Anda di halaman 1dari 499

Welcome to the CD-ROM edition of

the Pressure Vessel Handbook.

Click on the arrow buttons on the tool bar above to page


through the book. Pages which were blank in the print
version of the Pressure Vessel Handbook have had
substitute pages inserted in order to retain the book's
page numbering. To jump to a section from the table of
contents, click your mouse on the section title.
WARNING!
This document is copyright 1997 by Pressure Vessels Inc., and
may not be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or
transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical,
recording or otherwise, without prior written permission.

It is intended for single user use. Information about site licenses


and network use may be obtained by contacting:

Pressure Vessels Incorporated


P.O. Box 35365
Tulsa, OK 74153 USA

www.pressure-vessel.com
P V
H

T E e d ni t t i oh

withforeword by
P B
Professor of Chemical Engineering
University of Tulsa
Tulsa, Oklahoma

E M

PRESSURE VESSEL PUBLISHING, INC.


P.O. Box 35365 “ Tulsa, OK 74153
FOREWORD

Engineers who design equipment for the chemical process industry


are sooner or later confronted with the design of pressure vessels and
mounting requirements for them. This is very often a frustrating
experience for anyone who has not kept up with current literature
in the field of code requirements and design equations.

First he must familiarize himself with the latest version of the


applicable code. Then he must search the literature for techniques
used in design to meet these codes. Finally he must select material
properties and dimensional data from various handbooks and company
catalogs for use in the design equations.

Mr. Megyesy has recognized this problem. For several years he


has been accumulating data on code requirements and calculational
methods. He has been presenting this information first in the form
of his “Calculation Form Sheets” and now has put it all together in
one place in the Pressure Vessel Handbook.

I believe that this fills a real need in the pressure vessel industry
and that readers will find it extremely useful.

Paul Buthod
PREFACE

This reference book is prepared for the purpose of making formulas,


technicaldata, designand construction methods readily available for the
designer, detailer, Iayoutmen and others dealing with pressure vessels.
Practical men in this industry often have difficulty finding the required
data and solutions, these being scattered throughout extensive literature
or advanced studies. The author’s aim was to bring together all of the
above material under one cover and present it in a convenient form.

The design procedures and formulas of the ASME Code for Pressure
Vessels, Section VIII Division I have been utilized as well as those
generally accepted sources which are not covered by this Code. From
among the alternative construction methods described by the Code the
author has selected those which are most frequently used in practice.

In order to provide the greatest serviceability with this Handbook,


rarely occurring loadings, special construction methods or materials have
been excluded from its scope. Due to the same reason this Handbook
deals only with vessels constructed from ferrous material by welding,
since the vast majority of the pressure vessels are in this category.

A large part of this book was taken from the works of others, with some
of the material placed in different arrangement, and some unchanged.

The author wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to Professor


S4ndor Kalinszky, J&os Bodor, Lasz16F61egyhiizyand J6zsef Gyorii for
their material and valuable suggestions, to the American Society of
Mechanical Engineers and to the publishers, who generously permitted
the author to include material from their publications.

The authorwishesalso to thank all those who helpedto improvethis


new edition by their suggestions and corrections.
Suggestions and criticism concerning some errors which may remain
in spite of all precautions shall be greatly appreciated. They contribute to
the further improvement of this Handbook.

Eugene F. Megyesy
9

CONTENTS

PART I Design and Construction of Pressure Vessels .................................... 11

PART II Geometry and Layout of Pressure Vessels ...................................... 25’7

PART III Measures and Weights .................................................................... 321

PART IV Design of Steel Structures .............................................................. 447

PARTV Miscellaneous ................................................................................. 465


PART L

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF PRESSURE VESSEL

1. VesselsUnderinternalPressure_~__~~_~~~~~~~..~.~~~~ti~ti~~~~. 15
StressesinCylindricalShel~Definitions,Formulas,Pressureof
Fluid, Pressure-TemperatureRatings of American Standard
,CarbonSteelPipe Flanges.
2. Vessels Under External Pressure .......................................................... 31
Definitions, Formulas, Minimum Required TicknessofCylin-
dricalSheH,ChafiforDeteminingThicknessofCylindrical and
SphericalVesselsunderExternal PressurewhenConstructedof
Carbon Steel,
3. Design ofTall Towers .......................................................................... 52
Wind Load, Weight of Vessel, Seismic Load, Vibration, Eccen-
tric Load, Elastic Stability, Deflection, Combination of Stresses,
Design of Skirt Support, Design of Anchor Bolts (approximate
method), Design of Base Ring (approximate method), Design of
Anchor Bold and Base Ring, Anchor Bolt Chair for Tall Towers.
4. Vessel Suppotis ..................................................................................... 86
Stresses in Large Horizontal Vessels Supported by Two Saddles,
Stresses in Vessels on Leg Support, Stresses in Vessels Due to
Lug support.
5. Openings ............................................................................................... 122
Inspection Openings, Openings without Reinforcing Pad, Open-
ing with Reinforcing Pad, Extension of Openings, Reinforce-
ment of Openings, Strength of Attachments, Joining Openings to
Vessels, Length of Couplings and Pipes for Openings.
6. Nozzle Loads ........................................................................................ 153
7. Reinforcement at the Junction of Cone to Cylinder .............................. 159
8. Welding of Pressure Vessels ................................................................. 170
Welded Joints, But Welded Joint of Plates of Unequal Thick-
nesses, Application of Welding Symbols.
9. Regulations, Specifications ................................................................... 181
Code Rules Related to Various Services, Code Rules Related to
Various Plate Thicknesses of Vessel, Tanks and Vessels Con-
taining Flammable and Combustible Liquids, Properties of
Materials, Description of Materials, Specification for The De-
sign and Fabrication of Pressure Vessels, Fabrication Toler-
ances.
10. Materials of Foreign Countries ............................................................. 194
11. Welded Tanks ....................................................................................... 204
13. Rectangular Tanks ................................................................................ 212
14. Corrosion .............................................................................................. 221
15. Miscellaneous ... ... .... .. . . . ..~...o..o...u,mv..u.mv..~..u...ti..~..~..~..u..~ 232
Fabricating Capacities, Pipe and Tube Bending, Pipe Engage-
merit, Drill Sizes for Pipe Taps, Bend Allowances, Lengthof
Stud Bolts, Pressure Vessel Detailing, Preferred Locations,
CommonErrors,LiRingAttachments, SafeLoadsforRopesand
Chains, Transportation ofVessels.
16. Painting Steel Surfaces ..~...o..o...~....a...~. U.V......O... 247

1NREFERENCESTHROUGHOUTTHISBOOK"CODE"sTANDSF0RASME
(AMERICAN S O O
C MI E EC HT AEYNN I GC I FA N
BL E O
E AR I S ) L N
E R D
P R E VS SE CU S RS SO
E E EVC DRLT II FU EO C OLNI N S OET RI US C T IR O N
O P R E VS ES SUD SRI F EE
V1—
LI A SSA , I M O E N S R T I A C N AND NA R D .
1 E
S P V
Pressure vessels are subject to various loadings, which exert stresses of
different intensities in the vessel components. The category and intensity of
stresses are the function of the nature of loadings, the geometry and construc-
tion of the vessel components.

LOADINGS (Code UG-22)


a, Internal or external pressure
b. Weight of the vessel and contents
c. Static reactions from attached equipment, piping, lining, insulation, internals,
supports
d. Cyclic and dynamic reactions due to pressure or thermal variations
e. Wind pressure and seismic forces
f. Impact reactions due to fluid shock
g“ Temperature gradients and differential thermal expansion

MAXIMUM
STRESSES (Code UG-23) ALLOWABLE STRESS
a. Tensile stress Sa
b. Longitudinal compressive stress The smaller of S. or the value of
factor B determined by the procedure
described in Code UG 23 (b) (2)
c. General primary membrane stress S
induced by any combination of
loadings. Primary membrane 1.5 Sa
stress plus primary bending stress
induced by combination of load-
ings, except as provided in d. be-
low.
d. General primary membrane stress 1.2 times the stress permitted in a., b.,
induced by combination of earth- or c. This rule applicable to stresses
quake or wind pressure with other exerted by internal or external pres-
loadings (See definitions pages sure or axial compressive load on a
beginn-ing473.) cylinder.

Seismic force and wind pressure need not be considered to act simulta-
neously.
S.= Maximum allowable stress in tension for carbon and low alloy steel
Code Table UCS-23; for high alloy steel Code Table UHA-23., psi. (See
properties of materials page 180- 184,)
/ ,

STRESSES IN CYLINDRICAL SHELL

Uniforminternalorexternalpressureinducesinthelongitudinalseamtwotimeslargerunit
stress than in the circumferentialseam becauseof the geometryof the cylinder.

A vessel under external pressure, when other forces (wind, earthquake, etc. ) are not
factors, must be designed to resist the circumferential buckling o Tn C l oh y .d
p r ot m
v
i e od dh t e e tsh ms o tie rdge e qhn uf ei’ rW ei o mo t e hlns t t o . aaeh d ei n n r r g s
present, these combined loadings m g o a a hv y vl be
e e p an rw n ir a i eed q rt ul ei r l e
t t ph w l ah wh a s a ni t t i esact fer a chte t co sisrr yc ui mh f sbe ro ue t n oct ie ak l nl i ln gy

T c o m p sh r edt s t se r i xev epetu r es a e r t ss n e sse a onudntl trs i r e in pe lt ud r ese e r ss n se a ou l r


s b dh e t a eb tr lfm oi nlr em eh d u l a y se :

F O R M U L A S
t
. . C I R C U M F E R E N T I A LL O N G I T U D I N A L
+ J O I N JT O I N T

D
$ ‘ s,
3 .$ s~ = ~

N O T A T I O N
D= M d ie ao vm a eei ts n e s cr e h l f ,e s
S2 P= I n ot e e x r pt n r e ae pr sl n s a ur l r s e , i
‘ s, = Longitudinal
1 stress, psi
s, ‘/ s* = Circumferential (hoop) stress, psi
[ = Thickness of shell, corrosion allowance
,R ~ excluded, inches

EXAMPLE

;iven D = 96 inches PD 15 X 96
P= 15 psi s, = ~ = ~ = 1440 psi
f = 0.25 inches

15 X 96
s* = $ = = 2 p 8 8s
2 X 0.25

F t ou iw
o n n pe t d r er a er rewss nl s r at iunc l or r h eni haeat d iwdi b c cd ghaoe lhmi v pt cr e e h s
s s gti o rc vvb ea ep sp rera osnb x t is fm ao nt ree hdm u I y ae :

H=% w Hh= C er h i r oet t i ei foc ga w l h e t t r f , .


3 2 (
I P N R
1. OPERATING PRESSURE
The pressure which is required for the process, served by the vessel, at which
the vessel is normally operated.
2. DESIGN PRESSURE
The pressure used in the design ofa vessel. It is recommended to design a vessel
and its parts for a higher pressure than the operating pressure. A design pressure
higher than the operating pressure with 30 psi or 10 percent, whichever is the
greater, will satis@this requirement, The pressure of the fluid and other contents
of the vessel should also be taken into consideration. See tables on page 29 for
pressure of fluid.
3. MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE WORKING PRESSURE
The internal pressure at which the weakest element of the vessel is loaded to the
ultimate permissible point, when the vessel is assumed to be:
(a) in corroded condition
(b) under the effect ofa designated temperature
(c) in normal operating position at the top
(d) undertheeffectof otherloadings(wind load, external pressure, hydro-
static pressure, etc.) which are additive to the internal pressure.
When calculations are not made, the design pressure may be used as the
maximum allowable working pressure (MA WP) code 3-2.
A common practice followed by many users and manufacturers of pressure
vessels is to limit the maximum allowable working pressure by the head or shell,
not by small elements as flanges, openings, etc.
See tables on page 28 for maximum allowable pressure for flanges.
See tables on page 142 for maximum allowable pressure for pipes.
The term, maximum allowable pressure, new and cold, is used very oflen, It
means the pressure at which the weakest element of the vessel is loaded to the
ultimate permissible point, when the vessel:
(a) is not corroded (new)
(b) t n i h t ( te
and the other conditions (c and d above) also need not to be taken into
consideration.
4. HYDROSTATIC TEST PRESSURE
O and one-halfntimes the maximum e allowable working pressure or the design
pressure to be marked on the vessel when calculations are not made to determine
the maximum allowable working pressure.
If the stress value of the vessel material at the design temperature is less than at
the test temperature, the hydrostatic test pressure should be increased propor-
tionally.
H y d r t o ss t bea hc t oi cnas a d aul ftc a tl b le re hdil bec a c t roi e am
ol np le e ts e n d .
I t c t h at pressure
s i e hshall
en be:
s s , e t
StressValueS Temperature
1 )( M A . W.Press.
al l xx o5 w. .
(Or DesignPress.) StressValueS At DesignTemperature

V e w s tsh me e al xhasr li l emwo uweo m ap r br k l el ei si nbs m t gu i r t e eh d


f l s a bn ht g eae aa p ss r l, tse lsei h tse dt u o rat ew hb nl ne e :
+
P r S i e m r av r i yc e
900 lb

H y d r t o os mt uea l t t ii -c svc h ea m
Cs t b sU
ef r eo ( Gl s d- : e9 e 9 )

A Pneumatic test may be used in lieu of a hydrostatic test per Code UG-100

P tr t e oe s s ot m a t afb lxa s i li sol mhwo uwo m pa r br k l ew ei s t ns h gu r ehe n


s t ro ae pn go t t an v h ec r fh sayb c tsn o f en me w lpo s ua t it t i ese f dt a c t oh r y
a s s o us r a ap frn e ce si eCct r Uy i f obG
, e - d d1 0 n e1 .
5. MAXIMUMALLOWABLESTRESS VALUES
The maximuma l l t o ews an vt b s l apr ie e lel r f m uesd i i est f mt sfo ea e dt r e e r nr i t a l s
a g i it r ova p 1eb eaT n l m 8 n ga e xa9hn l ie l m c o. o uwm
e amp s rb e l ts es ri v e s
t b u i t sd eo ce hys o l e i sd n gdnsh er u in ebc t ajlf l l e o clt at p s ed rhd i o n doa g u ct e
l o n g ic t o u md pi snr ea itls t s ris v se h b hshd ee s t a elna re cl ml c i t ol n ree d i n g
C p U
o abC cd & d -r e 2 . 3 , , .

6. JOINT EFFICIENCY
The efficiency of different types of welded joints are given in table on page
172. The efficiency of seamless heads is tabulated on page 176.
T f o l phl o c aw o i fgen o g t eru am t s icu s nlo at m esr p e uqdw h tu o ei a r ee ld
t h i ac kt nm e an s xhsa li l mdw o uweo m ap r br kl ef ei st n sm gu o r ho e ar e
f r e qu u t e nso y st l a yeph h eTe de f n s lo a rfo hcl m
d y d lu i. sl n aeda hr s i c e a f lr l l
g f i t l .v o ~o ge hs i t usn ed iur ni aeas tl nugm ao hc ,vl eel i r y n s .

T s it t h rg se i whs e ger s oiot na ew


v hlnte mch ir r l lc un m eh f j ey r en no t ie a il n
e f f ii lc i t e oen chn y te s l- ao hsn sga hinj lt u fe do f i f n eiia ocl wi ne n cht y , e r
besides the internal pressure additional loadings(wind load, reaction of
s a ad cd al l euor ns s g ) i ib t une ed o gin t n dae l inT snr i g ef o ih ani r . s o o e n r
t t sh at rhrai t i eg s t ss i ie phsn er gper o s t nau eq i h niumo n and oe r -c e h ah l s f
t s it t hlr o ne g ihs s t e u sed i nn aea l m .

T f o rf htm g u s l io aeh c serc o r t rda ei nh g ml y :


PR 2SEt
t P=
= 24SE+ 0.4P R – 0.4t
Seenotation on page 22.
I P N R
FORMULAS IN TERMS OF INSJDEDIMENSIONS

NOTATION
E = J e of f ip i c 1i en a n c t y 7g. e 2
P = D pe r s o e m i s a sg l aul n or R = wex I a bnrr . l as ei d i n i dc u eh s e, s
w o p r r pke is sn u gs rD = e I ndi i s a i m i n e d t c ee hr , e s
S= S vt o rma ea pl t ps e u ssr at i e= a if t l g h i ,i c e k n n ec s hs , e s
C = C o rAa r l ol ois wi .n ao nnc c eh . e s

A
CYLINDRICAL SHELL ( LS EO A N M G )

t PR SE t
P
R f= SE– O.6P = m-m

e
1. U s t su i at t ll hr s l e i yog h seo ev Sns e arn en gi m
ne g s .
p r ep c e a d i g n g e .
2 W [ w h t h aiehe c x ok. lhcnn o ete isl ae n s nd slhs ie f
r oa P e d x 0 i c S u. et f es 3 o drgE r 8 hsm
i i u5 l v , a e se
t C A po h 1p s e db nah dep - ei ap x l l i 2e l de .

B SPHERE HEMISPHERICAL HEAD

PR p= 2SE t
‘= 2SE–0,2P R +0.2t

r
1. F h w e i aos at t Ih r d loua r t aisu e gnft fhg si thce i , e n e c
R f o t h t s ej h hi i ol a et f it e eeld hfno f l si thac if { es n c
1- -1 -–
o t s i e[ h h a e m h fa e s d n e .
2 W t w h t h aiehe c x 0k. l cnnR o. ePe e sl e 3xs d c 5s e 6e
0 S . t f 6 o gE r 6 hmi ti uC 5 lvA, a epo hse p e nd n n de ei
I s b -ah p ap3 l li , e l d e .
.
. 2:1 ELLIPSOIDAL HEAD

PD
b I P= -Dy;jt
‘= 2SE– O.2P

0 1. F e l l ih po sw
e o t ia hrd rado leta smh r t , a ehi j e o o
“ a m a i i on nxt t 2 1 os hihC
d r A e aspo espr e nd n : , de ei
1 - 4 ( c ) .
/1 = 1>/4
E X

D ED S AI G
T NA : E = 1 j . e of 0f oi is c0 ei n ea , n m tc l y e s f
h e a d s
P = p d pe r s e is sg ui R n=r 4 ie ni rnc a hs d ie i8 ds u es *
S= 1 p 7s vt5 o rsSa 0 e l 0 s Dtiu= s9 i e ni f A dnc i hsa mie e6 dst e e r *
5 1p @5 6l . 5a 7 0t 0 ”e= r I F e wq [ u h i ai irc ken ln d ec s lhs , e
E = 0 e . f f oi8 s cp oi 5t e - ne x, c a ym i n ef i d .
C = 0 . nc A 1o c ra 2r hl. ol e5so iws o u n n c e
j oo s ia hh n eHe t tnm sl e i f l * s dac .o crd oi r o ngo d d vi e nt a di ot n e r
s h e l l w t c i o r a rhlt ol so ihw o ea n n c e

SEEDESIGNDATAABOVE

I)c[crmincIhc rcquird lhicknms, SEE DESIGN[),N”f’A


AIK)VE
01”o shell
fhwrmine the maximum:Ill(nv;IbleIf(whingpressure, P
I(K) x 48.1?5 I’br().5()() in thi~k kh{.11wtlrn Ihc tIS<,Il i, in IICW
,= = ().325 in.
I7500 x 0.85 -- 0.6 x 100 currditi(m.

+ C.A. () 125 in. 17500 x ().X5 x ().5(M)


P = - 154psi
48 + x
in.

fJse: ().50() in, pkrfc

—.

SEE DESIGNDATAABOVE

The head furnishedwithmrtslraigh[ Ilwrge.


SEE DESIGNL)A’rAABOVE
Detcrrnirrethe required thickness. I d’ ii hemispherical
head. Determine IIw maximumallowuhlcvrn-kingpressure. P
I’or().3125 in [hi(k head. when it is in IICNctmdili(m
]00 x 48, Izfi
/= = ().16? in.
2 x I7500 x 0.85 -- 0.2 x I00 p ,..
,? x I7500 x 0.X5x 0.3 I25
+ IOJ p~i
W + 0.2 x (),3I25
+ C.A. 0.125 in.

0.287 in.

