4: Specifications for Internal Finishes 399

Bibliography 402
Index 405
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General Introduction


The quantity surveying profession largely developed through the 20th century
and in this century, but has now grown to such an extent that it forms the
second largest sector or specialism in the membership of the Society of Chartered
Surveyors (SCS) in Ireland and the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors
(RICS) in the UK. Quantity surveyors are employed in private practices, public
offices and by contractors, and they undertake a great diversity of work.
In more recent times, quantity surveyors are engaged increasingly in the
financial management of contracts, ensuring that clients secure value for money
and that the completed projects provide substantial added value to the client’s
property asset. In addition to being construction cost consultants, quantity
surveyors are playing an increasingly important role today in project manage-
ment, value management and facilities management. Furthermore, they are
sometimes engaged as lead consultants for large projects, where they are respon-
sible for the delivery of all professional services from inception to completion.
The earliest mention of surveying as a profession in Ireland was in 1750. An
Irish clergyman and architectural writer, John Payne, vicar of Castlerickard in
County Meath, put his name to a “True Bill of Materials required for the
Improvement at the Barrack of Horse at Trim” as “a full bill made by me John
Payne, Clerk and Surveyor of Quantities”.
The earliest quantity surveying firm of which records are available is a
Reading firm in the UK which was operating in 1785. There is little doubt that
other firms were in existence at this time and a number of Scottish quantity
surveyors met in 1802 and produced the first method of measurement. Up to
the middle of the nineteenth century it was the practice to measure and value
the building work after it had been completed and bills of quantities were not
The need for quantity surveyors became evident as building work increased
in volume and building clients became dissatisfied with the method adopted for
settling the cost of the work.
In the seventeenth century the architects were responsible for the erection
of buildings, as well as their design, and they employed a number of master
craftsmen who performed the work in each trade. Drawings were of a very
sketchy nature and much of the work was ordered during the course of the

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2 Seeley and Winfield’s Building Quantities Explained

job. On completion each master craftsman submitted an account for the mate-
rials used and labour employed on the work.
It later became the practice for many of the master craftsmen to engage
‘surveyors’ or ‘measurers’ to prepare these accounts. One of the major prob-
lems was to reconcile the amount of material listed on invoices with the quan-
tity measured on completion of the work. Some of the craftsmen’s surveyors
made extravagant claims for waste of material in executing the work on the site
and the architects also engaged surveyors to contest these claims.
General contractors became established during the period of the industrial
revolution and they submitted inclusive estimates covering the work of all
trades. Furthermore they engaged surveyors to prepare bills of quantities on
which their estimates were based. As competitive tendering became more
common the general contractors began to combine to appoint a single surveyor
to prepare a bill of quantities, which all the contractors priced. In addition, the
architect on behalf of the building owner usually appointed a second surveyor,
who collaborated with the surveyor for the contractors in preparing the bill of
quantities, which was used for tendering purposes.
In later years it became the practice to employ one surveyor only who
prepared an accurate bill of quantities and measured any variations that arose
during the progress of the project. This was the origin of the independent and
impartial quantity surveyor as he operates today.
An excellent account of the development of quantity surveying in Ireland
between 1860 and 1960 is provided by Aston (2007).


Frequently, one of the principal activities of the client’s quantity surveyor is the
preparation of bills of quantities, although this surveyor would also perform a
number of other functions. Consideration will now be given to the main
purposes of a bill of quantities:

(1) First and foremost it enables all contractors tendering for a contract to price
on exactly the same information.
(2) It limits the risk element borne by the contractor to the rates entered in the
bill and thereby results in more realistic and competitive tenders.
(3) It prompts the client and design team to finalise most project particulars
before the bill is prepared, and ideally based on full production drawing
and project specification.
(4) After being priced it provides a satisfactory basis for the valuation of varia-
tions and adjustments to the final account.
(5) Priced bills also provide a useful basis for the valuation of certified stage
payments throughout a contract.
(6) It gives an itemised list of the component parts of the building, with a full
description and the quantity of each part, and could form an approximate
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General Introduction 3

checklist for the successful contractor in ordering materials and compo-

nents and assessing his requirements of labour and other resources, and in
programming the work.
(7) After being priced, it provides a good basis for the preparation of cost
analyses for use in the cost planning of future projects.
(8) If prepared in annotated form, it will help in the locational identification of
the work.

With the increasing size and complexity of building operations, it would be a

challenge for a contractor to price a medium to large-sized project without a bill
of quantities.
In the absence of a bill of quantities being prepared on behalf of the client,
each contractor would have to prepare their own bill of quantities in the limited
amount of time allowed for tendering. This places a heavy burden on each
contractor and also involves additional costs which must be spread over the
contracts in which they are successful. It could also result in higher cost to the
client, as contractors may feel compelled to increase their prices to cover the
increased risks emanating from this approach.
Bills of quantities are not used to the same extent in non-traditional procure-
ment arrangements like design and build. In design and build contractors
normally price a brief provided by the employer which would usually include
a schematic design and specification, which the contractor has to further
develop into a scheme and fixed price.


It will probably help the student at this stage to describe briefly the form of the
contract documents on a traditional building contract incorporating a bill of
The principal documents are as follows:

(a) Conditions of Contract: The most common are the standard sets of conditions
published by the Royal Institute of Architects in Ireland (RIAI). They define
the terms under which the work is to be undertaken, the relationship
between the client, architect and contractor, the duties of the architect and
contractor, and terms of payment. These forms include the main RIAI form
of contract (with or without quantities). The ‘with quantities’ form is that
traditionally known as the yellow form in Ireland, where the bill of quan-
tities forms part of the contract documentation. The ‘without quantities’
form is traditionally known as the blue form in Ireland, where the draw-
ings and specification form part of the contract documentation and is the
only basis on which the contractor prices the work.
(b) Specification: This amplifies the information given in the contract drawings
and bill of quantities, and describes in detail the work to be executed under
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4 Seeley and Winfield’s Building Quantities Explained

the contract and the nature and quality of the materials, components and
workmanship. Where there is a bill of quantities, the specification will not
be a contract document unless so prescribed, and it may be incorporated in
the bill of quantities in the form of preambles.
(c) Bill of Quantities: This consists of a schedule of items of work to be carried
out under the contract with quantities entered against each item, prepared
in accordance with the Agreed Rules of Measurement, 4th Edition
(d) Contract Drawings: These depict the details and scope of the works to be
executed under the contract. They must be prepared in sufficient detail to
enable the contractor to satisfactorily price the bill of quantities.
(e) Form of Tender: This constitutes a formal offer to construct and complete the
contract works in accordance with the various contract documents for the
tender sum.

