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1[Ii E FO LKS¥ FOUN D EN.

!Be~lii!j ZI!IiD.lID! Frr.1i.pik:~lJru, has a speeial plac-e lID! 1T1b.e, hearts and ,rnIi.l!fiirllS of ArnIi.e!.l1],cans, He is, of eouese, one of 'uhe most p:[i',eemllfl6'fl'[ o:f the ,if[01..limirl:eJ's, those hereic men EUGrnIi, the en of 'W~gs aJru,n knee breeches. Men as d~,vetr.se as :H'e:mirry Calbl]'lr LGld:ge arid Gl1!['[i'Y 1¥~Ms have :[i'Z1Irike.d. hilmi, 'l1!~.o1ILg with \V0S:i]~Il!giIl](mi. as the. g[i',e-[liJI.es~ of the ,ifi'o1l!fiiil8(us." Of 'tJ.e~e heroic !QIEl'n o:f the ed.gb.ttee!lil,tJI centr!Jl.try, :Hi1rallt!kUmi. seems to have <l! l.!l!!IiI:Lqll!le eppeal, He seems 'the ,rnIi.ost aeeesslble, tihi.e rnost democu,1ilc, aJlld, the most :f'(dk-sy of tJii.e Thllillld.e!['s., His ,1iU1i~m.y [pIDIllittI'l1!its mggest an 0ffl:l!'b~.e g,enLi~ o~,n.rnIi:l1!!IiI, witJ. spectacles <lind. .'11 twinkle ilTh his ,eye' :u,ead.y to re~il, us ,'11 humoeeus .sto1ry., He seems '[I] be tJii.e one '~re w-m.!li~,n.rnIi.ost like to s.PeF.i,n 'i]i[il. e¥e!lil:[mig w-itJii., Ordi!fl0'lj" people can ~d.e;J]ilI.ufy 'wi1ih hien imi, WJiYS they eannet witJii, 'tJ.e o'tJ.8(U Fbum.d.en, Stern 'llin,n thia-Hpped George V{aihi~:IThgtr.l](mi, especially atS !pil]Ut'tI'l1!}red by G:L~be!lt S'rna:ut, is 'tI]GI 0.ll[!1lst ~'lin,n 'l1!wesome tID be approachable, AJtfml.!l!glil, Thomas JeiIe:[i'sO'.ITh has democearic cl',ed.e:mi.tii:l1!~s, he is m.ll!I,rn, '[00 <l!tr:itSmcl'atk and reserved for m.Glst people to :u,ebte '1rO~ besides, he was 'lli s~a.weJ.Lold.e![' who fl:l!~:~ed ID free ,mmt: of hi.s slaves, Johmi. Ada!III,s seems human eF.iol.!l!glil" bl.!l!t be :LtS IDGI Cl10:rlIky and ~dtosyrnc!['mic tID be in 0:rlIy wl:I!y tJii.e k~lIld, o:f AlIII,etr1caID! b.e'J'GI OOOlJru:l1!try fiJI~l C'<U1i, get elese m.J"3i!I:D.es M'ad.:LtSlD'Il!

{2} TH E. AME R] CAN [ZAn ON CH B E.NJAM.:I N fRAN at, [N

is m.lllC]]. 000 shy and imelleenaal, '1i8.irl Ale'X<1i[JriI.e:u ]-blmd~m!lil. is much 000 aroogalf.litt and not tempered. Fiei.tJii€Jf of them makes ,1! cr(ng,e;nl~i~ [pO!p1l!t1i!l' ~riloL No, of 'ilU these gtre,1!'1I .lmie!lil. of the .e:Lg:rn.tee;J]i~::o. c"'e'nrn!l'Y, It is FFalThkli8.i. ''!Atho seems W hsve the most CO:JJTh!fil10!lil. mum. and who seems '[0 sy.UFilookze ·m.e·!Ite!l' thalTh ·il!fi.i.y otib.e:u .[1'oUlldl€Jf tJiie plain demo Cirac-y of mdl:L!IiI:iltry folk,

Indeed, perhaps no :pe!l'sG(8.i. l:1Th AUFiBr.lC'mlTh ]]~,smuy has taken O:lJi sum. ·elIl.'lb~e.!IiJ]:il~C' and ~!Illag~!Ila~.ve slgJii:~iIlC'mlThre for Alrnerka!fi.i,s atS has F1f'Inklin .. 'We .1mi'1!Y !IiI.O'1i agr-ee Wl.tJii. bits ·e;nemy .§oh:8.i. Adl~1!lmis tJm1I fiFalllBkli (lGl.unlbliP.ie.m "!pmCiI.k'n~ CI1!IlJli8.il:lILgil:' "W:~th. "tJiieoreticl ]·gJii.ouance, i':' bllllI we .1mi'1!Y well share Adl~'l!ImiSlS belief tJii"lilI]]e. is "G([Je. of the !IIi.oBII CI1!I'Ul{lUtS Cbaraerers in [:"]itSooIEf- i!:'J . . [1\ua!fi.il~l!fi.i. has become, E8.i. m.e Vle.W of ~j:ttemuy ]]bmuL1i8.i .. iPeruy M~~'~e:u, one of the most "mass~.ve~.y sy.IF.ilboltc'" :ffigutr-e~ in Am.etrii.can bitSoo'ry)

S ehelars tooay ·woo not 00 believe ,'lt8.i.],l.lII.ore. :~!IiI. the OOilt 0 !iii. of <'liliii ArnIi€JflC,IITh ch:ilmct.e.tr; 'hmt ~f these itS S11!Idl a th~:IILg, then .Flfmliiiklin .e'X~m!pllill:e~ It In 1888 ·~¥U~l~1!Ii[ij. Dean :~:GIW·eUs caI~ed .iFIf,1ilThklin "thi.e most medern, rhe most AUFiBfkm[.L, of hitS oo8.i.t6J];rpol['ildes,'" ·lli8.iril .. 1mi,'ltIThY other oolmim.e;ntatl[llUs hase agreed.~ Be seems ttl! h.a,,"e ·e'limilbodlted much of 'wh,1!'1I most ArnIiedcam ha1j,~ v,i~1liIe.dl. tJii:[101J]gbm.ll1I ·1Ih.e:~u bicSmry.. HItS "ho!fiIJ,e!ly ·il:ph.oulslmis 'l1i8.iril. observa'IltG([Js,'" cne Msoorla!fi.i. has wlrlrttte:lIIi, "JlaJi.'e l!fi.iJ:1i1Jlellcedl. meee Am.e:u.Lcam thllim. the tea'u.rne.dl.wltSmlmi. of 0H m.e mtr1lIi.a[ philosophers !putt togetJiie.![ iI:1j Alltth.OlJl!g:h. .[1\[i'lli8.ik li8.i. WIIS n atl,ru a~Ty ta len ted, de cb re dl. one !(];[8.ie:F.ee'JJitn. --C"e'flimu y 'a dlm. lr-e<I; he amiered his sueeessby character 'll!lilrl eonduet 'that we~u·e "w.LilihbTh the reach. of eveuy human be~!IiIg. i!:I All of fl.is ~.m~!I1gs ·eF.i.te:~redl.lm01I:o.e "ererydl~1!y .UFi:lli8.illle:US a!fi.irl a:ffa:~usi':' of people; tJiie:v "!pOl!lil.tedl. Olat tJiie causes which .UFi:ilY premote goodl. and m. m!l'tlJJThe E8.i. 0lrdliLlTh0'UY ~]fe a, '" "That was what made Mimi. such. ,1! de~{I0mlIk hem j

U'inm;:.e tJiie other g!l'eat .[:;'OlJF.iril.e41S, Fir,1i8.iU[!IiI. ·lbeg;:1illl. as an ,'l!!Nis0!n, a ~ow~.y :p:u.l!l1i.rer ''!Afho beeaene ·1Ib.e 0IfChirt:eC1I of bitS OWlIl fornme .. He:LtS the !p.[Oomty!pe of thie. se&f-m.arle .UF.i:lli8.i, ,'lt8.iril. bitS hfe itS the elasslc Am.e'ol1lcalllS1l!cc·ess sootrythe sootry o:f a rna[l! dtSl!l1g :froUFi. the most o'IbBC1J'u·e of mlglD.tS 00 weali~h. and l!fi.i.re[nattG(rm~. preeminence, F1f<]iFil~l!fi.i, the a1JltJii{llr of TiM ~:)lI ru f~W, has smod :f'O'u Alrnerkan sodaI .rnIio·m.~hty---'lirn.e m~ad,ity of olrdli8.i~'ltuy people 00 .UFi:llke h 00 tJiie oo'p. ·1Ih.oolJl!gb. fn.gaM.ty and :[8.irlil1!ls[:uy and '00 :fi1!0 1J'[rl.s:rn .. TIe lllllIf'Olrg,e'lIrnlble lmages o:f .Fn!lill~ln th,1!'1I he MrnII,se;~f helped 00 create--tJiie }'Ol1!I.tJii. of SeveF.i.tee;n Wl.m. :~oave~ of ·m.!l'earl1l!!lilrle:u his ,1!tr1lJIL-S, the scien~s[ flyl!fi.i.g a :kirre to capture MghlI.1Jilng in a sootrm., the fB:l'Ve'nlI .(;[i.i{llraMSII Ol1!I.dl!l1ii8.ig

his resolves thar enee m~:I'ow,ed wHl lead 00 SJ1!Iceess-hi,'il!ve [passed bIi:ro A[[iietr.LC'<limi, ,liE1IYrJri,ology am fo~l~olr,e., ]'[ ,1l1Thy sktgle iffigutre could sJ'lrn.'lboM:re <l!~l, (If Am,e(ulcll, :urr 'Vilas ,[Eiinmk~llri Nor lmtrp:uItS:[mig:~y, he became IDtr hitSoo'dmll F1redlClrLclJ"il!c:ksGl:mi, ~.IT'u'UJijClr and ,[[ii,llIThY SJ1!IJbeSeqlJl!eF.it b:togr,li:phe~us 'il!!fiid lPa!fiieo~ gy,ul,s[s "'rJrie iI\lrst gu,eat ArnIie:ulc,m.,"'1

