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( Reaffirmed 1999 )

Indian Standard
( Fourth Revision)

Second Reprint MARCH 1998

UDC 669.131.6-14

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Q BIS 1993


i NEW DELHI 110002

December 1993 PriceGroop5 .

Pig Iron and Cast Iron Sectional Committee, MTD 6


This Indian Standard ( Fourth Revision ) was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards, after the draft
finalized by the Pig Iron and Cast Iron Sectional Committee had been approved by the Metallurgical
Rngincering DivirionCouncil.
This standard was first published in 1950 and subsequently revised in 1962, 1970 and 1978. While
reviewing this standard in the light of the experience gained during these years, the committee decided to
reviseit to align with the present practices followed by the Indian industries and to bring it in line with
the other overseas standards.
The various diameters of test bar according to the section size of the castings have been replaced by a
single size of test bar. Guidance on the effect of section size of the casting on the tensile strength is, how-
ever, given in Annex A. A comparison between grades is given in Annex B.
The production of castings in the higher gr@es of grey cast iron often involve3 special techniques. It is
recommended, therefore, that for either large or intricate castings or ;1 casting involving both these condi-
tions or where the castings have to withstand exception conditions, the grade of grey cast iron selected and
any heat treatment involved should be agreed between the manufacturer and the purchaser. The hipher
grades of grey cast iron ( that is, Grade FG300, FG350 and FG400 ) present special difficulties for section
10 mm ,and thinner.

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For the benefit of the purchaser, typical properties of grey cast iron have been added in Annex C.
Information to be supplied by the purchaser while ordering grey iron castings according to this specification
is given in Annex D.
In the formulation of thir standard assistance has been derived from IS0 185 ‘Grey Cast Iron - Specifi-
cation’ issued by International Organization for Standardization.
For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this otindard is complied with, the final
value, observed or calculated, expressing the result of a teat or analysis, shall be rounded of? in accordance
with IS 2 : 1960 ‘Rules for rouading off numerical values ( rrvisod ) ‘. The number of significant places
retained in the rounded off value should be the same as that of the apccified value in this standard.
IS 210:1993

Indian Standard
(Fourth Revision)

This standard covers the requirements for grey 6.1 The composition of cast iron shall be left to
iron castings. the discretion of the manufacturer, but a m&xi-
mum limit for phosphorus and/or sulphur may
2 REFERENCES be specified by the purchaser, if he so desires.
The following Indian Standards are necessary
6.2 In case of special castings, the detailed
adjuncts to this standard:
chemical composition shall be as agreed to Ere-
IS so. Title tween the purchaser and the manufacturer.
1387 : 1993 General requirements for the
supply of metallurrgical material 7 WORKMANSHIP AND FINISH
( second revision ) 7.1 The castings shall be accurately moulded in
1500 : 1983 Method for Brine11 hardness test- accordance with the pattern or working drawings
for metallic materials ( second supplled by the purchaser, with the addition of

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revision ) such letters, figures or marks as may be specrfied.

2078 : 1979 Method for tensile testing of 7.2 The purchaser shall specify tolerances,
grey cast iron ( jrst revision ) machining location and allowances with reference
to all important dimensions On other dimensions
4843 : 1968 Code for designation of ferrous tolerances specified in IS 5519 : 1979 shall apply.
5139 : 1969 Recommended procedure for 8 HEAT TREATMENT
repair of grey iron castings by
oxyacetylene and manual metal Castings are generally supplied without having
arc welding any heat treatment, However, if required by the
purchaser, the heat treatment may be carried out
5519 : 1979 Deviations tor untoleranced in accordance with 2 of IS 13655 : 1993.
dimensions of grey iron castings
( jirst revzsion ) 9 MICROSTRUCTURE
13655: 1993 Guidelines for heat treatment
of cast iron Where so required, the microstructure of grey
iron castings and the location for taking the
sample shall be as agreed to between the purcha-
ser and the manufacturer.
General requirements relating to the supply of
grey iron castings shall be as laid down in IO FREEDOM FROM DEFECTS
IS 1387 : 1993.
10.1The castings shall be sound, clean and free
4 GRADES from porosity, blow holes, hard spots, cracks, hot
tears, coldshuts, distortion, sand and slag inclu-
There shall be seven grades of grey iron castings sions and other harmful defects. They shall be
namely, Grades FG150, FG200, FG220, FG260, well-dressed and fettled, and shall be readily
FG300, FG350 and FG 400. machinable.