Several alternative building procurement systems evolved in the 1980s and

1990s, giving greater choice and flexibility, and often resulting in faster comple-
tion and the transfer of greater risk to the contractor. These included design and
build, management contracting, construction management, and design and
manage. In more recent years the Irish government has introduced new Public
Sector Building Contracts that shift significant risk onto the contractor. This
creates, for the first time in Ireland, standard forms of building contract for a
variety of public sector procurement arrangements (Howley and Lang, 2007).


The traditional method of preparation of a bill of quantities can conveniently be

broken down into two main processes:

(1) ‘Taking-off’, in which the dimensions are scaled or read from drawings and
entered in a recognised form on specially ruled paper, called ‘dimensions
paper’, and
(2) ‘Working-up’ which comprises squaring the dimensions, transferring the
resultant lengths, areas and volumes into a convenient order for billing.
The billing operation involves describing the work making up the complete
project together with the quantities involved in a suitable order under
Work Section or elemental headings. Developments in specialist software
have eliminated much of the traditional ‘working-up’ process by allowing
for the production of the bill of quantities directly following the input of
the dimensions in the taking-off process.

The most common approach used in Ireland is the ‘Direct Billing’ method
where the quantity surveyor measures the net quantities of each item of work
in the sequence it will be presented in the final bill of quantities.
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General Introduction 5

The term ‘quantities’ refers to the amounts of the different types of work
fixed in position which collectively give the total requirements of the building
contract. These quantities are set down in a standard form on ‘billing paper’,
which has been suitably ruled in columns, so that each item of work may be
conveniently detailed with a description of the work, the quantity involved and
a suitable reference. The billing paper also contains columns in which a contrac-
tor tendering for a particular project enters the rates and prices for each item of
work. These prices added together give the ‘Contract Sum’. It is the norm today
that computer aided software is used in the preparation of bills of quantities,
which ultimately print out the final quantities in a standard format.
The recognised units of measurement are detailed in the Agreed ARM4. This
document is extremely comprehensive and covers the majority of items of
building work that are normally encountered. Many items are measured in
metres and may be cubic, square or linear. Some items are enumerated and
others, such as structural steelwork and steel reinforcing bars, are measured by
the tonne.
The bill of quantities thus sets down the various items of work in a logical
sequence and recognised manner, so that they may be readily priced by
contractors. A contractor will build up in detail a price for each item contained
in the bill of quantities, allowing for the cost of the necessary labour, materials
and plant, together with the probable wastage on materials and generally a
percentage to cover establishment charges and profit. It is most important that
each billed item should be so worded that there is no ambiguity as to the nature
and extent of the item which is being priced. Contractors often tender in keen
competition with one another and this calls for very skilful pricing to secure
Where a bill of quantities is prepared in connection with a building contract,
it will almost invariably form a contract document. The successful contractor is
fully bound by the contents of all the contract documents when they sign the
contract. The other contract documents on a normal building contract are the
RIAI Articles of Agreement, Conditions of Contract, Contract Drawings and
Form of Tender.


It would be misleading to imply that all measurement is based on the applica-

tion of formalised rules of measurement. The use of ARM4 rules is mainly asso-
ciated with traditional procurement systems where the architect is the lead
consultant. This involves the preparation of the bills of quantities by the client’s
quantity surveyor, and also in remeasurement for final account purposes.
Other procurement methods, including specification and drawings, design
and build, management contracting, etc., usually place the responsibility for
preparing documentation, to facilitate pricing, upon the contractor or subcon-
tractor. In these cases, measurement is still necessary as it forms the most
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6 Seeley and Winfield’s Building Quantities Explained

frequently used mechanism for preparing a price. To achieve speed and reduce
the cost of presentation in such circumstances, it is normal to concentrate the
measurement on the cost significant items, which are also made inclusive of the
associated peripheral aspects of the work. This practice departs from the notion
of a standard method of measurement, as the cost significant items vary from
project to project. However, the risk of misunderstandings arising are
minimised by the measurer and estimator either being one and the same person
or at least in close contact with one another. With the progressive adoption of
various alternative forms of procurement, there has been a major shift in the
point of measurement from the client’s quantity surveyor to contractors and
The current RICS Measurement Initiative is proposing a suite of measure-
ment rules for consistency and continuity throughout the entire cost and meas-
urement process. The proposed documents will comprise rules and guidance
notes covering the various stages of preparing cost estimates, bills of quantities
and subsequently the whole life costs of construction.
Although it has been established that a number of measurement approaches
are employed within the construction industry, this does not alter the need to
learn initially how to measure using the ARM4 rules. Once this technique has
been mastered, it is a relatively straightforward matter to adapt to other forms
of measurement.