He WileS the !fii:il!1I.lo'n ~:lise;nf, deelared the Ai!tmti.t; j,j1'i.\ltl~)l l!ll J889, "'the lPe'~Sil:ml:m.ca1ito!fii, of 'il!!Jii op1"irnIiltStii.c s]1i:uev.r-(t[ijesg, 'il! kmge, he'il!~,rJri.y nature, as of <l! }1"(IlJl!!fii,g people gil!thetrEmig irs sim,ength, end feeilimig its bfO',]rlelJil:JThg :po'IAre![ ~ He has tre!p:u,esemi,ted ,e"Vetrytth,l!llg ArnIie:ulc,lmiS I~le 'il!'!b(lll!t '~he[[iiseJves-tneh lev-eJihi,eariledllllells, COlillrnIiOITh sense, !puagITl.i:1.~s[Uij, :[ngenlJl!I:II}" aad get-lJl![fHl!1ldl,go\, Because of MtS imi,v'e'm:Lons of rhe lLghtlf.ii~!fii,g rod, Ib:uf'l[l calls,~he ,[fi\um1Ii:k:~~!Il srove, al1Iidothetr use~1l!~, l!1leSt'tl'11!1l1I1,emi,ts, he has been ~demlI.~iI\ledl, wirh the happiness al1Iid :prns!pe:ulty of COITl.!fiI],Gl:fj, people l!Jii the here alorl :mi(lW_ He 'Vl1lU rJrie one, ,[LeS a!ll :rSH l~sID'UY of 1iib,e l)'!1JJ~,redl, Stilres [p1Jl!t k, "'who has made O11]'U d!weJ~ings (lGl.rnIi:fonalble wi1iib,~!1Ii, aad protected rJriern, [[i\om the Hghmimig of heil!l'e!fii_'" He spoke to eommon people, 00 "'tha:rr :ualrulof people who have no o~!plI]lrruJIlA,1IJ' ['GItr srurly,'" as the Co:~uJiUiilblil!!fii, Class ~(liI]lk. declared ~!1Ii, :r82.1- He waeS, as ene arlrnIi]tretr wrote En :r864:; "a ge!fii,ll!i!lle !p:[i\odl,lJl!C1i: of" A!IT1,edca!ll sOlLi!:\ii Millions of people have quoted and teied to ~lve the~'u ~:~ves Iby his PoO'f :~:irnruudl, sayi!llgs ,1l1ILdl :pOO".~r:bs, SJ1!Ich 'lIeS "'E.il!dy 00 bed, morl el:l'ulj! to rise, makes 'il! ,[[ii,'ll1Th hedtth.y We-,l~,rJri.y and 'W,LtSe.,"! Those who wll!!fii:redl. to klItow the W<ly 00 weal:tth, :u,e-,1dl, .[fi\ua!1Iil~i!1l. He has steod [DIU i:lILdl,'UtStry, :f.mgil!~11ry, 1io'tr1ft, llimid erery ,[[ii,lrerLaMs~lc vimae thar Am,e~U1Cll!fiiS hare vfbedl.,

D1J'~l!llg rJrie :miil:ne'[ee;n'~JJ. eeMlli'UY ,[:j\ua!fiiln~!fii, beesme !IlGirr Il:m~,y alTh k'(l:n 'ttfl,at (I'rdlilla'uy :peGipte colJlJM e'.fiI],U:rM:.e bun also th.e ,[[ii(lslI i.[UijlpDItrrn!ll1I myFJJ.icll~, iI\lgure used to 'lIeSS:~rnIi:~~i:l.re fu'u,eigllers ID A[[iietr!c8!1l vahaes. F1r,In~din came to sepresent the A!fiI],e:ulc,"} o:f l!1Ii:IILGlVa~OITh 'il!rud e!fii,te~!pulse, (If ,[[ii~neJ'lJIj,a:ki:lILg llimim. getlI.[mig ahead, He was ereuy1io'~!Ilg that 1rnIi.[[iii,gua!1Ii:1iS to'ough1I A!fiI],e:U1Cll was albolJl!t Ame~ujcll, eve!fii.:[mi,m 01l'U own tl!me,lIeS one rure!fii,tj'-imrst-Ce:n'lmtry .~rnIi!lILIg,ua!1Ii,t pU1I it, ]]<1eS :u,e1I1,alnoo "'a t'lilILdl, of olPpo'fiIumiirtry, 'l:limid one [where] ~f YOll! wotr:ked hard }'OlJl! could ge1I ab.ead"iI:\'" N e-one has steed :f'l[llu that prom,ise of gernimig ahead IbetrlIetr 1iib:il!!fii, ,[1rl:limiklimi., Schools ~!1Ii, 1iib,e :nllrie"tee;Ji.i.1iib, eenru'uy begllimi. mi:lILg his A~Hgt"apl;.;y m teaeh moral lessens to smife;n1iS .. M0!1IiJ people seemed to k!1lOW hlS Wtr:U~[[ijgs as well as ,tthey klThevi the Bible, ~'1I is !fiioll sU!r[pulSl!1Ii,g thar 'the book Da1jiY erne-kern had 'w:u~o, hl!lJTh w:hie:mi, hie died 'il!t the At'l![[ii(l was !fiiOIi th.e !I8:~b~e bur ,~1ir,m:k1[mi,~ ANWllif.gt1#J.,11

{,if} TH E. AMI:: R:I CAN [ZAn ON 0 ~ B E.NJAM:I N fRAN KU N

D EIB,UN'KI NO FRANKLIN

So IJ'1e'n~h.e;Lmiffiig did ,~f[i'a!JijlH!Jij,~s lJilITiage of the boy who w.oT:ked b:tI!OO and made ~iI: become bit the IliL!Jijetee:JITith eeo!ufI'try th,']i[ ]]UUITiiOlrlSt!S ~ik,e: MtI!tr'k, Twnk.IJ rn11!IM sC'i]jure~y i:lro~d rn.ocU[iig jjt[1ir-l1iffiiU[m~ exll!m,p~e,saidl, ~[mral!ll Effii, 18"]0, :hi,1rllhecome ,'1 'lbll'udle!Jij, :f'O!u errery Am,e:trii,Ci:l!Jij, ymJ!Ilgs[e(u" The gU,e:llt ffii:l!l1!, said lI.'mrailii., had "'ea'u~ !p:teostil,'lmiu.ecl. hlS rnIe:J:iJM ro 'Iille imreJij:tro:[ij, of ,UITii:l1!.\':~!IJTI,s i:l!Jijd ,'1pbO!fISmS ealeelated te ~lfiJ:fitle1I .mff,e:u,~!Jijg lJl!!pOITh the :ujs~!Jijg ge:mietrilililOEi, of all subsequem ,1_ges, His s~!Il1Iplesil: aets, also, were c.o'fJilml.vedl wirtTIi, a viJew ID 1ill,e:~r IheJilThg heJdu[p fu!u the e!fil].lJl!~:ll!tLO!Jij, of '!boys fQ!U,elfe:u-bo;!'S who !fiI],lgb.il: otherwise have lbeeffii. happy" " " " W'irtTIi, a m,'ile¥ol,e;Jij,eewilIudh itS with®1Jl. t [pi:l!ri:ll'~eJ l!ll Jri:[tSmry, '" wrote ~,['wn~!Il, "he WGI'I1!Ildl, wad, 'lin dl<'l!y i:lm tirue!Jij, sir up ml,gh'lIS and lett Omi, '[1[1 'me SlI1ildl.y.lffiig 'll!lg,elilra by the: light of the s[(ITioulrl.'eJ1JJ!Jijg ifire, so th:ll!'1I a'~lo'lIbe:u '!boys migb:1I :hi,1i'ife m do tn,1!tt ,tI!lSlll .olr else have !IB;e;nj illUITiilffii, ,~fumJijl~l!Jij, tn:[1il)W!Jij, up to tn,eUITii,,"'''

As TWi:ljj!Jij,~S ssrdonic ]]UUITiiOtr suggests, flralThkliffii, has had 1Il.i:l!lly detracron, Alldl ,[[i.iOS[ of ,them, have been m,ucfl, meee gi5nlJl!ilJ:e~y cr:irII.Lc,il th,l1ffii, TwnhL ]'!Ildl.eed, 'lIb,e ctr:irlIkitS!fiI], thar WblThkH!Jij, has ill !rO'UtS 00, GreU rtTIie :P,1<st two cearurles has been ,1<S ,e:xttH.olrdlilJ:i:l'[1Y as the P trill ise, ,[itr[ffiil~l!ll m,'1Y 'lIne the rnost f'GInS}' 'lI!JijdlPO!plJl!~:illtr ifigt:l'u,e aJmo'ng the .!Ei'.oThffiirll!Jij,g FUithe:rs, yet 'illt the same time he ItS also tne one who has !p:teGlVOkedl the ,[[i.i.oslI desision,

Of eourse, [te.om the heglEiffiiiffiig o:f professlonel :rnitSmry -wdti!llg at the end of the :lJ:lJThetteemi,th, ce:nrn'uy, hitSID'dmm have been OO:JiSy ttlJ'.~!Jij,g '[1[1 sttr:~p amray 'lIheUITii'llilily m.yth.s and :~egi5Jij.diS 'tth.at hllve gteGIWIl up '1!te.oTh[iid a:l~. the ,[1.oTh[iidl!llg FtlrtTIiers :~ffii, OOOeiU ID ge"t ,1ilI me hlllmi:l!ll Ibe~!Ilgs premiJIj,i:lJb:~y hidden [te.orn Vlev;;, Indeed, dlll'Ul!llg mode:m, til.m.eslihi~.s s.o!U1i o:f hitSIDd(,ll~, dl.e:'!bu:lJ:Jd:lii.g of tne ,[i.oThmi,neiu,s b:a<s beccme ffiUITiiethiffiig of 'll! cotlIage ~:lii.dl.lJlLStry" ~urlI the criticism leveled at ,[1\ui:l!rik~l:1J: has been d~ilJe<r6n1L [I-]itSIDT,ua!m did mot have IDul[p away ill mantle of god~ike dlig[ijhy alfiJ,d ~.o:ftii:lJ:e~s [100m, ,[~ua!rik:~l:lTh, 'll<sMley ham. ro do wilI!h 'the otner Fouaders, l!ll order te rrecl]I1j.\er the hidden hnmen lbe.j!ll~ Ftri:lnk:MlfiJ, 'illkrearl!y seemed hlll!flil,a!ll ,eT.i.OOghi,,[:lii.dl.eed, l,t W<l<S his Poor R1clmoo mdliffii<'llUl:lThess thar made hkn w:~!Jij,eJra'!ble to eriridSUITii. As '!i¥mbm, Dean Howells lloted, Ftra!llkliffii. earae down m the end of '[]le :ffiiiffiietteeF.i,th, eeffiitIJ'uj' "'with, more ![e,i~~:1IJ' than i:l!lly of illS CO'll'[eJiJlPOmUles. iI:! A~~h.ougb, 'lIhls "'1Iny no ,li[i.iei:l!ll<S hurt bJIimi, in the populer ![rega'udl, i!:! 1.1:

:I NTRODUCnON td

c.e'~tI111Th~,y d~rl !fii{J'1I heJ!p his :u,epurt!:at],o:lJ! w.iitn, !IIl.0JThy l:IThre:I~ectu,a1s.'j P"u,edse:~y because o:f his ,1mi<l<S.slve Idl.e;Jifli~iIl!ca'II.Lo'n wirth !fi11~mrl~l:lThg and !IIl.are!dll~itStil.c Ame[LC,1!, he became the FOl1lJItdletr 'whom !IIl.alllY cif:~lI.k-s mos1I liked 'IIO mod_ As,§oD.!fii, iKefl,trs :poEmi,redl, out as ,e,1!dy as 1Ei:l:8, 'lIihe:u,e, was Itotnimig SlJl!'IbMme ,1!'m.OU1I H"8:lThklimi, or 0lbolJl!t Aumie~UiCl1!fiis lmi, ge;fie:ua'~ IDtr tha:1I !fiI]:arne:u.,'+

Uke[1ir-,1imiklimi, Thersas Tfeffe:uso]l has ofien been ~rle;fidilloo Wl.ttfl, Am,etrlea, 'llimim, thus he 000 has come En for some h:llOO knneks, ,es[pecill~'~y over tne [past g,e:ne:uati{l'fi, !IIl,os~Jy :f'Olu hls h,ylPocr.LtSy, hls ~rleologlcl1~, :ulg~,[M,ty, 'll!fiirl :hi~,s lEmi,w,uU]j!fiigness 00 free his slaves. BUrt!: as intense <J.<S this criricism o:f§effetr.ID]ij, has been, irls not qUl,re com[p,1!rnlble 00 the :ulrllClJl~e ,1imim, COItdleumiItati{l'jl tJl:ll'lI f1rmThklin has .suiITetredl, ovetr tile [p'lI<st two eenilr1i1des_.§e:ffeuSllIn bias nereu been aeeusedef bcUng eJlegll!fiire Otr of be~!Ilg a borer o:f c,'1p~,rn:Msrni.,