Use: ().3125 in MIN. HEAD

SEE DESIGNDATAABOVE

Dctcrrninethe requiredthicknessot’a SCJMICSS


ellipsoidal
head SEE DESIGNDA’I’AABOVE

100 X 96.25 Determinethe maximumdlmv:iblc U[wkingprcwurc. P


— = 0,275 in. for 0,275 in. thick. seamless head \!’heni! is in corroded
‘ - 2 x 17500 x 1.0 – 0.2 x 100 condition.
+ C.A. 0.125 in, 2 X 17500 X 1,0 X 0.275
= 10(1psi
in, 96.?5 + 0.2 x 0.275—

Use: o 437s in, MIN. THK. HEAD


I P N
FORMULAS IN TERMS OF INSIDE DIMENS1ONS

NOTATION D = I dn i s ai mi n e d tc e e hr , e
P = D pe r s o e m i s a sg l aul n or a we=x Oa hbr o. l t ei an n (c lhI a eu p fd fe
w o p r r pke si sn u gs r ea dni eg g l r e e ,e s
S= . Sv to m a r a ;pl t ps e u ssr aLi e= Ia if l grn oa,s d e dii i din suec sh
r = I kn n sr u ai i c dd nk i e cl u e h s
E = J e of f ip i c 1i en a n c t y g7,r = W t e h 2ai i c k n ln ec s l sh , e
R = I rn a is d ni i dc u he s e,= C s o r a r l ol ois wi n ao nnc c eh ,

1 CONE CONICAL SECTION

2SEt c a o
‘ c a (SE–= O.6P)
o ‘= 2D + 1.2t
s a

1 T h a a a h apnn g lg re. t el e3 fo e axh ,t e0a t


A % ~ 2 W i‘Dgh r t e 3e s nah pa. t a ne e0ia racs re l i q ny au ;s
( A C p 1po e- dn 5 d (e i ex ) )

E A F SL A M D
N GI H EN
ES D H
E ED A
( T O R I S P HH E R I EC A L A D
W ‘ =h 1 6e / 2 n fr

0.885PL SEt
P=
f= SE– o. 1 ‘ 0.885 L+0.lt P
~

< When Vr l t 1e h s a s n

\
PLM 2SEt
‘= 2SE– O.2P ‘= LM+oo2t

V A O LF UA “ EC ST OM F R ”
1 1. .0 50 0
‘ J r
M
3
2 ●

1 3 . 0
M 1
* : L = D + 2t (see note 2 on f pa ca i
21

E X
DESIGN DATA: R = 48inchesinsideradius*
P = lOOpsidesignpressure D = 96inchesinsidediameter*
S = 17500psistressvalueof ~ = required wallthickness,inches
SA515-70plate@650°F L = 30°0nehalfoftheapexangle
E = 0.85,efficiency
ofspot-examined t = Resuiredwallthickness
inches
joints C.A = 0,125inchescon-osionallowance
E = 1.00,jointefficiencyofsearnless * incorrodedcondition
greaterwith
thecorrosionallowance
SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE
Cos30° = 0.866
Determine the maximum allowable
Determine the required thickness, r working pressure, P for 0.500 in. thick
of a cone cone, when the vessel is in new
100x 96.25 condition.
‘2X 0.866(17500X 2x xO.85xO.500x0.866= 133psi
96+ 1.2XOo500Xo.866
+C.A. 0,125in.
0.500in.
Use0,500in.plate

SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE


L/r = 16$ Determine the maximum allowable
working pressure, P for 0.6875 in. thick
Determine the required thickness, t of a seamless head, when the vessel is in
seamless ASME flanged and dished new condition.
head.
0.885X100x96.I25 p. 17500x1,0x0,6875
f= =0.486 in. = 141psi
17500x 1.0-0.1x 100 0.885x96+ 0,1 x0,6875

+C.A. 0.125in.
0.611in.
Use0.625in.plate
SEEDESIGNDATAABOVE SEEDESIGNDATAABOVE
Knuckle radius r = 6 in. L/r= ~= (j %
61 Knuckle radius r = 6 in. L/r= ~ = 16
~= 1.75 from table. A4= 1.75 from table
Determine the required thickness t of a
seamless ASME flanged and dished Determine the maximum allowable
head. working pressure, P for a 0.481 in. thick
100x96,125X1.75 seamless head when the vessel is in
t= ‘0.481 in. corroded condition.
2 x 17500 100

2 x 17500X1.0xO.481 = 100psi
+C.A. 0.125in. p= 96.125X 1.75+0,2 xO.481
0.606in.
Use0.625in.min.thickhead
NOTE: When the r o La i g t r t i/e 1 a nho to6f nreca so- r n3 Cs tn otr uv,d c te aoi o hnl ) u
A b4 c a ml bc t ua f l oay tir ehe%
md +ul k L l y ae (l /: = r 3 )
22

I P N
FORMULAS IN TERMS OF OUTSIDE DIMENSIONS

NOTATION
E = Joint efficiency,page 1 7
P=D pe r s o e m i s a sgl aul n or w =ex O a ubr radius,
. l t einches
s i d e
w op r r pke si sn u gs r: eO u id ti asi m i n e d= tc ee hr ,
S= S vt o rm
a ae pl t ps e u ssr ai e= W a if t l g h ai , i c e k n ln ec s l sh , e
1 8 9 C.A: = Comosionallowance,inches

A
CYLINDRICAL SHELL ( LS EO A N

+ PR
P = R y;4t
R * = SE + 0.4P .
b

G3) ~ 1 U s t su iat t l hr sl .e i yogh seo e v snS e arn en g


p 1 a g e 4
2 W t w h t h aiehe c x ok. lhcnn o eet isl ae ns nd slhs
r oa P e d x 0i c S u. et fse 3 o dr gEr 8shim v u5 e
t C A po h 1p s e db nah dep - ei ap x l l i 2 e l

B
SPHERE and HEMISPHERICAL HEAD

PR
P - ~ y; B*
f = 2SE + 0.8P .
@
f 1 F h w e i ao s at t fh r d .loua r t asiu e gnft fhgsi thce
R o t h t s ej h hi i oi la e t fi te leed hnf o fl is t hca f
d’ o t s i et hh a e m h f ae s d n e .
R P
S t E h , e
1-3,shallbe applied.
c
2:1 ELLIPSOIDAL HEAD

PD
h P=D~l—
‘= 2S45+1,8P .

- +
1 F e l l hi po wes o t ai hr d. odra t eal m s h art ,a hei j
u m a ii o tnx t 2 so hC hi :Ar e paso e1ps1 r e- nd n 4 ,

h = D14
23

E X
DESIGN DATA:
P = IOOpsidesignpressure E = 1.OOjointefficiency
ofseamlessheads
S = 17500psistressva1ueof l? =48inchesoutsideriidius
SA515-70plate@650°F D= 96 inchesoutsidediameter
E= O.8&efliciencyofspot-examined t =Requiredwallthickness,
inches
joints ofshellandhemis.headtoshell C.A.= 0.125inchescorosionallowance
E = 1.00,jointefficiencyofseamless

SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE


Determine the required thickness, t Determine the maximum allowable
of a shell working pressure, P for 0.500 in. thick
shell when the vessel is in new condi-
100X48 tion.
‘= 17500x0.85-0.4x 100 ‘0”322 ‘n”
17500xO.85xO.500
P= 48-0.4 x0,500 = 155psi
+C.A. 0.125in.
0.447in.
Use:0.500in.thickplate

SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE


SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE
Head furnished without straight flange.
Determine the maximum allowable
Determine the required thickness, t of a working pressure, P for 0.3125 in. thick
hemispherical head. head, when the vessel is in new
condition.
t=
2x17500 %;t0.8x100 ‘0-161 ‘r- 2x 17500xO.85x().3125
ip. =194psi
48-0.8 x0,3125
+ C 0. i .A 1. n 2 5 .
0.286in.
Use:0.3215in.min.thickhead
SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE
Determine the maximum allowable
Determine the required thickness t of a working pressure, P for 0.273 in. thick
seamless ellipsoidal head. head, when it is in new condition.

100x96
8 p. + 2X
x 17500x1.0X
t=
2 x 17500 X 1 1 . . 0
96-1.8 xO.273 = 100psi
+C.A. 0,125in.
0.398in.
Use0.4375in.min.thickhead
I P N
FORMULASIN TERMSOF OUTSIDEDIMENSIONS

N ~ A T I O N
Outsidediameter.inches
P = Designpressureor max. allowable ~ = one half of the included(apex)
w o p r r psi
ke si sn u g r ea dn eg g l r e e ,e s
S= S v & o m a e a pl ts p e u ssr aLi e= O
a fi l gu r t , oa dse dii i din esuc sh
r = I kn n sr u ai i c dd nk i e lc u e h
E = J e of f ip i c 1i en a n c t y g7, = W t e h 2ai ic k n ln ec s l sh , e
R=O ur t a i s d ni i dc u e hC.A:
s =e, C os r a r l ol ois wi n ao nnc c eh

)
CONE CONICAL SECTION

PD p= 2bsEfCos CY
‘=2 Cos CY(SE+ O.4P) D –0.8t a

d
1 T h a a a h apnn g gl re.t el e3 of eaxh t, e0a t
@L 2 W
“ i hg rt e 3e snah p.a0t a ne eai rasc r°e l i qny au , s
( A C p 1po e- dn 5 d ( e i ex ) )

E A F sL A MD N GI H EN
ES D HE ED
( T O R I S P HHE R I EC A L A D
W h = 1e n 6 L 2/ r /

0.885PL SEt
P=
2=SE + 0.8P 0.885L– O.8t

f W Lh T ee1 h 6 sn a2 s
.
i
PL M 2SEt
f= 2SE+P(M– O.2)’ ‘= ML –t(ikf-O.2)

VALUES OF FACTOR M
2 2. 3 .0 3. 5 0 4 .0 0 5. 50 6 .5 0
‘ 1 / 1. 2 .r2 2. 7 5 3. 2 5 4 .7 5 5. 2 5 6 .0 5 . 00
M 1 1. 1. 0 .0 0 16 0

% ‘

7

: L-t = D 2

.
25

E X
3ESIGN DATA:
P = IOOpsidesignpressure D = 96inchesoutside
dimeter
S = 17500psistressvalueof ~ = 3@onehalfoftheapexmgle
SA 515-70plate@650°F L = 96inchesoutsideradiusofdish
E = 0.85,efficiency
ofspot-examinedjoints t = Requiredwallthickness,
inches
E = 1.00,jointefficiencyofseamlessheads C.A = 0.125inchescomosionallowmce
R = 48inchesoutsideradius
SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE
:0s 30° = 0.866 Determine the maximum allowable
Determine the required thickness, t working pressure, P for 0.500 in. thick
of a cone cone.
00 96
‘=2 x0.866X(l\50; X0.85+Oc4X100) =
=0.372 in. ~= 2X 17500XC).85X
().5()()X().866= 134psi
96- (0.8xO.500xO.866)
+-CA. 0.125in.
0.497in.
Use:0.500in.thickplate

SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE


L/r = 16$
Determine the maximum allowable
Determine the required thickness, t of a working pressure, P for 0.625 in. thick
seamless ASME flanged and dished seamless head, when the vessel is in
head. corroded condition.
0,885x 100x96
=0.483 in.
‘= 17500x1.0+0.8x 100 17500x 1.0xO.625
P= 0.885
+C.A. 0.125in.
0.608in.
U 0 in.min.thickhead
s. 6e 2 : 5
SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE SEE DESIGN DATAABOVE
%
Knuckle radius r= 6 i M ~ =1 K r p= 6 in. L/r= ~ =16
M 1.75 from table.
~= 1.75 from table.
Determine the required thickness t of a
seamless ASME flanged and dished Determine the maximum allowable
head. working pressure, P for a 0.478 in. thick
100X96X1.75 seamless head when the vessel is in
t= =0.478 in. corroded condition.
2x 17500x1.0x 100(1.75-0.2)
2X17500x1.OX().478 .
+-CA. 0.125in. ‘= 1.75X96-0478(1.75-0.2)=100ps*
0.603in.
Use0.625in.min.thickhead
NOTE: W t r h o La i ehg t r t n i/e 1 ea, h(o nt f ore a6c ns or -n sC nt tor u:vd c et aoi o hnl )
Mm ca a l y bc t u fbl oa etA
r eh%
md +u~ l ly ae ( : = 3 )
&u
Y

I E P
F

NOTATION
P = Internal or external design pressure psi E=joint efficiency
d =Inside diameter ofshell, in.
S =Maximumaflowable stiessvalue ofmaterial, psi
t = Minimum required thickness of head, exclusive of corrosion allowance, in.
t~ = Actual thickness of head exclusive of corrosion allowance, in.
tr = Minimumrequired thicknessof seamless shell for pressure, in.
t~ = Actual thickness of shell, exclusive of corrosion allowance, in.
27

I E P
E

DESIGNDATA
P = 300 psi design pressure E=joint efficiency
d =24in. inside diameter ofshell
s =15,0001psi maximum allowable stress value of SA-515-60 plate
tr =0.243 i required thickness
n of seamless
. shell for pressure.
t~ =0.3125 in. actual thickness ofshell.
DETERMINE THE MINIMUM REQUIRED THICKNESS, t

t=d ~ 0.13 PISE = 24 ~ 0.13x300/15,000 x 1 = 1.223 in.


Use l.250in. head

t~ 1.250
Checking the limitationof — = — = 0.052,
d 24

Theratio ofhead thickness to the diameter of the shell is satisfactory

SEE DESIGN DATA ABOVE

0.243
c = 0.33 ; = 0,33 — = 0.26
s 0.3125

t = d = = 24 0.26 x 300/1 ~,000 x 1 == 1.731 in.

Use 1.75 in. plate

Using thicker plate for shell, alesser thickness wfil be satisfactory for the head
t~ = 0.375 i n .

0.243
c = 0.33 + = 0.33 — = 0.214
0.375

0.214 x 300/15,000 x 1 = 1.57 in.


t= d & = 24 J
Use 1.625 in. plate
The shell thickness shall be maintained along a distance 2 dt, from the
inside face of the head J

2 m = 6 in”

- .. . . . .... . .

28

PRESSURE – TEMPERATURE RATINGS


F S P O FLANGES
T E I E AND
R P FLANGED
L E FITTINGS
American National Standard ANSI B16.5-1981

150lb. 300 l 4 l 6 b lb.


0 900
b l 0 .1 0l . 25b 0 l 50b
HYDROSTATIC
TEST
PRESSURE,PSIG
450 1125 1500 2225 3350 5575 9275

TEMPERATURE,
F MAXIMUMALLOWABLENON-SHOCKpRESSURE PSIG.

-20 to 100 285 740 990 1480 2220 3705 6170 -


200 260 675 900 1350 2025 3375 5625
300 230 655 875 1315 1970 3280 5470
400 200 635 845 1270 1900 3170 5280

500 170 600 800 1200 1795 2995 4990


600 140 550 730 1095 1640 2735 4560
650 125 535 715 1075 1610 2685 4475
700 110 535 710 1065 1600 2665 4440

750 95 505 670 1010 1510 2520 4200


800 80 410 550 325 1235 2060 3430
850 65 270 355 535 805 1340 2230
900 50 170 230 345 515 860 1430

950 35 105 140 205 310 515 860


1000 20 50 70 105 155 260 430

Ratings apply to materials:


SA-1051’2 SA-515-702 SA-516-702 SA-181-70]’2 SA-350-LF2
SA-537-C1.13 SA-216-WCB2
NOTES:
1. For service temperatures above 850 F it is recommended that killed steels
containing not less than 0.10070residual silicon be used.
2. Upon prolonged exposure to temperatures above 800 F, the carbide phase of
carbon steel may be converted to graphite.
3. T m a s t h ne hb r u i ai eat o shll i a cl e k21/2
bt ni e ed o s n s v n e

Flangesof ANSIB16.5shall not be used for higher ratings exceptwhereit is


justified by the design methods of the Code.

Ratings are maximum allowable non-shock working pressures expressedas gage


pressure, at the tabulated temperatures and may be interpolated between
temperatures shown,

Temperatures are those on the inside of the pressure-containing shell of the


f l I ga en i ni g t e se r a. a t a lhon t, hc m ot s ne m
a hte aa st i t en f r ee i d a l
2-

P F
STATIC HEAD

The fluid in the vessel exerts pressure on the vessel wall. The intensity of the
pressure when the fluid is at rest is equal in all directions on the sides or
bottom of the vessel and i d t t h u eo t h i f s gae l o ht be up t o iof he v di
a w t h p ri ie ch cso nst hs u i dre e e r e ds .
T s ht hwa e a t ph pi ae sl ci eb c had a bnt ad lt e d dl ep le rh s eoe dt i s osg e u n hr
v e s s e l .
T t ab h bs e lt l rh e e o lsb oha w
e t t it wpo w rne eaes h hes sn eo ut n i re eg h
w a t e r .
T f t pi r fe hnas os o udf ot ren lt e h wu hretai y v tdr a ag es hil irnt u , v e e eh
t as bb hm ul la ew t i tl sp s li lpi gee hdt rc o tia fhf v i e icl co htn su yi d e i rf ae t di

P r ie P s osp uSu r qIn e efud Dnn asi f rH rfoc eeo eWr he a nar t d t se
H e a d ,
F o e 1 e2 3t 4 5 6 7 8 9

b
w
a a F at h e r e e .q n rp h u et4p oia r t p elu3s s s iqns 3 uue nd r a e c
T f t p i r pe shns qsi o ufdeu aren fae h r ocnr e n eg e i h tie rt ao y va ta dbhe bt o n
m u t l f t h i b ep.h e l 4y e a 3e t d3 y .
H o eW ai aF dC t o er sr ee s f tper oC n nde P
it nr rg t e as si o un r
i P o p Su qnI eud nn as r rc e h

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

i t
30

T
f q c u o om i po ra cr e i r qps k out nl hi ir aace weight
fk d t n forevarious
ne s smaterialsdand
at different degree of radiographic examination.

A Stress values at tem~.


. -20 to 650° F.
S 5 3 A B
S A
C - 2 S 58 15 5 -S 5 6 A1 0 5
S 5 1 6 -S 5 6 A1 0 6
85V0J. E. 11730 12750 14875

100Yo J. E. 13800 15000 17500


B Ratios of Stress Values

11730 12750 13800 14875 15000 17500

11730 — 1.09 1.18 1.27 1.28 1.49

12750 0.92 — 1.08 1.17 1.18 1.37

13800 0.85 0.92 — 1.08 1.09 1.27

14875 0.79 0.86 0.93 — 1.01 1.18

15000 0.78 0.85 0.92 0.99 — 1.17

17500 0.67 0.73 0.79 “ 0.85 0.86 —

Table A shows the stress value of the most frequently used shell and head materials.
Table B shows the ratios of these stress values.

EXAMPLE:
1. Foravesselusing SA 5 15-70 plate, whenspotradiographed, therequiredthickness
0.4426 inches and the weight of the vessel 12600 lbs.
2. What plate thickness will be required and what will the weight of the vessel be,
using SA 285-C plate and fill radiographic examination:
In case 1. The stress value of the material 14875
In case 2. The stress value of the material 13800
The ratio of the two stress values tlom Table B = 1.08. In this proportion will be
increased the required plate thickness and the weight of the vessel.
0.4426 x 1.08 = 0.4780 in.
12600 X 1.08= 13608 lb.
31

E P X

D eP rs e is gs un r e

V e i sn st f ese n el u d sr o ee nv dx i wdt c ero eper r r n kre oa si1 l sp n ou lg r e e ss


w a h t b is t r c wa thm C i pe s oe eohyt dd m
e dhnc b oeo moet pwi l tni a gi n c
r fo e xl tp o eer er s ssn sb arh ud l r e a e sf , ila m g lna oeexa d li l m o r uw
e x pt er ero 1S ns p sa o u2l pr ces m fete oti m rnh 5 ar r xptah ioe m s n su e
e x pt r e e wr s hn s i aiucs l r h m ee Ca, v lLe -lro (e r sdJ . 2 f e G 8 )

A v ew si hd s e i sae icc l og n hn s n tet sCr d u r c e t oqd e u d i fr dei m noe net to es


p r ae w s s i hru n er i qte b u cd di e rh sf e ai s ed g x n ptoo e ere d oer 1 snp r sa n ul r
o l n ne be d se eost rCi s grd nof t u et e ed dl x optoe here cers o sn rn saed uli tr
H o w
n e e xv pt e rer rer, snam saob t usl ri whae n t oC gi s wy t ohtea un m d hp ei
l C re e oq u is fr dee m xse pnet tores aer msn Csa r uU le r r o ( Ge nt d- eo . f2 et

T s nh h b a ai p i o tpl vs l l iei o t hespe dea s a tr eef aem tlp bee sr dm


a e t u itlr e n
2 F a t d ep n rhs ie d0i se dtsg ee ub rnt rmC ei U n e -oshd ( ( dCo yC6 e ce 2 o S
U - ( t Ha 5t v bn e Ao c o 1hie i )s mots d i p ete ya s c f tt .

V e w s l s ji e o lC iat s Un o- th2 ( sp Nd : c y egl i ovGn de 8jr is) a cn sac l e k


C U -o 2 ( d ei G 8 )

T P re e s s s u tr e

S i n g vl e e - d ws e a s ls f l ei v gl a n so ocep d ua v ru ar to m c i s n ua rb hlul ma y
s u b t j a e i c n t ht e y ed d r r t on oso ant w ael t a ih hcys d r teo t si trn ane t i c
p r a c t ai pc na be l t ue m ,U e-a (t soi c t9 f . G 9 )

E it ot t y h s ebe phm r a as ae ap flr t ned l ls ets e u1e o1 tr h t e s t i a t/ m


s
d i f f b e er ent n woc a eet r m e om spn par h eeal r s t i scm u in r ndh e i e m d s u e
i n at eb prs rno e Ual s -ul s ( t u e r e9 . f G 9 )

P n e tu m
C e a U t - soi c t 1d : 0e G 0

T d em h se o t it f goh e l pnolh ocd a w o i tngnA ne fg eC o S f sr P o mMr e doos E s


V e S s e V s c De tI 1l iT IIs co nIoh Vp h a. 4 at .r 4 .gta e he s ex cn rf ser r 2 pru t 7
t C ho di e s .
32

E PRESSUREX
FORMULAS
N O T A T I O N
P= External design pressure, psig.
P = Maxunumallowableworking pressure, psig.
d.= Outside diameter, in.
L = the length, in. ofvessel section between:
1. circumferential line on a head at one-third the depth of the
head-tangent line,
2. stiffening rings
3. jacket closure
4. cone-toqdinderjunction or knuckle-to-cylinderjunction of
a toriconicalhead or section,
5. tube sheets (see pa e 39)
t = Minimum requiredwa fithickness, in.

A. m CYLINDRICAL SHELL
2
Seamless or with Longitudinal Butt Joints
When D./l equal to or greater than 10
the maximum allowable pressure:
D. 4B
1~ , A Pa =
3(D0It )
t. — T value of B hshall be determined
e by the fol-
lowing procedure:
1. Assume a value for t; See pages 49-511)
t i Determine L/DQ a b oI n d
A 2 E Fn U G t i O ( e - g42)
.2P rat8 the.a. value
O g
m of L/DO. E a n5 w t L/Dpheis greater r e t 0
! z than 50, and at 0.05 when L/D. is l e
0.05.
3. M h oo r i z t vo t n tl a e rl el ipyh r e s ne o
~ F O t p r/ o oi t noh t ie. rm m s nev ce ot t i eo
B . t l t dc e a t t el v r l m o ayf i h n aAol e c u te
4 E t n a p t p lhme i ac. crat be (e lh r e p i a aa
4 3a t v- o4 aA M h7 l v ) e o ur tt tet iev c fa
a p p t he cm ap l eb r l i a e t nu r e *
A 5 F t ir n t e orhm s e h. cm o to r i ieo zan ov n t a
r t v e o aB ha l du e e f .
u C o t m m p a u ax h t l i el m wo uw o e p amr b kr l
z
2 s Pa.u r e ,
u If the maximum allowable working pressure is
z t A smaller than the design pressure, the design
E procedure must be repeated increasing the ves-
M
Lal
L sel thickness or decreasing L b s t i rf f ei n
F * v F ao A l f o ua t tl er l l s o i t efnh g
a p p tl ei mc pa leb r lt a ie vt u nof
r a ePOh e l
c b c a l a bc t u fl ao tn r eeh md u l y ae
t ~ A
1 Pa =
s 1
!-$? 3 /t) ( D 0
2 W t hv oaD eh il l no tu e 1e /e th fs t
g i i t Cv U eGoh - 2 n s8 d ( n Che )
W S TI I F RF T E b aG N p
N II H N p Gl i e de .
33

E X

D E DATA
S I G N
P = IS e x dt e epressure
r sn ai l g n
D. = 96 in. outside diatmeter of the shell
Length o t v fe ths ra sl n t ef ot ge i al e l nmn 4n igf t O ie n=e 5n o i ett n : 7 8
H 2 e e l a l i :pd s o s i d 1 a l
M a o t s e S rh- i C eap 2 l ll f8 la A 5t e
T e m p 5e r Fa t 0 u r e 0 °
E = M o of delasticity
u ol m u a s t2 e7 ,r 0i p 0a @05l f , ,“s 0 ( 0 c0 i0 s Jh . ae? 0
o p 4 ) a g n e 3

D e t te rr em qis hnut ehhi i r ce eek dn i e s l s .


A s a s s t huh i mcet =k0e n l i e ( s. l ps : 4s 5n a e 0 9g . e e )
L eL = 592
n in. (length
g t of shell
h 576 in. and one third of the depth of
heads 16 i n . )
L/DO= 592/96 = 6.17 Do/t = 96/0.5= 192
A=O.00007 from chart (page 42)determined by the procedure described on
the facing page.
Since the value of A is falling to the left of the applicable temperature-line
in Fig. UCS-28.2 (page 43),
P* = 2A E/3( DOlt) = 2 x 0.00007x 27,000,000/3x 192= 6.56 psi.