A working party was set up in 1991 by the SCS and the CIF to carry out
research into the industries’ views of UK Standard Method of Measurement,
6th Edition (SMM6) and to investigate possible alternatives. The working party
produced and examined pilot bills of quantities using a number of alternative
methods of measurement in order to assess the differences.
Eventually the quantity surveyors divisional committee of the SCS and the
CIF agreed that the Principles of Measurement (International) (POMI) with
amendments would come into operation from 1st April 1992 for a trial period
of 18 months. The Department of Finance advised that their view was that
SMM6 should continue to be used on all public sector contracts. The working
party met regularly during the 18-month trial period.
Both the SCS and the Construction Industry Federation (CIF) surveyed their
members to establish their views on the operation of POMI. The CIF also
received a report from a sub-committee of estimators setting out their views in
relation to POMI. The working party decided to carry out a joint survey of the
SCS and CIF members in June 1993. Thirty-four practices, twenty-six contrac-
tors and twelve subcontractors responded. Of those who responded 59%
preferred POMI with amendments; 29% preferred SMM6 with amendments;
9% preferred SMM7; and 3% preferred other methods.
Although 71% of quantity surveyors wanted a change, the working party
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General Introduction 7

met on 23rd August 1993 to consider the response to the survey and decide on
further action. It was then that the recommendation was made that a new
ARM should be drafted. In October 1993, the SCS and the CIF agreed to
produce an agreed set of Rules of Measurement for use in Ireland.
The ARM was designed in a tabular format and based on Work Sections
similar to the Standard Method of Measurement, 7th edition (SMM7) in the
UK. It was the objective that the ARM would be used on all major construction
projects in both the public and private sectors. The ARM was designed to:

(1) be an overall simplification of measurement, while still recognising cost

significant items;
(2) establish a closer link with present-day methods of construction;
(3) introduce a tabular layout in work sections;
(4) be a set of rules, which must be followed as distinct from principles of
(5) rationalise the input required to produce a bill of quantities, preventing
unnecessary measurement;
(6) and create a more user-friendly document.


Traditional trade bills of quantities are not compatible with the way the design
of a building evolves. In designing, the architect is not thinking in terms of
quantities of concrete or brickwork but in terms of elements of the building. A
building element can be described as a functional unit of a building. The
National Standard Building Elements (NSBE) committee in Ireland selected
such design elements as the cost centres for cost control purposes. It is for this
reason that the vast majority of quantity surveying practices present bills of
quantities in an elemental format. Standard elements are common to the archi-
tect, engineer and quantity surveyor and therefore facilitate co-ordinated
working between all the design team members.
The following is a list of NSBE elements used by quantity surveyors in the
production of costs estimates and bills of quantities in Ireland:

(06) Preliminaries
(19) Substructure
(21) External Walls
(22) Internal Walls, Partitions
(23) Floors, Galleries
(24) Stairs, Ramps
(27) Roof Structure
(28) Frames
(31) External Walls: Completions within Openings
(32) Internal Walls: Completions within Openings
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8 Seeley and Winfield’s Building Quantities Explained

(33) Floors: Completions within Openings

(34) Stairs: Completion within Openings
(37) Roofs: Completions within Openings
(41) External Wall Finishes
(42) Internal Walls Finishes
(43) Floor Finishes
(44) Stair Finishes
(45) Ceiling Finishes
(47) Roof Finishes
(5-) Services (Mainly Piped and Ducted)
(6-) Services (Mainly Electrical)
(7-) Fittings and Furniture
(10) Prepared Site
(20) Site Structures
(30) Site Enclosures
(40) Roads, Paths and Pavings
(50) Site Services (Mainly Piped and Ducted)
(60) Site Services (Mainly Electrical)
(70) Site Fittings
(80) Landscape, Play Areas


The client’s quantity surveyor performs a variety of functions. The underlying

theme of a quantity surveyor’s work is one of cost management rather than the
preparation of bills of quantities and settlement of final accounts, whether they
are engaged in private practice or in the public sector. The functions are:

(1) Preparing approximate estimates of cost in the very early stages of the
formulation of a building project, giving advice on alternative materials,
components and types of construction and assisting with feasibility
(2) Cost planning and value analysis during the design stage of a project to
ensure that the client obtains the best possible value for money, including
adding value to property assets, preferably having regard to total costs
using life cycle costing techniques. Costs should be distributed in the most
realistic way throughout the various sections or elements of the building
and tender figures should be kept within the client’s budget.
(3) Advising on the most appropriate form of building procurement, having
regard to the type of project, quality, speed of construction, apportion-
ment of risk and price certainty.
(4) Preparation of bills of quantities and other contract documents relating to
the project.
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General Introduction 9

(5) Examining tenders and priced bills of quantities and reporting the find-
(6) Negotiating rates with contractors on negotiated contracts and dealing
with cost reimbursement contracts, design and build, management and
other forms of contract.
(7) Valuing work in progress and making recommendations as to payments
to be made to the contractor, including advising on the financial effect of
(8) Preparing the final account on completion of the contract works.
(9) Advising on the financial and contractual aspects of contractors’ claims.
(10) Giving cost advice and information at all stages of the contract and
preparing cost analyses and cost reports to clients.
(11) Specialist advice, such as technical auditing, valuations for fire insurance,
giving advice on funding, grants, capital allowances and taxation, risk
analysis and management, bank monitoring, project management, build-
ing services cost advice and other related matters including health and
safety and quality control.

The contractor’s quantity surveyor performs a different range of functions. In

a contractor’s organisation, the senior quantity surveying function would typi-
cally be the responsibility of a senior chartered quantity surveyor who could
have a senior executive or director status.
The duties of the contractor’s quantity surveyor will vary according to the size
of the company. These tend to be very wide in scope with the smaller compa-
nies, but rather more specialised with the larger firms.
In the smaller company, their activities will be of a general nature and

(1) Preparing bills of quantities for small contracts and agreeing measurements
with the client’s quantity surveyor.
(2) Collecting information about the cost of various operations from which the
contractor can prepare future estimates.
(3) Preparing precise details of the materials required for the projects in hand
and compiling target figures so that the operatives can be awarded produc-
tion bonuses.
(4) Preparing interim costings so that the financial position of the project can
be ascertained as the work proceeds and appropriate action taken where
necessary; planning contracts and preparing progress charts in conjunction
with the general foremen/site manager and making application to the
architect for variation orders if drawings or site instructions vary the work.
(5) Agreeing subcontractors’ accounts; placing subcontract orders and compar-
ing the costs of alternative methods of carrying out various operations, so
that the most economical procedure can be adopted.
(6) Advising on the implementation of contract conditions and different
contractual methods.
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10 Seeley and Winfield’s Building Quantities Explained