A~!III,ost from tJle 'm.egilTh!fiii[tg of Am,erIca~ !I111'II.LO'Jij:ll~, hitSootry, ,umi,1imi)! l!f]l,aglmi,1!'[~re w,ul.reu5, defenders of e~ega!fiJ,ce, and SpEUl:fIiIlaI seekers of VlltrIOU,s sorts fOl.limirl1ihat 'by ,1!1It<1ck~:lItg ,[~uaJn;k.~il:1Th tney cou~rl Mirllcl ,lmi8:IThY of Am,erlea's m,~mo~e-dl:a<ss values. AdtSoocratk-,mlmirl:erl Federalists scorned the e!fillEl(ug~!Ilg pe:a!fii,y-getrtimig ''J,Ii,ro'uld of 1800 and Sll W f1rllimi:k:~~!fiJ, as ~:1iS sJ'lrn'lboL He W.:J.<S tJle one "who has '1ih,e.pelU1l' ~J8'by he,1iut and k!fii{lwS 'llU tne gq!IJlJ,1iu,e~ of !IIl.u~,tiijpncatio:[ij.,"'~ An of tne tnimigs that iIlll'moo, ,[~ua!fiJkM:1Th l:IThM a midrl~i[tg :f'O:lk hero became SOlJl!trce~ of ge:miteeJ (I]I!fii,rem,:pt a!fiJo trirll,CI1!Ile. These who believed tJl:ll'lI ,[fi\Ea!llkH:m/s Afltrit)"liJEra~J W.:J.<S supposed "00 premete good m{l!ualls,es[pec1aI[y aJllITi{lTIg the un e du care d class of 'Iih,e oom!f]l, unhy, II:! rledkltredl, the Naw1J A'f1IfJ:rim'l~ B:m.ew I!fii, :rBI:8, (10 ul dl, !fii0'1I be ,m(llr,e woong.. "'The grrnfllndl,wo1rk of his ch0'uaetetr, dl.utring this period, W.:J.CS bad, '1imi.dl. tne rn OIr 01, q.l.ullHrtt[es, ''J,Ii,fihlcJj, (I]I!fii:lmilburtterl 00 his rise, were of a w'O'uM~,y and very profirsble k~:lItdl.,"'~ ]n tJle ,lmillItdls of ttfl,ese l!fil],agl!llat],ve :limite:~~ecru:ll~s fiFalnkH!Il came to SlIa!fiJrl Wtr a;~[ of Aumi,eJr.LC,1 ~ Ibo'IJ]JtrgeoltS oorniipbcency, irs get-llhearl maredal'itS!IIl., :U!I.s lll;tiiMtml:llimi, olbsessl(l:lJ! 'wirth suecess=die UnlJlIITi'1gU!fii'1!'lI.Lve S1Jjpe;uilkial'ity and 1jilJ:~gadrtty of ArnIi.e;rk,1imi, culture 'Iih,at kalls tJle souL He evi5Jij,1Iil1aM,y became Malmi, Streer 'lliUiiO BalbhLttry ro~~ecl, IIitOO O!fiie-ll caricature of A.trnetr.lcls mm:teymal~!fii,g m,~mo~e Ct1cSS_

'\"¥b.e;fi Edl,_ga:u A~hlimi, Poe Wlrotre asatlrieal [puece O:ITh the dtry 'llimirlsysterniatiic W<lYS of "The [B,utSl!lleSSIImi,1i1Th1l:! (:[845'), he :lIte1j.\'e'~ meTJilibJ(mied ,[1ir-,1ilItkH!Il by :lJ!0!1I1,e, burt!: 0!fiJ,y reader wGIl.!!IM have :k!Jii'ow,mi, w:hio his medel was. A bml!lleSSImi,1iITh, sa10 Poe, loved o!tcrler aad tregubul.ty 'llimid hated ge:miilJl.tSes-'"l!~n, those lmagJ:o.ati,ve: serts who viob,terl tn.e "iIlrt!:ne5s of tn~:lItgs.1I:! U!fiil'ike fa!fiJd~1lJ~, ge:nAmes'J,li,fbo

{~1 1'8 I AME.R] CAN] :LATHJ N OF B I NJA~HN I' Ij;,ANKUN

''!,Ii,re:u,e spt to wtrlrtte IPI!lIe'ttIf, a imtSEIThe5SI]ij,1i1il WiltS the :p:UOO!1Je1i: Glf "tJiiose ba'ltdits of ,melihodLtcal,ac"(4J!mgi" 'Elhi,il!IL had been "'~b.l.!]jl];rpedl,'" ~!I]!ILO hijfif]~ tJiim wim, hLtS "(.ldl, h:tlm.~,ts of ,t}1SieItl)'" wrote Pee, utSlng one 'Glf ,[1'!mlThkHn/s farnuite :~hilatSes, the S1J.cces!~1l!n, lmesl:lTheS!m,1i1Th WiltS earrled "'S\.Vtrni!IiIJ,l!fii~:ty at{mg. ""}

Eve!l}1'(IIte who had ,'1 q_lj]ja'U![-eJl wkh Sillpe:u:lklaI IbmJJ:ugeoies Am,eI'l.ea nee,es!a'uHy had a qlj],1!!['u,e:~ with FmJThklimi, for he WiltS, as Hermsn M.eJYin'~e S ,'1 im, '1b,e type 'l:limid ge!fiill.!],s of his land ,~ril.!Jiil~l!l1 ''!,Ii,J."fIS eve:uythirtg 'm.UIL ,'1 pOeIL '" In hies novel lffrad ,f.Wfte:r (IS5)), Menlj1;1~ne 0Ie,'1tteci1, a v.~v.ld a!fiid wO'Jiide!lifu:~n.y satii'ule picture of ,[1'!l'[miklimi., His Ftri:l!l1kHIt was "'tJiie h01lJ],eJy sag,e mod household ,iPhlID, ill who possessed "deep ''!,Ii,1.(I'uMn,y wisdom snd polished ]'t<i~L1in tact, g~e,1!rniE[jg 1l!!Jijde:r ,1in 'ai'u of kumdlitl!Jij, lj]!Ili:liIJectedlne~s.,'" [:"]e Wil\!: ,1!11 GJiie a!fiid the same rirae ~,e' dilPnof.lIl.a~lest arid time shepheed .,.,. j ,'1 union :mL(rJ[ 'wi1ihoul[ ''!,Ii,J."fI'U!['[l!Jij,ti the '[lJlPosrohe SeH'i:l!fii,1[ end dare, A F<1imi!lled Mtl0hbre:~ni Emi, tents .. '" Me:~1jfUle"s W1rnnklill, as his eb"tl![',1ereu Israel PotteJr deseribes hum, ''!,Ii,J."fIS "'s:ly, sn.y, .sn.y_ '" "'Ha1jfimi~ C'<1!l'efunty we~ghedJ tJle world, fiuaJThklimi, '" WIDue Men,"iii!nle, "'colj]jnd act a!fii.J' part l!l1 il[ __ ., tp:Ul:lThte41, postmaster, a Lm,1imi,1C ,[[ii,'1ketr,; ,essaylcS[, cbe.fiJ]is~. mato1u, tiiriketr; statesm,1imi, h,lj]jf]J,odest, lPhitoso'phe'~, parlor,m,1iITh, !p(lM,rtiic,i~ eeonornist, :prnf-es!o'f of h.O'l!lsew1fe'Fy, ,'l!lIlITibassamo!u! !p:l'Glje0to'I; ,m''li.\':[m,-m,Glfig'e'Jr, .rnern-doc®'I; w:irtt, '" i:l!fii,j'1timig 'llimim, ,eve:l'}1"hi!llg 'U.ita [pIllet'll

NEllteree:mi,tim,-C6I1!tmry Ali[ijede,']mis, M:ke the c:hia'uae1i:e:u.s l!ll! N 'l1ib.a!ll!ien, [:':hMho!l'.Ile.s "'iIliog!mphka~ Steeies, '" were not sure 'why ,[~ua!l1klilJJ had beeeme so fllmOOtS., It Vir"BS dI.olj]j'Ib1i.~u], said :&1aw"home~ soo!l'ftenletr,; "'whethie!l' ,[~uarik:~l:lTh~ :~hiinooo:phlClll discoveries, lm.pornllimi.it as they were, Olf ,ere:1JJ lides vast p!lInirtt.LC',i~ seirvl.ee~ would have ~lwJ:iJ Mm a:~n the fam,ewhic-b he i:lCl[jjlj]jl:u,edl;,'" Instead, i,t WiltS as the 'll1l.tJiiO!l' of ,Poor .R.idM'!'trs Akr.ut1lf.d;~l1aJ[ ,[1\ul:mklimi, hadbeeeme '1be eounselor 'llimiril, household :f.u,~e;f1d1, to '[lJn!lillostevery :ffi:'1m:my hi Ame!l'.ueiL'" No matteiF thar F1rl1ifii.i:k:I~!fii~s p~Jr'bs "'we!l'e '1!n~. alOOl1l.it getri!llg !IlllGlmiey aad S''lV.~!Jij,g k,'" they were "'.SJ1!Iil:edl, ro the Wf1d1iIlIO!Jij, of the co lJimi.ttry.,"'-o.;;

The OOrtdljrtiiO'fl of time (l1]Ilj]:1Th'1I!l'Y'!,Ii,J."fIS ea1Pl,rnMsIlLc, andthar WiltS what made F1nmlnU!Jij, 'm.oth, a he'.JCO Ilimid a viMfd!Jij, to so m,a!fii.y !poo'pn.e.. He Wil<S the :P,ltl'O!Jij sal:lTht of business, and since the Irnl.lS~!Jijess of Amerkil, as President Cal.vl!Jij, Coolidge M:ked to .say, watSlmsi!fiiess,[~ua!ll!j.dilJJ became Ame(ulea i,tsenf Gunrled ~ defenders of 'USki.e5S nke 1:: K., Halnes s~m,:p:ty borrowed ,[~ua!ll!klilJJ~ ,m:l:Ixiims ann romed them l:lThro mi:l!l1lj],lnS :f{llu mak[[j~ ,mO:lThey and ~1Itj;lJJg 'ahead.,'"