Since tlie maximum allowable pressure is smaller than the design pressure
P stiffening rings shall be provided.
Using 2 stiffening rings equally spaced between the tangent lines of the heads,
Length of one vessel section, L = 200 in.(length of shell 192 in. plus one third
of depth of head 8 in.)

L/DO= = = =
* = from chart (page
a
s 3000 f c r( h 4 po a a rm 3 g t e )
G d e t e b r t m p i r n oe dhcd ee sd o cuy r er i e b e
: ‘ f ap c a i g0 n eg .
+
‘ = 4 xQ 3000/3 x 192= 20.8 psi.
“ Pa =o 4B/3(DOlr)

‘k GG
* Since the maximum allowable pressure P. is
‘; greater than the design pressure P, the assumed
thickness of shell using two stiffening rings,
is satisfactory.
i “00
*Z
See page 40 for design of stiffening rings.
34

EXTERNAL PRESSURE
FORMULAS

NOTATION
P = External design pressure psig.
Pa = Maximum allowable working pressure psig.
DO = Outside diameter of the head, in.
RO = Outside radius of sphere or hemispherical head, 0.9D0 for ellipsoidal
heads, inside crown radius of flanged and dished heads, in.
= Minimum required wall thickness, inches.
; = Modulus of elasticity of material, psi. (page 43)
SPHERE and HEMISPHERICAL HEAD
The maximum B
allowable pressure: ‘“ = (RO/t)
The value of B shall be determined by the followingpro-
cedure:
1. Assume the value for t and calculate the value of
A using the f o r m u / ( l) (seea page49)
:
2 E t n a p t p ml h ei a c c. t ar e(b hel r p4e i a a3aa l rg-
t v o a A. h Move
l vertically
u e to ethe applicable f
temperature line.*
3. From the intersection move horizontally and read
t
R. R. t v o aB h l u e e f .
DO *For values of A falling to the left of the appli-
t- - cable temperature line, the value of POcan be cal-
~~–•°à–•Tá–•Xæ–•
culated by the formula:Pc = 0.0625V~R0/ t ):
If the maximum allowable working pressure f’. com-
puted by the formula above, is smaller than the design
pressure, a greater value for [ must be selected and
the design procedure repeated.
2:1 ELLIPSOIDAL HEAD
The required thickness shall be the greater of the
following thicknesses.
I (1) The thickness as computed by the formulas
R. given for internal pressure using a design pres-
sure 1.67 times the external pressure and joint
t +% efficiency E= 1.00.
DO
(2) The thickness proofed by formula Fa=BARo/1)
where&=O.9 00, and B to be determined as for
sphere.
ASMEFLANGED
ANDDISHED
HEAD
( T O R I S P HH E R I EC A L A D

R.
The required thickness and maximum allowable pres-
( sure shall be computed by the procedures given for
+ f, ellipsoidal
W heads. (See above)ROmaximum=D,,
35

E X

DESIGN DATA:
P = 15psigexternal design pressure
Do= 96 inches outside diameter of head
Material of the head SA-285C plate
500°F design temperature

Determine the required head thickness.


SEE DESIGN DATA ABOVE
Assume a head thickness: t,=0.25 i R = 4 n i 8 . .n . ~ .
A = 0 . 1 2 5 / ( 4 8 . =0 0 / 0 . 2 5 0) 0 0 6 5
F F rU Ci oS( - g4 2p m 8= 8 a.3 d2 eg5 t) e eb r 0t m
B p i r n 0 oe hcd e d uy er
d e s o c t r f i bap e hc da i g nn e eg .

Pa = 8 5 0 0 / ( 4 8 . 0= 04 / 0 .p245 ) ,s 2 i 7 .

S t i m an xa h cl i l mweo uwo e pamr rb k Pa


le isiesexceedingly
ns ug greater
r e than
the design pressure f’, a lesser thickness would be satisfactory.
For a second trial, assume a head thickness: t = 0.1875 in.
RO= 4 i 8 . n0 0 .
A = 0 . 1 2 5 / ( 4 8 . 0 0 /=0 0. 1 8 7. 5 ) 0 0 0 5
B = 6 f 7 c (r0 hp a0 Pa oag = B/(RJt)
e, r 4m =3 6700/256
t ) , = 26.2 psi.
The assumed thickness: t = 0.1875 in. is satisfactory.

SEE DESIGNDATAABOVE. Procedure(2.)


A sah s t uh e i mc f =k 0ae n e. i s d 3s =: n1 x 2 = . 5 in. .
A = 0.1 25/(86.4/0.3125)= 0.00045
B = 6100 from chart (page 43 ), Pa = B/( RO\r)I= 6100/276= 22.1 psi.

Since the maximum allowable pressure Pa i g r t e t adh t ep e rhass r e i s n sg e


P t a s t s hh u i i m
cs ak et eni sd e f as c s t o r ys .

SEE DESIGN DATA ABOVE. Procedure (2.)


Assume a head thickness: t = 0.3125 in., RO=,DO= 96 in.
A = 0.125/(96/0.3125)= 0.0004
B a5 f 2c r ( h 0 4 p o Pa
a =0aB/(
3 rmRO/t)
g t=) 5200/307
e , = 16.93 psi.
Since the m a xa l i l mpo ruw Peam i sbg ls r etu e rt adeh t ep ae rha s r e i s n sg e
~ t a s t s hh u i i m
cs ak et eni sd e f as c s t o r ys .
36

E P X
FORMULAS

CONE A CONICAL
N SE(XION D

L WHEN a IS EQUALTOORLESSTHAN60<
‘a and Dl\r, > 10
AX The m a ax l i l pmo r wu e am
s bs l u e r
4
D ,
L ‘ = 3(D,/f,.) “

1 A s a v s forauthickness,
ml ~., e u e
s The valuesof B s b determined
h a by thel
l% followingprocedure:
, n .L/Dl
2 D e t t eL., r andmthe iratios e and ,
te D1/te
a L 3. Enter chart UGO-28(page42) at the wdue
I of LJDI (.L/D&)( a 5 wn L/Dl
E t h e
is greater than 5 M h o or0 i tz tov n t
a line representing~it. From the point of
DI intersection move vefically to determine
factor A,
‘1 4. Enter the applicable material chart at
the value of A* and move verticallyto the
line of applicable temperature. From the
NOTATION intersection move horizontally and read
A = factordeterminedfrom the value of B.
fig.UGO-21L0(page , 5 C4 o t m m p2 a u ax h tl i . l ewmo owu e arm
B = fhctordetermined from pressure,Pa.
charts (pages 4 3 4 7 )
a = o h o t ian n
c lh l I eu Pa fdis s f e e mdt at dl h l ep f er has etr si sn
( aa pdn eeg
g xl r d )e e e t ,e ds s i pe gr hs o nmust
ci ,be
e repeated
gd e u n r
Dl = outside diameter at the increasing the thickness or decreasingL b
large end, in. using of stiffeningrings.
D s= outside diameter at the
small e i n n
●F v
d .
oa A f ol at ut l l e ol r t sia e h n fp g
E = modulusof elasticityof
cable line, the value of P can be calculated
material (page 43)
L = length of cone, in. (see by the formula:
page 39) Pa = 2A E/3(D,/t,.)
Le = equivalent length of For cones havingD A ratio smallerthan 10,
conicalsection, see Code UG-33(~(b)
in.(L/’2)(l+D~/Df)
P = external
. design pressure, W HI G ER ETN A 6 a TH E S RA 0
Pa = flbum allowable The thicknessof the conesshallbe the sameas
workingpressure, psi the required t h i f c a kf nh e o lt se s
t = minimumrequired o w e h qt i l u a co a r hfu hl g t
t h i ic k n e sn s d , i oa t. mc e ot he nr ef e .
te = effectivethickness,in. P r a o d v er eiq i dun o f ate o ctr coe i n n h
= t Cos a c y j l u i nSn cp d t 1 eu ar e e . g5
37

E X

DESIGN DATA
F’ = 15 psi external design pressure
Material of the cone SA 285-C plate
500 F design temperature

CONICAL HEAD
D( = 9 i a =2n d e2 6 g. D, =r. O e e5 s
Determine the required thickness, t L
Length, f. =( D1/2)hncx=48/.4142= 115.8,say 116in (1
1. Assume a head thickness, t, 0.3125 in.
2. fe = t cosa=O.3125x .9239 = 0.288; A7
L, =L/2 ( / )l= 1 X+D(1 + 0/96)
6 D = 581/ 2 1
L, /~, =58/96 =0.6 L), Ite = 96/,288 = 333 w
3. A =0.00037 ( cf ph r 4 a oa r mt 2g , e )
4 ~ = (5 c, f 2ph r 04 a. 0oa r mt g3 , e )
4B 4 X 5,200 = 20.8 psi.
5 p,, = .
3(D,/t@) =
3(333)
Since the maximum allowable pressure is greater than the design pressure, the
assumed plate thickness is satisfactory.

CONICAL SECTION (See design data above)

DI = 144 in. D, =96 in. a =30 d e g .


D e t t e r r em tqi h nu i eic rk ne e e d s s ,

L e L n= [ (gD r D
t J )h / 2=], / 2t a n4 a= / . i 45 7 17 4n . 6 .

a 0 i . 3 n7
2 t =tC O s ~ ) . . 8 3. 6 , 76 =5 0 . 3 2 4
X( O
m Le=(L/2)(1 + D~\Dl)=41.6\2 X
1 + 9 6 = /3 1 4 4 4. ) 6 7
I L Le/D[ = 3 4 . 6 7 / 1 4 4 = 0 . 2 4 1
D1/te= 1 4 4 / 4 0 . 3 2 44 = 4
$ w ’
3. A =0.00065 (from chart, page42J
4 B= 8( , c f 6 ph r 04 a. oa0 r mt 3g ,
2 - 1 4 4 - 94 6
4 X8 6 0
2 5. pa = 4B =
1 4 4 3(DJr J 3 X (144/0.324)
= 25.8 p s i .
S t i m an xah cl i l mpeo ruw e P.
eam is sbgreater
ls ethan
u the
r de ep rs e i s sg u
P, the assumed thickness is satisfactory.

EXAMPLES &
39

E P X
FORMULAS

7
L
J
o
Use L in calculation as shown when
the strength of joints of cone to cylin-
L der does not meet the requirements
T
described on pages 163-169 It will
result the thickness for the cone not
less than the minimumrequired thick-
R ness for the joining qdindrical shell.

Use L in calculationas shownwhen


the strength of joints of cone to cylin-
der meets the requirements described
on pages 163-169

r
L.

1
-a
40

E P X
DESIGN OF STIFFENING RINGS
NOTATION
A : Factor determined from the chart (page 42) for the material used in the
stiffening ring.
A, = Cross sectional area of the stiffening ring, sq. in.
DO= Outside Diameter of shell, in.
E = Modulus of elasticity of material (see chart on page 43)
1, = Required moment of inertia of the stiffening ring about its neutral axis parallel
to the axis of the shell, in.4.
f’,, = Required moment of inertia of the stiffening ring combined with the shell
section which is taken as contributing to the moment of inertia. The width of
the shell section 1.10 @ in.4.
L, = The sum ofone-halfofthe distances on both sides of the stiffening ring from
the center line of the ring to the (1) next stiffening ring, (2) to the head line at
depth, (3) to a jacket connection, or (4) to cone-to-cylinderjunction, in.
P = External design pressure, psi.
t = Minimum required wall thickness of shell, in.
I. Select the type of stiffening ring and determine its cross sectional area A
II. Assume the required number of rings and distribute them equally between
jacketed section, cone-to-shell junction, or head line at % of its depth and
determine dimension, L,.
111.Calculate the moment of inertia of the selected ring or the moment of inertia of
the ring combined with the shell section (see page 95).
IV. The available moment of inertia ofa circumferential stiffening ring shall not be
less than determined by one of the following formulas:
~, = Do’L,(t+A]L)A D02L,(t+A~L)A
.s 10.9 {,= ~
The value of A shall be determined by the following procedure:
1. Calculate factor B using the formula:

“’[*J
2. Enter the applicable material chart (pages 43 -47) at the value of B and move
horizontally to the curve of design temperature. When the value of B is less than
2500, A can be calculated by the formula: A = 2B/E.
3. From the intersection point move vertically tothebottom of the chart andreadthe
value of A.
4. Calculate the required moment of inertia using the formulas above.
If the moment of inertia of the ring or the ring combined with the shell section is greater
than the required moment of inertia, the stiffening of the sheH is satisfactory. Otherwise
stiffening ring with larger moment of inertia must be selected, or the number of rings
shall be increased.
Stiffening ring for jacketed vessel: Code UG-29 (f)
41

E X

D E DATA:
S I G N
P= 1 p ,e xs dt e epi r r s5ne . asi sl g u rn e .
D.= 9 i o u nd t i sao. t m i s 6 de , ht e ehe r l fl e .
L eo t nv gfe ths ra h st n t ef ot ge i al e l nmn 4n igf t O ie n=e 5n o i et n : 7
H 2 e e l a l i :pd s o s i d 1 a l
M a o t t es tr i i rf haf S el - in i f ne ng 3 g A 6
T e m p 5e r Fa t 0 u r e 0 °
E= M o o de l u a ols m t u ai sct2 ie7 t ,rf y0i p 0a@05l f , ‘,s 0 ( 0 c 0 i0 s h . ae
o p 4 a 3g n e )
1 = 0 i . t h 5 i o csn 0 k nh 0 e se. s l f l

I A a o n6 x 4 g - s l .e5n l e /e cf 1 t
z = s3 i 4 . 0q n , 3 . .

II. U 2 s s t ii fr fn e i ngq i n nu g ag
s pb ea o t cn wet e -de td e eh ni hp r
o h ( e f i as gLj =du1 e in.
rf s e e) 9 ,
III. T m o oh m i ne o e tne r t t i
selected angle: 11.4in.
1. T v o aF h a lc t uo e r e1 3f

B= 3/4[PDOjct =

3/4 ~5 X 96/(0.5 + 3.03 ~1961

= 2095
2 S t i v no a B hi c l l . e u e e e
t 2 h 5 a0 0 n ,
A = 2BiE. =
2 X 2095/27,000,000= 0.00015

IV. The required moment of inertia:

[1102L$(r+ A,\Q4] 962X 196X (0.5+ 3.03/ 196)X 0.00015 = g 97 in ~


I , = = = . .
14 14
S t i r e n qm h cu o io eim
r ene e( de ni 9 r ) it ts . im fnt 9a a t l7 h l ” e ahs
m o o i m n oe te ns r et t al hi ef( na1c i t fg) ete vd l. nei ae h s 1 4 s ” de
e q su t a i t f ef el n y e d .
S t i r f fm ei b ns in unt algbg a bj sut e cyTe c kes r tl hiab con lo g ni . us i l ds ed
i a d t d t ir te im q ho u no on i i mr n o e ee d rn t t i a f .
S p a g fe es ~ t 9 i 5r f - cof 9ae e l7i cn ui l narn tg i o ng s .
4 2

Cacml owl 001 . 0 1

THE VALUES OF FACTOR A


U I FS O REM
F UV DL E ANO
U
SS S NE E X R
D
L T SPEE R
R E
N
R SA SL U
-
e Uolwj
n r
I I I I I I I i
z
45
# , w
II 111111 I I
I I 1 I I \ \ w l
8
Pa
E
46
e Ho13vd
..
t t 1 1 1 , , u)
I 1 I Y-RII\] .
\
I 1 1 ,,
\ I
,
I .
I I
I I \ I
Ua
E
.
I t
I I I
1 I I I I ! 1 I I I I 1 I !
I
4
48

E P X
CONSTRUCTION OF STIFFENING RINGS
LOCATION
Stiffening rings may be placed on the inside or outside of a vessel.

SHAPEOF RINGS
T r m i b h o nr e ac g t oea a ns og y u s let eafn rc h t i e ro y n r s .

CONSTRUCTION
I i p r e ft ue rp a ilb tc l ssoae n st t a rcoe ou emc pst o is innt ge -s s et c ti ri of n f i e n
r at ut hs hs t easai tnr r nd us n ac hg trT ua dr r p ae f le th a sl ns. h oo oi ei ni n oe r
t d i f f oih rc u o l h t l i eseel ts ri aus n c fh vtgb ua a ry pba leel uo sct n,as ue t shoc
s t a i td r j t t t u ich yus or not vht ase t g Fhu o l reh e ed a li o avfrl eme t . ge s rt s ee
m a xp e i r m o i uos rsm io b uul c ne r d n ei eat 1a s–f 2 si u g l bnn te t nac w
t s a h t h r e T ni c lh benhe l l idg aimie t i . vn s ae tnmr eeh tde o i t m cr f aibe l ie h r
c o o t pu ui ls he act T tt s ti f eeo ccen hbtsnf .i col a i ne ansu o rs mn t ot e ee l a
a t b u h tn t -t weo e igld pd en e ltd h a e c r e n .
DRAIN AND VENT
S t i r f pf i e li ntn aei r gc no h ehsso rd i is z nd hhoe nea het aaof l gl oa l tv s l ae
b o f dt r t a oo ia t nm t a nf gr v eh Poe r do a nct o et hi pt c o r aa 3.lani l y ln
d i ah ma t e ob t oe a l rh1%
t i t ed noitn e ahm ma ct ed ot t i hse a l rht i o s fe a tc e
a d n a on tf s oef ct deo hrns cd tFei tt iisA eo gns s u. r e .
F t m ao xah oi s m r l uhreu mn ees u pblc pf efo lor c tg te ai d s u t is a f ef e
r s iC Fn oei Ug Gg d., u’ e 2 re 9 .e 2 .

WELDING
According to the ASME Code (UG 30): Stiffener rings may be attached “to the
shell by continuous or intermittent welding. The total length of intermittent
welding on each side of the stiffener ring shall be:
1 f r o i t oo n u nt ghl. s r t i s ode no hehe t, s o aan tu c s it hrln cs ue mi ff ed er ee
o t v e sh s e fle ;
2 f r o i t oi n no t ghs.v r esi n nlshd et s e o ee o t fh l e o h,st nac t i i s rn rh ce
f e o tr v e e n s hc s e e f l e .
W c h o r ea r l o rl si o t i ebw op a nr n o ct v es i t di rfes ho fdse e , bin ah i t ne antg a lc g
t the shell with continuous filleto or seal weld.ASME. Code (UG.30.)

M S pa a cx i n. g
1 tf i n rt oe ri n2 a rn l
8t f e x rt o1e ri n ar n l

1
F iA g u r e F iB g u r e
E X A M R P LO : T 1 G
I E UN Sx 3 Il Sf D %wE
i o lg6 ec l ” te” l . t r d
R II NN S? Gx 2I l SDf 4wE
i o lg6 ec l ” te“ l . tr d
T f w t l h e ei s g b -e nhl esl tit a dzt e osel h m ols at hae fl t o l s l en1l hiose wt i n /f ge
t t h i o cvh k w e n o es seta s sia t f e jlf f le o n l hie r r n tt e .
49

CHARTS FOR DETERMINING THE WALL THICKNESS FOR


VESSELS SUBJECTED T F V

U t s c ih t ah n rw r digt i i asef a f, l set trss h e uih nc mckt nbe ea ds vs aeo s i d


T c h bh a d ree a v t iee a esl c oc s pown er tdd da i n emcn ehtse o Ait h gh S e no
C S o e V dc D tI e i i 1v I ,o i nsI i ,o n .

~“ 1 30 040“ 50 602 70 ”80 090 100 110 120 130140 150 160170 180 190200
SPHERICAL, ELLIPSOIDAL, FLANGED AND DISHED HEADS
(Specified yield strength 30,000 to 38,000 p i n sc l u is i v ,e )
T f t r i e hq hnut hi e oi r d1c Deke aedn t e Res2d rEs m: t inc n . aet th vh e a , a. r hr
o R 3 M v e o r t t t i ev cfm ,ap .llee lr4 yaM
i t uh nroo oer i e za ovr n, tt a. ele nl y a
I
t = R e qh u t ih e ir ci e k ad n e s dn s , .
R = F h e m i so ph h e etr i i c ar a nlr d has i s d i , i d eu n e s , .
F 2 e l l o i h:p s 0 oe i .r d a1 a9 l dx Ds 0
F f l a a od n ih g n s et r i hda ncedd hsrdrs ai i,o RmW=Do
dd e w
i e u nn s ,
D. = Outside diameter of the head, in.
50

CHARTS FOR DETERMINING THE WALL THICKNESS FOR


VESSELS SUBJECTED TO FULL VACUUM

323. 525.
5m. 502
475. 475
a m 6a
-Q5 e
Qo. a
37s 375
35a 350.
s 225
3m. 2m.
27s 27s.
Zm. m
225 2Z-3.
2ca a
175 r?s.
Isa (5a
1= 123.
Im Ice.

!Ea L I D ! 5
14 l
Isa 1 3
laa 1 2
I la ,
Ioa I
m 90.

m. m
70. n).

30. a
3a 30.

Q. a
2a m
m. m.

la !0.
3 d 5 67*9 2 3 * 5 0 7 a o ,..
1.

C Y L I N DS R I C
H A LE L L
( S
facing page f e xe p l a o en a t i o nr )
51

CHARTS FOR DETERMINING THE WALL THICKNESS FOR


VESSELS SUBJECTED TO FULL VACUUM

10 Is ,Xl .25 .32 .sS .4 .5s .50 .% .(M .05 .70 75 .s0 .03 .90 .95 !.00
525” S5

Soo. X0.

4?5. 415

492. 441

-Q5 45.

-QO. -no.

3n 3T5

330. 330.

325 325
\
o ~. X
n
2 7 ’ 5 . 2?s

—’2EQ. ?3a

2?5. 2ZS

ma 290.