In larger companies, the contractor’s quantity surveyor will not usually cover
such a wide range of activities, since different departments handle specific activ-
ities. During the training period, the trainee quantity surveyor will probably
spend some time in each department. One particular function, which is very
complementary to the functions of the quantity surveyor, is that of the estima-
tor. The estimator is vital to the success of the contracting organisation. The esti-
mator’s main responsibility is to accurately predict the most economic costs for
construction, in a way which is both clear and consistent. Estimators also
manage the production of the estimate and must ensure that there are adequate
resources for this task. They must also co-ordinate other company departments,
such as programming, buying and construction, to their work requirements,
producing information on time and in the correct format. The estimator is also
responsible for liaising with general management on construction methods and
available resources.
Estimators must fully understand measurement codes and how this affects
the build-up of rates used for estimating purposes. For example, they must be
aware that all wastage of materials must be taken into account when they are
pricing tenders. In addition, estimators are frequently required to prepare
tenders based on drawings and specifications. This means that they will have to
measure the quantities for that tender. They must also be constantly in tune
with the situation both on-site and off-site. They must continually analyse and
revise to achieve success in tender competitions.


The quantity surveyor acts as an essential advisor on matters of cost, between

clients, designers, engineers and building contractors. In addition to preparing
bills of quantities, they can find employment opportunities in the professional
disciplines of quantity surveying with advice on a consultancy basis about
development finance, construction cost and life cycle operating costs for
construction costs.
The future direction of quantity surveying will be influenced by industralisa-
tion, structural transformation of economies, information technology break-
throughs and increased globalisation of construction markets.
The roles of quantity surveyors have evolved along with these changes and
challenges. In 1998 the RICS QS Think Tank Report noted that clients were crit-
ical of traditional quantity surveying services and were demanding a different
and more comprehensive range of services.
In Ireland there are considerable variations of quantity surveying firms, in
respect to ownership, structure, size and total workforce. In relatively recent
years we have seen established UK practices taking controlling interests in the
larger quantity surveying practices in Ireland. Although current practices in
Ireland are dominated by traditional practices, there is considerable evidence
that practices have diversified from the more traditional boundaries.
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General Introduction 11

This book is focused on the production of bills of quantities, which remains a

very important core service provided by professional quantity surveying prac-
tices. There is substantial usage of specialist software by quantity surveying
firms in the production of bills of quantities which will be discussed in greater
detail in Chapter 17.
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Before taking off any dimensions the quantity surveyor normally makes a
careful study of all the drawings relating to the project to obtain the overall
picture and become familiar with the main details. At the same time it is neces-
sary to ensure that all the drawings are complete and that there are adequate
specification particulars, to enable the measurement to proceed unhindered by
inadequate information. The next step is usually a visit to the site to obtain
details and measurements of any work required on the site, often termed
‘prepared site’. These works include breaking up paving, taking down bound-
ary walls and fences, and possibly demolishing existing buildings, felling trees,
grubbing up hedges, and similar work.
Some contracts involve alterations to existing buildings and these are some-
times termed ‘spot items’ and are normally kept together in a separate ARM
Work Section of the bill of quantities headed ‘Demolition and alterations’
(ARM4: Work Section C). Many of the details relating to spot items will also
need to be obtained on the site.
When visiting the site the quantity surveyor should also be on the look-out
for any unusual items which affect cost, and which should accordingly be
included in the billed descriptions. A check on the type of soil and groundwater
level comes into this category, unless the information is supplied by the engi-
neer, probably in the form of particulars from trial pits or boreholes excavated
on the site. With landfill or brownfield sites, it is also necessary to check on
possible land contamination, with the likely consequential high cost of remov-
ing contaminated soil and remedial measures, including the extraction of land-
fill gases such as methane.


It is necessary to give details of ground investigation reports indicating the

nature of the ground, ground water table level and date when established (Pre-
Contract level), trial pits or boreholes stating their location, over or under
ground services, nature of contaminated or hazardous materials, location draw-
ings, material filling requirements and limitations on methods of execution.

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42 Seeley and Winfield’s Building Quantities Explained


Removal of trees and tree stumps is measured as an enumerated item, includ-

ing grubbing up roots, disposal of materials and filling voids, classified in the
girth ranges (D22. Tree girths are measured at a height of 1.00 m above
ground and stump girths at the top of the stumps, as per D23, Measurement
Rules, Item 1. Clearing site vegetation is measured in m2 with a description
sufficient for identification purposes (D22. Site vegetation embraces
bushes, scrub, undergrowth, hedges, trees and tree stumps ≤ 0.45 girth, as per
D23, Measurement Scope, Item 2. The first building operation is normally the
excavation of the topsoil for preservation over the whole area of the building
and this usually forms the first excavation item in the Excavating and
Earthwork Work Section of the bill of quantities. The area is measured to the
outer extremities of the foundations in m2 and the average depth, often
150 mm, is included in the description (D22. Disposal of topsoil on the
site in temporary spoil heaps for reuse is covered by a separate cubic item
stating the location of any spoil heaps (D24. Spreading hardcore on
the site to make up levels is measured in m3, distinguishing between average
thicknesses ≤ and > 225 mm (D24. Disposal of excavated material
off the site is measured in m3, giving details where appropriate of specified loca-
tions (D24. or handling and where active, toxic or hazardous materi-
als are involved (D24. If the existing topsoil over the site of the
building is to be preserved, then this forms a separate billed item measured in
m2, stating the method of preserving the turf, such as stacking in rolls in a
specific location (D22.