5 MANUFACTURE IO.2 No welding or repairs shall be carried out

without the prior permission of the purchaser.
The castings shall be made by any process, as Welding referred to here includes fusion welding
agreed between the supplier and purchaser, that in accordance with the common foundry practice.
will produce castings complying with the require- The method of repair by welding ( see IS 5139 :
ments of this Indian Standard and shall be in 1969 ) and subsequent stress-relieving shall be
accordance with the pattern or working drawing as agreed to between the purchaser and the
as supplied by the purchaser. manufacturer.
16 210 I 1993


11.1 All test bars shall be cast separately in sand A test bar from which the tensile test piece is
moulds and the number of test bars required shall machined shall be cast as a uniform cylindrical
be as specified in 11. They shall be cast at the bar of 30 mm diameter. The tolerance on the
same time and frc,m the same melt as the castings diameter shall be + a mm. The minimum length
they represent. of the test bar shall be 230 mm.

11.2 The test bar material shall be identifiable 14 TENSILE TEST

with that of the castings represented.
The tensile test shall be carried out in accordance
11.3 When castings are subjected to heat treat- with IS 2078 : 1979, using a test piece conforming
ment, the test bars shall be heat-treated together to the dimensions in Fig. 1 and Table 2. The test
with the castings they represent. piece shall be accurately machined, with a good
surface finish. The transition between the ends
11.4 The test bars shall be cast in dried, baked or and the parallel length shall be smooth, without
chemically bonded moulds made mainly of an undercutting or a sudden step down in diameter.
aggregate of siliceous sand with appropriate
NOTE - Self-aligning grips are recommended to
binders. The average grain size of the sand shall ensure axial loading.
be approximate to that of the sand in which the
castings are poured. Moulds for the test bars shall
be approximately at room temperature when
poured. More than one test bar may be cast in a When tested in accordance with the requirement
single mould, but each bar in the mould shall be of 13, the test piece shall comply with the mini-
surrounded by a thickness of sand which is not mum requirements specified in Table 3. The
less than the diameter of the bar. tensile strength specified is that obtained from test

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bars cast separately from the castings to which

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12 FREQUENCY OF TESTING they refer. The test values. represent, therefore,
only the quality of the metal from which the
12.1 The number of tests required for each melt casting have been poured.
or batch of castings shall be as laid down in
Table 1, various classes of castings being divided 16 HARDNESS TEST
into five representative groups according to mass.
16.1 The Brine11 hardness test shall be carried
12.2 In the case of large tonnage of castings out in accordance with the method given in
being produced continuously, the minimum IS 1500 : 1983. Brine11 hardness values for diffe-
number of test bars to be provided shall be one rent grades or grey iron castings shall be as
tensile test representing every two hours produc- specified in Table 3.
tion from a melting furnace.
16.1.1 The hardness test shall be conducted at
Table 1 Number of Tests specific point on the castings. These specific points
shall be such that they are amenable for hardness
( CluuSG12.1 ) checking in routine procedure.