ITS. 17S

,3. Isa

125 !25

ICo. ICC..
.10 . 15 .20 .2s .= ,35 .Q .65 .542 .55 .m .63 .m .75 .m .55 .90 .s5 ,.m

t =

C Y L I N DS R I H
C A LE L L
( S p ye c s i i tf ir3e e e d0 t nl 3 , g d8t0p hi , 0n 0sc 0 l 0u ois 0 i v ,e )

T f t r i e sq hn ut hhi o i rdce e ke dn l e s l s :
1 E l n c o t ( h wf e p a. e ar act r vr i g ont aL ehg l ) u t e e
2 M h o or i z t ocv n t ur .a eel prl ry evDs e e n ot si n g .
M v e o r t t t i ev c m a p lle l r ya ti u ro e n e
4 M h o or i z a ov rn t D.a el e nl y o a /d d t
5 E c n a h t a bt a ev o . or raD vh t l eo u t e / e f t
6 M h o or i z t ocv n t D.au el l ry v o e
7 M v e o r dt i va c roa . lt e l v ewyn o at han l d du e e f

t =
= o s ih e ln l f , .
L = L eo t vn oeg v hst s e ehs st c efasteat li l e okra o l nt r ehf , og l n e l h oss e w t i
1 D i bs et t att nwa !c e.nohe t ieg h ne np e on e hte t al o ths d nfu eio es hrs pe
t h r a in u e ni s r go e sn de t , .
2 T g r d e ih ab s t et ae at. t se naw t ck e snej etw a i nr fc fi ei ye nonn ti ng n g s
3 T d i f s ht t c ar noe t. ceohfn es tti mi her f er tf rt e hisnf tei nt ane hg n gag
l p o i thirdl of t n h n u d eeie h s ep l t n e h d , .
T h e
P J “ Bo N a. A s C eSe.A , dod M . . d.nC wde FE hn V eid aTe a hn rsi ” c d s kt n es e
H Y D R O CP AR RO BC O E5N SN S 5 IM N 1G , po 2 9a 51 7. , y7 6 . .
L P
o J “ g S ia m A.np pl , i tp f. . r..i P, oeA r daVe c H seh sD s ueeo Hsr s Yeie Da g Rl nO d,C ”A
N o v1 ep 2 m 9 b 6e 7 r 5 6 . .
C o p y r i g h t e d
52

D T T
WIND LOAD

The computationof wind load is based on Standard ANSIiASCE7-93, approved 1994.


The basic wind speed shall be taken from the map on the following page.
The basic wind speed is 80 mph. in Hawaii and 95 mph. in Puerto Rico.
The minimum design wind pressure shall be not less than 10 lb.hq. ft.
When records and experience indicates that the wind speeds are higher than those
reflected in the map, the higher values of wind speed shall be applied.
The wind pressureon the projected area of a cylindrical tower shall be calculated by the
following formula.

F=qz G CjA~ (Table 4) ANSI/ASCE 7-93 STANDARD


(References made to the tables of this standard)
Projected area of tower, sq. ft. = @x H)
Shape factor = 0.8 for cylindrical tower (Table 12)
Gust response factor = (G~& GZ)*
When the tower located:
in urban, suburban areas, Exposure B;
in open terrain with scattered obstruction, Exposure C;
in flat. unobstructed areas, Exposure D.
(Table 8)
= Velocity pressure,
0.00256 K, (1~2
IESIGN WIND Wind speed, mph.
‘ R E Sl S U R kEb , Importance
. factor, 1.0 (structures that
m projected represent low hazard to human life
in event of failure).
a o t
I
I Velocity Pressure
Exposure Coefficient*
Exposures B, C & D (Table 6)
*See tables below for values of q
and for combined values of
Gh, G,& K,

VELOCITY PRESSURE, q
Basic wind speed, mph, Y 70 80 90 100 110 120 130
Velocity Pressure p 0.00256 V2,q 13 17 21 26 31 37 44
53

DESIGN OF TALL TOWERS


WIND LOAD
(Continue~

COEFFICIENT G (Gust r f c w E C
Abo?eE~~~~d,il. EXPOSUREB EXPOSUREC EXPOSURED
0-15 0.6 1.1 1.4
20 0.7 1.2 1.5
40 0.8 1.3 1.6
60 0.9 1.4 1.7
80 1.0 1.5 1.8
100 1.1 1.6 1.9
140 1.2 1.7 2.0
200 1.4 1.9 2.1
300 1.6 2.0 2.2
500 1.9 2.3 2.4

The area of caged ladder maybe approximated as 1 sq. ft. per lineal il. Area of
platform 8 sq. Il.
Users of vessels usually specifi for manufacturers the wind pressure without
reference to the height zones or map areas. For example: 30 lb. per sq. fl. This
specified pressure shall be considered to be uniform on the whole vessel.
The total wind pressure on a tower is the product of the unit pressure and the
projected area ofthetower. With good arrangement of the equipment the exposed
area of the wind can be reduced considerably. For example, by locating the ladder
90 degrees from the vapor line.
EXAMPLE:
Determine the wind load, F
DESIGN DATA:
t w b s V = 1 m
v d D = 6 fi~
vessel height, H = 80 ft.
Diameter of tower, D = 6 ft.
Height of the tower, H = 80 ft.
The tower located in flat,
unobstructed area, exposure .. D
The wind load, F=q x G x (9.8xA
qf t r a= psf
ob l2m e 6
G from table = 1.8
Shape factor = 0.8
Area, A = DH = 6 x 80 = 480 sq. ft.
F =26X 1.8X 0.8X 480= 17,971 Ibs.
MAP W S
(miles per hour)

. r-v

u

(q 90
i
i
j----- ---

---- =- i m
“r ~-i_.. _.T‘-.’
i----
. .. . .. . ... ...

my
,-—---- —--
/

‘&—— I i .- \kl
,, ~ A L A
‘ S K ’, A 2
.

M W S
(miles per hour)

NOTES:1 V a a f a l s ts ue r asp3 et t -a.e ms g i ebel fre edl o ox cs p uva tooCa


3 t n. sae ea ud sg r s ro neo r c yi
w a a ipn r ono bt0 au b . iah l n i0l t y 2 f .
2 L i i n t ne br peeow l tasa t. cwiri poo eni an ecn t c n oee pud t dra bs l e s .
3 C ai t u o wt s i hc oisp o. in m n e nont eu oerne f tudeoa Adri g nsi laoi udnaos v ns i s ks ef
4 W s f iHp i a8ena fw o Pe . daRu di n9i em or ii r s 0p tdc r o h o s 5 .
5 W l hr o eo et c cei r o nr h.a r de r 5 idi la 0wcgs is-a rhnptyi seee b uhearnh dr s a esd e, l
6 W s m i pb a sent b sac e . uo db nm d e cs ye to te adawat sn noe te eit el ncainnh nor l en e at ds oe
56

D T T
WIND LOAD

Computationof w l a i a o l tmn e a erb dn to ads ht st es ASA


ao nA58.1-1955.This
ed d da rn d
standardis o b b s s o u l ti es u s tic e oa loe f t om
ldc d ron enu e e n i ts rg di ne s .
T w p rih ae 3 s fn ls e ua de r g tbe v r f o tteo0 U v. u l nSo en h i ti ds t a ohr e t e doe
t m o t fh a ap hc a e i p g nn e eg .

T t b a hg e b t i lw l epvo re i h eew
f s v nss au he r ode e ai si o g bg u rhf os t ot vs u o
a i r n d be i t c ma a t s eah d p y e .

W P RI E p SWN S TU H H
DR O ER EIH Z O w●NN T EA L
C SR E OSC QTSO IU
R SEO C
A TN AR N * G
E U L R
A R
H E I G H
M AT R A E A P S
l 2 3 3 4 4 o 5 5 0 5 0 5 0
I 2 2 0 5
30 to 49 I 20
[ 50 to 99 I 25 I 30 I 40 I 45 I 50 I 55 I 60
I 100 to 499 I 30 I 40 I 45 I 55 I 60 I 70 I 75

EXAMPLE
F t wi p rinh P
e fs nd sm eur d r a e o w
p m .
T v ie i h ns tt s oe enpe i dO
le ekr s dl aw
a ht oi ohie tm wian , p c ri h m e h s n ss n e
a m r a 3 I r t e km 0aeh a t d w rai p . rnihe es f sp v ns a au he rr od ez i s ioa o ug r n rs h
I t h ez hli t o g 3e nfh hen 2t s l ape ts s f n b 0e .q t 5 . r . .
I t h ez hfi o3g t r 4nh fen 3t o l pe s mt f 0b oe 9 q . t 0 . r . .
F c y l i ton d t or i v ch wra as l e ebl hm suur al eebt si ls p f lh l i a0 ee a td c t .p t h y oe 6
w p ri ie d s ni s f z uf d rewo reb 1e n ain n 1t e l lp ssn f l r bee se 5p qde tc 8 t .i vr e .
I m e q a u i a p na m t e f tnty trta st c hi o i eahe dw v t iieo sen a rtc bs r tl s eeh a h
f a( a cc ct t oB r ro d o uir wnt n0g e f l c . loy )l i v8on dpe ro si5 c sra l e l .
U o sv e eu s s rss u pe sfa elmlf acs nl ui fyo aft c tw
y u rp e r rri hs w
e s in rs t eu h d re o
e r t t e h n ez c h i oo emg ano h e rF et ae e xs a a3 or m l sp p p .s l f reTb : e q h t0
s p e p c r i se f sib hecs odu na r st eibl du e ln r oeei t d f w o v ohr hee m o s snl ee
Relationbetweenwindpressureand windvelocitywhenthe horizontalcrosssection
is circular,is givenby the formula:
Pw= 0.0025 X VW* w Ph = we p r i l e pe s s n fs W u b dre qe t
Vw = w v e i ml o n c i p dt y

E X A M P L E
W o 1i m v n e 0 el p d o xa pcf 0er i eht r s y st u s r e :
Pw= 0 .x Vwz=
0 2 p0 op2 e r s uq5u a r ne f o o dt po r5ne ts hs ue rpe r o j e oc ft ea dc a yr el ai n d r
v ae a h s oe 3s f i ea g gle b h r t oot e uf v0 nt ed .
T t w o hp tri eo a s tne s l i ou t d r p we r o oehtn du r pu sr cneh ea t st i s f ue n
p r o a j oe t cr t t eoW ed hgw ai ea r or f r aet no . gto ee hmq edu n t hit ep mx e pf h ne o
a o t rw c eb ihr e anca do f neu s di cd F en eer ea dxb l aby ol .m o p tc l l a er ta , i hd n
9 d e f g t rvr e l a e o0h i s p nm o e e r .
57
M W P
.

58
D E O ST IT AGO NWL EF LR S
WIND LOAD

~ =
v= t=R2nSE
hr(V- P.D, h,)

N O T A T I O N
W o ti v
= wde i hnst si e suh f l etfta e t l ic hot
E E f f o it cw i jee no hl c iy d n e f t e d s
=
r L a ef
= rv e tm r , .
D i f s b t t ras naeu cocc eons tn s mii df d eoe roean
=
H,HIHZ= L oe v noe v g ss e te sfs ch e st f il e ot r l n
M =M a mx o(i t mbm uf el a ma hn s t t be t
h, MT =M oa h mhe f el i n g ~t t h b t t ,
~z = - ~
t
R =M r oea v dei a si s u n en s l f ,
T s =S vt o m ra a eo lat s es cu rsp t t i e rau fs l e a
v =T s olh te ab rl , .
J_ - - f =R e dt q h ui c ci o kr ren e rxe docsi sl ,iu od nen

D2
E X A M P L E :
t G i =v 4 e ’= n - : = 0 ”=
= 4 ’= p- 0 s”
D e tt ew rm m ioih n m e n e e nd t
Y~ = HI + (HZ12)
= H1[2= 28’-0” = 78’-0”
Pw X D X H = V X h = M
I L o w e r
I S e 3 cX 4 X
t 5 i= 6 o X 2n =7 1 08 2 8 6 , 0 1
D] U p p e r
1 i S e 30’cX 3 X
t 44 i= 3,960o Xn78 = 308,880
h2 1a 0 l M,4 69 f l 78 , 0 0
T o t v =
HI
M oa t bm to e a hlt n n t t gi o te e mnn t e
h, MT = M – – 0 = . 5
– 4 - X X4 X =
t ! :) 1

3 ’ - E X
6 A ”M P L E :
- D, G Ni D1 =v 3 ft. 6ein. H n= 100ft. : Oin. hT = 4 ft. Oin.
, P ~l a t f 4 o = r pm s f
x 2 D e tt ew r m m ioih n m e n e e nd t
k 5 1 = H12= 50 f Oi t n . .
4u
Pw x D] X H = V X h, = M
z V e 30 x s 3.5 xs 100 e = 1l 0X 5 ,= 5 5 2 0 5
> % L a 3 xd 9 l d f e i= r2 t =n ,04 = 819 . 4. 4 4
4 Platform
F 30 x 8 lin. ft. = 2 x 9 = 24 3
! ‘ T o t oa V = 1l 3 M ,= 6 6 9 82
I O I g
M o a t mb eot anht l ntt g oi t e m n n f t I e
z - k = M – hT (V g
f – 0 PwD, h=) ~ =. 5
II 6 9 – 24 ( , 1 1– 30 0 X, 3 0 X
6 3 8.X 4 0= 6 . 3 5 8
= ~ ‘ <0 ’ - ’ f l
~ s !‘ - J ’ m . S- tE X = A “ EFl M CP OL M EO L S
B I O N P REA 6DA D
59

D E O ST IT AGO NWL EF LR S

WEIGHT OF THE VESSEL

The weight of the vessel results compressive stress only when eccentricity does not
exist and the resultant force c o i wn ct ia i d o et xshtv e U ih sh s et s u s e a f le l
c o m p dr et st s wi ou eni i hni s i gge an ohi i ef n i t cc ao nnsn t t or o l ld i sn t g .
T w es h bi hc ga l a hcfe ut lt l v a lat co eeroh d ni do oti r ttu ei soao fn h so w l l ef oe

A E r w
e c e wt i i i gh on . hnct i twl c,u eo dt hh i e sg h h e et f :
1 s h e l . l E q u i p m e n t s :
2 h e a d . s
3 i n pt ew l r n ao a . lt r e k 1 i n s u 3 l a t i o. n
4 t s ur p p a o r . yt s 1 f i r e p4 r o o f i .n g
5 i n s ru l ai t i n o . n g s 1 p l a 5t f o r. m
6 o p e n i n g . s 1 l a 6d d e . r
7 s k i r . t 1 p i 7p i n . g
8 b r a i s n . e g 1 m i s c e 8 l l a n e o .u s
9 a nr c ih o n. r g
1 a nl 0c uh o .g r s
1 m i s c e 1 l l a n e o .u s
1 + 6 o t 2w 9 eo i h i . 1t tg % h feh 1er f t mo uf s g o h 1 r
o v e ro w t ep i gal hwhat eat n i bfed e g s d h d et d y
t w e l h d i n ge s

E r w
e c e tt i si g o i hn h t1 utt : h e 1r e m
o uf s 8g h .

B O p e weight,which
r a t i includesthe
n . g weight of the:
1 v ie e sr ce s oc en t .d il i o tn ni o n
2 t r a y . s
3 o p e f r ai t q i n u. g i d

C T w e w i i ghs n h ct i. twl c,u eo dt hh i e sg h h e et f :


1 v ie e sr ce s oc en t .d il i o tn ni o n
2 t w e a ts e. t r

T c o m p hs r e dts st rit ev we u egs h ibs i g e v oh e y e t n :

= w
where S = u s t pn r e i ss st , i
Ct W= w oe v i ae g t s b s h s e out ec hc fvnotl n si eid dlo ee rena t i ro
c = c i r c u mo sf e or seh n oc teke m idl i ef hrali mr tae nt e e
t = t h i o tc sk no she his k es i l f r en l t r , .

T w eo d h ii f vg f eeh e rl st eea ngsmf t ei e it n rl bat v es b g eo i lpe n n 3en nai s n g g7


60

D E O ST IT AGO NWL EF LR S
V I B RAT I ON

A a r eo w s t ut i losa d ntwe vl vfei d be r r Tl l a s pot i peoo t hnr v. ii b ohre


s hb l o i sm
u li li tn ad ena pd ert ce, ou vgr er i i beaco r ll ad t t fs ie aa of f tn a a i i ngl
T a l l p oh weh ab r b c el i oeea mo f p det u mr ts ane pxodh e i r mm d i eus ef sml i e b c

T s c ha h a l r v lmi beoei rnon dad i ti c is i ocot nu H s a hs s nest dd t i bi t o n nosr


a u s a u p aa p t l l s l h isu ny ep e pdr t oi e ad r v rrt o e tsi h np s rt hi o n eb ig l e

F O R M U L A S

P eo V r i b i Tr sec.
ao t id o nf , T= ~ z
( D )F T
M a Ax li l m
Po wu e am rb l i e o d
=0 ~ . 8
o V i b r a s t i o e nf , c . r
N O T A T I O N
D = O ud ti o asv mi ef ed s t e s e ert l f , .
H = L oe v ni e n g scs tl f sku h de i i f l nr t g t ,
g = 3 f p s2 s q tea. eu c ca e c2r l e.e r da. t , i o n
t = T h io s c ak t knb e i isa s h r s fn t e t e , .
v = T s olh t se bp a 6 ra.l e , g, e e 1
w = W oe t ilo gw h eb t r f , .
w = W oe t ip of go h wh oele te i ofg r hbr t t f ,

E X A M P L E

G i v e n D : e tt ea r a cmm iht an a uxe nl ila eom l w u da mb


p oe v i r b i r a o t id o f n
D = 3 f Oi
. 1 t 2n 5 . .
H = 1 f Oi 0 t n 0 . .
g = 3 f t2 l s. e c2 2
t = 0 . 7‘ o ~5 ’ ’ ’ ( $ z =j e = ‘ “ ’
v = 1 l 4 b4 0 .
w = l b .
i o p ce or an td i i nt n gi o xn 1 = ~ ~ S 0 e 0
w = =
d 1440 X 32.2 “ “

T a v c i htdb rn u ea o tatx ei locoe n e h se t d


a l lv oi wb ar ab tl ie o n

R e f eF r re C nE
e cVee i : s b o er. V a , e t P ri . r ot : Veni sc eA sa f sPul S rs1 a e e M p9 l
61

DESIGN OF TALL TOWERS


S LOAD (EARTHQUAKE)

The loading condition of a tower under seismic forces is similar to that of a


cantilever beam when the load increases uniformly toward the free end.
The design method below is based on Uniform Building Code, 1991 (UBC).

FORMULAS

SHEAR MOMENT
F~~ &l = [F, x H + (V – F,) x (2H/3)]
41 4
t
H13
v—=
Z[c ~ IWX= [F, x X for X S ‘is
V— x Rw MX = [F, X X + (V -~j X (X – H/3)]

H for X > H13

B S a h se ae r
T b s aih ht t esh oo e har esit zre osa sin e at shl a ml e i
t b o a t a h oT t swr i ee al he n ro fgp au. a lad eat ir t n e
t s o ht th a s o dph h wei duee ae to
e that
fg e aloading
r ar m
4 ‘
are shown in Fig. (a) and (b). A portion Ft of total
S eL i o D s a i m d a hi i go c nr r si g az e ofm in Vt sois aassumed
ml r ito becappliedeat
the top of the tower. The remainder of the base shear is
distributed throughout the length of the tower, includ-
ing the top.
T
O v e r t Mu r on i mn g e n t
The overturning moment at any level is the algebraic
sum of the moments of all the forces above that level.

NOTATION
1
C = Numericalcoefficient =
7?/3
(need not exceed 2.75)

= Outside diameterof vessel ft


= Efficiencyof weldedjoints
;=NumeticalcOef ficient ‘:””:

(b)Seismic
ShearDiagram F, = Total horizontal seismic force at top of the
vessel, lb. determined from the following
formula:
BaseS h e a r
F, = 0.07 TV (F,,need not exceed 0.25V)
= O, for T <0.7
H = Length of vessel includingskirt, ft.
62

D E O ST IT AGO NWL EF LR S
SEISMIC LOAD (EARTHQUAKE)

NOTATION

I = Occupancy importance coefficient (use 1.0 for


vessels)
M = Maximum moment (at the base), ft-lb.
MX= Moment at distance X, ft-lb.
R =Meanradius of vessel, in.
Rw = Numerical coefficient (use 4 for vessels)
S =Sitecoefficient for soil characteristics
-0
Asoilprofilewitheither:

r
(a) A rock-likematerialcharacterized
bya sheu-wavevelocitygreaterthan2,500feetper
secondor byothersuitablemeansof classification.
(b)Stiffor densesoilconditionwherethesoildepthis lessthan200feet.S = 1
A soilprofilewithdenseor stiffsoilconditions, t s depthexceeds o200feet.
h i
s = 1.2
A soilprofile40 feetor morein depthandcontaining morethan20feetofsoftto
mediumstiffclaybutn~ morethan40feetof softclay.S =
A soilprofilecontainingmorethan40 feetof softclay.S = 2.0
x
St = Allowable tensile stress of vessel plate material,
H psi

L. L

IV
T = Fundamental period of vibration, seconds

t
= c, X
= Required corroded vessel thickness, in.

= 12 M
T R2Sr E
or 12 M,.
TR2Sr E
= Total seismic shear at base, lb.
W = Total weight of tower, lb.
Distance from top tangent line to the level under
consideration, ft.
Seismic zone factor,
0.075 for zone 1, 0.15 for zone 2A,
0.2 for zone 2B, 0.3 for zone 3,
0.4 for zone 4,
(see map on the following pages for zoning)
63

D E O ST IT AGO NWL EF LR S
SEISMIC LOAD (EARTHQUAKE)
EXAMPLE‘

Given:
Seismiczone: 2B z = 0.2
D = 37.5 in. = 3.125 ft. X = 96 ft. O in.
H = 100 ft., O in. W = 35,400 lb.
Determine: The overturning moment due to earthquake at the base and
at a distance X from top tangent line
First, fundamental period of vibration shall be calculated
T = C, Xf13/4 = 0.035X 1003/4= 1.1 sec.
and
I = 1, s = 1.5 Rw = 4,

1.25S 1.25 X 1.5


c T213
=
1.1213
= 1.76 <2.75 =
ZIC Xw 0.2 X 1 X 1.76
v= = X 35,400 = 3115 lb.
Rw 4

~,= 0.07 TV= 0.07 X 1.1 X 3115 = 2401b.


M = [EH + (V - F’t)(2H/3) ] =
=[240 X 100 + 3115- 240)(2X 100/3)]= 216,625ft. lb.
H
x> — thus
3

M = [Rx + (v– F) (X – H/3)] =

= [240X 100+ 3115- 240) (96 - 100/3)]= 205,125ft. -lb.


64
SEISMIC ZONE MAP OF THE UNITED STATES
66

D E O ST IT AGO NWL EF LR S

ECCENTRIC LOAD

Towersand their i n et qe u r ai n pu ams lse uyrn m at m ale t lrert iyvoc ae ul r h nt


a a tx t whni eo t hu is v dg se s uhh sec eot s m pfe sret e l ots s s E ri n vpq e u l is p y
a t tt ta vc hoe te h s od su c othec e s lu ani san yd eum emd esi t snr ti ecr o ai t lb u t i
l o d a t td w i u ena rhgi ie gbe n soeh es un t t Td l dr ui nt e snh yns m
g msa ie rt. r ri cs aa
m o s e e m q nu ai p p t mal i efo nl ppt e,mn enb ni sen ga gd bl set cb t yee u denh , d
s t er ex b seh s r eee t q s uea ai d ap v dm yd eyti rnt t bti o e ns neaht l dr r e ie s ons eu sgl
f w ro s i e ol i n os m m da i r cd .