Where the site is sloping or the ground levels are generally higher than is
required then further excavation is required to reduce the level of the ground
to the specified formation level. This excavation is measured in m3, as excava-
tion to reduce levels (D22., giving the appropriate maximum depth
range. The excavation rules in ARM4 are based on all excavation being carried
out by mechanical plant.


Foundation trench excavation is measured in m3, stating the commencing level

where >250 mm below existing ground level, as per D23, Measurement Rules,
Item 4 and the maximum depth range in accordance with D22., namely
≤ 2.00 m and > 2.00 m depth in 2 m stages.
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Substructure 43

Quantities for all excavation items shall be taken as the bulk before excava-
tion, as per D23, Measurement Rules, Item 3. Excavating below groundwater
level is given in m3 as extra over any types of excavating (D22.
Excavating around existing services is measured in m as extra on items for
excavating, stating the type of service, such as gas or water mains, electricity or
ESB cables or sewers (D22. While excavating around existing services
crossing excavation is an enumerated extra over item (D22., since it is
likely to entail hand digging, and most other excavation will be carried out by
Breaking out rock; concrete; reinforced concrete; brickwork, blockwork or
stonework shall each be described and measured separately in m3 as extra on
items of excavating (D24.1.1.1–4.0), while breaking out existing hard pavings
is measured in m2, stating the thickness, as extra on excavating (D24.
Rock is defined as any material which is of such size or position that it can only
be removed by wedges, special plant or explosives, as per D25, Measurement
Scope, Item 1.
Obstructions are typically included in the bill of quantities as a provisional
quantity, as the exact extent of such work will be unknown at the time of
preparing the tender documentation. This work will be later remeasured, as
and when encountered on-site and the extent of work will be recorded and
agreed between the contractor and the client’s quantity surveyor and paid at
the rates included in the priced bill of quantities.
Working space allowance to excavations, categorised in five types of excava-
tion as D24.2.3–7, is measured in m2, where the face of the excavation is <
0.60 m from the face of formwork, rendering, tanking or protective walls, as per
D25, Measurement Rules, Items 4–8. Working space tends to apply to more
complex foundations, such as basements.
Three sets of levels will be required before foundation work can be measured:
(1) bottom of foundations, (2) ground levels and (3) finished floor levels.
When measuring foundation trenches it is advisable to separate the
trenches into external and internal walls. Where the external wall foundation
is of constant width and the site is level, its measurement presents no real
difficulty with the length being obtained by the normal girthing method, as
outlined in Chapter 3. Where the site is sloping and stepped foundations are
introduced the process of measurement of the foundation trench excavation
is more complex, since each length of trench will have to be dealt with
After measuring the excavation for external wall foundations, the internal
wall foundations will be taken, and this will often involve a number of varying
lengths and widths of foundations, which are best collected together in waste
and the drawing suitably marked up as each length is extracted. Care must be
taken to adjust for the overlap of trenches at the intersection of the external
and internal walls as shown in Figure 13.
The external wall foundation trench will have been measured around the
whole building in the first instance, and the hatched section will have to be
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44 Seeley and Winfield’s Building Quantities Explained


100 internal walls

Extent of overlap Spread of foundations


300 cavity wall

Figure 13 Intersection of internal and external walls.

deducted at each intersection when arriving at the length of internal founda-

tion trench.


The subsequent disposal of excavated material forms a separate billed item in

m3, either of soil to be stored on-site (D24.3.10.14–15.3), used as filling to make
up levels (D24., filling to excavations (D24., or to be
removed off the site (D24., as illustrated in Figure 14 for a traditional
strip foundation. In the first instance, the total volume of excavation to reduce
levels, foundation trenches etc. should be added together, which is followed
with a deduction for material that may be required to be retained for backfill-
ing to excavations.

Filling to
excavations, Excavate topsoil for
topsoil preservation and disposal

Taken as
backfilling with
Backfilling with
imorted hardcore

Taken as Excavate trench

disposal of

Figure 14 Excavating and filling: traditional strip foundation.

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Substructure 45

However, in other circumstances different approaches are more appropriate,

such as for the trench fill foundation as shown in Figure 15 and the alternative
strip foundation in Figure 16. In both cases the best approach is to take the
volume of trench excavation as disposal of excavated material off-site.
Handling of excavated material is normally at the discretion of the contractor
unless detailed in the description (D24.


Compacting the bottom of the excavation is a deemed to be included item and

is covered in the excavation item as per D23, Deemed to be Included, Item 6.
Surface treatments, such as blinding hardcore with sand, is measured in square
metres (D24. Compacting of filling is deemed to be included also, as
per D25, Deemed to be Included, Item 5.

Excavate topsoil for preservation

and disposal on-site

Filling to

Excavate trench and

disposal of excavated
material off-site

Figure 15 Excavating and filling: trench fill foundation.

Filling to
excavations, Excavate topsoil for
topsoil preservation and disposal

Taken as
backfilling with Backfilling with
imported hardcore
material Excavate trench
and disposal of
excavated material

Figure 16 Excavating and filling: strip foundation with hardcore backfill internally.
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46 Seeley and Winfield’s Building Quantities Explained


Basement excavation is measured to the outside of foundations in m3 stating

the maximum depth range. Working space allowance is measured in m2 where
formwork, rendering, tanking or protective walls are required to the face of
construction below starting level of excavation but only where the face of the
excavation is ≥ 0.60 m distant, as per D25, Measurement Rules, Item 4. The
area measured is calculated by multiplying the girth of the tanking or protec-
tive walls by the depth of excavation below the starting level of the excavation,
where the height of the formwork or protective walls below starting level of
excavation is > 1.00 m or where the bottom of the formwork or protective walls
is > 1.00 m below starting level of excavation, as per D25, Measurement Rules,
Item 5. Working space shall be measured full depth where rendering or tanking
is required, as per D25, Measurement Rules, Item 6. Additional earthwork
support, disposal, backfilling, work below groundwater level and breaking out
are deemed to be included (D25, Deemed to be Included, Item 1).
Earthwork support is a deemed to be included, as per D23, Deemed to be
Included, Item 4.


