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APES Chapter 1,2 & 28 Plus Ishmael, Silent Spring, & Tragedy of Commons

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____ 1. An environmentally sustainable society


a. manages its economy and population size without doing irreparable environmental harm.
b. satisfies the needs of its people by harvesting without depleting Earth's capital.
c. protects the prospects of future generations of humans and other species.
d. all of these answers.
____ 2. All of the following illustrate exponential growth except
a. the king who promised to double the number of grains of wheat he put on each successive
square of a checkerboard.
b. human population growth.
c. driving 10 mph for one minute; then 20 mph for one minute; then 30 mph for one minute;
then 40 mph for one minute.
d. money in a savings account.
____ 3. If the world's population grew by 2% in 1998 and continued at that rate, how long would it take Earth's
population to double?
a. 20 years
b. 25 years
c. 30 years
d. 35 years
____ 4. Which of the following statements about developed countries is true?
a. They make up about one-fifth of the world's population.
b. They have low to moderate GNPs per person.
c. They are primarily in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
d. They tend to be highly agricultural.
____ 5. Three countries which together account for more than half of the world's economic output include all of the
following except
a. the United States.
b. the former Soviet Union.
c. Japan.
d. Germany.
____ 6. You are visiting a developing country. Compared to a developed country, you would expect to find a
a. higher percentage of the population with safe drinking water.
b. higher percentage of the population under age 15.
c. higher average life expectancy.
d. more urban population.
____ 7. At least ten million people die annually from
a. cancer and diabetes.
b. heart attacks and strokes.
c. malnutrition, related diseases, and contaminated drinking water.
d. accidents.
____ 8. Which of the following is an example of reuse?
a. remelting aluminum cans
b. making compost out of kitchen scraps
c. using a plastic butter tub to store leftovers
d. using waste heat to warm a room
____ 9. Use of a natural resource based on sustainable yield applies to
a. renewable resources.
b. nonrenewable resources.
c. perpetual resources.
d. amenity resources.
____ 10. New efforts to prevent the tragedy of the commons include
a. using common-property resources at or above their sustainable yields.
b. converting land from private to more public ownership.
c. moving from a taxpayers pay approach to a users pay approach.
d. moving from a users pay approach to a taxpayers pay approach.
____ 11. All nonrenewable resources can theoretically be
a. converted to nonmetallic minerals.
b. converted to renewable ones.
c. exhausted or depleted.
d. recycled or reused.
____ 12. Which of the following is an example of recycling?
a. collecting and remelting aluminum beer cans
b. cleaning and refilling soft-drink bottles
c. selling used clothing at a garage sale
d. saving leftovers in a peanut butter jar
____ 13. Which of the following is not important in determining the damage produced by a pollutant?
a. concentration
b. persistence
c. origin
d. chemical nature
____ 14. Root causes of environmental problems include
a. rapid population growth.
b. even distribution of wealth.
c. increasingly sustainable use of resources.
d. prices reflecting environmental costs.
____ 15. Which of the following would be representative of an environmental wisdom worldview?
a. Continuous rapid economic growth will improve environmental conditions
b. Energy and materials efficiency must continually be improved
c. More money should be directed to research on controlling the environment
d. Human beings are the most important life forms on Earth
____ 16. Which of the following statements does not characterize hunter-gatherer societies?
a. They lived in small groups of 50 or less.
b. They had little knowledge about their natural surroundings.
c. They gradually developed tools and hunting weapons.
d. They learned to hunt large game cooperatively.
____ 17. Advanced hunter-gatherer societies did all of the following except
a. redistribute plant populations during migrations.
b. stampede herds to get food.
c. use fire to convert forests into grasslands.
d. subdue and dominate most other forms of life.
____ 18. Domestication of wild plants and animals occurred about ___ years ago.
a. 5,000
b. 10,000
c. 15,000
d. 20,000
____ 19. Subsistence farmers
a. use draft animals to pull plows.
b. require large, flat fields in grassland areas.
c. grow only enough food to feed their families.
d. tend to cause severe deforestation.