F O R M U L A S
e
R E Q U I
M O M ES NT T R T E H IS C SK N
c 5
M=
~= 1 1 We 2
nR 2t t =R z n SE
1 * ‘

I N O T A T I O N
e = E c c e t n dt r i i f cs i t htt t y ra, a ont c choe xwoe mne
e c lc ef on t ar i t cd , .
w = E f f o iw c jie e o ln ic d y n e t f d s .
\ ; = M oo e m c lc e ef lonn t t ar i t f bcd ,
R = M r oea v dei a si s u n en s l f , .
* -P s = S vt o m ra a e o tl a es b cur s ie st ae n tpl uf d, r ai e r n
t = T h io vc kee nxs ecc ss lo su ear dlr l lifo i ,ons wgi a o
w = E c lc el on t ar ib cd , .

E X A M P L E
G i e v= 4 ft.e O m: n Determinemoment,M,
: and stress, S.
R = 15 in, M o Mm = Wee= 1000
n Xt 4 = , f l t
t = 0 i . n2 5 .
w = 1 l 0 I = 0b W
1 0_ x 1000
12 . x 4J = 2 e
= 2 p 7
~ 3 X 1 .X 0 1 5, 4 2 2

W t h i hm tee oo r ehn c r e c l anes etn o m


t n r ao ei sm
ch d b e hs un, mate m sa l r i
t at r k e si o hua n el ct g ac l nel ont t a r f i ld c s .
67

Design of Tall Towers

ELASTIC STABILITY

A tower u an c xod m pi em r e fasr is ti l oaaw n b iw


ae oy ci nl ya s n t uo a bss i el i
1 B b u oc t k w l iv. h nhy(e go Esb luf su ec eekl l el i n r g )
2 B l b o u c c k . la iy ln g
I t h i n v- w e a( ls l twesn td e hh li o hcest k s nn i e hl es ht s e oe nh lf e eos - l at se s
t i n r s ha l i d bd oi u e eu cmc ” sko al) a ic a auln lcg l n u t oy t er i rh a t e h s t q a d u asi
t c f a a o uti wl s uvoh ehre T oes o solf r ee ho e luu on. t d sen iet ah vsf h s e e
s i g n f i f ai i tc c ar net t s i ohun sl r t t a Tinb enfi l go i trf hy m i. n uv e l s o etao i sg a t i
e l s at a as b@t i iil t i cr Ht e ayh n d e ebi n vo bneo W slk o, ia p Nel de s w n o m y an
E l e o mt ev n ewt h ss ah sp ifr e ei urcm] af hr so i elp t yeou hr ( pd e to r s r r
s u p d p o o w r nb t c smoa , m b cer or na s sa i a)d s e lyt r i ee af dsf g eb an u oe i c rs nks ls
i c l s o p sL ao e n c g l i efs ty tu d di iif. n f na el tc n rr e ier ofsga the
h is tower
de more i te y
effectively than circumferential stiffeners. If the rings are not continuous around
the shell, its stiffening effect shall be calculated with the restrictions outlined i
t C U oh( C d- c e2 e ) 9 .

E X A M P L E
G i R v= 1 ie n D : e n t t e a r I 8m l .c i oho n w
m e pas r b e (t les se r i v ee S s
t = 0 i . n
2 5 .
1 , 5 x 0 f =0 1 , , 0 5 0x 00 0 0 , 0. 0 0 2
s = = 2 0p , 8
R 1 8
Given: Ay = 1 sq. in.
dy = 2 i n 4 .
D e t t e a r l m l c i oho n wm e pa s r b e (tles u se r i vs ee S is
s
L o n g si t t u id if n f a el t ir
n e rf fi e nn e rg s
i n u t s oh e e d s tn , s :1 ’ 5~ : ’ 0 =0 0 =
tx= t = 0.25 in.
—1
1= , 5 0 0 , 0 0 0
‘y = t + 24 ~ x0 0 =. 2 . 22P .25 4 S93
1 8
= 0 + 0 . = 0 . 2 . 0 5 2 4 9

R e f eW r ei Wn lMc ase N : o e n . wNn, Mt Tn . Sa, drt . kro hT e Cn . y gh: l iet n h di r


S ah C eo lEl u E l m Sn sn Ux s s Itg, nb p 2 ila.u 1 . v5l l.9 . l 35 . . 3 , .
68
1
D E O ST IT AGO NWL EF LR S

rowers s hb d o e ust d i l eg n d nm
f elte d e6o i hc onp tr 100
c afeet
o heof height.
e ne s
r d e f ldh e t c t t wi ueol n mih bo ce n a o laae cb d u ld t a s yft eeoi df r h n m
m i f l o o cr am
a n lbtd yi lee e dv a e r m ”

A M F O R M U L A

N O T A T I O N S
AM = M a dx e i f ( m l t e tu c itm oi a oh np n )
D1 = W o ti t d w o i thn wsi hue l ef fat e t t ri ohn
E =M o o ed l ua psl t ui c s i ts yf ,
H L eo v n e i g sn = scts lf ekh u l idf , er td t
r. = R t m o o 3 i m n f et e cnnr y ,hl t o is ni fd i ah r
( R>lot)
w h e n
R = M r ea
o t td a o
i i hwu
n se n rf e ,
t = T h i o cs k i k n e i s s
r n t f , .
Pw = wind p r ep s s u rs e , f

E X A M P L E

G i v e Dn e : t t e m r am dxi he n i f e lA
me cu et mi o n :
= 2 f 6i t n. , .
E
H
I
= 30,000,000
= 48 ft., Oin.
= ~
AM=
PJI,H (12H)3
8EI I
= 30 p s 30 fx 2.5 x 48 (12 X 48)3 = 1 i .
R = 1 i ‘ = 8 x 3 20 . , 0x 01 0x M3, 0 x 00 2 .0
n . 31 31
t = 0 .i 3 1 n 2 5 .

T m a o e wuf e6lai meb ncp l t1e ci f oo hhn e ee0


axh l i l d m ti s g r h0 .t f :
48 X 6
f 4 8= ~ ’ o . = 2 ( i ) r . ” n8 8 .

t d e t s h i i og tc ns k eine kde
S t ia dcn e htf cdl uen ece aot e xit l ol ocen ih e m
s e it i d t s ,
s a t i s f a c t o r y .

A m e f ct a hl c douo e l fad l twei cnr t tg t hi ho ni o,ech t kt n n i eo n esh c sw


s gt ba i S Sn Tv .O
t “ e v, SC1ea n Mh m y e9ob.f “ uCnter a 6rhl t c Touo t8l Dado te i f wnr l. gAe
H y d r oP c r a or kcb oe ns s i n g
69

D E O ST IT AGO NWL EF LR S

COMBINATION OF STRESSES

T s t i r h ne bsd t s up e r c es evdh i de o s ul cyso rel shallbe


aiy bd investigatedin
ei dn g s
combinationto establishthe governingstresses.
C o m b oi nw a lt i i(o neo a nr t aol hf dqoi u dn aa pressure
tkr dee and
r ) weight
n , a of l
t v e sh s e le :
Stress Condition
A w i ns d w i a rt d Ae l e s e w i a r td d e
+ S dt t rw e ui s s n e —o S d dt t rw e u is s n e o
+ S dt t ri p e ur n s e s s t es + o S. . .dt t ri p e u nr s e s t se os
– S dt t rw ee u si sg eh —o S t dt t rw ee u si sg eh o
C o m b oi nw a lt i i(o neo a n r t aol hf dqoe u dx aa ptkr deer aer ) w
sn , sa eo ul n i r
t v e sh s e le :
S Condition
t r e s s
A windward side t At leeward side
+ Stress due to wind – Stress due to wind
– Stress due to ext. press. – Stress due to ext. press.
– Stress due to weight – Stress due to weight

T p o s s h id i t e t i g evn a en ot sn ts ei ne sgo h adn i t ecid go vnme penor T e st s s i e


s u m om t a s t ti ior hne w ds ish f tceee aes t o t nch eo s m
e ip r ir oge osn sv i e or r n
I i a s t s wu ham ei et a s a dr tnnl h tqd o udn a o dak es ci dmo u lc ts a nt uoe o t u sr h
t t so h h bw d o e e u sef ierl g diw n otoe e e di ha r et rnl h r qw uhod a i ki rc e ah
g r e a t e r .
B e sn tdc i ra b n eu cg css e nsse t r bdih sc ui y tam y m wla rt i l siz et dr th e
r e s f u wl rto ei i an or g t l nh m
q o u d a ak r e d .
T s t s r h be hc s a s l a cae tu sl fl ao l tl leelh odo c wa it t nie og n s :
1. At the bottom of the tower
2. At the joint of the skirt to the head
3. A t b oh ht t t te s otj eha mho e d i lo en l t
4 A c h o ad ni aog . t m eh t e is ot c t ekfv rn ee shrs s s fe e l
T s t f r uh er t s hs se br e hem s ox ra a ei tm l f i o n l l ce leh o do n wd ii n t ne i go n
1. D ue r r oe id c i nst mi ga o n tn l i nr g
2 D ut r ei n. s g t
3 D uo p r e ir a n . t ig o n
U tn d h di f ce ef o en s rrd t ie wet n i toeo n t h si v , g ae chh eso nt ss en qfte ue e ln
s ct o r n dae i a t s di oi s l rfn Bfs e es r ds e e inuoe dt r.r e eo sid c ,i nts mi gta o n nt
v ie n us is n noe otd e le x er s pt t n rer ae r ls n s a ur l r e .
F a n a ot l ys zt i r ohrn et g nt g ao eut h vnl e a f ld r rl o iseab odt r ui
w ns
H a n t d mb oa o xs hk i ,tt m hrhas
u ebeen
e m applied.
os rs y
70

C O S (cont.) O

The b e mn od d imt wn e ig dun i e ct rf ne et a bosr di ont s toght t ot tm o h e om


t ot t w p h e t l h r hui ca,c a k sbt n d e el eae s c as r cs ec oan r sod ei e n d g l y .
T A aa F b i B aln gc oe u n var de t ne f i i te edn i t di ds hn t fs a oot nd r ce w e
t o t t o f o wh wa hc p o eef it e rh r cit i craa hkd i ne neq su sa t e s .
*
0.5 0 . 0 1 1 6 . .1 1 (. 1 9 . 1 ) . 1 1 . 1 2 . 3
m 1 . 0
1 1 2 .2 . 2 . 2 8. 2 9 . 3 0 . 3 2 . 3 4 . 4 6 . 4 8 . 5 0 . 3 .
m 0.53 0.51 0.50 0.48 0.46 0.44 0.42 0.41 ().39 ().37 ()<35 0.33 0.32
T AA V BA O LL F UEA m
EC , S T O F R
S t i
l o n g his ct u dt d eti rin e an el put sre ier so snh e s ao o u l anr
A \ t c i rc u m h f se r et on t rhie a eol t sarn se w
q, l h tu e h i afi r cf e ek
f i n pt ore ier a sn v saart uril lr te ae b b s el sf ien h o dsot o i t r n
w F i T nr A a u d o fb s . am lcmi cb fe n t t, o aogd i ur X s h nt n
x d f ot tr tw a ohl nnow g mi w i e e tt nhp nt ht h i ii ce ch cn ka n hl
l fai nt pt o eer ers ad sn t isar s aulf atr cr etl o et r w y s i ih
H p r e s s u r e .
x = H x m
tp = T r e t q h u i f i ci r kn eenp t deroe se r s s n s a r u l r
( TH e i on s oi o np n ) .
t = T r e tq h u i f i w cw r k peen r dieoae ts sbs n s oh ur hdtr ee
t j =t so ih i e n l n tl o , .
E X A M P L = 0E : i . r = 02n i .3 . = 63 n, 4 W = 4 .
k = 100 ft.
F T rm =a 0 oab X .= lmH m = 0.43n4e X 1 3= 43d f 0

z
5
g
b
5
E
Q
Q
x

1
0 . 1 F B i g .
R oa p tt l h i i ar c oek t qna f teu e si s r e h d t e
b o ( t + tt t t rot h m/w i r c e2k qn e)u soi s r e d
a t c o n shh i ed e i tr ege d h t .
71

DESIGN OF TALL TOWERS

EXAMPLE - A

Required thicknessof cylindricalshell under internal pressureand wind load.


~,- ~,,
D E C O
S N I D I G T I NO N S
~ D = 2 ft. Oin. insidediameterof vessel
A D1 = 2 ft. 6 in. width of towerwith insulation,etc.
E = 0.85 e f f oi wc i je e nol c dyi en f dt s
H = 4 f Oi l eo tt n o g 8 .wt . h e f r
: hT = 4 f O i d i ft s ntt b ar t nt . bac oh. e o smht et
o
h t s ej h oa e i dl no l t

v d
: 4 P m= 2 p i n p5t rse e r s n 0 s a i u l r e
II
o Pw = 3 p w p ri s e s n s 0 uf dr e
z -e
m R = 1 i i rn aons v di e id2 s . ue s s e f l
: I s = 1 p 3s I v7
t o rsSa5 2 e Cl0 s i u s 8 e f A
o
. m a a t2 e t 0re mi 0pa e l r ” a t t uF r e
= v =T s o l h t e a b a l r .
* \
N a l l f o c wo ar nr o oco se i o nr .

M i r n e itq m
h u i fu i ci m
r kn epn t dreoe cse ro ssnn sst ai rsu dl ter orret i h1en sgn goe h t e a h n m
PR 250 X 12 3000
t =- =0.260 i n
= SE – 0.6P = 13,750 X 0.85 – 0.6 x 250 11,538
Minimumrequiredthicknessfor internalpressureconsideringthe strengthof the girthseams:
PR 250 X 12 3,000
t =0.128 in.
= 2SE + 0.4P = 2 X 1 3X 0 , + 0 7 . x 25 = 820 . 3 5 5 , 44 07
R e t q h u i f i cl rok ne ng dbeio t seu dsd nti wnd ra p li ru i neM sg onsa t ue m
b or d( ee .a M
hn t _s
PW x D1 X H = v X h] = M
3 x 2 x 4 = 3 . x ,2 =0 86 5 6f 0l 8 , 04 t 04b 0 . .
M oa t mb eos n(ht ett ~ o t ae m = m )
MT = M – IIT(V – 0.5 Pw D, h=j= 86,400- 4(3,600 – 0.5 x 30 X 2.5 x 4)
= 86,400 – 13,800 = 72,600 ft. lb. = 72,600 x 12 = 871,200in. lb.
Requiredthickness:
MT 8 7 1 , 2 8 0 7 0 1 , 2 0 0
t = R T S = 1 x 3 x 12 . 23x 0E ,1 = 25 7 4 , 4 25 = 8080 7 i , . 55 21 3 n 6
T r e t q hh u i c i ca r kl wecne utde ls s ia t s t or et hetdb n og gh sht t ei ht e r o f ae tm m h
F w p ri o e s0 n s i .ur dr 1 e n6 5 .
F i p r n oe s 0 ts i u . r r . 1e n2 8 .
T i g h r t et ti ah h t i c s cehaa skl r wcn une l se ia s t
T O T0 A. t L2s t 9o r t hle o3 nn gg sih t et u hhde ei t nrf eae al f h o r m
m i t n h i i 0 mc i ku. s n mbe2 uh s ns9 sa 3 el .

to
I L

D E O ST IT AGO NWL EF LR S
EXAMPLE B

R e t q h u i o icc yr k l enis dne u d sh rc s in oce am


l fd l obl o aiei lndn prei t r dne ew gr s a sns i ua f r
w oe t i o g w h e t r f .
— .

D ED S I
A G TN A
3 f Oi i dn t i sna m
i e .d t . ee r
P l a t =f 3 fo 6 i r w m o vit w
D] ne di ns sit . aus .ll h eal ft tof il wo han
/ p ie p it n gc , .
E = 0 e f .f o iw c 8ise e lne 5c d y a e m
f d s
h~ = 4 f Oi d i f st t nt b rat t n b a. cho .ho e t ssht m e t e h e
j o i n t .
1 f Oi l 0oe t t nn o g 0 w .t . he f r
P = 1 p i n p ot5 r se e r s n s0 a iu l r e
‘ p r e s s u r e
‘m P. =
R . 1 ; i n s i Qdo n ve - r e a d si8 u. ss e f l
‘ s . 1 p 3s o v t 7 o Sras 5 Ae ml -0 sa a2u2i t s 8 e e0 5r f iC0
-m t e m po e r a t u r e
v . T s o l hI te ab rl , .
I
H 2e s e a e a l :m dl il p: e t s 1i sc a l
< cm = C i r c u ’oms f eo rt he mn cd ee i e hai l m f ael tn nee
1.. ( c o a r l r l no ors w ei oqa nnuo ci re e d t )

Minimumrequiredthicknessfor internalpressurec o n st i s d te orr t i hle n o gnn gg ih tt e


s o shdi.
e a m f
PR 150 X 18 0 i . U 0 2 i pn 3. s l 3 n2 a .
t = SE – 0.6P = 13,750 X 0 – 0 .x 1 = 8 . 55 6 0
M i r n e itq mh u i fu i ci m
r kn pent rdeoe c es ro ssnn sst ai srud l t er orr te i hce n i gnr c g u h mte
t s o i s e h a ae ll m l f .
PR 150 X 18 0 i . 1 n1 =
I M
t = —
B + 0
i
‘ 2 X. 1 3X4 0 E, + 0 P 7 . x 15
r n e i t q mh u i uf i ch mr k en edeo s
80 . 55 4
sa
0
r d
PD 150 X 36 = 0.231 i n
t = BE – 0.2P = 2 X 13,750 X 0.85 – 0.2 x 150
I
W L i PW o X D,n XH a d = dv x h]
V e s 30 x s 3.5 x e 100 l
= 1 0X5 , = 55 2O 5 O , 0 0 4
2 X9 = 42 3 , 0 0 6 4
P l a t 30 fx 8 olin. ft.
r m =
L a d 3 x d9 l e f r i= 2,940 t nX0 49 8= 144,060
. .
Totalshear V= 13,680 M = 692,100f l m oa t bm
b a s
I M oa t mb eoh snht (ett e J o t ae ’ ma l d Tm )
MT = M – h~ (V – 0.5 P#,hJ =
692,100 – 4 ( 1 – 03 X (3 Xj 3 .X
8 4 =0 6 . 3 5f 8l 0 , 52 t 2)b 0
1 X 6 3 2 8 –, —7 2 , 226 .50 0 8 , . 6 4 6 0
1 M,
t = R2 = SE = X X X –
F i p r n oe s0 ts .u r r . 1 e
i p f lt l n a c o o o ht wu . e r e r s e er sE i n
73

EXAMPLE B (CONT.)

The preliminary calculation of the required wall thick-


ness shows that at the bottom approximately 0.75 in.
A 4 plate is required,to withstandthe windload and internal
pressure, while at the top the wind load is not factor
:o - and for internal pressure(hoop tension) only 0.25 plate
“m is satisfactory.F e c o n or o em i iai ac srad l ov t i n s sa
“ N& u d i ~f p sf te lh r i e ca aenk v nt t ea hs rse ee oi s ti o g u ht
t o w e r .
T t h i r hc e k fqn h ue etsi sroe o( e n di o0s s i r.en po r 2n
t r ae t s wl i l stihs oa cot ne od raei dtds atd a io n
: : f t tr o
o h m
p e .
o, 0, :~ 0
- ~ F t di ~ i h (s n ft i at dnr A X acP
s e7ob a ) l m g e
-o o
t = w0 . 2 / 3 3= 2t/ 0t . p X 6 =40h .4 x H =.e4 f 7 4n
~ F d r i Ba P o g 7 r ac ma b fm g t oa ,r e eu 0q h nun
: t h i a c l.k ne o e t n ns i ns gt e rthdsm hes dh e i f ac e te t e i
o b
t “ U 8 sf w mi p iln t av g dt se e hb. s hecs os , n a se et rl l u
-m ~ o f r e o. m :
: 1 ( 0 t .58 hf w 2i c o)i ct 5u kdr f s . e s t
o
( 0 t .48 hf w 5i c o)i ct 0u 3kdr f s . e s t
t - ( 0 t e .38 hf w 7i c o)i ct 5u 2kdr f s . e s t
# T om t a l
W E O IT TG HO H T W FE E R
( t Sba e b g o e ipl n 3 en e ai s n7 g g 4 n e )
S 4 hx 9 e l 3l 0 87Skirt 4 8x 195 0 7 8
3 X 1 9 6 2 2 5B r 4 a i 0 s n7 e g 2
2 x 2 9 7 4 0 4A nr 5 c i 6h o 2n r g 6
H t 0 e .n o3a o1 d1 2 m p 5 A .6 nl c uh0 o 1g r s 2
b 0 .en 8 ot 1 3 2 .m 5 9. 3 1 8
I p wnl ao t t r .8 e k 0 + 6 0 1 %
1
T s ur p p a o r yt1 s 1 0
I n s ru l ia t in o n2g s 2 0 1 9
O p e n i n g9 0 S 0 a 2 l 0 y
I 7n s 5u l a9 t i o n 4 6
1 9
+ 6 1 1%P l a8 t f 4 o r1 m 1
L a d d e2 r 8
2 l 0 P 9 i b4 p 3i .n 1 g 4
S a 2 1 y, 0 0 0
9960
S 1a 0l , y 0
T C E YR IE W’C ET
A 3I L OG3l N H, T0 :b 0 0 .

T r a y s 6 0 0
O p el r ai t qi nu g 2i d 4 0 0
3 l 0 0b 0 .
+E r W
e c t i to n .
3 3l , 0 b0 0 .
T OO P TE R WEIGHT:
AA T LI 36.000
N G lb.
Test water 42,000 lb.
+ Erection Wt. 33,000 lb.
TOTAL TEST WEIGHT: 75,000 lb.