Test Reqriremeats 16.1.2 The location of the specific point on a

casting for hardness measurement shall be as
I’) Up to 12’5 kg One test for each 500 kg agreed to between the purchaser and the manu-
of castings or part thereof facturer.
21) Over 12’5 kg and One test for every 1 tonne
up to 50 kg of castings or part thereof 17 TRANSVERSE TEST

3i) Over 50 kg and up to One test for every 2 tonnes If required, the transverse test may be carried out
500 kg of castings or part thereof by the manufacturer in accordance with the
4i) Over 500 kg and up One test for every 3 tonnes method given in Annex E. The minimum test
to 1 tonne of castings or part thereof requirements shall be agreed upon at the time of
enquiry and order.
5 Over 1 tonne One test for every 4 tonnes
of rastiogs or part thereof
or one test for every 18 HYDROSTATIC TEST
casting weighing 4 tonnes
or more If specified at the time of enquiry and order the
castings may be tested for the hydrostatic test
t)In addition Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 all castings repre- pressure. The requirements for the test pressure
sented by one test shall be poured from the same ladle
or same heat as the bar or bars provided for the test. shall be mutually agreed to between the purchz:er
_ and the manufacturer.

IS 21u : 1993

Ls (SCREWED) -j----w


Table 2 Dimensions of Machined Tensile Test Piece

( Clause 14 )

Gauge Machining Minimum Minimum Phsii Ends Screwed Em&

JXameter Tolerance Parallel Radas T-__--h-_ _--_ -__--A_-_,

D im the Length Minimum Minimum Minimum Minimum

Gauge Diameter Length Dia at Length
Diameter Root
Lc R d, r, ds 4
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
mm mm ‘mm mm mm mm mm mm
20 +- 0’5 55 25 23 65 25 30

NOTE - With screwed-ends, any form of thread may be used provided that the diameter at the root of the
thread is not less than that specified.

Table 3 Mechanical Test Requirements 20 INSPECTION

( Cf~~ses 15 and 16.1 ) By agreement with the manufacturer, the pur-

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chaser or his representative shall have across at
Grade Tensile Brine11
all reasonable times to those parts of the manu-
(su~Is4S43:196S) Strength Hardness
Min facturer’s works engaged on his order, he shall
MPa ( N/mm2 ) HB be at liberty to inspect the manufacturer at any
(2) (3) stage, to witness the required tests and to reject
FG 150 130 to 180
any material that does not comply with this
standard. When the castings are to be inspected
FG 200 280 160 to 220
during manufacture and tested in the presence of
FG 220 220 180to 220
the purchaser’s representative, this shall be stated
FG 260 260 180 to 230
on the enquiry and order.
FG 300 300 180 to 230
FG 350 350 207 to 241 21 TESTING FACILITIES
FG 400 400 207 to 270 21.1 The manufacturer in supplying the test
samples as required for testing shall prepare from
NOTE - Although mechanical properties are speci-
fied for Grade FG 150 the material shall be only them the necessary test pieces and supply the
tested if required by the purchaser. labour and appliances for making all tests on his
premises in accordance with this standard.
21.1.1 Failing facilities for carrying ‘out the
prescribed tests at his own works the manufac-
19.1 If on being tested any test piece shows turer shall carry out the tests elsewhere.
obvious signs of a casting defect, the results of
the test may be discarded and a further test
made. 22.1 Each casting, if feasible, shall be legibly
marked with a number of identification marks
19.2 If any sound test piece fails, two further which it can be traced to the melt, and the batch
tests shall be made, should either of these test of heat treatment, if done, from which it was
pieces fail, the castings represented shall not made.
comply with the requirements of this Indian
22.2 By agreement between the purchaser and the
manufacturer, castings complying with the re-
19.3 In the absence of further separately cast test quirements of this standard shall be, after ins-
bars, the manufacturer shall have the option of pection, legibly marked with an acceptance
submitting test bars, sectioned from an agreed mark
position in the castings. The requirements of the
test shall be as agreed to between the purchaser
and the manufacturer. However, the guidance The castings may also be marked with the
mav be obtained from Annex A. Standard Mark.