] NTRO DUCT] 0 N {7}

Since F1n:liffiil~l!lii, h,ro beeeme SO ~.d'e;f.ii[~iI1lecil, wirh the a'Ut of gelli[';[ng, savEffii~, and UtSbThg ,rnIione]', l.t ''!Al"fIS Iffiie:vl,rnlble tJri:llt schabu s seekIng '[0 'll!!JiirleuSlrllirurl the SO'll! tr ees 0 f C' alP:~ rnHtS m. 1W1JI1:llcil. so O'JiJe:u OT t1!~ r KlS te'JJi up o'n F1r,IffiilMlfiL In his f\JilfiIlOUS wOluk ne .P.'Ntf'.Jtl'Jllt EtiJi.t; 3m}.. Spirit of Cup,itfl'iism (190)'), the gu,e'llit Ge!r.m''ll1Th sodologlst Milx ~¥e'lbe:tr IDmlllcil, ,[fualllklln[O be a lPe:rreC1I exemlPla'U I](f !h,e mode:uJii, catpirnlltS'ttLc slPhit No one, wrote 'We:'~e:u, expressed 'I!:!Ile ,rnIio!ril~ maXl!fil]!S 'll!ooe:dylng rhe erhie I](f cllpirtraHtSlfill benee thllilTh FhmkH!Jiio' ,Folr F1rn:lThkliffii, "JII((llte-.s1Iy ItS useful, because :ut as.rn'ue~ ctrecilirEj so are :p1.E[ijcrnaM,ty, ~:IItcil.mtllJ!, :f.mgaM,ty, ,'lliitcil, that itS rhe :ueil<so:n tJriey are v~'utrues;,'" ~,'ll!t FFalllkliffii, was FLOt ,'l! hY!POCif,~W, wrote 'We'lber; as :u,evealed Iby his character "i!lii, the treaM.]' llInurn''l!I, c<1ilItciljcilllle~s of his 'l'll!tolblogmphy, iI:' his v]uru.es were !Jii0'1I designed m agguancillz.e the :ii!Jiirl~,v~rll.[l<1I" "[!Jii, f\Jict, iI:' gll~rl 'We'~e:u, "the ~f1I b({lj~ af thltS erhie, the .ellm~ng of ml[l!ue and ,rnIiotre money, ooliIllbi!Jiieci!, wl.tJri, the stUl.d: <'l!voicil''lllThre o:f a'll, slPl](ffii,rnnern.os effii1Ofme'ffiit I](f Mfe, '" had !Ilooh~:lThg '[0 do with ~!liirl~,wiirllj]'ll, :hi',]p[p:~!Jiies.s, "[t ItS !Itought o:f so [pl1!I'u,e:~y as lliffii, end in l,tseil:f, that f[Com tile pOl:ITh'1I of 1ii1e,W I[](f the h:lliPlP1,ness af, or u:t:~liilIy OO~ the single Effiiitlrv.[ciI.'ll!a'~, ~t a1PpelltrS e;n'IIi!r-eJly transeend e:JJit all, and albso~,'ll!te:~y l'rtm'II.LO'Jii:tl!l,,'" ]!Il ~¥elIl1e:u~ OlP~!Jii:tO!Jii, F1ulThkH!Jii,lbeljeved tJri:llt "ma!ll LtS cilo.UF.d!Jii'l'ned Iby tJrie m:llkbThg of money, Iby a(l~,u[ts:ulI.to'n '1l<S the ultiiJ:rn'lF.e [p'll!Fpose :[mi. Mfe, ~ tregaooless of his ae1Ii!.1aI ,rnIi:llte'~bl, needs, This W.1<S "a legrl~ng ptriffiid[JIe of ('a1P:~rnlltSm., '" ,1k~!Il '00 c'e:utilin !r-eilig~'oljJ!s fee~~!Iii.gs Effii,lllIS EITtreD.cSillIy and 'll<seetidsrnIio' "lJemi1alfILtlTh F1mmikIi n :D.lJiffiise:nf, ,'l!I,tJri(l'll!glii, he W.1<S 'll mlO"ll!:uless deist, answers lim. :I]~S <'l!l1l.ooMog!m:phy Wl.tJri, a qUO"IIl1t]I[I'n fmm, 'rille !IB:jlb:le-" wh~,ch, :hiitS srrlct G'l!I,vinlsrr fat@.eJr dlmmrnIiecil. l:JTh1IGl hllfIL 'llgllllll ,'llffiirl a~11Th .E1Th his }'O'll!tihi:: 'See~iI thou a ma:1Th ciI:[I:[gen1I ]!Jii, his 'lbus~:lThe-.ss? :~:e shaM, stand 'lbef'(llu,e Uffiigs_~'" ,l.1Iua!liil~lIl!~ ,errhie, '~\6be;r (1]J]ijcl.ucilecil, wu<s the ethic I](f calP:iirnn:LtSm, expressed "[ffii, aM, his womks wLrirnourli e:.l(cept~olTh,,"'~:

Since ''l!:PlPl1!r6Jii.dy !JiiO l!f1il,a~1mi'lt~¥e W!1l.tetr_, ,'l!mJsrr, au Effii,te:~le(""lru.aI coulrl Mle ca1P~rnMgm, ~,t went wiriilout sayiffiig tJri,'l!'1I nemrl,y ,lin, tihe-.se Se:-llcS.L1ILve Sl]Il1!Jlls wO'll!lrl dlsille: F1triliffiil~illl, the PlOCrlrO-Cap:utan:LtSt, So.rnIieCI'new'llGl !1.ougb.t tJrillt !hie end o:f llife was me:ueJ!y tile maki!Jii.g of J]i.il[lne.y olbriolllsly bdted depth, 'iliffiirl ,s[pllrItl1l''l!I.lIlIy_ Ao.ciI, :lif FFalThkliffii, wu<s S11!I1Pe:uilldaI and gl]ll1!J:~less, .8ll:]I OOO'!Al"fIS ArnIie:uic[L '~¥I.1Ih his '']PlP'lllfe!Jii.dy ih:uivelecil. spirir, F1r,'!ffiikl[!Jii was eve~m:lilThg !Itat l!fil],a~lCiJat~¥e ,']utiisM f01.E[ijrl WffiffiigW:ttb. Ame;ulea"

N 0 a'UiI~S1I found rno1r,e wrong 'w~th. ii'1mnkliffii. ,'lliitcil, ArnIi.eJr]cil tila!ll ciI]rl the lE!Jii~Ms]], WUl.tetr :n [~~_ L1!Wl[6nce. L'l!w:u,e;nce~ h:UbtrlolJS 'llittlrllcll:1Th his SI'tlt1j'~9

{i} TH E AM.E El.J CAN [ZATI DN Of B ENJAM.I N fRAN a t, [N

tJ1 CMgne AnwrictJ',,; Lftera'ltm ~!III. 191~ ics rthe .UFJmt:(1!EmI~lJl.CS cllil.tieicslIIJJ I)f HUimll~!III.evetr W:U~rtF,e;.fiL Te Lawrenee, 1~u<l!III11~!III. ·eUFJlbiDd~ecl. all these shallow ·m.oU'Fgel)is m.o!f1i.eym.<I:k~:lIi.g V',i~ues th.·tIt ir:i.t:eilileC1m~lls are ~.C'cmrtom.ed W d~sil~ke.. HF<I!IIIkli:1Ii. was "tbAs dtry, .UFJ.orn·l, uiIluil.iil:<I!l'.u<l!f.i :1~t:tJe deUFJ.oon1t,'" the iIlsh.<I'f~ il~.IIt]:e m<ll0," rthe iIlmi~.cl.dil.e-.s~zecl, srnroy, S!lliillf1[:...roilml!tre;il DiD am HF<I!IIIkli:IIl,'" iIlSOUlIlcl, s·ailL~sffi.ed illem," whoVi.'BS 'lli "v~moml~.ttJe a1.J!oollJ].arto!III.'" ,1l~d iIlthe Ilint: dow.lIlrIgrnt: Am.e;FI.C'lli!III .. "'''·

Lawrence was !f1io·t the on[y eF·e~ti."""<::' Wtr1t.e:F W :bid .F!l'lllfiikl~!f.i a CC:IThVOJli.ienr .UFJ.e,llIIlS fotr sayi!l1g somelIh.i!III.g <l!m.out AEmledca . .E Sc~1It .Fit.i:geHild~ Jay Gllits'by, (me of the .Emlm,;:1L A me:ul.ca!f1i. C:.htamote~fs ~!n aH of :liite4'alrntre, was run ·eameslL lbelilievetr ill FFmThldlr.i.~ m.essag,e OF seJl:f-~!I]L[J:~oye.UFJeJJlt aLS a Y01Ji.[j~ ·m.oy.'1 HF<llfiikl~!III.~s resolutlons in faot became <I .. UFJ~de:1 fotr tn.e }!'(ffilfiig GlliU·m.y~ se:It:~.IIr1i!pmed schedl.!!lle.: iIlR;Lcse :f:l'\GlUFJ.lbed, 6.0:0 A.M, '" "Dmfll;bbe:lil. exercise and waill-.sc;lillr.1g,6.IJ:.-6.~ '" "Stl1cl.ye:lectllil.olt:y, ere, 1.1;--&.IJ,'" "W'oTk, 8:.30-430 Pl;!I:.,'" "Ea!:eb8:H 0!1I1d .spOIuts, 4¥r.5;0D; ""P.uact)reelocu1':IoIl, poise 0!1I1d how ro <lttai!f.i ir, J.o~.oo,'" "Srudy !f.ieeclecl.ulfii.1i<'eT.l'l'lom, 7.00--1). co..'" '[f these werea ~t enough, G,1itlilby ~dded sO.Emle "Ge;ne~f<lil. iReso~,."'e'5'" tillmt. the 0Ibsl:e!lllJ.i~m PU<ltrhkUIIL !IIl~.gbt h;lve <ll~ifl[Ooved of "N o'!Ji,'Bs~li(j)~ riUFJe 'llit Shi<lFmus, '" "'No .UFJme sEmlok.ei!IIIg Otr dhewl!I1g, " iIlRencl. (IDe 1UFJ.p!mvi:i:lThg book O'f !IJI1a~z~!IIIe petr

week," "Sare ho;::.peF weeik."'\¥.irtrh.such. resoIlJl!t)om,:J.LS G,l'iis'by'S f<ltrn.etr

said, the yOI.!i1!11g 'boy "WilLS IbolJl!lfiid w geta:rne~d." F\IailThik~:~Iil.~SF·esoillj.\es became ~,1iFt oFwh.·llit F'irtIlge:U0].d! wrunt:ecl. m S<l!y 'lm.omt Gatsby's desjre w trea~ize the so-milled A!lEJetr!m[l dlu·e<lffi ..

N OUFJ';l1r~r rlmlL 1']1i,s dlu·e0!l][l eluded Gatslby, as F:ittg'e'u0lci1. rh.Ol.!!I.ght i.t ·ellli.d!ed! ~·Iil. AUFJ.ericllilfiis. As ilO:lThg aLS AEmletr.icaIIlLSkee,p tr.ry~!fii.g W gms!p 1']1<111 "gu.eeJli. ilight, the 'Otrgi~stk~u:liIilitre th:;lt. yeatr by yeatru.ececles before us," PUlli~ik~.lilIl wilil. :ue.Emlarn 'lli reJlillHil.ffigJilitre ill. AUFJetriC0!1I1. mylLhril0 gy .. His :Fem0ulable il~§e .see.UFJS rn tre0!l:1rutrUFJ ]'(IIF ,1ill AmeFlc;lm rihe~oss~lb[illrtIy of ·a!f1i.fO'ne~s, hi~'I,i,re"""eF hl.!!lfll;bl:e his ·m.~:FFJl <I!fii.d!~i:1d.g[Oou]1jcil, .UFJ.;likiJIig irtI.:+

'FHE HIS-TORle EIGH'JEENTH-CEN''FUR¥ FRANKLIN

GlliU·m.y .rniay bea powetDfuil. tr'Of)'FeselThtr;lt).ve AUFJer.Ic<lJIiJ m<l!u~cte!l;;nl1 he ics a i'k·tlooil i~gl.!!IU.e-~ .il.1irllilITJik~jjr.l, en the other b:;l!lIi.d!, WilLS a Te'11~etrso!lIi,~~t: ~!III.wJlre6L OU'!Ji,'BS net' Does FF<ltrhkH!ll~S AfltoMwafl!J perhaps the most

HHRODUCTION C*'}

widely read '1lj]Joobi.oguaiPhy ~!III. tiruevl,r.o!FI.d!, gIr."e us a!III. 'acrurMe pienare of tlliie iliJJ.a!III? Mlll.dl of t\.'\1.eJCilLtetrb.-oonrury :I~.remfj! Crltk-:LtSm of the Atl/:t!.ilJ..j'f.iUi1"pl~)l has em.phacS~zed. FFallllkl~!f.i~ sOiPh~stii.catfi.on, humer, and sense ef iiro'ny ,1cS a w!l'.Lreu .. How seulmltSIy .un.litSt we rnle .HlliUiJ.kl~UiJ? Is j'Ol.!!lll1g .HlliUiJl[i:ru, th.e character of the first two sections ef the Awollic.vrnpf!J.\u.e,llMy the S<l!liE1ie [pe:us.o:a as the GllciI,eJI .l.1':ua:rulllli:ru, tl]e aurttl1oT? Do we roe,1My hlOW .HlliUiJikbiUl, :k!l1ow ]]~.Imi. as weI'! as we Im.o~ say, .F~.ttge:ui:lI.d!~.§[Iy G,ltiSby?