Concrete particulars are to include the kind and quality of materials, mix
details, tests of materials and finished work, methods of compaction and curing
and other requirements (F36: Information Required), but much of this infor-
mation may be included in preamble clauses or cross-references to project spec-
ification clauses. Concrete poured on or against earth or unblinded hardcore
shall be so described (F36. Concrete foundations include attached
column bases and attached pile caps, as per F37, Measurement Scope, Item 1,
while isolated foundations include isolated column bases and pile caps as per
F37, Measurement Scope, Item 2. Beds and slabs include attached beams and
beam casings, as per F37, Measurement Scope, Item 4.
In-situ concrete is measured in m3 and the degree of difficulty in placing the
concrete is reflected by giving the thickness ranges ≤ 150 mm and > 150 mm in
the case of beds and slabs (F36.9–
On a sloping site the concrete foundations will probably be stepped and it will
be necessary to measure the additional concrete at the step and a linear item of
formwork to the face of the step classified in two stages of depth: ≤ 250 mm and
250–500 mm (F42. Where the formwork exceeds 500 mm in height
this is measured in m2 (F42.
In the example shown in Figure 17 it will be necessary to add a 450 mm
length of foundation 225 mm thick.
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Substructure 47

Concrete foundation 21 N/mm2

(20 mm2 aggregate)




Figure 17 Stepped foundation.

Note: Concrete has been classified by strength, i.e. 21 N/mm2 (20 mm aggre-
gate), as an alternative to a designed mix to BS5328 or a specified mix of
concrete, such as 1:3:6 – 20 mm aggregate)
If the concrete foundations are reinforced with fabric reinforcement, the
reinforcement is measured net in m2 stating the mesh reference, weight per m2
and minimum laps (F40.2.4.3). Bar reinforcement is billed in tonnes, keeping
each diameter (nominal size) separate, although it will be entered by length on
the dimensions sheet, distinguishing between straight, bent and curved bars
(F40. Hooks and tying wire, and spacers and chairs which are at the
discretion of the contractor are deemed to be included (F41, Deemed to be
Included, Items 1–2).
Figure 18 shows an attached ground beam to an in-situ concrete bed. Beds
and slabs include attached beams and beams casings, as per F37, Measurement
Scope, Item 4. A typical take-off entry for this item is then shown.

150 concrete bed




Figure 18 Attached ground beam.

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48 Seeley and Winfield’s Building Quantities Explained



30 N/mm2 (20 mm aggregate)


≤ 150 mm; reinforced

10.00 20 m3
0.15 15.00 (main slab)
1.00 5.00 (attached ground beam)
––––– –––––


In-situ concrete beds are measured in m3, stating the appropriate thickness
range as ≤ 150 mm or > 150 mm and including in the description where poured
on or against earth or unblinded hardcore. Treating the surface of in-situ
concrete is classified and given in m2 (F38.2.6–13.0.2–5). Common surface
treatments include power floating, trowelling, hacking, grinding, sand blasting,
bush hammering and brushed. A tamped finish is deemed to be included, as per
F39, Deemed to be Included, Item 5.
Hardcore and similar beds are measured in m3, classified as to whether the
average thickness is ≤ or > 250 mm, the nature of the filling material and its
source and/or treatment (D24. The measurement of filling is illus-
trated in Example 1. Where the surface of hardcore filling requires blinding, this
is measured separately in m2 (D24.


Precast concrete beam and block floors are now being used increasingly, partic-
ularly for the ground floors of domestic buildings, as they provide a soundly
constructed floor, free from dry rot and other forms of insect and fungal attack
to which timber floors are susceptible, with a good platform to receive the insu-
lation and floor finish. A typical form of construction is illustrated in Figure 19.
Such work is measured in m2 in accordance with F46.2.1.1. The concrete, rein-
forcement and formwork to be included in composite construction shall be
described, as per F47, Measurement Rules, Item 2. Another alternative to rein-
forced in-situ concrete slabs on upper floors, as shown in Example 11, is to use
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Substructure 49

precast concrete hollow core slabs grouted after laying. These are measured in
the same way as the precast concrete beam and block floor in Example 2. This
type of floor has the advantage of faster erection times and the virtual elimina-
tion of shuttering and pouring of concrete.

Figure 19 Precast concrete block and beam floor.


It has been customary to include all substructure work in a separate section of

the bill, including brickwork up to and including damp-proof course. However,
ARM4 subdivides this work into several Work Sections: D: Excavating and
Earthwork; F: Concrete Work; and G: Brickwork and Blockwork. Hence the
substructure work will be subdivided into these Work Sections in the bill of
quantities, albeit within an overall elemental bill called Substructure. The
substructure element will include for measuring all the work, including the
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50 Seeley and Winfield’s Building Quantities Explained

rising walls up to the damp-proof course level, which is typically 150 mm above
the external ground level of the building.

Brick and Block Walling

Block and brick walling is measured in m2 and described as wall in trenches,
stating the nominal thickness, such as 100 mm, and whether there is facework
(fair finish) on one or both sides (G48.2.1.0). It should be noted that all brick-
work is deemed to be measured on its centreline, as per G49, Measurement
Rules, Item 1. The formation of the cavity is measured in m2 (G52. Wall
ties shall be given in the description stating the type and spacing, as per G53,
Measurement Rules, Item 1.

Brick facework is included in the measurement of the brickwork on which it
occurs, with a description of the kind, quality and size of bricks, type of bond,
composition and mix of mortar and type of pointing (G48: Information
Required). In practice these particulars could alternatively be included in
preamble clauses or be cross-referenced to a project specification. Specifying the
precise type of brick or block is a better approach as it simplifies the task of the
estimator in determining its relative hardness and ease of laying, and should
lead to more realistic pricing.