For weight of water content, see rage 416
74

E B(

Checkingthe stresseswith the preliminarycalculatedplate thicknesses:


Stress in the shellat the bottomhead to shelljoint:
P t lh
i 0 ac i k t.n e e s nP 7 s 1 5X 3 . 65 .D 70 5
S dt t ir n ep tu r se eSr s=s ~n es=a ou l r e = 1 p 8 3s
4 x
X 6 3 8 , 2 2 0
S dt t wr e ui s s sn e o d = = 9 p , 6
Rz n t = 1 8 x 3. 3x 0 7. 5 . 12 7 4
w 3 1 , 0 0 0
S dt t wr ee u i s g s s h e t= o , — = 3= p 5 s
1 x 10 5 ! . 7 5 5
i e r c e o c n t d i i ot n ni o n
w 3 4 , 0 0 0
i o p ec ro an t d i i ns=—= tn g i o n = 3 p 9 s
C 1 xm10 5 . t. 7 5 5
C O M B I N OA ST IT O RN E S S EF S
W I N DS W A I R D D LE E ES W AI R DD
I E M
( E RP E CCT TON I N
YO DN I ) T I O N

S dt t rw e u i s+ 9 s n , e So 6d dt 4t r w 0e u is– 9 s n , e o 6d
Stress due to weight – 3 Stress5 due to weight 8 – 3
+ 9 p, 2 s8 2 i– 9 p, 9
( i p r nN de s ue ts r ruoe ric. et n i og n )

I O P E R CA OT NI D NN IG T I O N
S dt t ri pe u nr s+ e1s t se, So s .8 dt . t 3r w e 7 u is – 9 s n , e o 6d
S dt t rw e u i s+ 9 s n e, Stress
o d6 due to4 weight 0 – 3
+ 1 1 , 4 7 7 - - 1 0 ,
Stress due to weight – 3 S 9dt t ri pe 2u nr s+ 1 es t s, e os 8
+ 1 1p , 0 s8 5 –i 8 p, 1
I
T t e s nh 1t s r1pi i e,leo pe0s e sc 8sr o a 5n to d it i i nwn t g i i nos h dng wo i a vn re
T a l l s oh wft ta r pb elem elo ash wta s 0e jtrr i ei e. eo af t f l ii8 1c hi 1n ep5 6n t c8
T t sh e 0l uh ei tc . st p h ee 7an dlt i b a5c o o . thkt v te ie sot ahes t mi ss f afe
S it t sr a e7h f h sd e sf ol nt t e t r l o wt t 2oho. p on wt ml h e ie 0acpr i kf t.n. e
S dt t wr e iu s n s de o .
A x
A 1 7 PW x D] , x X = V x ; = Mx
!
‘o i
-m Shell 3 x 3 x 7 = 7 . x , 3 =0 52 5 7 6 22 0,
e ‘ ‘ P l a o 3 t x f8 l o io r n=m240 . x - 68 =f 0 1t . 6 ,
I ‘ ‘m L Ia 0 3d X 7 d l mie = n2 r . x , 3- =0f 1 7 t 0 .30 , 0
* b T M o o MXt m ae =nl 3 t 6 f 1 t ,
1 M 1 X 3 6 21 r , 9 28 0
s = =
1 v T R v t 1 8X 3 . X 0 2 z. = 5 8. 12 ‘ ’ 5 4 3
S dt t ir n e p tu rse e r s s n es a ou l r e
( c a l pc Ar u e l v a i t o es u ds l y ) 1 , 8
T o1 0pt , a
T c a l c hou s l at tar it eeo b ns o sh het hf ss te otht e ata m os h t d wor thsae n s
w i n s d i ow i p a e rc r do a n tg d i e iona n t gt vi e o e n fon tr hfw n e ei id hc i e n tg
n i f T i h c e wa r nei ft f t . ou hc r ra oe l t cu i uhc tl bea s t r i t o at en t h e s e t nnh at es
1 0p d , n 1e o s 4x t a2oec l lei s osh e w1tt ad1 r b p, eleT6 e 8tss s7h s e. 0il5 hu e c
i t p h i nsl ia t ia cs f .at kc t oe r ys .
75

EXAMPLE B (CONT.)

Stressin the shellat 40 ft. down from the top of the tower. Platethickness0.25 in.

S dt t w
r e iu s n s de o .
PW x D1 X X = v X : = Mx

S h 30 x e 3.5 X 40 l = 4,200
l X 20 = 8 4 , 0
P l a ?0t x f8 lin.o ft. r = m240 x 36 = 8 , 6
L a 30d x 38d lint ft.e = 1,140
r x 19 = 2 1 , 6
T M o ol t m v a e . =nl 1 ft 1 f X4 t , .
1 M 1 x 1 1 24 , , 3 20 0
s = = 5 p , 3
RI n t = 1 8 x .3 1x 0 2. 5 . 1 2 4
S dt t ir n ep tu r se e r s s n es a ou l r e
( c a l pc Ar u e l v a i t o esu ds l y ) 1 p , 8
T o 7 pt , a 1

T 0 i t .h p h 2nf l i se a5 c h4 o. f t k de ie l sf r t t t l a ro t nt 0 tc . ooe i o h m w
s a t i s Nf af c ut co ra yl t. c i uhr l e ea o toq r it uos ni r r aeehms d ea m n asnt ei bo eo non
76

DESIGN OF SKIRT SUPPORT

A skirt is the most frequently u a ts m s ena oth i ssd f saud cf ept v ot pre y or o t r
v e I si a s t e tb l ca s o c .n h t w iet sne d tu lt o hduy s ai uenh s g t uanr o ea e qld h u l d
s o t iw eh dz l e tdi e et i r tfmn sh i gi no hcet kss n ke esh i s r ft e .
F i A ga uB s r t en hm s c ooho d t m w os smy e t okth pna i t e t aer cI fha t m eo
c a l c ou t l ra t e i qow hnu s i te ri vf ee lzaod j h l e edo uf f, eig e c sbi ni te fn vt c y
C ( o1 mU bd u ’2 ase W e ) yd e .

E X A M P L E
G t is vv a ceh eo sn mins E
s i edxee eB a r l em d p l n e .
S = 18,000*stress value
D = 37.5 in.
E“ = 0.60 for butt joint of SA-285-Cplate
W = 3 1l , 0 b 0 0 .
MT = 6 3 f 8l , 2 t 2b 0 . .
* s t pFm uc rt o up r o ar s l e .
R = 18.75 in.
D e t t e r r e m sq i ht un hk ei i rc i ke e ndr e s ts .

F w 1 = i o 1 MT n r d 1 x 6 23 8 , 0 2 i 2.
= 0 6 n4
R2 ~ SE =1 8x 3 . X 1 7 . 8)5 0 ,12 0 4 0. 0 (

w 3 1 ,
F W ef = o i g h r t =0 0 0i . 0 0 n2
D X 3 x SE=. 3 X 13 7 X 1 4, .8X 0 ,1 5 0 4 0. 0 6
T ( Y =f 0 A i . L 6 n6

U ‘ t ! p sh f 4 sl i 6k a ec oi ” t kr e t r .
R E F E R TE N
h Ce E rS : m i i l

8 2
77

I
DESIGN OF ANCHOR BOLT

V e vr et s si csta eat a l o cm
s nw , bk f ues a t s ce
rst d sthe nt f e e d o
s o o k s t t ir huf c dbetr m u r r ra oa e al m an b e cna o yt h s b l o ( fn btr ah e as rs d i
r i n g .
The number of anchor bolts. The anchor bolts m b inumultiple ofs four andt e
for tall towers it is preferred to use minimum eight bolts.
Spacing of anchor bolts. The strength of too closely spaced anchor bolts is not
fully developed in concrete foundation. It is advisable to set the anchor bolts not
closer than about 18 inches. To hold this minimum spacing, in the case of small
diameter vessel the enlarging of the bolt circle may be necessary by using conical
skirt or wider base ring with gussets.
Diameter of anchor bolts. Computing the required size of bolts the area within
the root of the threads only can be taken into consideration. The root areas of
bolts are shown below in Table A. For corrosion allowance one eighth of an inch
should be added to the calculated diameter of anchor bolts.
For anchor bolts and base design on the following pages are described:
1. An approximate method which may be satisfactory in a number of cases.
2. A method which offers closer investigation when the loading conditions and
other circumstances make it necessary.
?
13 12 TABLE B
NUMBER OF ANCHOR BOLTS
TABLE A I Diameter of
Q Minimum Maximum
Bolt circle in.
Bolt Bolt * Dimensionin.
24 to 36 4 4
Size RootArea-
s i 1 q n1 . . t 5 2 3 8 8o 4
6 t 7 1 01 o 8
Y 0 . 7 1 5 22 / 6 8 t/ 1 8 8
3 08 /
1
4 0 41 o 2 2
5 0 . /I 2 21 t 1 0 1 2 82 o 6
3 0 . 1 3 - 1 1 0A1 21 / 3 t 1 8 3
/ 6
20 4 2 24 o 4
x 1 5 /
1 1 -1 -3 1 / / 8 1 6
l 0 . 1 6 -1 %
9 1- 3 /1 2/ 8
l 0 . 1 8 -1 9x 3 - 0 /1 4/T 4 AC B L E
1 1 .3 1 0 -1 5A 7 - M 4 /A3 XA8 / IL LM8 O USW M TA B R FLE E S S E O
l 1 .2 2 1 9 -
% 4B 1 OU/ AL 2S A T N EB C S H DO O S RL
1 1 .5 2 5 -1 1A1 - S 5p / 5e c i 8 f/ i c a8 t i o nM a al l x
1 3 D 4i b ai em S re t ne r
1 .2 / 7 1 44- - 4N 3 u 1 / 4m pt r se
1 2 . 72 0 -1 4A3 - 9 /7 8/ 8
2 2 . 2 3 -2 0 1 S 0 3/ 2 A d 2 i a mlA 1e5 t 5 e rl, s 0
z 3 . 2 0 -2 2%3 - SA0 193
/ 1 B 74 / 2 a 4 u n n1 d8 %e, d 0
2 3 . 3 7- ; 1 1% - /S 5 1 1: B 6 ; 2 a 9 ; u 1 nA n1 3 d 68 %e, d 0
2 4 . 3 6 - - 1%3 SA8 193 / B 78 O v t ei r 1
n2 o Y c 2,
6 l 0
3 5 . 3 6 -2 2 5 - S 1 1/ 7 B 8 / O 9 v8 t 1 ie A r1n3 o265 c %, l 7
4
* F b w o s o t li at nht t rdr s ea hra dd s .
D O A B
( M A
A simple method for the design of anchor bolts is to assume the bolts replaced by a
continuous ring whose diameter is equal to the bolt circle.
The required area of bolts shall be calculated for empty condition of tower.
FORMULAS
~= —.—
12iu w
Maximum A8 Ce
Tension lb./lin. in. T
Required Area of B,= ;+
One Bolt Sq. - in.
TC8
S it Anchor
r e s s n sg -—
- b. N
B p o s l i t .
N ~ A T I O N
AB = A w rt i b t c e hi so h i r i a c nl l q e ne t , . .
C* = C i r c u mo fb e cr e ni io c e r l c n fl t e .
M= M oa t mb d e t awnh o te usia rt et f enhl qe uo dk t e rb , . .
N= N u o a m nb b c oe h r l o f t r s
SB = M a ax l i l s mo vw t u ao m r ba b mel l ea osp t u se l sr e i f at i l .
w= W oe t vi dge huehs r rts el cief et nli obg n , .

E X A M P L E

G b i c v=io 3 i r e t l c nnhD l te eet .t e s nr 0a m; n :i h nuo re nm


ze qbe ue e di
a nb co hl ot rs .
A~ = 7 s i 0 q
17 X. 8 . n 6 6 ,
CB = 9 i n. – —
T= 4 = , 14 02 00
l , b i .4 i
9
M-= 8 f 6l 4 t 0b 0 7 . . 0 7
w= 6 l d 0 ue r b0r e ci t 01n i . ox g 9 n4 . 0 2 4
SB = 1 p 5 t m 0s a 0x hB i i= 0= m . u e =m 2.196 sq. in.~ -4
9
a l l s o vw t ao r a b el l e s u s e f
t a nb mhc a o ht Fe o r T le i r rAa aP tl 7- obt ar al m o gc eh r . eO
N= 4 n uof bolts.
m b 2 eb ir 2 os . i l3 q“0 nt s 0 .
(See TableB on the A d0 id . forcorrosion,
i 1 n nuse: 2g 5 .
PrecedingPage) (4)2Y’”bolts.
C h se ci t a k r inb ne c go s h ls o nt
1,402X 94 – 14,324p s
SB= 2 x .4 3 0 0
S t im a n ax h l ci l s mo e i w
tu e a m
r b el
1 5p t , s se0 n l 0 heui a 0cs m t , ebe i nd e
o b a os a t il s rf at c tf so r ey .
79

D O B R

b l e a n t r d o i gsu t e rge i hb
l u n o i of t oa c r om dfnl ho yc u r na ed nt ate nt e it h eno n xt ou a c l d le s oh et w o
b e l a o tr o f i o nu an gh d a dt i fo en .
T t h i o hc t kb n r e seash rsi h tes bfna se e e s li n hg it ds l n ri tb d w
n ee u og s c i se
e a r t h q u a k e .
F O R M U L A S
M a Cx oim mp r ue s m s ~i . o 1 n y 2 M
- 7 l b i . / 1 1 in ,n . c . A, C,
m i n .
1 A p p r 1oW x i o m i a td e t P h f
- B Ring in.
a s e “t
Is 12 _Di
t* Approximate Thickness t8=
of Base Ring in.
B e S a pt r ri ne sg s & s. ~ i
. 9
+ D B e oS n pt d ir ne sg s S = s3 x s, 1;i
t52
N ~ A T I O N
AR = Areao b r = a 0 i . ( s –7 nD Df 8se i g5z Z 4 q i O n ) . .
As = A w rti s t s ke ih hi i a r qn n t e , . .
= C i r c u mo fO e ro es n . ci ke iD r nn . t f , .
; = S b ea l a o c rfo os i np nceSa rgT se E dt oa ePne i , b h .l e eg , n e
= Cantileverinsideor outside, whicheveris greater,in.
l: 13= Dimensions,as shownon sketch above. (For minimumdimensionssee Table
A on page77)
M = Momentat the base due t w o e ai r t f hnl q u oa d k t erb , . .
W = W oe v i de g uos hp rs eot trie al f nlet i g os nb t r , .
E X A M P L E
G i v e n D: e t t e m r im wni h nai iet m h dui e cnm t k n h e
= 8 6f l , 4 to 0bb r0 f a o. i .p ecs ron anf etd iig tn r i g o n .
; = 500 psi from 12 x 86,400 7,500
TableE Page 80 Pc = + = 2 l ,b . / 2 l i n7 . -
4 7 7 6 7
W = 7,500lb. operating
1 8l t , 0 e b 0 2 s0 , . t 2 7 5
A nb (co 2 hi l 1 = 5(3(3
o t 4 r! s n : = 4 ) A .i b . f n T 5 rA uap. 75obt a, tl m
O o s . 2 k 4i D i . 6r. n f2 t 5 . m i d n i i m f m e l =nu s m i oo
T As = h4 s i e 7 qn n 6 . . 2 i a f 1 y = 2V4
n nm.t o A .
C = 7 i n $ 7 . u 6 i w ’ bs r i n / a i de 2ns
r~ = 0.32 x 5 = 1.60 in.
U 1 i t bs h r n ia i e c%ns . k g e .
C h se tc r k e i s n s g e s :
S = 2,273 X 77 = 305 psi S – 3 x 305 X 52 = 10,167 psi
1 5 B e s7 a t r r i 4 ne g s1 s B. e s n5 t d ri 2 ne

C
80

DESIGN OF ANCHOR BOLT AND BASE RING

When a tower is under wind or earthquakeload, on the windwardside tensional


stressarisesin the steel and on the oppositesidecompressivestressin the concrete
foundation. It is obviousthen that the area of the boltingand the areaof the base
ring are related. As the anchor bolt area increased,the base ring area can be
decreased. With the designmethod givenhere, the minimumrequiredanchorbolt
area for a practical size of base ring can be found. me strength Ofthe steel and
the concrete is different, therefore, the neutral axis does not coincide with the
centerlineof the skirt.

1 D e t t ev r omka i h n l. e u e e
C a lt c r u e l sq a h aut nei i r u o ee nzmd
a nb Sco p hl 7 T ota e B ars g .b e le
D e t t ei r nm i hs n ei d e e

4 C th s te i r t h ce a s. knbs heace o s h l
f o u n d a t i o n
I t d e vb hi e a t tt a i wfl oe l ean oh e w na
a cs tt ar u te las sarlr e o ert s pg e
c a l c u l a t i o n
C a lt cb ur lt aah i ti ec s kn ne ee gs
U g u p s s l a as n t ce ec ht o sh a , o
Sa c o m p r r ie i s i isn i eo cnfn eb s esg afot
s d t i s r t ir tei b us r t oi sasoh in k s nn
T DA B L E
V oa C ol n u s te a sn t f s F
a F u no Kc t i o n s s f
k I1 z a X Y
U s .. , e
O::s:
0 . 6 0 0 1 M 1
M x
: : :
/ b
O.000 - O .i s o
0 . b0 0 – 0 7 . 8 4 / 2 ,
0.500 0.0293&b’ - o .1 3
0.667 0.0558f. b2 –0 . 2 2
1.000 o.0972f, b2 - 0f. Ii . 1
1 . 0.123fcb2
5 0 -0.12450 b
2 . 0.131f.bz
0 0 - 0 0 .b 1
3 . 0 0 J .b 0 -1 00 b3 . 13
0 0 f,b2
. -10 0 . b3 1 32
T EA B L
I
E

2 II 2 0 I
I
s II 0 0 0 0

f p
8
s1
1000 0
c Ii
0
1

fb 1 I 1

n 8
81

DESIGN OF ANCHOR BOLT AND BASE RING

F O R M U L A S
9 9 /(.= I
* —— 1 k 1+
~
4 Bt - 1

+I
& ‘~b~
i v
I
t I Lb ‘f, z:::/
. 1
-
T el on a so nb i Fcloal ehl d~o(t. M
n b rs , t .

T es ni t a s r nb i eSlco p es hl s ots a n rs i , , .

a
b -. t h t,=e~

B W
Fc,

t CirCk. @. “b= (/4 + ;,)

S n . f
t B

tB= il
~
1
E ~B r t ah i iw c gs k n uin ee s gs t ss eh t
p tl i a t B ne , ,‘ . B =

N O T A T I O N
b = The distancebetweengusset plates, measuredon arc of bolt circle in.
= T a or e rt f q a ua e nbi slr oc i ea o hd o q lr n r t . .
C = CC o n, s s TtC a D ona , t te ps b ,r e pl ch e e ea d i ng ne g e .
d = D i oa a m nbe ct c ei io h r r o c l f rl n e t , .
= D i oa a m nbe ct c ei fo h r r o c l f rl t et , .
: = C o m p s r e i t st s cr i vo eea n t h soc re s ue o nht t e dbt e r e pgta hei r nses
= C o m p s r e it st s cr i vo eean t h sbc cr s ei ponh t er e c sl l t e e ti ,
j = C o ns sT t D aoa tne p tb r, e pl ch e e ea d i ng ne g e .
1 = 1– t i = w o ti n4 b dr i a ht,i . hns nf eg e , .
M = M oa t mb d e t awnh o t e usia rt etf elnh qe uo da t k br e .
M = o w h i i cg hr Se e Tv ra eF ot ar t ee p br rs . e p l ch e e ae d i ng ne g
n = R o m a o ot ed l iu a o sls o t ua i ftc sc oi eE t nf yn cSse T r f/ elE aEtd ee cb
= R ao b dc iiio r u c ls l n f e t , .
: = T e s n i t a s r nib . el pco es hl s ot n rs i , .
s = M a ax l i l s mo vw t u aom
r ba b pel l e pals u as s et fe ei , .
w = W oe t ti agot bhh wl ta he f se rb e t e , .
z = C o nS sT t Daoa tne pt b r. e pl ch e e ae d i ng ne g e .
82

DESIGN OF ANCHOR BOLT AND BASE RING


EXAMPLE

DESIGNDATA: DETERMINE:
D = 5 f Oi d t i oa a n.m nbe c t,c ei o. h rr oTc l f s rl a e nt i h. uo nm
z
d = in. diameterof anchor bolt circle. anchor bolts;
n = 1 r o m
a 0o ot ed l ui a o ,sls ot u i ft sc i Tet fwy ea i t f h hl d i cn t k
a c o ( n n cT E Pr a 8e tbda e l 0g e o b. e r ) a i ns
f= =1 p , a l 2l c o s 0ows at m0 obr lpie e n r g . t h f
11 = 6)1
c o (n cT
E Pr a8e bta e l 0g e , e )
1
s = 1 5p a , l l 0s o s v0w t ao 0r ba b eli l e as u s s e f e
r i n g .
= 1 8p a , l l 0t o s e0w s na 0it b s lri oi e e l l es t s s n .
w = 3 6l w , oe 0t bti 0 og 0 hw h . te fr e .
M = 6 9 f 2l m , 1o a tt 0bmb 0 e a nh. . s t e t e .
S O L U T I O N :
A s 8 i sw s .npnse r eeat st gsb r id cv ee if.-
bu r i mn a a aeci d o m oh =
sr 1,Ooo
cs lpsi.l t e e t
T t c h o nf hse t ra nn
1 1 T D aa b r l e e
= 0.35 cc = 1.640
1 + Sa ‘ 1 18 , 0 + 0= 2 0 . 3 3
‘fctj 1 x 1 , 0j = 00 0 0. 7 8
z = 0 . 4 2

T i i shu f af i igc
f . fc —2 c . ~ 2N k 2 xb 0.35 X 60d = 1 , m 0 w t e0 a i s 8 n s h t u
2kd * 1 ‘ 2 x 0.35 X 60 X 8 v o fCb=
a 1 l p , u
R e aq ou a i r nbr e c eod h l ao f t r s
1 – W = ~2 ; 1 xz 6 M
9 – 23 d ) x 1068 20x “w 0! 4 ~2 7
B, = 2 n = 2 s 3i .
C, S. jd “ 2 X, 1 83x 0 , 3 x . 60 3 07 08 3
U 1 sa nbi tco nr hle g rqot ha2u rsf io o r,r b e eo d oe on t al r e t
2 3 =. 1 5 i 0 . / 19 2n 5 8 .
F T rA 1a i dob ?i bal mw
nm4 e ebo os t a8 et u. il rbs fal a t cd%dti ofud rec y oi r nr ot o g
use (12) -2 in. diameteranchorbolts.
Tensileload on the anchorbolts
M– W D = 6 9 – 23 , 6x 10 z, 0 x . 05 0= 1 04 ~ 0l 2 57 5 7
= 9
jD 0 X.5 7 8 3
T es n i t t s ar i nbel hces o hs l on e t r s

157,150
s. = ~:; = 0.125 X 3 x 2 = .1 73p , 3 09 3s 6 0 i

2 3 . 5 0
= = i n .
~d = 3.14 x 60
C o m p l r eo ts osc i o v ne aL hc= 1r– ted = t8n ’ ee– 0: = . 7. d i1. . 280 n57
F. 193,150
= r = ( 7+ 1 .x 0 8 .3 7x 11 5 =2 .4 p50 6 ) 43 0 s 0
DESIGN OF ANCHOR BOLT AND BASE RING
EXAMPLE (CONT.)