Infaer, the JTiitSoorleF!rlliUiJll~lIl, tlhe .iEha:ruIM!f.i of the e~gb:tteeF.Itiru. ce.mJru:ry, seems ro elude UtS as JiJlJl1lm. as Gi:l.trs'by~ ever rec"ecil~UiJg grree:ru. :1~gb.lI dlli!!ledi h~m. Vli'J:te'JTh we aCIDlially reco¥'e:u tlTie[~ui:l!IIIIl~lIll .of thee~gh.re:e' . .ITH:I]. ce.mJ.ru:ry, he does :lItot seem to :6.1I the :~!IlIlage we :have created of 1i.Imi .. First of aM, Ms :I~fe wacS ]TI.ot rei1lMy ,1lDOU[ the .un:ll!ki!l1grnUiJ.d! savii:lItg of money .. He WUCS ~lIll :raot the !lIllostDe'JThewIe;n[ and [pl1i~la!lJilIl1ropk of the .iF.olj]J:ru.d!eus amTi.d! In some respects tIheleacSt cenceraed witiru. tlle getrr.liUiJ~ .o,f money .. [)\e~pire aciTd!ev:[Ulg :ffi:'l!une as a sdenrist, he :rue"'''e~F bel:~e¥ed!tl.at science wasas ~!ffi!p.o!rh'l!f.i'l: as [plliJb:li.c service .. Indeed, a:[ trh,e age of ]'OFty-rnroj he :Fe1iirecil.froun.ns~lii.ess 'llUiJ.d! cl.6VGl:edi tirue :Fel]iJ<1ill:ru.d!eu of ]]1tS :I~fe to sew~!I1g hitS dty, h~s colony, Ms e!llllfpl:Fe, 'lllItcil. ·tl.eJfl,rnfter :[n!!i'e;,pe~clelii.ce~!lTi J]J6, h.~s stare a!III.d! the U !ITi:itedi Stares ..

. Farfmun.IDei!lTi.g the spole-sun:tl!Iii.fm .llITio:lillerrmdk:[!lTig i:l!OiI! Ibwrna:rge.o:LtS Y,lll.ues, FbllIllklin repell!'l:edily modedi~bose:wb.o were caugl1i.tlll.p ".lin. the .iPUFSl1!I.Lt Qf 'Wedlm to no E!ITi.d!,.tI1 Un 17),0, he wrote malI at tlliie em.d! of hitS :I~fe "[ weuld rather have i.tSlliLcl" .Flelk¥dw:tfti:l~ ·t:hi:lllll, Hitlicl.ridJ.. I'>'I He CO!lTi:~~UiJ.ui:llly w,unedi agaiUiJst lh.ell!IDUSe Qf .unOIille;i' ~!III. po:I~.rtics alItcl.~:ru. :faot lll:Fg'e'di th.ll!t ~ver.[i!lTlle;Ilitttl!l. ofilkii:lls srnoul.d! sewe ·w.irthout P'll!y. Aftrer his retlremem.t :f:UO!lTll basineas In :17.48 he oftre:ru. thOl1lght like a geITilteeJl ar:icsoocHlt, net ,'Ii tF<lciI.es.IFi'lllill ..

AI.th.ough he may b:ll!veeve:illruaL~y become 1T!hie Sli!prreme symbllil ef AlFieuktl, be 'WBS ceruilThly Iii.ot th.e most Am.e:uici:lllll of th.e Foundees cil.lj]JrilItg hJcS :Iifetilme..[rucileed!, one .unig1lI .unOF.eeacS~ly deserlee h~!IlIJ. as tile leacSt AlFtieuJerun '1ilItcil. t;rue .unmil EUlCOpei:l!III. of t;rue Fm1Iio:o/s eady le aders, He wacS 1.lirucilOli·itrrecHy tirue .IFi(lst coslFio!pGI~.rn!III. an.d! ·tle .unmt uF'Da!lIle of tha.t glCOlllIP ef ]fr,weo.rs who lillCGIljJ~lTi.t albm.lft the RevoImrtJl.o'fL Be ho'b'JIi.o1b1becil wLrtr:l1lordls i:l!III.d! ,1lulsoocuatl! i!III. B:Fltallill aad the rre~t of ]!.lj]J oop e.. He, CO:lIliVe:Fsed. wlilil1 kings i:l!III.d! even ciliUiJOO wilIh. ene, No omeu AmBrlCa!III, .~nJetJe:us.o'f4 k!lIlffi.V more Eurotpe,lllItcS m was more cel.e'bmtre:ciI.ll!·IDr.oM linllITi(l!re CGlu!IllIFIe1 th<1lIl F1IailThkll!l1.

{,I~} TH E. AME EU CAN [ZAT:I ON Q~ 8 E.NJA1!ilJ N fRAN KlIN

As hdcSto'FJfi!ll Gnm~, iRecJte:F ence pll]l~!Jij,tOO Ol1!It, F1.rnilik:~~!Il "''!Ji,'BS aeqjll!i:lIIIl'l".edl persO'Jij<';I~y 0[' tJl1cOl1lgh, eeerespcndence "with more m6J1 of emiaenee ~!Il ~.ette['s, science, i:lM pelirles thlliUllliUlY O'the;F !OII.i:l!Jij, of biLtS time. ..,.~

Ce:rtr1Idy no other Ame;FJellifii. ~.eaoe:r Mvecl, ,mo!re yetl[,s abroad tJIiml ,[~Fi:l!Jijl~~!Jij. '[!JijfBct, li!1rn:lThiidilIl S[p6J11I tI!b,e 11m~.k of the last mlFty -three }rea'FS of bts :I~fe ~:inmig outside of AIlJ].e:rJe.:Ji, ~!Il iBd1Ia~!Jij, ,']ilIlcl France.. At sBVeJra~, :poimts ~t WilcS dO'ulbh:1 whetI!b.e;r he weuldeees :F,e:mum to ArnIi.e;F,LC1l, or wanted 'ro----or ,e¥eIi ea'F,ed m,urn, i:llbo'll!t Amer:im, fi:ltr f[co:Jllllbe]ng ,'l !Ilart!1l'Fi:l~, and tno[Ol1!Ighgoimig A!l:JThe:rlc.:Ji!Jij. Fb!llkH!Il at several [pO'~!Il'IIS ~!Jij, his ~1fe 'e'x\p~rIe:rtrecl Wh:llilI we roocl<'ly 1lJ],~ght call me: ,1illii11'iety of narional ~d,e;JIi,rtity_ He ''!Ji,'BS :miotSllre where he :FJgh.t~y 'belO'!JijgOO., Was he EmigHtShJ Or iBdtLtSlId Or d~o he ![efiMy 'belOF.ig ~!Il ,[i'!nmre? Vre should !Jij'olI mite hitS Ame:rl.ci:l!Jij!lle5s ]'O!F gFi:l!ll'tte0_ Nor .sh'o'll!~d we '[aike bts [patrtrldjpatloTI ilTh tib,e Rew~,mto!Jij, [Of gFi:l!ll'tecl.,

At me Ibeg~!Ili[jIlILg of tJIi.e lm:pedi:ll crisis ilTh the ei:l'F~y 17\k6-tlle c~rl.dtS thi:lt would e!Jijd wirh the Ib:r,eak.up of the iBtrl1ILtSb. :Em[p]tre ,11[10. the ]!Jijoependenee o:f the United Sr'lre.!i-:ru.o O'J1e co'll!~d have ~oe;rtti:6ecl Fb:lThklimi, wi1Ih a :ua.cil:LC,'1~, cause, C~rtr.:Jii!ll~y,mio ene could hase [pu,eclioted that he wouM become O'J1e of me: ~ead.e;r.s of the A:JlI].e;ulctl!Jij Revo:~lj],tlo:mi., ~'1Th J760 there were :few [!Jij,g:I~shi!lIJ],e;IIlWho were as dedki:l!l:ewrl! to' the gu,earness of the iBdtltSh. [:JlI],:pl'ue ,1cS hie.

~'t'!Ji,'BS then hard to, see 'llifly d~!lJere:mire ,'It ,';I~, Ibernreen ,~ami,klL!Jij, and the ,rnIi'l1fl,'!Ji,tiru.o \\l-01illld! e1r"6n1!lla~~y GQ:JlI],e roo .sy1lJ];bO'~:i1re :ro!F ArnIi.edei:lll1cS the a:uclIJ,- 1::0'llJ! and the fure.rnIi~cSt ,e:mie.m.y of Am,e:rlci:l!Jij, ~.L'be:F1Iy aimi.cil, Alrne'-.Fl.ClllfJ. independenoe 'JlnOJ[ji:ls&;l:lj]tth~!flcSO!Jij. ~mJ1 flr,1illTiik~lmi a!Jijd&;l1lftrn~JIi.cSO'n W~Ie good [!Jij'ligru!l:.eJThllJ]ont iIlgllil:u,es-llrte:l'.:Jite, ![efisl](,m'b~e :JlI],6J1,wiil"!b, a deep dis~fke of ![eJliglom enthusiasm, iBom. were ~m:pe![ii.:Ji~ offidalls, cleclkarted to the ~h~ti~hlE..iffi!fdJre.. They had. ]mi. fact ClO'O'pe!r.'l1Iecl.Imi. fl]l![1f]l~ng the A~Ib(l!IJJy Pbfl I](f U:rt~mt i!ll 11:)'{; whi~.rn. rJIF,e~e;n'recl.:Ji :f.:'ltrSighi.redi pl[i\O'pOS.:Ji~ for ir:i.reFcoln[i[l~ coo'pe:FatiO'lJJtI!Jijd ]1lJ].pe:rL'l!~. clereme" iRotJIi. li!1r,l1lThklilIL snd H11!Ittih~!Jijsl]([] were getillimig-alnF:ig !IlI16n-be~:le~r.s In prudence, cslcularion, a!IJl:'Ilbl!~il.lIy-i:lncl. t:hey made me.Jtr way ]!Jij. tl1a't .rnIiGElia:uc-bktl~ . .society by :pby~:lILg th.eI:F parts, ~o1I!h we:F,elbe:l~e~F.s i!ll the :POWe:F of a few reasoaableraen •. rnIion.liliike t:hernseJYe3, ro !rlliIlfiJ affi1:iir.s .. ~o1I!h :F,eg<1:Fclecl me COIDrnIiGfJ. people with a eerta~!fl pa.tlro:mi.~~!flg il!rnIimellJ],6n'tt, unless, of course, ther dO'red-tJIiBJ1 the two O'fliich~J were :6Mecl, wkh, cl:LtSgust