1s 210 : 1993

( Forewordand Clause 19.3 )


A-l The Indian Standard grades of grey cast iron A-2 Figure 2 gives a guide to the likely variation
are based on the minimum tehsile strength ob- in tensile strength in different sections when a
tained when metal is cast into test bars of 30 mm given grade of grey iron is cast into a casting of
diameter. The strength developed by a given simple shape and uniform thickness or containing
metal shall vary with the coolingrate in the mould cored holes where the cooling rate in the mould
higher strengths being obtained if the same metal of a given section shall differ from that in a castmg
is cast into smaller bars than 30 mm diameter of sample shape and uniform thickness, the dia-
and lower strengths if the metal is cast into bars gram provides only an approximate guide to the
larger than 30 mm diameter. Similarly, the cool- likely tensile strength in different sections and
ing rate of a flat slower than that of a bar design should be based on the measured tensile
whose diameter is equal to the thickness of the strength in critical parts of the casting.
plate so that the strength developed in the plate
will be lower than that developed in the bar.
A-l.1 The cooling rate of a casting in a mould A-2.1 Table 4 gives guidance to the likely varia-
( hence the strength developed in any $rticular tion in tensile strength for different casting section
section thickness by the metal employed for its thicknesses when a given grade of grey cast iron
manufacture ) is influenced also by the presence is cast into a casting of simple shape and uni-
of cores, changes in section thickness, the presence form thickness. For casting of non-uniform

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of bosses projections and intersections, such as the section or castings containing cored holes, the
junctions of ribs and bosses. Thus, in castings of table provides only an approximate guide to
other than simple shape and uniform thickness the likely tensile strength in different sections,
the cooling rate of any part can be expected to and casting design should be based on the
differ from that of a flat plate of similar section measured tensile strength in critical parts of the
thickness. casting.

5 15 25 50-75 IQ0 125 159


0 15 30 50 75 100 125 150


This dbam is for guidance and should not be used for acceptance purposes.


IS 210 : 1993

Table 4 Anticipated Tensile Properties for the Castings ( for Information Only )

( Clause A-2. I )

Grade Casting Section Thickness, Antidpated Tcndlc

mm ShWgtk
~-_---_h_-_-_-_-~ MPa ( N/mms )
Over Up to and
FG 150 2.5 10 155
10 20 130
20 30 115
30 50 105

FG 200 2’5 10 205

10 20 180
20 30 160
30 50 145

FG 260 4.0 10 260

10 20 235
20 30 215
30 50 195

FG 300 10 20 270

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20 30

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30 50 225

FG 350 10 20 315
20 30 290
30 50 270

( Foreword )
FG 600 600
60 LO

FG 350 350
35 35

FG 300 300
30 30

FG 260
25@----_25 25

FG 220

FG 200 200--20 20

FG 150 150 +,5 15


CONVERSION FACTOR 1 N/mm2 = lMPa=O.1020 kgf/mmz .



IS 210 : 1993

( Foreword)

C-1 The following information is given for the guidance of engineers and designers. It does Iiot form
part of the standard and shotild not be used for acceptance purposes:
Properties unit Grade
c---------- --~-_-_------_-_
FG 150 FG 200 FG 220 FG 260 FG 300 FG 350 FG 400 ’
Tensile strength MPa ( N/mm2 ) 150 200 220 260 300 350 4QO
WOl percent proof MPa ( N/mm% ) 42 56 62 73 84 98 112
0’1 percent proof MPa ( N/mm’ ) 98 130 143 169 195 228 260
Total strain at Percent o’60-o’751) 0S48-O*671)O’39-O*631) 0.57 0.50 0’50 0’50
Elastic strain at Percent 0.15 0’17 0’18 0’20 0’22 0.25 0’28
Total minus elastic 0.45~o’601) 0.3 l-0.501) 0.2 1-0’45~) 0.37 0.28 0.25 0’28
strain at failure
Notched tensile stre-
ngth ( see Note 2 )
(Circumferential MPa ( N/mm2 ) 120 160 176 208 240 280 320
45” V-notch, root

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radius 0’25 mm or
Notch depth 2’5
mm, notch dia 20
gzh ‘3.3 mm,
notch diameter
7.6 mm )