Damp-proof Courses
Damp-proof courses are measured in m where it is ≤ 225 mm wide
(G52. and in m2 where > 225 mm wide (G52. Vertical, raking,
horizontal and stepped work, are so described (G52.–7).
The description of the damp-proof course contains particulars of the materi-
als used, including the kind and quality of the materials (G52: Information
Required). No allowance is made for laps, as per G53, Deemed to be Included,
Item 1.

Damp-proof Membranes
Damp-proof membranes are measured under ARM4 Work Section I: Roofing,
Cladding and Waterproofing. Radon membranes are also measured under this
section. This work is normally measured as one continuous sheet in m2 stating
that it is horizontal and > 300 mm in width (I66.2.1.1).

Floor insulation falls are measured under ARM4 Work Section J: Woodwork:
Ironmongery, Accessories and Sundries. This work is measured in m2 stating
the specification and thickness (J84.
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Substructure 51


A Worked example follows covering the substructure to a small building. The

importance of a logical sequence in taking off cannot be overemphasised. It
simplifies the taking-off process and reduces the risk of omission of items.
On the drawings a decimal in the dimensions indicates measurements in m,
for example 10.000. Where there is no decimal marker, the dimensions are
normally in millimetres.

Take-off List
It is good practice to prepare a take-off list prior to commencing the take off.
This ensures that items are measured in the corrrect sequence, as they would
appear in the final bill of quanities. The exercise also helps in consulting ARM4
to see if there are any unusual classifications of work. Most importantly, the list
will help to raise any appropriate queries with the project architect or engineer
in respect of discrepencies in project information or omitted information.
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52 Seeley and Winfield’s Building Quantities Explained

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54 Seeley and Winfield’s Building Quantities Explained


DRG REF: Drawings 1 and 1a

Drawing 2 (Alternative Precast Block and Beam detail)

ARM ref Description Unit

D22. Excavation topsoil for preservation; average depth 150 mm m2
D22. Excavation to reduced levels; depth ≤ 2 m m3
D22. Excavation foundation trenches; depth ≤ 2 m m3
D24. Provisional; extra over on excavation items for breaking up rock m3
D24. Disposal of water; surface Item
D24. Disposal; topsoil for preservation; location; weed killer m3
D24. Disposal of excavated material off-site m3
D24. Filling clause 804; to excavation; average thickness > 250 mm m3
D24. Filling clause 804; to make up levels depth ≤ 250 mm thick m3
D24. Surface treatments; sand blinding to hardcore m2
CONCRETEWORK: In-situ Concrete
F36. Foundations; poured on or against earth m3
F36. Concrete beds; ≤ 150 mm thick m3
F36. Sundries; concrete filling to cavity m3
F38. Power floating slab m2
CONCRETEWORK: Reinforcement
F40. Reinforcement – Bars Tns
F40. Mesh; A142; lapped 300 mm m2
BRICKWORK AND BLOCKWORK: Brickwork / Blockwork
G48. Blockwork; walls in trenches 100 mm thick m2
G48. Labour on blockwork Item
G52. Forming cavities; between new walls; 100 mm wide; 150 mm
deep cavity insulation m2
G52. DPC; ≤ 225 mm; 100 mm laps; horizontal m
WATERPROOFING: Waterproof and Gas Proof Non-Metal Flexible Sheet Coverings
I66. DPM; horizontal > 300 mm wide m2
WOODWORK: Ironmongery, Accessories and Sundries
J84. Insulation; horizontal; > 300 mm wide m2
J84. Insulation; vertical; 150 mm high m2


F38. Surface finish; power floating m2
CONCRETE WORK: Precast Concrete
F46. Composite construction; precast beam and block floor slab m2
BRICKWORK and BLOCKWORK – Ancillaries to Brickwork
G52. Wall ventilators Nr
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Substructure 55
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56 Seeley and Winfield’s Building Quantities Explained

150 mm SLAB

GL 10.000

175 h/c

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Substructure 57
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58 Seeley and Winfield’s Building Quantities Explained

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60 Seeley and Winfield’s Building Quantities Explained

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Substructure 61
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62 Seeley and Winfield’s Building Quantities Explained

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64 Seeley and Winfield’s Building Quantities Explained

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Substructure 65
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66 Seeley and Winfield’s Building Quantities Explained

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Substructure 67
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68 Seeley and Winfield’s Building Quantities Explained

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Accuracy of Dimensions 22 Rough and Fair Cutting 71

Adjustment of Openings 20 Rubble Walling 76
Agreed Rules of Measurement 6–7, Special Bricks and Blocks 70
12 Surface Features 72
Deemed to be Included 14, 22 Worked Example 77–107
General Attendances 26 Builder’s Work in Connection 287
General Rules 12–13 Building Information Modelling
Measurement Rules 14 390–2
Measurement Scope 14
Special Attendances 26 Ceiling Finishes 204–5
Tabulated Rules 13 Cesspits 337
Asphalt 152 Channels 335
Attendances 26 Chimney Breasts and Stacks 108
Cisterns 287
Back Drop Manhole 334 Cold Water Supply 285
Back Inlet Gully 333 Builder’s Work in Connection 287
Bellmouths 34 Connection to Water Mains 286
Benching 335 Holes for Pipes 287
Bill of Quantities 4, 12, 374–92 Pipework 286
Alternative Formats 381 Water Storage Tanks 287
Computer Applications 382 Worked Example 292–315
Contingencies 375, 379 Composite Items 27
Dayworks 375, 378 Composite Walls 74
Functions 2–3 Computer Applications 382–90
Measured Work 375, 378 Building Information Modelling
Preambles 375, 378 390–2
Preliminaries 375, 377 Building Software Services 383–8
Presentation 374 Cato Enterprises 388–90
Prime Cost Sum 379 Concrete Suspended Floors 116
Production 380–1 Construction Industry Federation (CIF)
Provisional Sums 379 6
Structure 375 Contingencies 379
Blockwork 50, 69 Contract Documentation 3–4
Brick, Block and Stone Walling Bills of Quantities 4
69–107 Conditions of Contract 3
Attached Piers 72 Contract Drawings 4
Brick and Block Walling 69–74 Form of tender 4
Chimney Breasts and Stacks 71 Specification 3
Composite Walls 74 Contractor’s Quantity Surveyor 9
Facework Ornamental Bands 73 Cost Planning 8
Facework Quoins 73
Projections 71 Damp Proof Courses 50