Checkingvalueof k whichwascalculatedwithassumedvaluesof~,~= 1,000psiand


S. = 18,000
Thentheconstantsfrom
1 1 T D aa b r l e e
k= = 0.19
c = 10 . 1 8c
I +‘ S1 17 _ , 9 + 6
c = 2 . 6 8,
‘fCb x =
j
z = 0.461

M – 692,100 – 36,000 X 0 X. 5 4 6 1
= = 1 5 l 7 , 1 b 9
jD = x 5
F, 1 5 7 , 1 9 2
Sa = = 1 5p , 6 s 2 4 i
r~rCf = 0 X. 3 X 21 .2 65 8 0 3
= + W = 157,192 + 36,000 = 193,192lb,

FC 193,192
fcb = = 5 p 9 s
(14 + n fsjr CC= ( 7+ 1 .X 0 8 .3 7X 11 5 2. 50 1 ) 8 0 4
C o m p s r e i t st s ar i v nbee hcos hsl ont e rs :
S = n = 1 xf 5 = 5, p. , 9 b 9 0 s 66 0 i

C o m p s r e i t st s cr i ov eean t h sco res ue o nht t e dbt e r e tga ehi r nes f eg e


2 X 0.19 X 60 + 8
fc = fcb x 2 :M+ 1= 596 X = 8 p 0 s 5
2 X 0.19 X 60
R e t q h u i oi bc r kr e n fade= i6s i ss n f en g , ,
3 X 805
tB = 11~ = 6 = 2.406 i n .
d 1 5 , 0 0 0
T d e t c t r h e i o act h bks o rne eua hiseg s puns lsfs eg a es t , e ee t s .
U ( s g i2pu l tsn d4a s igt bse e) h et tts at g ,nwu c ese he s e e n t se ,
~d 6
b= — = 7.85” ; ~ = — = 0.764
24 b 7.85
f T rF a ob l m e :
= M = 0 fC1,2=
. 0.196
1 x 89 Y x & 6= 5 0i l 6 5 n8 b 0 .

1 .i U5 I 0i t n 7 sb hM6p n ial . e ac” s .t k ee .


: m ~ e =
84

ANCHOR BOLT CHAIR FOR TALL TOWERS

The chairsare designedfor the maximumload whichthe bolt can transmitto them.
The anchor b s a o b i p l ansz l b t hc as e a dla t cae du l eel as lot c t ee r fd i b o e hs
g po a i g n e gs .
A c o n te l a oc d t t pi gnl sl g ehba hw st eaw fe ecl los din t l fei net widu oT l ueh s l ’ l
l s o t i ef wi z sh l gbe lhoe hfe lae o t anlt d h lj li heo pne i fnt nl hf e eii acr n k ngt

-
DIMENSIONS inches
hchor B c D E F G
1 dim
bolt A
1 3 2 1 1
1 3 1
1 2 3 1 1 1 {
4 3 1
1 4 3 518 11/4 13/4 2
ls/~ 23f~ 4 3 5fa 11/4 1lj~ 21/8
13/4 2 5 3 1 2
5 3 13 11/ / 2z / 21 4 31 2
2 2 s5 3/ e
2 3 6 4 1 13 21 / 2 / 3 4
3lj~ 6 4 1 2 3
2 3 7 5 1 2 3 3
3 7 5 1 2 3 3
. !
T a tb h i at o f ba v eS kl erc h Aee e o Ssi n .m
C hm at AnDou n B r . cto a t hl st o
B R Sa i P zes t ni Rr enoe lgJgf e i.1 u num 9e r n6 , 3e .
86

STRESSESIN LARGE
H V
SUPPORTEDBY SADDLES

The design methods of supports for horizontal vessels are based on L. P. Zick’s
analysis presented in 1951. The ASME published Zick’s work (Pressure Vessel
and Piping Design) as recommended practice. The API Standard 2510 also refers
to the anaIysis of Zick. The British Standard 1515 adopted this method with
slight modification and further refinement. Zick’s work has also been used in
different studies published in books and various technical periodicals.

The design method of this Handbook is based on the revised analysis mentioned
above. (Pressure Vessel and Piping; Design and Analysis, ASME, 1972)

A horizontalvesselon saddle support acts as a beamwith the followingdeviations:

1. The loadingconditionsare different for a full or partiallyfilledvessel.

2. vesselvary accordingto the angleincludedby the saddles.

3. The load due to the weight of the vessel is combined with other loads.

LOADINGS:

1. a
a

2. Internal Pressure. Since the longitudinal stress in the vessel is only one half of
the circumferential stress, about one half of the actually used plate thickness
is available to resist the load of the weight.

3. External Pressure. If the vessel is not designed for full vacuum because vacuum
occurs incidentally only, a vacuum relief valve should be provided especially
when the vessel outlet is connected to a pump.

4. Wind load< Long vesselswith very small t/r values are subject to distortion
from wind pressure. According to Zick “experience indicates that a vessel
designedto 1 psi. external pressure can successfullyresist external loads en-
counteredin normaIservice.”
5.
87

LOCATIONOF SADDLES.

The use of only two saddles is preferred both statically and economicallyover
the multiple support system, this is true even if the use of stiffener rings is
necessary. The location of the saddles is sometimes determined by the location
of openings, sumps, etc., in the bottom of the vessel. If this is not the case,
then the saddles can be placed at the statically optimal point. Thin walled
vessels with a large diameter are best supported near the heads, so as to utilize
the stiffening effect of the heads. Long thick wa!led vessels are best supported
where the maximal longitudinal bending stress at the saddles is nearly equal to the
stress at the midspan. This point varies with the contact angle of the saddles. The
distance between the head tangent line and the saddle shall in no case be more than
0.2 times the length of the vessel. (L)
Contact Angle O
The minimum contact angle suggested by the ASME Code is 120°, except for
very small vessels. (Code Appendix G-6). For unstiffened cylinders under exter-
nal pressure the contact angle is mandatorily limited to 120° by the ASME Code.
(UG-29).

Vessels supported by saddles are subject to:

1. Longitudinal bending stress


2. Tangential shear stress
3. Circumferential stress
1

STRESSES IN VESSELS ON TWO SADDLES

o t~ =
=
~
A m
Q
C oa n o sn t daa g ced lt
. 1 A
Max. Allow.Stress

I S1 p t s l dt t n hru
i n pt r e ( e r Ps n sRs a n/u lh 2r
e xt a c l l es oh ew t adr b

:4 * n o Sf o pa e c t a ie en g n g e S1
~d
~ $
L
~ v -l
Z AT ]+2~ & 4A
YYo QL
Am MIDSPAN —-
Au (Tensio~at 4H - T
uJ~ ihe Bottom 4
z: Compression () 1 ‘z-
the *
0 r R2ts

e x0 t c t ie .
a l l s o vw
t ao r avb el m
el e s s
t e r i a l .
d S3 plus stress
n< IN -— K4 Q
S* – ~ts
w SHELL
=
0*Q
~ti K4Q .
q I/l!
IN
HEAD
=—
Ilth r n i on g
u<
m
UJ
A ADDl- K5Q
n TIONAL
a-$ STRESS S3. = ~
[N HEAD
M Q 3K6Q
-—
w &=-~t~(b+l.5@s) -
?(: S4 timesthe
2
zQ AT
,J HORN
!3 g SA%LE s4=– Q i2&QR
——
4 1t .~ Lt$
5( ~b +
s )
‘j 3 ma
: Et AT K7Q
“L~ BOTTOM s5=– ts(b+1.56@@
,= O
,=0 .= SHELL F
L 3
89

STRESSES IN VESSELS ON TWO SADDLES

~ NOTES: I
YY
JJ positive Values denote t e stresses
n and
s negative
i l values
e denote compression.
$
4
~ E z Modulus of elasticity of shell or stiffener ring materidpound per square inch

D
~
~ The maximum bending stress S1 may be either tension or compression.
z Computing the tension stress in the formula for S1, for factor K the values of
w K1 shall be used.
m
~ Computing the compression stress in the formula for S1, for factor K the values
4 of K8 shall be used.
~ When the shell is stiffened, the value of factor K = 3.14 in the formula for S1.
n
~ The compression stress is not factor in a steel vessel where t/R SO.005 and the
~ vesselis designed to be fully stressed under internal pressure.
uz Use stiffener ring if stress S1 exceeds the maximum allowable stress.
~

If wear plate is used, in formulas for S2 for the thickness ts may be taken the
& sum of the shell and wear plate thickness, provided the wear plate extends R/10
$ inches above the horn of the saddle near the head and extends between the
m saddle and an adjacent stiffener ring.
m
$ In Unstiffened shell the maximum shear occurs at the horn of the saddle. When
G the head stiffness is utilized by locating the saddle close to the heads, the
z tangential shear stress can cause an additional stress (S3) in the heads. This
w stress shall be added to the stress in the heads d t i n put r e e r s n se auo lr e
u
~ W s t h i r f aef i u e ntnns em r rgae xs hs d i o eh m , ca ute e cem aqu u hr a st o
e
I w p ei ul i asf o fet rfr m s l, oicknessts
S edf u the a n so may rbe 4taken r the
sum of the shelland wearplate thicknessand for ts!? maybe”takenthe shellthick-
ness squared plus the wear plate thickness squared, provided the wear plate
A extends R]l Oinchesabovethe horn of the saddle , and A< It12. The combined
~ circumferentialstress at the top edge of the wear plate should alsobe checked.
~ Whencheckingat this point: ts = shellthickness,
~ b = width of saddle
O = centralangleof the wearplate but not more
& than the includedangleof the saddleplus 12°
a If wear plate is u i sf o e rf m S d f u t l, t o ahn sio t chm k rb n5t er t esaa s k
L
~ s o t s u a h w h ue mten l hl f ie capl k r d nt ot re w vs e si o ,idt hwe d pd eth l e h
Q e qa l u b +e 1 a al. s s5 t t6 -
~ I t s i nh sh t e i tf o lm f f ee a nl sxehs tdi ot , m cra ut e ceh m ous t oshrs a s r d h t de
~ T s iht n br t ia e ot ds ts i s d n s preSSUK4reSS.
tt e h ee o rd n o ae l
Q I a s t i s f tf h em n aene xrhdi nl i g - mc lo mu epi rm ae ts s ib o n o o hs t ht s oet
U s t i r sf i f t ei c in r ece un m rh f be r gee n sft nei a etdl xir t cn em eg as e xh sd i s m
a l l so w t ar b e l se s .
90

STRESSESIN LARGEHORIZONTALVESSELSSUPPORTEDBYTWO
SADDLES

VALUESOF CONSTANTK
(Interpolate for IntermediateValues)

‘K, = 3.14 if the shellis stiffened by ring or head (A < R/2)

;ONTACT
ANGLE K2 K3 K5 K(5 K7
0

120 0.335 1.171 0.880 i 0.401, 0.760 0.603


122 0.345 1.139 0.846 0.393 0.753 0.618
124 0.355 1.108 0.813 0.385 0.746 0.634
126 0.366 1.078 0.781 0.377 0.739 0.651
128 0.376 1.050 0.751 0.369 0.732 0.669
130 0.387 1.022 0.722 0.362 0.726 0.689
132 0.398 0.996 0.694 0.355 0.720 0.705
134 0.409 0.971 0.667 0.347 0.714 0.722
136 0.420 0.946 0.641 0.340 0.708 0.740
138 0.432 0.923 0.616 0.334 0.702 0.759
140 0.443 0.900 0.319 0.592 0.327 0.697 0.780
142 0.455 0.879 For 0.569 0.320 See 0.692 0.796
144 0.467 0.858 Any 0.547 0.314 chart 0.687 0.813
146 0.480 0.837 Con- 0.526 0.308 on 0.682 0.831
148 0.492 0.818 Tact 0.505 0.301 facing 0.678 0.853
150 0.505 0.799 Angles 0.485 0.295 page 0.673 0.876
152 0.518 0.781 0 0.466 0.289 0.669 0.894
1 0.531 5 0.763 4 0.448 .0.283 ;.;;: 0.913
1 0.544 5 0.746 6 0.430 0.278 0.933
1 0.557 5 0.729 8 0.413 0.272 0:657 0.954
1 0 0 0 0 0.654 0
162 0.585 0.698 0.380 0.261 0.650 0.994
164 0.599 0.683 0.365 0.256 0.647 1.013
166 0.613 0.668 0.350 0.250 0.643 1.033
168 0.627 0.654 0.336 0.245 0.640 1.054
170 0.642 0.640 0.322 0.240 0.637 1.079
172 0.657 0.627 0.309 0.235 0.635 1.097
174 0.672 0.614 0.296 0.230 0.632 1.116
176 0.687 0.601 0.283 0.225 0.629 1.137
178 0.702 0.589 0.271 0.220 0.627 1.158
180 0.718 0.577 0.260 0.216 0.624 1.183
91

STRESSES IN LARGE HORIZONTALVESSELSSUPPORTEDBYTWO


SADDLES
VALUESOF CONSTANTK6

0.01

0 : 0 0 : 5
R A T I O

uA
92
STRESSESIN LARGEHORIZONTALVESSEIS SUPPORTEDBY‘IWO
SADDLES
EXAMPLECALCULATIONS

DesignData
L s 48 in. distancefrom tangentline
of head to the center of saddle
= 24 in. w o is ad d t d h l

I 21 in. depth of dish of head


960in. lengthof vesseltan.-tan.
= 250psi. internaldesignpressure
300,000lb. load on one saddle
60 in. outsideradiusof shell
1.00in. thicknessof shell
= 120deg.contact angle
SheI.1
material: SA515-70plate
o Allowablestress value 17,500 psi.
Yieldpoint 38,000 psi.
6“ Joint Efficiency: 0.85

LONGITUDINALBENDINGSTRESS (S,)

Stress at the saddles

~, ,A(.1-:jj:)3m,mx4(_l-~::;j~~)=522psi

K1R2t. = x 602x I

Stress at midspan

~:%(+:~j.2-%)3m*qxw(::~%)=4,,,psi

= =
nRzt, 3.14 x 602 x 1

S dt t i r
PR 2 xd
n pe t u r es e— r s s= ns— e ua o r l= 7e
5
p: S
0
s0
o
0 i
2t~ 2X1
Thes o t e nsu st 4959+
ir oe 75(XI
nsm =
as f12,459
le spsi :
It d n e o tx s coe v t eo hrta s eg et sl d i s 1 ehu srx7 . ae =,t 1f m
0e5 ph4 0: , 8 0 8 s 57
C o m ps r ei t ns fs r i soa en t oci sO t /sn1. os= 00t c Rr/ 0 . e 5>6 0 ; 10 7
93

STRESSESIN LARGEHORIZONTALVESSELSSUPPORTEDBYTWO
SADDLES
EXAMPLECALCULATIONS
(cont.)

TANGENTIALSHEARSTRESS(S,)

SinceA (48)>IV2(60/2),the applicableformula:

‘,=%L*H)= 1“’’;”:?*OOO ( :::3”.4:1 )=’$’mPsi


doesnot exceedthe s tv of
r ashellmaterialmultipliedby
e l s us e 0.8; 17,500x 0.8
= 14,000psi.

CIRCUMFERENTIAL STRESS

Stress at the horn of saddle (S4)


Since L (960)> 8R(480), A(48) > R/2 (60/2), the applicable formula:

s4=- Q .—3K6Q
4 t
A/R =48160 = 0.8; K = 0.036 (from chart)
300,000 3 X0.036X 300,000
s, ‘– = –18,279 psi
4 X 1 (24 + 1.56 d-) – 2t

S4 does not exceed the stress value of shell material multiplied by 1.5; 17,500 x 1.5
=26,250 psi
Stress at bottom of shell (Ss)
K, Q
Ss =—
r~ +1 ~ . . 5 6

S =– x 300,000 5=–6,319 psi


1(24 + 1.56 <~’)
% doesnot exceedthe compressionyieldpoint multipliedby 0.5; 38,000x0.5
= 19,000psi
94
STIFFENER RING
FOR LARGE HORIZONTAL VESSELS SUPPORTED BY
SADDLES

N O T A T I O N .
/ A = C s r e ac o t i rso n s ae l
II II 1 =
II l!
K =
( Q L o o os aI ad n = db dl ne
2 8@ R = R oa d i u s
=
@ =

A 1
S t r
~
R I ni s ni d ge .
C o m p r e s sS i oK ~ n 6K ~ =9 Q– Q.
a t S h h e l t e Il /
1 . ~ 5 + G 1 o- v e r n s

.
~ O u tn s i dK ge K .~ 5
9 sm Q Q
S at t r e s h s ~ s ~ ~t e = &
,– +
S h e l l
< % 5
c R O ui t s n i d ge .
Stress at the S K9Q
~ 6. K, ~QR = Es –
~ Saddle - ,r 3 d o t h f l/d
e “: ~
and Ring


- S h e l l w
G
R I ni s ni d ge .
Ss h. aK “ $ Q6 T Q
! j ~
t ~ ~ t ● K ~ –e 9
U w , + - + ! I = /
d
- 3
s 6 = - K # - K ’ :j ~ R
‘ c ! 3 $ ~ : : e
<
m“

and Ring +
95

STIFFENER RING
FOR LARGE HORIZONTAL VESSELS SUPPORTED BY
SADDLES

VALUES OF CONSTANT,K
(Interpolate for Intermediate Values)

Contact
Angle e 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800

K9 .34 .33 .32 .30 .29 .27 .25

K1o .053 .045 .037 .032 .026 .022 .017

NOTES:
1. In figures & fmrnulas A-F positive signs denote tensile stresses and negative
signs denote compression.
2. The first part of the formulas for S6 gives the direct stress and the second part
givesthe circumferential bending stress.
3. If the governing combined stress is tensional,. the stress due to internal
pressure, —PR shall be added.
$
CALCULATION OF MOMENTOF INERTIA (1)
1. Determine the width of shell that is effective to resist the circumferential
bending moment. The effective width = 1.56 ~~ ; 0.78 ~~
on both sides of the stiffener ring.
2. Divide the stiffener ring into rectangles and adculate the areas (a) of each
rectangles, including the area of shell section within the effective width. Add
the areas (a) total area = A,
3. Multiply the areas (a) with the distances (Y) from the shell to the center of
gravity of the rectangles. Summarize the results and denote it AY.
4. Determine the neutral axis of the stiffener ring,the distance (C) from the shell
to the neutral axis c = Amy

5. Determine the distances (h) from the neutral axis to the center of gravity of
each rectangle of the stiffener.
6. Multiply the square of distances (h2) by the areas (a) and summarize the
results to obtain AI-IZ
b d3
7. Calculate the moment of inertia Ig of each rectan~es Ig =~,where b =
the width and d = the depth of the rectangles.

8. The sum of AH2 and Z I gives the moment of inertia of the stiffener ring
and the effective area of the & en.
See example calculations on the following pages.
96
M O O MINERTIA(I)
E N OFTSTIFFENER~NGS
F
EXAMPLECALCULATIONS
A D I M EL I N I S IN O LN
C S H E N S
R=7 O U RT A
S O ISD D2 IH E U E S L F L

1= 0.78~x =
~ X =
11

X
i
1 -
A RI E A @
b2d: = 0.5 x 63 = ~.oo in. 4
1
1

b, = 9.86 d
+ ;

MARK I ‘AREA I

i R
a
E
Y
A
I
S
I
h I
I I
b
1

0 . . 9 1 2 13 . 5 .1 2 2. 3 7 35 0.10
. 1
0 4
@
= - =
A= –

~ I= 2 + = + = i 4 n
A — =
A

1=1.56 ~~ =
‘\
q ““”251-F%-’2’””25 x =

*
X
h,d; = in4
77-

=
12 1

MARK I AREA I b
a Y h a X h2

o
@
– =
A= – ‘

~ –- A – —
‘ O
=— 1 =” +l Y =
2 – s + = 4
A
MOMENTOF INERTIA (I) OF STIFFENER RINGS
EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS
ALLD1MENS1ONS ININCHES
R = 72 in. OUTSIDERADIUSOF SHELL

CJ 1 = 0.78 ~~
$ , 0.78 J72 X0.5 = 4.68
m
I I * A RI E A @
b, d: ~ o
12 “ “

* = x =g ~
12 “ ‘

— 4x0 . 5
12 = 12 =0 4 .

b
a h 2 —
Y
1
2
3
A= - = - = =
1
25.23
~ AY
‘—=
A
— = 2S4 I = AH 2 + Ig = 6 + 94l z 7 . i 34 0 . 3 n 1 .a 7
9 . 9 3

~ = 2— = 2~2 ” I. = A =9 2 + 7I =3 5 2+ 90 i 94 7 g 0 . 3 n 7 3
= 5 . .H 6
A 8 . 4 3
.“

D S

M A X
A R E

1 T s aa t hdl ods . hew


l m
e c eer t tuset ieh tso sr ni fi h z s( too Tn t et r~eaf l f c he ) c
c s r e o otc s t s ati r hosd te n dl s i lfhoei o te s oi oht at nv is er d hr as(R).
s e dsd efi
F=K1lQ,Where Q= the load on one saddle, lbs.
K,, = constantas tabulated.
Theaveragestressshallnot exceedtwothirdsofthe compressionyieldpoint ofthe
material.(See examplebelow.)
VALUES OF CONSTANT K,l
IntactA 120°
n g 130° l 140°
e 150° 160° 170° 180°
Kll .204 .222 .241 .259 .279 .298 .318

EXAMPLE:
Diameter of vessel= 8’- 6“
Weight of vessel= 375,000 lbs.
Q= 187,500 Ibs.
Saddle material: SA 285 C
Web plate thickness = 0.25 in.
Contact angle = 120°
Kl, = 0 f t a
R =5 =1 i
F F = K,, x 0.204 x Q187,500= 38,250
= lb.

To resist this force the effective area of web plate= lU3 x 0.25= 4.25 in.2
38,250/4.25 = 9,000 lbs. per square inch.
The allowable stress = ?4 x 30,000= 20,000 psi.
The thickness of the web plate is satisfactory for horizontal force (F).
2. The base plate and wear plate should be thick enough to resist longitudi-
nal bending over the web.
3. The web plate should be stiffened with ribs against the buckling.
99

E X P A AN C
S OI NO T
NNR A C T ID O N
O H O R I Z VO NE T SF
A LS E L S

A B
4

~ ~ BOLTS ~
2 2
– ~B O L T S QS A D D L E S
R
I

* - “ ++

EXPANDINGVESSEL CONTRACTING
VESSEL

For thermal expansion and contraction, one of the saddles, preferably the one
on the opposite side of the pipe connections, must be allowed to move. In this
saddle for the anchor bolts slots are to be used instead of holes. The length of
the slots shall be determined by the expected magnitude of the movement. The
coefficient of linear expansion for carbon steel per unit length and per degree
F = 0.0000067. The table below shows the minimum length of the slot. Dimen-
sion “a” calculated for the linear expansion of carbon steel material between 700F
and the indicated temperature. When the change in the distance between the saddles
is more than 3/8” inch long, a slide (bearing) plate should be used. When the
vessel is supported by concrete saddles, an elastic, waterproof sheet at least 1/4”
thick is to be applied between the shell and the saddle.