____ 20. The Agricultural Revolution resulted in all of the following except
a. protection of wild plants and animals.
b. increased soil erosion.
c. increased deforestation.
d. increased manipulation of nature.
____ 21. The Industrial Revolution began in
a. the United States.
b. Japan.
c. England.
d. France.
____ 22. A major stimulus for the Industrial Revolution was
a. the bubonic plague.
b. European wars.
c. a shortage of wood.
d. poverty.
____ 23. The Industrial Revolution is characterized by a shift from
a. reliance on nonrenewable energy resources to reliance on potentially renewable energy
resources.
b. higher crop productivity to lower crop productivity.
c. farming employment to factory employment.
d. large-scale production to small-scale production.
____ 24. Which of these attitudes was most characteristic of the Native Americans?
a. The wilderness is hostile
b. The land and its resources are to be respected
c. The land should be conquered
d. The land should be exploited as soon as possible
____ 25. Henry David Thoreau and George Perkins Marsh were
a. industrialists.
b. conservationists.
c. land barons.
d. Native Americans.
____ 26. If you traveled back in time to 1880, you would be most surprised to hear people talk about
a. the dirty air from burning coal.
b. an epidemic of typhoid.
c. the human population stressing the carrying capacity of the environment.
d. hazardous working conditions in the factories.
____ 27. Preservationists and wise-use resource managers agree that
a. sustainable yield is the best management principle.
b. multiple use is the best management principle.
c. public lands should be managed to benefit the greatest number of people.
d. some public lands should remain untouched forever.
____ 28. The Sierra Club was developed by ____ in 1892.
a. Theodore Roosevelt
b. John Muir
c. Gifford Pinchot
d. Aldo Leopold
____ 29. All of the following environmental warnings occurred during the 1960's except
a. the Cuyahoga River caught fire.
b. the passenger pigeon became extinct.
c. foam from laundry detergents appeared in streams.
d. air pollution killed people in New York City.
____ 30. Which president tripled the amount of land in the National Wilderness System and doubled the area
administered by the National Park Service?
a. Kennedy
b. Nixon
c. Carter
d. Reagan
____ 31. The "no problem" variation of the planetary management worldview is based on the general belief that
a. pure capitalism should be used to make our economic decisions.
b. better management and technology and more economic growth can fix our problems.
c. an ethical responsibility to "tend our garden" would improve most technological-economic
growth worldviews.
d. a mixture of market-based competition, improved technology, and government
intervention can solve our problems.
____ 32. People calling for more stewardship generally believe that
a. pure capitalism should be used to make our economic decisions.
b. better science and technology can fix our problems.
c. an ethical responsibility to "tend our garden" would improve most technological-economic
growth worldviews.
d. a mixture of market-based competition, improved technology, and government
intervention can solve our problems.
____ 33. Which of the following worldviews is most likely to support the view that most public property should be
turned over to private ownership?
a. "no problem" school
b. free-market global economy
c. responsible planetary management
d. stewardship
____ 34. Which of the following worldviews is based on a belief in the least government interference?
a. "no problem" school
b. free-market school
c. responsible planetary management
d. stewardship
____ 35. Which of the following beliefs does not characterize a life-centered worldview?
a. Human ingenuity can fix any problems we face.
b. Earth has limited resources.
c. Ever-increasing production and consumption will severely stress Earth's systems.
d. Earth has limited capability to absorb human pollutants.
____ 36. Which of the following lifestyle guidelines is incompatible with deep ecology?
a. Work to eliminate injustice to humans and other species.
b. Appreciate diversity.
c. Protect and restore local ecosystems.
d. Satisfy human needs and wants in all cultures.
____ 37. Until we can make reasonable estimates of the carrying capacity of the Earth, the precautionary principle
suggests that we
a. use material resources more efficiently.
b. continue to use energy resources at current rates.
c. live off Earth principal.
d. not worry about population growth.