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406 Index

Damp Proof Membrane 50 Drives 354

Dayworks 379 Fencing 355
Deemed to be Included 13, 22 Gates 355
Design and Build 4 Grassed Areas 355
Design Schedules 23 Hedges 356
Dimensions Paper 14 Paths 354
Alterations to Dimensions 17 Roads 354
Deductions 16 Scrubs 356
Description Column 15 Trees 356
Descriptions 20 Worked Example 356–73
Dimension Column 15 Extra Over Items 24, 32
Figured Dimensions 18
Measurement of Irregular Figures Facework 50
17 Fencing 355
Numbering of Dimension Sheets 18 Fire, Flue and Vents 108
Order of Dimensions 15 Breasts and Stacks 108
Signposting 15 Chimney Breasts and Stacks 108
Spacing of Items 15 Fireplaces 108
Squaring Column 15 Flues 108
Timesing Column 15 Flues to Gas-fired Appliances 108
Title of Dimension Sheets 18 Vents 108
Waste 15 Worked Example 111–15
Direct Billing 4 Fireplaces 109
Doors 253–71 Fittings 275–6
Door Frames 254 Kitchen Fittings 276
Worked Examples 255–71 Flashings 149
Drainage 328 Flat Roofs 152
Drain Pipes 332 Worked Example 190–8
Pipe Accessories 332 Floorboarding 118
Worked Example 339 Floor Finishes 202–3
Drawings 22 Floors 116–18
Drives 354 Suspended Concrete Slabs 116
Suspended Timber Floors 116–18
Earthworks 34–8 Worked Example 122–33
Cuttings and Embankments 36–8 Flues to Gas-fired Appliances 109
Sloping Site Excavation 34–6 Form of Tender 4
Electrical Services 316–27
Builder’s Work in Connection 317 Gable Ladders 150
Busbar Trunking 317 Gates 355
Cable Trays 317 General Attendances 26
Cables 317 Girth of Buildings 28–31
Conduit 317 Rectangular Buildings 28
Final Sub-circuits 317 Irregular Buildings 30
Fittings 317 Grassed Areas 355
Mains Supply 317 Gullies 333
Sundries 317
Transport Installation 317 Heating and Hot Water Installation
Trunking 317 288–91
Worked Example 320
Estimator 10 Insulation 50
External Walls 69 Inspection Chambers 335
Worked Examples 77–86 Internal Finishes 199–236
External Works 354–73 Ceiling Finishes 204
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Index 407

Floor Finishes 202 Principles of Measurement

Painting and Decorating 205–6 (International) (POMI) 6
Skirtings and Picture Rails 203 Provisional Sums 379
Wall Finishes 200 Public Sector Building Contracts 4
Worked Example 208–36
Internal Walls 71 Quantity Surveyor 1
Internal Block Walls 87 History 1–2
Worked Example 87–9 Work Processes 4–5
Functions 9–10
Management Contracting 4 Changes 10–11
Manholes 333 Query Sheets 24
Covers 334
Benchings 335 Roads 354
Step Irons 335 Rodding Eye 336
Measurement of Areas 31–4 Roof Coverings 142–8
Bellmouths 34 Interlocking Tiles 142
Irregular Areas 32 Plain Tiles 147
Segments 33 Slates 142
Trapazoids 32 Roof Ventilation 147–8
Mensuration Applications 28–40 Royal Iristitution of Chartered
Metal Casement Windows 104 Surveyors (RICS) 1
Worked Example 104–7 Rubble Walling 76
Metal Sheet Cladding 75 Worked Example 98–103
Metal Staircases 273–5
Mortar Mixes 70 Septic Tanks 336–7
Shrubs 356
National Standard Building Elements Skirtings and Picture Rails 203
7–8 Slate Coverings 142, 146
Natural Stone 76 Soakaways 338
Nominated Subcontractors 26 Society of Chartered Surveyors (SCS)
Nominated Suppliers 25 1
Special Attendances 26
Painting and Decorating 205–7 Specifications 3, 378
Partitions 119–21 Staircases 272–5
Stud Partitions 120 Metal 273–5
System Partitions 120–1 Timber 272–5
Worked Example 134–41 Worked Example 278–84
Paths 354 Standard Method of Measurement, 7th
Pipework 286 Edition 6
Pitched Roofs 39–40, 142–89 Standard Products 23
Covering Materials 142 Step Irons 335
Flashings 149 Stud Partitions 120
Hips 151 Substructure 41–51
Interlocking Tiles 142 Basement Excavation 46
Plain Tiles 147 Concrete Beds 48
Roof Timbers 149 Concrete Foundations 46
Roof Void Ventilation 147 Disposal of Excavated Material 44
Slates 142 Excavation of Foundation Trenches
Worked Examples 156–89 42
Preambles 24, 378 Excavation to Reduce Levels 42
Preliminaries 375–7 General Items 41
Prepared Site 41 Precast Concrete Floors 48
Prime Cost Sums 379 Preliminary Investigations 41
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408 Index

Site Preparation 42 Timber Floors 116–17

Spot Items 41 Trees 356
Surface Treatment 45
Worked Example 52–68 Vents 109
Suspended Concrete Floors 116
Suspended Timber Floors 116–17 Wall Finishes 200–2
System Partitions 120 Waste Services 285
Window Schedules 238–9
Taking-off 4 Windows 237–52
Order of Taking-off 19 Worked Examples 239–52
Take-off Lists 23 Working-up 4