Circumferential MPa ( N/mm2 ) 150 200 220 2G0 300 350 40(:
notch, Radius 9’5
mm ( Notch depth
2’5 mm, notch dia-
meter 20 mm )
Compressive strength MPa ( N/mm2 ) 600 720 768 864 960 1 080 1 200
0.1 percent proof MPa ( N/mm2 ) 84 111 123 146 168 196 224
0’1 percent proof MPa ( N/mm2 ) 195 260 286 338 390 455 520
Shear strength MPa ( N/mm’ ) 173 230 253 299 345 403 460
Torsional strength MPa ( I%/mms ) 173 230 253 299 345 403 460
Shear strain at Percent >4 >4 >4 >4 Upto Upto Upto
M;pntof elasticity
GPa 100 114 120 128 135 140 145
Compression GPa JO0 114 120 128 135 140 145
Modulus of rigidity GPa 40 46 48 51 54 56 58
Poisson’s ratio - c__--_-_-_--- 0’26 -----_-------__-j

Fatigue limit ( M’oh-

Jer )
Unnotched ( 8’4 MPa ( N/mm* ) 68 90 99 117 135 149 152
mm dia )
V-notched ( Cir- MPa ( N/mm’ ) 68 87 94 108 122 129 127
cumferential 45”
V-notch with
0’25 mm root
radius, Diameter
at notch %4 mm
depth of notch
3’4 mm )
Hardness Refer Table 3 for hardness values
IS 210 : 1993

Piopcrtics Unit Grade

r---7---------m- A-,,----- -----
FG 150 FG 200 FG 220 FG 260 FG 300 FG350 FGMJtl
Coefficient of ther-
mal expression

- 100°C to 20°C x IO-s/K +-_-__-____ -___ -_10’0 - -____ -+ 10’0 )

20% to 2oo”c x IO-s/K +__-_ ____ ----_--_11’0 --_-- j 1lq)) (&a

20°C to 4130°c x IO-*/K f--_---_-_-- -_--- 12.5--_-_-__+ 12’5 ) ,Note 3)

Thermal conductivity
100°C W/mK 52’5 50.8 50.1 48.8 41.4 45.7 44.0
200°C W/mK 51.5 49.8 49’ 1 47’8 46’4 44’7 43.0
300°C W/mK 50.5 48.8 48’ 1 46’8 45’4 43’7 42’0
400°C W/mK 49.5 47’8 47’ 1 45’8 44.4 42.7 41’0
500°C W/mK 48.5 46’8 46’1 44’8 43’4 41’7 40’0
Specific heat capacity
‘20°C to 200% J/kgIc 265 375 420 460 460 460 468
20°C to 300°C J/k6 355 435 455 495 495 495 495
20% to 400% J/J@ 400 465 465 505 505 505 505
2OOC to 500% J/k+ 425 480 475 515 515 515 515
20°C to 600°C .J/kgK 445 500 495 535 535 535 535
20°C to 700% .J:k$ 490 555 560 605 605 605 605
Relative density 7-05 7.10 7.15 7’20 7.25 7.30 7.30
,Magnetic and elec-
trical prouerties

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Maximum magne- PW/m c_-_-__-___-_301 to 380-_-____.___-_--_-_+
tic permeability
Remanent magne- T f_--_ _____- 0’4 to 0’5- ____--_ _ _--- --f
Coercive force A/m t_----__---_-560 to 720 ________ ---_~
Hysteresis loss at J/m’ + -_-- --_------2 500 to 3 OOO- --_--_---_-_-_-_-_-_-j
50 Hz
W/k .+__-----_--__-17’6 to 20-g---_--_---_-_-_-+
Electrical rcsistivity &m 0.800 0.770 0’760 0.730 0’700 0’670 0.640


1 The typical properties given in this Annex are the proprrties in a 30 mm diameter separately cast test bar or
in a casting section correctly represented by this size of test bar. Where the tensile strength does not correspond
to that given, other properties may differ slightly from those given.
2 Notched tensile strengths increase slightly as notch severity ratio, notch radius, notch diameter, increase
above 0’47.
3 The values quoted for coefficient of thermal expansion. of Grade FG 400 are for material in pearlitic iron.
Where accicular iron is used for this grade appropriate values are:

20°C to 200% 15’0 x 10*/K

20% to 400°C 16’5 x lo-s/K

I) Values depend on the composition of iron.