APES Chapter 1,2 & 28 Plus Ishmael, Silent Spring, & Tragedy of Commons
Answer Section

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. ANS: D TOP: 1-1 LIVING MORE SUSTAINABLY


2. ANS: C TOP: 1-2 POPULATION GROWTH, ECONOMIC GROWTH, DEV'T AND...
3. ANS: D TOP: 1-2 POPULATION GROWTH, ECONOMIC GROWTH, DEV'T AND...
4. ANS: A TOP: 1-2 POPULATION GROWTH, ECONOMIC GROWTH, DEV'T AND...
5. ANS: B TOP: 1-2 POPULATION GROWTH, ECONOMIC GROWTH, DEV'T AND...
6. ANS: B TOP: 1-2 POPULATION GROWTH, ECONOMIC GROWTH, DEV'T AND...
7. ANS: C TOP: 1-2 POPULATION GROWTH, ECONOMIC GROWTH, DEV'T AND...
8. ANS: C TOP: 1-3 RESOURCES
9. ANS: A TOP: 1-3 RESOURCES
10. ANS: C TOP: 1-3 RESOURCES
11. ANS: C TOP: 1-3 RESOURCES
12. ANS: A TOP: 1-3 RESOURCES
13. ANS: C TOP: 1-4 POLLUTION
14. ANS: A TOP: 1-5 ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS: CAUSES AND CONNECTIONS
15. ANS: B TOP: 1-6 IS OUR PRESENT COURSE SUSTAINABLE?
16. ANS: B TOP: 2-1 CULTURAL CHANGES AND THE ENVIRONMENT
17. ANS: D TOP: 2-1 CULTURAL CHANGES AND THE ENVIRONMENT
18. ANS: B TOP: 2-1 CULTURAL CHANGES AND THE ENVIRONMENT
19. ANS: C TOP: 2-1 CULTURAL CHANGES AND THE ENVIRONMENT
20. ANS: A TOP: 2-1 CULTURAL CHANGES AND THE ENVIRONMENT
21. ANS: C TOP: 2-1 CULTURAL CHANGES AND THE ENVIRONMENT
22. ANS: C TOP: 2-1 CULTURAL CHANGES AND THE ENVIRONMENT
23. ANS: C TOP: 2-1 CULTURAL CHANGES AND THE ENVIRONMENT
24. ANS: B
TOP: 2-2 ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY OF THE U.S.: TRIBAL & FRONTIER ERA
25. ANS: B TOP: 2-3 ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY OF U.S.: EARLY CONSERV. ERA
26. ANS: C TOP: 2-3 ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY OF U.S.: EARLY CONSERV. ERA
27. ANS: C TOP: 2-3 ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY OF U.S.: EARLY CONSERV. ERA
28. ANS: B TOP: 2-3 ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY OF U.S.: EARLY CONSERV. ERA
29. ANS: B TOP: 2-4 ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY OF U.S.: ENVIRONMENTAL ERA
30. ANS: C TOP: 2-4 ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY OF U.S.: ENVIRONMENTAL ERA
31. ANS: B TOP: 28-1 ENVIRONMENTAL WORLDVIEWS IN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES
32. ANS: C TOP: 28-1 ENVIRONMENTAL WORLDVIEWS IN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES
33. ANS: B TOP: 28-1 ENVIRONMENTAL WORLDVIEWS IN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES
34. ANS: B TOP: 28-1 ENVIRONMENTAL WORLDVIEWS IN INDUSTRIAL SOCIETIES
35. ANS: A TOP: 28-2 LIFE-CENTERED ENVIRONMENTAL WORLDVIEWS
36. ANS: D TOP: 28-2 LIFE-CENTERED ENVIRONMENTAL WORLDVIEWS
37. ANS: A TOP: 28-3 SOLUTIONS: LIVING MORE SUSTAINABLY