[NTRO D uen ON {I'I'}

'['[ :LtS ham [[Com the 'WlJThrnge pobTht G(f the e~m~.y I760s ro !p:u,edktt m,at the patJiis of fitraJThkliffii, moo HlJl!whl!llcSO'n would ,eveffii,tu:ll~'~y dl,1j,"e~ge so tradlk,l~~.y_ ]']l ,UFi:lliffii.y respects [fumnklin seems the ~easlI like:~y off !rew~,lJl!tll{l!lla'ules., Cerrn]!ldy ltis [pmruc-ipatto!Jij, in the Rew~,lJl!tll{l]l was :ffii{lt ]ija1m[',1!~, 0[' llllevirtt,db~e-; Effiirl'eedl, Fir,mklL!fii came rer]' close 1IGI !remaEffiiing,il.<.s his so:n d~m'jll ~OJ'BI meunioor off the !B!rlrttLtSh :~!4:rn,!p:ii!re., On the face of l.t, lit is l1ot-e'il.<.s], to undeeSlrlliffiirl why fFalThkliffii, tookup the kw:llJl!tiGlTha'try C',1!'UcSe at all,

Fhn o:f ,i~~, ,[EiiflliffiiUtffii, lJl!!JijMke th,e ome:u Th"lliJlf]rlers, was !Jij{l'II a y0l1!l1l1g man, He W.:J.tS re1j,~n1Iy l!ll! 1776-'Jij{l'II the age thall G(0e associates wi.tJii, !p<1<.ssMmare :u,e1j.\O~,1.lIII.LO'Jij:llde.s_ Be was 'by f\l!r the oldeslI G(f the Revo:~lj]_tii{lD.a'try ~eaife:rsrur.e;Jij,ty-SE1I.': ye,1!!rs oldes tJii,1iffii, 'Wa~hi~:lILgtto:n, twenty -nine }reg'US o~,[feJr thalll Jfobn Adam"!;, thhty -seven years older '1Iib,0!Jij, jefferson, ,1iffiim, :ffiiea!['~ 'll b:ll~f c-emlm!r}' older tJii:lliffii, MarllSlln 'lliffiim, HamHIro!ll. [Because he came from alll e!Jij,t~'u,e:~y dlilJe!reF.it ge:ffiiemtLo:ffii, :froUFi, the rest G(f th,e fhlliIIDrlers, he was in SGUFie,se;me ,UFiGU,e dl.ee~~.y comUFi:~tt.ecl, 'IIO th,e B:ul.t~slllE!fiJ],ph,e than they were,

MOire lJlmip0!r.t,m.t, unHke these otJiie~u F.tevo:~lj]_tlo:rn'1iuy ~earle.us, ,[fumJijl~llll ,'l!ke,]rly had ,1i1Th established !['I~:!plJl!rn,tiO:ffii; indeed, ptriio!r ro the kvoIulltG(0,:he W.:J.<.s aIrearly werld-famous. He had eve~uythiffiig ro lose and seeUFilffiig:~y M,tt]e 'IIO gaiffii, 'by :pa'utidjp'lltllng Effii, a !rew~,1.lIIIlO'fj_ The otbe~ AUFieJdmffii, kw:~lj]_tiGffii,,]Fy leaders w-e.F,e }!"JDlJl!!Jij,g men, v.~!rIru,a'~~y unk!Jij{]IWlJii, outside o:f theh remote !p![Co'j/"~nces., 'We can g5Jije:Ull~'~y lEffiirle:usF']irnri!. 'why tJiier m~gb.'II have become :F,evo:~ill:tti:O:0'1!triies. lI.'hey were meffii, G(f raodest O'dgl!flcS with high ,'l!uniffitllom who saw in the ~"O:~lj]_tiiO:ffii, O'Ppo'F'lI1i!llitlle.s ro ac:hi~ere tJii,1!'II falmie tJii:llt B,'l!UFi]~wn called "the :m~l:lThg passion of the !Il0'!b~e.st !fiJ],l!JijclJs.,"'o;J iB,lJl!t fbffiil~l!Jij, was dl:[ffe!r6Jij,,[,, He alone 'llh,eadl.y had the poslrien ,1iffiirl the falmie tJii:llt the othe:~s O]ij'~y yell[nedl, foe, [-:]e W.:J.CS ,'l!ke,]rly known aM. O're'F !I8:drttallll ,']ffiirl the rest of Europe. !B:ecame of his dlS eoverles rnmire~fijlffiig eJecEF1,d,ty, w:hkh, were !re,1!~ CO:lJit'tiLOO.tiiO:ffiiS ro hUle science, he had become 'll c-e:lelbrilIy throug:hi{llJl!t the A'lIb:lThtlle world .. Be ham beeeme 'll !fiJ],em'!be!r of the RoyaI Sodeoty and had :F,ece,ii~dl, hO'nom!r}' degrees from illn~,veJ[Siiliie..s :[ffii, A!fiJ],e.Flea 'lliffiirl !Btrii:F.1llfl, l!Jij,C:l'Udl:[!Jijg St, A!Jijrl!rews 'lliffiirl OXfOIFdl., ,iP'h~~o.so'phe!rs ,1iffiirl sde;n1IitSts :frornIi, ,1!U O"ifeF ]E.ill'[Co!pe comu~,tedl, b:~m on ererythlng F[c01Ill how ro buHd a :6'F,eptllC'e ro w'hy the eeeans were S'1!~,ty., 'Ve~~, before the kvo I utl 0 n he was G(0e of m,e moslI renowned men Iffii, the wOI~M 'lliffiirl cerrn:~!Jij'~y the most f\l!fiJ],I]Ilj],8 AUFieJdmffii.,

{Il!} THE. AMERICANIZATION Of BE.N]AM1N FRANKUN

S inee he gca:rrc"'e~y COll!~d! lTi~ve foreseen how .1Fi.ll!dh the RevoIl!l.tmn ·!li,roll!~d! enhance h~s :rre.fl1utr.:JJtlon ,,]li'id! rum him ~!IIi.ro ene of Ame:rrica~ g[re,'I!~e5rr folk.herees, why M: his ~ge .!Ii,roll!~d! he h . .:JJve risked so .l!IITiuohJ

We do net 1JlcsuaHy ask. the Cj11lesitUon of why Frra!lIi.k:~~lIl became a revehs·lIio!JIi<'"lJ!ry. Somehow weMte rucs p<1rrtii.cipatm.:lin the Re"'i]~1JIIIio!lIi ]"Oirr grruntedL Because he is se ~d~ntuill:ed! wit"ib the :RevoI11l.tiiolTh 'llli'icl. ·w:~th. ADne<r.[c,'h; we can CSC,'lIT"'e~y ·rn~lIlikof him as alllj'1:h~!I1glbl!l.t.:JJ tlTiOiBougl1~lL0g ADnetr1cmL !IB:-t!l.t tihiics ~s a :prob~el!lITi. of ·wlmt h:[csoo:r.Lam ge:lTierra~~.y ca~~. w:tTi.igg~s.I!IITi.----'to,e a:ITla.chrnlTh~Stic mi]tra:.I1otrten:~lTig th,'JJtlLelTidJs rrro see the [Ptlc!:t and [pem.solIlc!: bILrne pasrrtlc!: a!lIi.tlcipa~lo:[is of the~TIrnrre.. ]!1rnJThildili'i. has become sueh a SYIII;~O'l of Al!IITietr~.c.:JJ th,'lJt we :tTia'i'e a hard rime th~:lIlik~:lIig of MDn.tlc!: ,1lnytb;ilTig Imt alll ArnerriGLITh fu~l hero O!IT the .spoike.s.m''lln motr AmeITI.c.:JJITi. GI!p~ta~~ll.m .. We h.·.:JJVf: more llialll two :tTi.Thli'idtredi. yeiIiITs of .~Dn.·ages. ~!f]Ipmedi. OIIl .[:;inlili'ikl~lIl du<llI h<lVf: 00 lire lPee;~ed away ·lbef"O!rr·e we C.:JJITi. treOO¥err the .1!IITi',]IIIWhll a::~sl:ecil.lbefutre~ib.e :Revolndon, ]i'1uli'iktilTi ~!Il the late I700S and e<m~.y lnoS wasnet f,'JJrredi m ahanden the B:rrltJll.h. E,Dnp~:rr.e ·llili'id jO~!IIi. th,e ADn6dc,'11i'i. C;lUSe.. [~] ow he became e..sir:rra!J".iged fBOIill! du,'lJte'lFiiPitre 'llli'id!~ecame,.:JJ~mos~ O'reITil".iiugh.1I, a fierry :rrevo~utIO:ru·llitry ics an .~DnpoTtrllint :lPiliUt of the .sool)' of his l\Ji:Elietrlca!f.l~zm~ioTl

]n ma!lIi.y respects .iFFllilITi.kJ:En ~!IIi. rno e.lllJ.eJfgedi. as the WJu]f:it:ellsl1!'nlIb~ repub~U.clli[), dledkmlLecil. 00 a 'W1)trlc:l! ~!ru which o:ruIy ·r<'il~elIl·~ (Sffi!!lnl:ed!,li'iotWluo )'Oll!tr :&'lJIib.eJf WDS o'r wham. ym'I. m.:JJ!rITIed. Oaee .iFriIlThik1:illii joined tlTie iIlevo'lwlIio!lIi<'l!Fj' eause, h.eh!iev.itr.:JJ·~1y IheCil!lil1ie a ]ene:lThlI ·lbeJiewe:rr in ,'lJ tr"6pll!b~J.c.:JJITi. world ·Wluetreteadems were disimereseed geJn.rrJ.eDn6JTi, free fmm any oCC11llfJa·IIiGlIi'i atlIld t:o,e eares of .l!IITiakilIig lIIoney. .. ~flliffiiknlTh, bng siace :rr·e,ti:recl ]lrOl!IITi. his pdlThlIi!lIig~csilliie.J:s, .!li.1"[c!: ]1Ti. T1J6 mere thilLlIi w~.H~!lIig m devete MDnself·~ the SeF'ilUre Glf tlTi.e, 1Tif:W ·United. Smte..s wi.th~1J!~llirry .expeOtri!tiOT.L Glf m.o:ruemtry :rr·ewfiFd .. N 0 olThel1!':tTept\¥all.h~!lIigwlTi. g.:we more of h~m!Se,~f m me new 1Ti,'lJliion ..