( Foreword )


D-l BASIS FOR ORDER 11) Any required limits on the sulphur and
phosphorus content
D-l.1 FVhile placing an order for the purchase
of grey iron casting covered by this standard, the c) Drawing or reference number of the
purchaser should specify the following:
pattern ( if supplied by the purchaser !,
a) Material specification; along with a copy of the drawing;

IS 210 : 1993

d) Tests required; g) Any special requirement of the purchaser,

e) Whether the castings are to be inspected for example, hardness tests and locations
and tested in the presence of the purcha- of non-destructive testing, quality assu-
ser’s representative; rance, etc; and
f) Condition of delivery; h) Test reports, if required.

( Clause 17 >



The object of this test is to determine the trans- ~-3.1 Place the two ends qf the test bar on hori-
verse bending strength of grey cast iron by apply- zontal supports. The support and the point of
ing constantly increasing single load at the centre application. of the load shall be rounded to a
of a test bar arranged as a beam between two radius of 5 to 20 mm. Apply a single load verti-
supports until fracture occurs. cally at the centre of the bar ( see Fig. 4 ).

E-2 TEST BARS E-3.2 Increase the load uniformly without shock
until the bar fracture. The load should be applied
E-2.1 The cast test bars shall have the dimensions
given in Table 5. in such a way that the increase of stress does not
exceed 3 MPa per second Find out the load at

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Table 5 Dimensions of Transverse the fracture of the test bar with the accuracy

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Test Bars indicated in Table 6.
( Clauses E-2.1 and E-2.2 ) E-3.3 Determine the deflection of the test bar
from the motion of the thrust relative to the fixed
Diameter Permissible Variation Length (L) supports or to the supper ting table of the machine.
of the Cast from Nominal Min
Test Bar Diameter In order to eliminate any errors in m-asuring the
---- - *--_-7 deflection, the measurement should be started
Unmachined Machined after applying a small preload as given in
(1) (2) (3) (4) Table 6.
mm mm mm mm
30 + 1’2 + 0’2 500
Table 6 Testing Conditions and
Accuracy of Readings
E-2.2 Test bar is normally tested unmachined. ( Clauses E-2.2, E-3.2, E-3.3 and Fig. 4 )
The surface of the test bar shall be free from un-
evenness and seams which may be removed by
careful grinding. The diameter shall be measured Nominal Distance Accuracy of Readings Pre-
at the centre ot the test bar in two directionsper- Diameter Between ,-- -----.h_--,=~ Load
d Ccntre of Diame- LoadP, Deflec- Appror
pendicular to one-anbther. The difference between Supports, ter of Ml%% tion at
two measurements shall not exceed 5 percent of 1s Bar Frac-
the normal diameter. The mean value of the two d ture
diameters shall be the diameter do ( see E-4 ) of (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
the test bar. For its permissible variations from mm mm mm mm mm mm
the nominal diameter and the accuracy of 30 450 0.1 100 0’2 200 to
measurement of the diameter, the values indicated 400
in Tables 5 and 6 shall apply.



IS 210:1993


The test report shall include: P = maximum load at fracture in N,

a) load at fracture in N;
Ls = distance between centres of supports
b) bending strength fb, to an accuracy of O-5 in mm, and
MPa calculated from the formula:
8 PL,
do - mean diameter in mm, and
fb = xd” c) deflection at fracture in mm.

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:., .’ ., .
,1, ,



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!.,,, TO
.“..,., IS 210:1993 GREY.lRON CAf’INGS —
‘ :
(Fourfh Revision)
‘ (Page8,Tuble6,CO14 and6 ) — Substitute, ‘N’ ~or ‘mm’ as unit of load.

Mm 6 )
Reprography Unit, BIS, New Delhi, India i

. ,


,’ .