1.""b.e .eiglTit yean ]!1fiJi[i!kl:ulTi. spent ''lJbooradi. ac!: the ch~efeJnvoy flOO.l!IITi. the U ITilted St.'lJlIes to H.Fa!lIi.ee~1l!trt!b.e~red due [P!~oce..ss of ITiics A[;I1jetr.LC','IITh~zatiio:lTh. Am~d the ~.ll!:.w:rry of the [1\rr·e.JIIc-fl. C01i1tr1I, the .I!IITiOS~ sO!phi.s~bted ~1Il a~~. of Europe, ]i'1fiJi[i!klilTi became .l!IITiuob more self-eonscleus of his .~Dn:agre:J.c!: the trepFe...se:lThtarhre Ame~Ul.cllilTi,:J.c!: to,e sy.mlbG~ of the s~mp~:[C'h:y of the New Wo!r~d! 'llli'icl. its differeli'ire fmm. the COrFUlPtJiom of the O~dWotrldl .. iB.ec,'lJ11llle the Fke:li'icnlTheeded rtMcs srrnlbo~ befose the ADn.e~ul.cllili'is themselves d~rl, m,ey :iThtr-Stt C'rre.'lJt.ed the image of FFa!f.likH!ffii as the :IT1J,s~ic democnll,:J.c!: the silil'l!p~e UJThrtl!!ltoIIT·ed! ge:li'iu.1i1CS from due wilds of Amedcawluo had become

] NTRODUCTWN {.Ij}

o:m,e of 'tihe 'l.i.!'(Ilrhrl!~ gtreart .scie;nlIiests 8JIid, wrirers. HIT.:JJ!lIikli!ll WilLS wel~, a1,i,'DITe of tihdlS image.:JJ!lIid d!eve~o!ped!.:JJ!lIid used :u~ o!lllbe,ru'.:JJ~faf the Am,e:ITlcmn cause,

A.s i.m(po!li1i:atnt GIS ]!1r.1!lThik1Jn?.s ]!Ir,€:'nm, e:.'l:)peITfe~m.c,e wu.s in his Ametr1c8!fidtzatien, ru01Areve~ it Wil.sU!IIi, true se1j."am~, decades i!lIl![lIIeciLla!re:~y f'Gl~~owi!lTi~ his de<1t'h EITh rl"9Q 1Jb:.:JJ1I the ,modeJr.lTh im:age mf ]!Ir8!f.1kli!lTi, a.s the seUf-m'ade Ibm.l!trgenies mo'm~Jsrr~:mdls,~okesIT!i8!f.1 f{liIT ci1pita~iesm1,i,'DsITea~~y created As melThew Ame:ITkrun tre~ulblic developed i!f.lrrID m1llcn ,more mIT a d.emocmtic, ,mon,eymaki:m.g .sooiety~o,i1I!1Ti, 'lliriJ'Gne had,llin!1kiparted, theneed fOT.:JJ ,[1o'!J:m.detrwho OOl.!!I~d :repITeooru.lI 'the 'age~ flew eg,;llitflITImru, i1I!1ld oomme:ITcL';1 forees beeame ever more (PIITesS~!ITi~, On~ W~d1, !he puilin:lic:JJlI.tmn, of ITdlS Atfrubwgrl1J!II!)1 [~l :1794- did, the idea o:f Flrmlkli!lluLS !h,ef'Olksrelimilbod:~me:nrt of the seilf-1illlI8.d!e busiI".ie~gm~atnd the erearer of the Am.eJrka!f.l dlITeam, begin, to ~truerr powe~ m:i!1J1~ mday, mere thml m"O centuries breIT, the ru.lLSWrle tF8!J"J.kli!lTi, of the e~~ru,rteeiJTi,th, c,e;nrnrry reJllli1limIiruJITfed!~e;neat1hi,rufJ, aeeamuladen o:f i!l]j'8~, Gomel1!lll!€:'m:~y, despite .nm!lldtreds m lbiogrnp,ni.f:l: ,1!lLid studies m F!l'itlIiik1ilTh aad m'eJr three oo7eJn VOI1.!'IjJ]Hl-S mIT .n~spajpe!r.s mag.fJi:iflce;nlIly pulblished ilITl,.:JJ modem .ietteJrpress edittmli:i, we .stu~~, do :li:iort~ul~ bow 1ihem,1!fJ,

'["HE MAN OF MANY MASKS

]!1riJ[nll~lITI. is not aneasy !IJlGllITl.~O gerr to ikoow, A~.Inb.ougJ'I he 'W~ote- .more piec-es 'lI'lbourrr more tMlITI.gs trui1!JIl ,1!ny of the otlue:IT tolllITlrlien, .FmlIlklin is neve:IT very reveal~!Ilg of Mm,self.&;je.:JJ~.WD,YS seems m be ho~d~lITI.g rometM!lIiglbacik-he isITe'lIieent, rlietac-h.ed;m.ort wruol~y oom,liI1i:Lrtrrred,\¥e sense i!ll ]!1riJ[fJlli!lTi. true presence of calculated rrestmi:lIlt~il :ITest:IT8:lint: peIT hapa bred Iby ru:Les .s[peC1!:acul<1!IT rise and !±!i.e lillid of hi.~e:IT8ITC-h:UCil~, 8!1Tid! pat~o.mlge~ ITlcilffin1,i,!'(IIITld he bad! ro, opemrreiiru," Ce,J1tmilllly~!be:rce were peeple i:1II P'bJIadiel.phiawho ne¥eIT :~e1IMm.fm:gerr "'his ml~IiEl181 Q)!bscurrIrtry,"rufJd rh,1!1I rueh8d "sprn:m.g from "tlTie meaaest Ci:w.llm,srralITlces,"', Despite hieS coID(p18][IilIig th . .:JJrt he WULS l".ieve~IT able ro order tlui0gll [~l MIS l~fe, we ,se.!JIi.LSe that hewas ,1!~,1,i,'D,YS in oonibrol 'llifJd1,i,'DS .show:li[]~ lltS olITlIy w.barr he wililIlrted !lIS to see, o.li:i~,yarr memenrs inthe efl:ITly :r:nos.:JJlITIdi.:JJrt~he ellirli o:f his life 00 we sense tihi.:JJrtlrhe w~dd1,i,'DS spitrufJ]lIIg msrof his ~.ras~

~e;i"O:nd theITe-.J:Ir:ITai['j.ed.~:l!fJd! reserved cbaITacter of Mes persenal writlili:igs is th,e r"E:,J[j,aITikGllb:~e eharaeter of his pmlblic W!l'.l'II.ulII,gs,e-s~ed.:JJ~ly :hb

Ai!lt.gnr~.r-1ll1r11i~S mostffi:l!I]lI(llJl.lS o:f Ame:uic'l!fll te'~, '" <IS one sc-hohr canis i,t,~ Hretr,1lFY sc-hokl'FS have OOmi,tiiJIil.!I'a~'ly i!III,Tetrp[etedi and [eilThte:F!p!Fe:recil, the Aflt.gru~}y Imt stu~il. C<lR!fii.ot 'agree: O!fii, wbmt[:ru<l!IIIl~i:ITl'JIil<lS ttryU!fii:¥:" to do lin WUl.tii:l7ilg :ut Am,o!fii,g the F01Jj[ijde:~s;Je£rer,so:n 'a!fii.d! AciI.'l!UITliS 'a~ro w.[Cl]I'te alj]jro;lbl.ogtr,'lJplTi.fes,IDut titTiel:FS ,1![e IiotMn:¥:" ~1!ke ,[fua!IIIlli:1Il ~,&;l~su,ese.rn'.i bles 'll! ''JIilQluk Gf Iktiiomi, i!III, tJu'1!lIlAte ca:IIl!fii.olI 'be: sure that the: lJ:ll!nat~re wi,c'e is the s.'l!lillTie as me alj]jth(llr~, ]'ncil.eoo, rmaeh of the ~u,eacil.e;r~e;njOY,[(jije!fiit of the Ai!lt~gr(J'tJ!J GOmes fWI]lI, the (I]I!fii.tU<lS~ between F\mmiikU!fii,'s deseriprions Gf the "'ll!wlw<lrn ~uj.d!iC1.!lll]1'1.!)s Appe<l'F<I!III,ee" the reena~ pd!fii,te[ .UIT1i'acil.e lj]j!pGmi, bitS '[Iniva~, i!III, Phil<icil.e:npMa a!lIld! "'the ,iFi~[e[ hsve SI!I1C"e m.ade rtf!i.e re ,OJ I' h is lTi,ll!m ro imerpret m,e· Ai!ltobmgru~] slnee, a<s scholars have pO:~mi,red! our, FriIlThikllmi, ,UITli~~ between .se"ife'~a~ !pi8Jrsonas; es[ped.'ll~ylbe:twee!fii thern!fiiOC'eF.ire Gf }1Ol.!!I.th, .mcil. the iroo,y of 'll! ,UITli'1!rure lID.a!III)"

]'naU o:f ,iFtrffimilli!J]?s w![ij,1I1r:igs, bitS w~t 'll!!fii.d! humor, bitS c-(llii.cSrn:lThlI self:... awa:F'e'-.Ete~S, hitS [cSS1.!lming ciI:Lffe[e!fiilI pe[so!fii[cSll!!fiid! reles, maike i,t diilfilk1J~t ro ikmi.ow n(lw ro [ead b1IFL He was a ma!llof ,UITli:lliFi.]' vDkes <lRd masks who GOfl1I.imJ!aUy mod-s h:im!Se~fJI SO'JlIJielr.~UITlie~ iIi his new.spa!p~r esSll!y.s he wss a woma:lIi, :like '" Silence Do~odi,OJ "A~ke AciI.ciIe;rn:m~e, '" "Ce:d~J:a Shortface, OJ and ".Po~[y ~aketr, OJ salj]jeJ' llimid! mcy a!lIld hl~''l!ulO1.!lS_, Atothe[ times he was the 1lliB,lj),sy iB(ldiyt o!r «Ob<ld!bh .Pl<l~:IIi:UITli.'ll!!fii, '" O[ IllAntJJ.olfiJ.Y Afrerni,1I, '" O[ "lR~dm'Fd S',1!mlllcile[s,OJ ~~so ik!fiiow!III, <IS ",~O[ IRkb'1lFciI, '" rrlliie '1!~m.a!ll<l(, .UIT1i'aike:r;, S(I"l]lIeII~!IIIle-s he wrote in the u.ncl.o:a :UlewSp,1ipe:us <IS "'A!fii, AUITlier~ca:Ul,OJ or III A New Elii.ghlimid!-M<I!fL '" Burnothe[ times he W,rOT.e as IllA iB:uioo:n" O[ IllA Lenden M'll!!Irmfae1IU[etr, "ll!!fiid! strinipecl 'w'bat he wrote 'll!Cmm~lIlg~.y,ID'll!d!fii.g hitS London yea:Fs he wrote SOJIl],e :Ulimie!Iy [pse:l!Jilo!fiiYI]lI.om i,rerns fur the: !p!F,e-ss ms'L!fii.gf'O!Fty -two diilfif-e;u·e'lThlI sig[ija1IU[eS}''! fo[ eaeh I!l(f ili,e m.a!III.]' !p];ec,e~ he w:uotelboth. in W'h.il<lde~ph:ua and :i!fii, .Lcmdo!fii. he b.<ld! a [e.fIl].<I:FikaJb,:~e ahiHrtry ro mente rhe '1ipp![Co[pubre pe:Fmmi.'L Indeed, 'an of hitS 1lD.<I!IlY :pe[soTJ;[cS eon'Imlll::mte mke~ wthe :p,'!!rtirnb:F !plj]j[P05e: Gf his 1ji\l!trtom 1W"O[h, wl'i.ietn.e[ they <llU,e: essays; sHl!S,poemlS, o!r satlees, .:t§mst as no other e~gb.I:ee:Ul.th,eeF.iru:ry w.u ire r has so m<llllYl]llo(ldls <I!IIId! tones olr so wid!e a tr,1llIlg'e of eorres!pGmidentI.s, OJ declares m.e deml, ofprresent-day HiFallliklimi. scholars, "'SillIIilO othe[ e--1gl1te5JIi,'l'bJ-ee:Mm'uy wdte:u has so rnalThY diiffe<mnlI personae O[ so .UIT1illimiy diilfifelH~;JIlJlI voices asiFtra!fiilli!rL'" No wGmid'e!r we bve cillflfic'1l~.ty6gJJ1[i!IIIg 01.l!t whe rtf!i.ltS [eUITli:ll!d:ll!'Ib~e ,UITli.'lliFi, waK'!_';

:I NTRODUCnON {If}

Of ,';I~, the Thllindlen, [fUi1Ilflklilit had! tJrie :~u:l~est 'll!Jiid! deepest understand[[ii:¥:' of hiUrnli:ll!Jii, natuse, [:"]e had ,'1 rernli:llrlalble Cilpa0l,ty 00 see aM, sides of bllimmThlbefmvto'[ and to 'll!ppreciateother poinrs of Vlmv;, Be loved, narnE[ii:¥:' C~Elve!Jii,too<';I'!A.!:EsdGlrnli, O:1Th ~iI"S head,ll<S, fo!u exaj[IIIi!p:~e, 'wilri6n he ''1![g1.led for tJ:i,e vlrnue 'll!Jiid! usefulness of eensuee ,'lilitd, Iblld'biiJI.E!Jii,g.,~ t:;"o,t. tJri6Jij, 'llgll~:1Th are we sure thlJiit: he is oo~ !plJl!rtting us GITh? Hi': c,e.wta:~[i'~y e:UliUO}'-ed hoases '9!!Jiid! wa<sll'h,e master of every :uh,erorIca'l p~.oy., No AIlJ],e;Ulca!Jij 'W.Flrer of the ,eilgh,tee'JIItll, ee:Uliru:~y ('(IlJl!M burlesque, deride, pi1Ilnocil.y, or 'fuJeo.l1aue meee dl~:n~,uny tilli:ll!Jij, he. He could praise and m(lck. at. the S,'1rnli.e t~me i1Ioo eeuld wrhe on Ib(lt'b, sides of i1Ilfl iesS1Jl!e wl:1:h ease ...

[,~ ies ,emy tol]iJ~ssll'h.e C"(l:rmI!P]ex.~,rty a!Jijd! SIOJbt]elIy of FFi1I!JijlltE!Jii,~ w!dr11lg_ [He praises :u,ea@'Jij,m arftJ:m to at. we furgen h~s :~[i\o:ndC' smry 'll'IbOUt. mi1l!Jij~ Ihel!l1g 'll :u,eagar[il11lbIe Cf,eamre. ]!11 h~s A,fN(J&,i.9gi1jkJl he re!Ilis us aboun hGIW' he rrbtm,dbFied hies }'(I'JlIrJ]J,u~, effort '00 ,rnli,'1I!Jijil"allit ,1 ~g,etfI'UIa!Jij, diet A~iliGlllighi, f{l!u,rnlier:ly a gF,em~ ~o""e'r of iI\lsb~ he had! come m lbehelj,~ that. ,eattE[ig nesh, was "'a :Hlitcil. (If 1Ji[ii1P:[i\~o!k~d, Murder.'" iB,lJl!t. one [by whe:lit he smelled some fish s~:ziI~!Jijg ~lfl ,'1 f1I'yilitg :p:1l!n~ hie 'Was ('aught hlli[ig~!Ilg "'be'[wee:1it Principle a!Jijd![[lj(':I~!Jij'1iJI.lo:lTh.,'" ~¥heF.i, hie saw tJl:il't the eut-open ifii.llh had. earen srnli,';Mer fish, hOlAr.e¥e!l;; he decided that. "'~f ~. eat one aif.i!lJIihe(F, '[ dD'Jij,~t see 'why we ,milly-n 't ,eat }!"OlJl!.,'" And. SGI he had, hell![;[]l,y d~Ited on cod, ,elj,~r since. "So mUlj',vem1e;JIj,t. ,'1 th~!I1g ~,t. is to 'be a '1WlJ111mbk Cr:Mt'ti.t':e.,;!) he concluded, %'[lIire ~t enables one te 11l!Jijd! (I!f lJII.ake a Reason fur erery thi:ITig one has a mindto db. q~

N nne I]If 1ihe' Thlli!l1d.ers was !liIlGl![e censeieus I]If the d:[tJere!Jijc'e betweea ~ppeaulIice and! reaM.ty tJri:llin FlrnJThkliUli .. NOlI (I]]~,y d~d! he (lO!Jii,t~lTh1J:llUy cernIJII.e:Uli,t. GUli, that difife.we:IThre, 'lOut hie was !Jij.ere;u averse to .mi:ll~[l'rra~lfl~!Jij.g it, ]'f GUlie could !Jii01I ac;tlli:ll~ly be indusrrlous i1I!Jijd! humble, be said, '1l1I least one c(luM ~ppeaiU[() be so.

A~,tJ:toljgh. he w.uote ag.lEIIi,s[ d[esgu~se and! d~,ss~.rn.ubriGlIIi. and asked, "'Wfw wasever rumi!ll~!I1g ,eFjDl.lgh 'ro crmre,';1 h~s be~!Ilg ~ 'We !I1e,reuth,e~ less kmi.ow tfi:llt. he wa<s tJ:i,e master of camO'Jllmbgell!Jiid! coneeslmenr, ""i¥"e shall :u,esGl~,ve: t.o be what we 'WouM seem," he de('~m,ed, yet at. the .si:l.rne tiLrne be seems to h:ll¥e d.eJHghted, ~:1Th Md~:lThg his ~!IlilThe![f.Dos[ tilliOlJl!ghi,1IS '1l1Iid! moti1j.\es. "'Letll~I Men ikmi.ow 1ihee,[I ]):oOT R~d,i1I'ud,s'll~d!, "'fu.lli:n !JiiOl]iJailTh kmiow thee 'II!hGl[OlJl!gh:~y:: Men f1I'ee~ly :f{l!ud, rth''1'n.see '!:he, sh.aHow.s.,[I!II

Whae sGl!lnetijrn.es Ibo,wl!l1g 'ro the ,eIIILe~[ng remanrie m~t of .s:liUliCe(Ul.ty,

{,II} TH E AM,I RI CAN[ ZAT:I ON or BE NJAMI N F R,AN a i [N

rueueroTl:lIi~lDed! :ffi.[1ITl~y :LCOOted! ~!Il due ttl",]il!h}OIIi',I!~, ,eJgru,reelJIlII:hi,-C-eFJ!iJ.l!1]' world of :u,es~ua~ffiliffilg one's ,kufiJer desires ,1ifJil! fedi!llgs :UIIi, ceder ro be cirv:u~, and g'et i1I~O[)~ ~]e IIi.eNe:r thOllilgb:1: tli:lIi~ his cl1a:ui1lCl:erIlStil,C' Ibehav1ou-rui,s 'lIitr1IIfu'~ pos~!fiJ,g, his role !pb.Y.~ffilg, hdlSroTl,,]fJY masks, hisrefusa] i[;,o revea] his ~!OilThetr se~f-' - was 'lliffilytdlIi,g o~ib.e;u tru<lilThwhi1lt true m~!til,vared alDil! SIl) obl!~~eeugru,'l:ee(lThtru, c,eU),ruuy miLroTl:Utrecil .. He was 'til lI]],OW1.!:lgh~y soda'~ IbeilThg, ,elft!roTl.eihecil, i!fiJ, SlllIol.e"tr i1I!fiJil! civic-minded 'by :1Th e cess [rty., Not fOT Mm, the disastrousassertions of i1I!fiJ~ltSodi~ a1JJJrolIioroTlY 'lIilIiil! true ourtslPO:~elITl, .si!llceri~ of M{I:~if:[e~ chaeaeter Ake-sre in Ee Mi:slmtfm)jW. Like !l:El.a!llY oMle~us of his day, Flr,1ilThkl:LIIi, lPleITen,ecil the sensible ,1ilEim !P'mcilelIi~lbe]]m±otr of A~c.e$re~ fl[:[e;ncillPhU~ilITlre, who knew that true lPlItll of go 0 d sense was ro a,ua]pl: IDII]],e p[e'Sru:f,e-s and contFad~ctJolIi,s of mcietyp lJ':dLke, say,JiohIi AciI,llirmi,s, Flr.1ilThklilITl, 1Ii.e:rrem WOTe hits heert mil his sleeve, rue kept mosi! of his :UIIi,teF.i,tilOm: imil! fee~i!llgs ro Ml]iJseltf. Be was ,1! [(ii<}sreu lItkee-pi!llg his owm c"'IDulIisel As PoOT Rid,a:FciI, said, "'n:ueeroTlmy keep a Secret, if 1rV.<o of tlie!llJ], litre dea£jL.,;l"t'

F1rn:lThklilITl, is so mmThy -sided, he seems eveJrytru:[lThg '00 ,evetr}'lDEte, lb1JJJtlIto image has been more :pIl)WeT~l.l~ thaIiJ ,t~hat of the seJf-iJlfiJPLCOving businessrn.llilEi .. Thi~l]iJll)die.!l'fli i.lIf.iage of f1r.1iITiikl:llIilbeg.:ut to precil{lm~:lIlate with the eIIII,etrgeffilre of Almeri.ca's cileroTloeulJiitiic ca1Pi,rn~isl]ij, in true ,eady [6,plllh~iq 8!fiJd, I1ke A~e.\~l~ die 1).cq!J1!Iev.~He~ de$cdptJIon ef tJ:iail:ua!l]ilJ~lIlc,t:i{lm demoCifllitJIC AI]iJ.e!rIca. ,[:rFalf1k:b~ lPiE'fsll)'ni:6,ci1l!tilolIl G(f its 'WI~l1!Ies has had iii. tre.roTl:lItrl- 81bIe srnyilITlg :powe![ _j1Jl.tSt as we COlIit[1Il ue to read ~.rr:ocq1JJJev~He'slliJtJj}_cn1.1J it~ Aft:llJfiru ful[ irtrs i!fiJ,sighM i!fiJ:~o the demceratie character Il)f Il)Ul[ sodety :lim OlJ'U own tume !Ile~1!dy two C'e1Ii:mudes :latetr, se teo do-we C-(llTht~!fiJ,1JJJe to nO'lIiotr .[Ei\Falf1~:~l:1Ii as the FOlli[ijde~f who lbest ,e:Ji;-e.I]ij!p~:iffi:e-s Il)Ul[ :puesBmt-day demoCifllitJIC ca1Pi,rn~ist sodety. As the sy.rnlbo~. Il)f ,1iITh Ar.ae~l.ca!ll ~a:lIlcil, of eppertnffilirtty where one 'Wo!fik~ hard to ge't ahei:lil!~ Ra:lIikliffil, oontlnues ro n.a"iff: gl[eat .rnefl:lThi!llg, ,es,pechUy 'lI!1lJ]OlIig [eOOfli.lI i.mITi!ITlJig,Fa!fiJ:t'lt

iB,1JJJiI: ro seeever true h~SID!Fk FFalThikliffil, we !IlJ],l1!ISiI shed! mese m,ocil.euj, ~mageslllIi.d! SY!llJ],'~O~S of FralThiklilITl, and :uernm to tib:lIi1: very ciI:iffemJIj,t, d!i,stalIi't 'Wo!Fldof 'thee.igJlrteBmt'i1 reJIj,lruitry. On[y thBn ean we go ento understand .h{lW the syrnlbll):~i,c F!mlIil~i!ll was created,