MINIMUM LENGTH OF SLOT (DIM. “a”)

a DISTANCE FOR TEMPERATURE oF


BETWEEN
H SAD-DLEs
Ft. -50 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

@ 10 0 0 0 1/4 3/8 3/8 1/2 5/8 3/4 3/4


20 0 0 1/4 3/8 5/8 3/4 1 1-1/8 1-1/4 1-3/8
z 30 1/4 1/8 3/8 5/8 7/8 1-1/8 1-3/8 1-5/8 1-5/8 2
:‘u ~
~
$ ~ 40 1/4 1/8 3/8 3/4 1-1/8 1-1/2 1-7/8 2-1/8 2-3/8 2-1/2
50 3/8 1/4 1/2 1 1-3/8 1-5/8 2-1/4 2-5/8 3 3-3/8
& 3-1/8 3-5/8 4-1/8
60 3/8 1/4 5/8 1-1/4 1-5/8 12-1/8 2-3/4
le width of 70 1 1 3 1 / 1/ - / 2 - 3 23 - 74 / 3 -4 1 / 84 - 1 / 84 5 /12 - /8
h s e ql u o a el t s
8 1 3 3 1 / 2/ - 0 / 2 - 1 23 - 18 / 4 -4 7 / 24 - 5 / 8 5 - 1 / 8 -7 / 8
h d o i a m e . f
n bc + ho 90 o l 5[8 r318 7/8
t 1-3/4 2-3/8 3-1/4 4 4-5/8 5-3/8 6
l y 4 1 * 5 33 0 1 1 [ 21 -0 3 - 7 84 - 58 / 5 - 5 / 86 - 1 / 8 6 1 / 8 - 12
S
FOR SUPPORT OF HORIZONTAL VESSELS

r - j’” i ‘“;
B
H O ] L E I “
H
G T I
H
\
Ii MH I

k ~ & E Q
‘- SUB PA
;~ LA : - LSC Y E &D- C: C ‘: J
E E
L : -

The design based on:


1. the vessel supported by two saddles
2. toresisthorizontal force (“)duetothemaximumo peratingweightofvessel
as tabulated.
3. the maximum allowable stress is % of the compression yield point: % of
30,000 = 20,000 psi.
4. the maximum allowable load on concrete foundation 500 psi.
5. the minimum contact angle of shell and saddle 120°.
Weld: %“ continuous fillet weld all contacting plate edges.
Drill and tap %“ weep holes in wear plate.
At the sliding saddle the nuts of the anchor bolts shall be hand-tight and secured
by tack welding.

SEE FACING PAGE FOR DIMENS1OIW


101

SADDLE

{OMN.U MAXIMUM
lwAMEITR OF
)F\EY$EL
c D E
F G H K

0 4 4 o-3~z !/Z o % ‘% 42,000


1-2 l-x 1-1 4 4 0-4 Y? o ‘h % - 50,000
1-4 1-2 1-2 4 4 0-5 Yl o % % - 56,000
1-6 1-3!L 1-3 4 4 0-6 % o N % - 62,000
1-8 1-5!4 1-4 4 4 O-6YZ V2 o % % - 70,000
1-1o 1-7 1-5 4 6 0-7 % o % % - 76,000
2-o 1-9 I-6 4 6 0-7% K o % % - 84,000
2-2 1-1OY2 1-7 4 6 0-8 !4 o % ‘/4 ‘A 90,000
2-4 2-2Y2 1-8 4 6 0-8% ‘/2 o ‘/2 % ‘% 98,000
2-6 2“2 1-9 4 6 0-9 % o % % % 104,000
2-8 2-4 1-1o 4 6 0-9!4 % o !4 % % 112,000
2-1o 2-5 1-11 6 11 0-1o l/2 o Y2 ‘A ‘/4 128,000
3-o 2-6% 2-o 6 11 0-11 !4 o % % ‘h 134,000
3-2 2-9 2-1 6 11 1-0 3/4 o 5 ‘/4 ‘A 144,000
3-4 2-11 2-2 6 11 1-1 3A o !4 210,000
3-6 3-!4 2-3 6 11 1-2 % o % 220,000
4-o 3-6 2-6 6 11 1-4 % o % 252,000
4-6 3-11 3-o 6 11 1-6 ‘h o % 3/8 3/8 282,000
5-o 4 3 6- 1 -1 4% 1 3- 3/4 13/8 8 3/8 312,000
5-6 4-9!4 3-6 6 11 1-1o % 1 % 344,000
6-O 5-25 3-9 9 18 2 % 1 % ‘ / 402,000 8
6-6 5-8 4-o 9 18 2-2 3/4 1 3/4 ‘/2 3/8 436,000
7-o 6-1 4-3 9 18 2-4 1 1 3/4 Yl 3/8 470,000
7-6 6-6 4-6 9 18 2-6 1 1 1 Y’ 502,000
8-O 6-1IY2 4-9 9 18 2-8 1 1 1 Y2 3/8 536,000
8-6 7-4% 5-o 9 18 2-10 1 2 1 % ‘/2 760,000
9-o 7-9% 5-3 9 18 3-O 1 2 1 ‘/2 !L? 806,000
9-6 8-3% 5-6 9 24 3-2 1 2 1 ‘h ‘/2 852,000
1o-o 8-8 5-9 9 24 3-4 1% 2 1 3/4 ‘/2 896,000
10-6 9-1% 6-O 9 24 3-6 1% 2 1 3/4 Y2 940,000
11-0 9-6!A 6-3 9 24 3-8 IK 21 % Y2 986,000
11-6 1o-o 6-6 9 24 3-lo 1% 31 ‘A % 1,030,000
12-O 10-5 6-9 9 24 4-o 1% 31 ?4 % 1,076,000
102
r
S V
LEG SUPPORT

NOTATION:
w,
W = Weight of vessel, lbs.
n = number of legs

Q = ~ Load on one leg, Ibs.


R = Radius of head, inch
H = Leverarmof load, inch.
2A, 2B = Dimensionsof wear plate
S = Stress, pound per sq. inch
t = wall thicknessof head, inch
K = Factors,see charts
Q C = inch
*
C = radius of circular wear plate, in
@lI’ El
D=1,82S E
Rtf
n
o

LONGITUDINALSTRESS:

Q R
[
C K (Kl + 6 OK2) + ; f ~ S(K3 + 6 K.)
1
CIRCUMFERENTIAL STRESS:

Q + 6 KG)+K H
cos a ( f (K7 +5 6 K8) ]
[ Rf

NOTES:
Positive values denote tensile stresses and negative values denote compression.
Computing the maximum tensile stresses, in formulas for S1 and S2, K,, K3, K5 and
K, denote negative factors and K2, Kq, KGand K8 denote positive factors.
Computing the maximum compression stresses, in formulas for SI and S2, K,, K2,
K3, K4, K5, KG, K, and K8 denote negative factors.
The maximum tensile stresses S1 and S2, respectively,PIUSthe tensilestressdue to ~
internal pressure shall not exceed the allowable tensile stress value of head material.
The maximum compression stresses S1 and S2, respectively,plus the tensile
due to internalpressure shall not exceedthe allowablecompressionstressvalueof
head material.
4
103

STRESSES IN VESSELS ON LEG SUPPORT

0.2OAO.6
0.81.01.2 1.5 2.0 3 4 .
D

& K5

020.40608101.2 1.5 2.0 4.0


D

VALUE OF Kz 8LKG
STRESSES IN VESSELS ON LEG SUPPORT

0.20

~
k
O

0
.0.2040.60.81.01.2 1 2 3.0 4.0
D

VALUE OF K3 8ZK,

0.60
0.50
k!?
-0.40
Q?
0.30

0.20

0.10

020.4060.81.012 1.5 2.0 3.0 4.0


D

VALUE OF Kz 8ZKg
105

STRESSES IN VESSELS ON LEG SUPPORT


EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS

DESIGN DATA
800,000 lb, weight of vessel
n = 4, numberof legs
w 800,000
Q d = 200,000 lb, load on one leg
R = 100 inch, rr,diusof head
H= 5 inch, leverarmof load
2A = 30 inch, 2B = 30 inch, dimensionsof wear plate
? = 1.8 inch thicknessof head
Cos~ = 0.800
P = 100
SA — 515–70
Allowable stress value: 17,500 psi
Joint Efficiency: 0.85
Yield point: 38,000 psi.
Factors K (see charts):
c= ~ = == 15 inch

K1 = 0.065, Kz = 0.030, K3 = 0.065, Kq = 0.025,


K5 = 0.020, K6 0.010, K, = 0.022, Kg = 0.010.

LONGITUDINAL STRESS:
1.) Maximumtensile stress:

200,000 5 100
S1 = 0.800 (–0.065 + 6 x 0.030) + — r —
1 [ . 8 2 100 1.8

(-0.065 + 6 X 0.025) = + 7,634 psi


1
The stress due to internal pressure:

—— 100 x 100
PR
= + 2778 psi
2t – 2 X 1.8
The sum of tensional stresses:
7.634 + 2.778 = 10,412 psi
It does not exceed the stress value of the girth seam:
17,500 x 0.85 = 14,875 psi
106

STRESSES IN VESSELS ON LEG SUPPORT

2.) Maximum compressional stress:

Q R
S1 = ~
[
cos ~ ( – K, – 6KZ) + g V
R
T( – K3 – 6KQ)
1
200,000 5 100
S1 = 0.800 ( –0.065 – 6 X 0.030) + — r
1.82 [ 100 G

The stress due to internal pressure:


( –0.065 – 6 X 0.025)
1 = – 17,0:44psi

PR
—— 100 x 100
= + 2778 psi
2t – 2 x 1.8
The sum of stresses:
– 17,044 + 2,778 = – 14,266 psi
It does not exceed the stress value of the girth seam:
17,500 x 0,85 = 14,875 psi

C i r c u m f es r e tn t ir a l e s s :
1.) Maximum tensile stress:

= ~Q
R
[
cos ~ ( –K5 + 6K6) + ; V ~ (–K7 + 15K8)
1
200,000 5 100
S2 = 0.800 ( –0.020 + 6 X 0.010) + — v
1.82 [ 100 =

(–0.022 + 6 X 0.010)
1 =+ 2,849 psi

The stress due to internal pressure:

PR
—= 100 x 100
= + 2778 psi
2t 2 X 1.8

The sum of tensile stresses:


2,849 + 2,778 = 5,627 psi
It does not exceed the stress value of the girth seam:
17,500 x 0,85 = 14,875 psi

2.) Maximum compressional stress:

= ~Q R
[
cos m ( – K5 – 6 K6) + ~
R r
7( –K7 – 6K8)
1
STRESSESIN VESSELSON LEG SUPPORT

200,000 5 100
S2 = 0.800 ( –0.020 – 6 X 0.010) + — v —
1.8Z [ 100 1.8

(–0.022 -6 x 0.010)
1 = -5,837 psi

The due to internal pressure:

—— 100 x 100 = + 2778 psi


PR
2t – 2 X 1.8

The sum of stresses:


– 5837 + 2778 = – 3,059 psi.
It does not exceed the stress value of the girth seam:
17,500 x 0.85 = 14,875 psi
. -

LEG SUPPORT

Notch out angles


to clear seam \
I
I
I

I \
I I
!
I ‘
I
I
I 8 +

“!!!!
I f; & ~“1 *
‘ A

1
SECTION A-A

V E S V S EE S L ANG.LE
S E L
D H I E M I GA SIZE
H
A T m XI a I x
2’-6”
3 X3 X3 f 84“ “ ° ,

5 ’ - 0 ”
10’-0” ~ X3 x .3 . 5/ 5 °68 ” ”

7 /
x x1 / 2 ”

x5 x 1 / 21 “ ” 0
7 ’ - 0 ”
6 X6 X5 1 81‘ “ “ ”- o

. —
109
— ... .

STRESSES IN VESSELS DUE TO


L S

U N S T I F F E N E D S T I F F E N E D
S H E L LS H E L L

N 2A, 2B = Dimensions of wear plate O


W = Weight of vessel, lb S = Stress, pound per sq. in
n = Number of lugs t = Wall thickness of shell, in
~=:. shape factor, see table
Load on one lug, lb Factors, see charts
K=
R = Radius of shell, in ~.d — 3 B
H = Lever arm of load. in R r A

LONGITUDINALSTRESS:
K2R D
,,. ~ E CIK1 + 6 — +
D R2t ( c2t 2 (1.17 + B/A) ‘~A )

N I t~ e S pnE t s s li : dt o tn hirun n e p1tu s rse ePe r s sns Res an o uhel / r x ae2 oc l t e


t s vt ohr as em lh as t etue s et i eerl f imff laoi hgcle i s ei s n e cer y a t fm

C I R C U M F E R E NS T I T
AL R E S S :
QH Kd R
‘2 = * DR2f
C3K3+ 6 —
( c4t )

NOTE: In tension S2 plus the stress due to internal pressure PR/t shall not exceed
the stress value of shell material multiplied by 1.5.
110

STRESSES IN VESSELS DUE TO LUG SUPPORT

0
0 0 0.10 0 0 0
n
VALUE OF K]
111

STRESSES IN VESSELS DUE TO LUG SUPPORT

0
0 0 0 0 0 0
(

VALUE OF Kz
112

STRESSES IN VESSELS DUE TO LUG SUPPORT

10

0
0 0 0 0 0 0
D

VALUE OF Kj
STRESSES IN VESSELS DUE TO LUG SUPPORT

0
0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0 0
VALUE OF K4 ( C

BIA R/t c, C2 C3 C’4

50 0.72 1.03 0.95 1.07


100 0.68 1.02 0.97 1.06
1/2
200 0.64 1.02 1.04 1.05
300 0.60 1.02 1.10 1.04
50 1 1 1 1
100 1 1 1 1
1
200 1 1 1 1
300 1 1 1 1
50 0.85 1.10 0.85 0.92
100 1.15 1.07 0.81 0.89
2
200 1.32 0.98 0.80 0.84
300 1,50 0.90 0.79 0.79

VALUE OF C
114

STRESSES IN VESSELS DUE TO LUG SUPPORT


—.

EXAMPLE CALCULATIONS
D E D S IA G TN A
W = 1,200,000lb. weight of vessel
n = 4 number of lugs
Q = : = 1,200,000 = 300,000 lb. load on one lug
4
R = 90 in, radius of shell
H = 5 in, leverarrn of load
2A = 30 in, 2Z? = 30 in, dimensions of wear plate
t = 1.5 in, thickness of shell
p = 100 psi internal pressure

Shell material:SA -515-70


Allowablestress value 17,500psi
Yield point 38,000 psi
Joint Efficiency:0.85

Shape factors C, (see table):


RI, = $ = 60, B/A = 15/15) = 1,0
c1 = C2 = CJ = C4 = 1.0

The factors K, (see charts)

K1 = 2.8,
w=
K2 = 0.025, K3 = 6.8

Kd = 0.021
’ = % = 6 0

L o n g i St u t d i r n ae l s s :
D
UR .~ _
, = &

( C,K1 +
2
6, ~ +
2 (1.17 + B/A) ‘x ~A )
~ = 300,000 x 5 , X228+ ~ 0.025 x 90 +
1 0.167 x 902 x 1.5 1 x 1.5
(
0.167 902
+ x – 11,795 psi
2 (1.17 + 15/15) 5 x 15 ) –

Stress due to internal pressure:


PR = 100 x 90 The sum of tensional stresses:
= 3000 psi 11,795 + 3000 = 14,795psi
z 2 x 1.5

It does not exceed the stress value of the girth seam:


17,500 x 0.85 = 14,875 psi
115

STRESSES IN VESSELS DUE TO LUG SUPPORT

C i r c u m f Se r e t n t ri a le s s :
QH KJ?
s~ = & C3K3 + 6
DR2t ( c~i )
300,000 x 5 0.021 x 90
s~ = 1 X 6.8 + 6 = 10,616psi
0.167 X 902 X 1.5 ( 1 x 1.5 )
Stress due to internal pressure:
PR
—= 100 x 90 - The sum of tensional stresses:
= 6000”psi
t 1.5 10,616 + 6000 = 16,616psi

It does not exceedthe stress value of shell materialmultipliedby 1.5:


17,500 x 1.5 = 26,250
116

L S
FOR INSULATEDVESSELS

r I [-
!1
J
L u’

Lb,d
--l,&
h

t
T
hl h
6(Y
t
3 _ _ _
ug
T
} V

4 a Ax l i l m
o wu a m b lD eI M E N S I O N S W oe i
L o One
o ~ a ~ ~ d ~n ~ ~ ~ ~ “O L L un
w
L L u bI g s 1 , . 1 F

1,400 6!/2 5 5% 3Y4 4 ~8 5% % ‘/4 7


2,200 674 5VZ 6 5 5% 5/8 5% ‘/4 ‘/4 9
3,600 8~4 63/4 7y4 6Y4 7 Y4 6?4 ‘/4 ‘/4 16
5,600 10Y4 83A 9Y4 9% 9y8 1 8Y2 ‘/4 1/4 24
9,000 12y* 14Y414% 1 10Y2 ~8 3/8 58
14,000 13y4 llfi 12V4 17 17Y8 1 1l!A % 3/8 72
22,000 15y2 13 1374 lg% 1878 %

90,000 22Y4 18!/2 19k 31 lti 18 388


140,000 25% 2072 21Y23478 3578 2 20 482

All dimensionsare in inches


Stressesin vessel shall be checked.
Use wear plate if necessary

I
117

L S
FOR UNINSULATEDVESSELS

J-
l

4
t
T
hl h
60°
j ‘L–
l

T
w ~
~ Ai l ml o uw a m bD lI M E N S I O N S W oe i g
L o Oo ~ a ~n ~ d ~ n e~ ~ ~ ~ O L L un b
w
L L u b1 g s I , . I F

1,400 2!4 2 2% 4 4?46 YJ4 1% %6 full 1


2,200 3!4 2Y2 3 5% 5?46 2 full 2
3,600 4 3y4 3?4 6~4 (jl~b 2Y?2 %6 full 4
5,600 53/4 5y4 6y4 974 10 1 4 1/4 ‘/4 9
9,000 7Y4 7 774 14~ 14%6 1 5% %6 ‘/4 21
14,000 9y~ 8~z 9y4 17 17%6 1 6ti %6 ‘/4 28
22,000 10 9y’ 10M 18 18y8 lti 7 3/8 ‘/4 45
36,000 12 11!4 2Y2 22 22Y2 1% 9 ‘/2 3/8 80
56,000 15 15 6V4 28H 29 !46 1Y2 12 y16 3/8 148
90,000 161/2 1574 7 31 y? 32yg 174 13 5/8 3/8 218
140,000 18 17% 8Y4 34Y2 3578 2 14 5/8 3/8 260

A d i m e al n i si i on rnl cs h e n s
S t ir v e es s bs hce shs a ee nc l l k el de ,
U w p ies nl e aca e e st r s ae r f y
L

I
. . — — —
.&
I J

VESSEL D R H L WELD
WEIGHT (IN) (1:) (IN) (IN) (IN) (Min)
(LBS)
1 ~/~ 1v? 5 10 co
12,000 .-- _
&J~
~.=
20,000 1% 3/4 2 6 10 gL
30,000 1% 1 2Y8 6 10 &s

50,000 1% 1% 2YI 7 12 25
70,000 2% 1 3Y2 8 12
100,000 2Y? 172 4Y2 9 16 .5 ~
%-
b=
150,000 3 11/4 5 10 16 EL
4 2 6 12 18 as
200,000 =5
250,000 4% 2 6Yz 13 18 ~ “~
300,000 4fi 21/! 7 14 20

Notes:
1. All dimensionsare in inches
2. The design is based on conditions:
a. x = 45° “maximum
b. Minimumtensile strengthof lug material 70,000 psi.
c. Direction of force is in the plane of lugs.
3, U wear plate ifs necessary to eliminate
e buckling due to normal or sudden
loading.
LIFTINGATTACHMENTS

f-h

MINIMUMDIMENSIONSOF LIFTINGLUGSUSINGSHACKLE
Sh~~kle HoIe Sheared Rdl;d
~~;d Diam. Edge Arm of
Di~m. m Lug cut Mo~ent
D1 H A B

710 5/16
1060 3/8 I /,-” , .4U I .[> I I I u-l/
1600
1 1 1 ./

-%/
7/16
. J- 1 - ,-
- I1
.,117 Al
.U4 I
I
cl?
.OL 1
1
1/0 I
-1” 1
I
. . ,

I l I 5 / .69u / L .90 8 1-1/8 718 1.44


282(-)I
- SIR
- 21A
-I II -.94 1.22 1-1/4 1
. --
1.75
:
7/8 I 1.13 1.47 1-1/2 1-118 2.12
:
63’75 7/$? 11 1 la I 1 cc

‘ ‘“’A ‘m
11300 1-1/8 1-1/4 ] ..<” I 1.72 4-1\+ 1-3175 Z.Y4 -
13400 1-1/4 1-2IQ 1L - 2
-1
16500 1-3[8
A u 1 .U2 L
I a - /. ,
L
I .
I‘ 3.06
I J
1-1/2 1.75 2.28 2-5/8 1--‘-
!LB 13.62
20000 1-1/2 1-5/8 1.88 2.45 2-7/8 2 II4.06
23750 1-518 1 9 1A
1-d/+ A . ,- - —.
>-l/ 1 2 1 4 - . 3 6
32350 2 2 - 2 1 . 2/ 82 . 3 5- 9 2 3 -34 / 5 .4 /
4 22 5- 2 01 - 02/ 3 4 . 3/ 85 . 4 6- 3 31 35 / .8
5 42 0- 2 01 - 02/ 5 2 . 3/ 88 . 4 1
- 6 39 / -66 1 1 .6 /
6 72 3 6 2 0 / - 02 7 4. 31 . 89 . 5- 48 2 / 1A 12— 7. . Q 0
8 1 3 0 0
3-1;8 0 5-7/;6 ;:;f ‘:” I‘ 8:
. “ - - . l .
Y j
I
A d i m ei l ni s ni oc nl hs e s n .

I
120

LIFTINGATTACHMENTS
(cont.)

RECOMMENDED MATERIAL: A 515-70, A 302 or equivalent. The thickness,


and length of the lifting lug shall be determined by calculation.’
WELD: When fillet welds are used, it is recommended that throat areas be at
least 50 per cent greater than the cross sectional area of the lug.
To design the lugs the entire load should be assumed to act on one lug.
All possible directionsof loadingshould be considered(during shipment,storage,
erection, handling.) When two or more lugs are used for multileg sling, the am
gle between each leg of the slingand the horizontal should be assumedto be 30
degrees.
EYE - BOLT
Threaded fasteners smaller
than 5/8” diameter should
not be used for lifting

r
because of the danger of
overtorquingduringassembly.
w Commercial eyebolts are
supplied with a rated break-
ing strength in the X
direction.
For loadingsother than along
the axis of the eyebolt, the
following ratings are recomm-
ended. Theseare expressed
as percentage of the rating
in the axialdirection.
100%0 Y = 33%
z= 20% w = 10%
EXAMPLE:
An eyeboit of 1 in. diameter which is good for 4960 lb. load in tension(direction
x) can carryonly 4960x 0.33 = 1637lb. load if it acts in directiony.
The abovedimensionsandrecommendationsare takenfromC. V.Moore:Designing
Lifting Attachments,Machine Design, March 18, 1965.


Assuming shear load only thru the minimum section, the required thickneas
may be calculated by the formula:
R
I P where t = required thickness of lug, in.
t = 2S (R-DIP) P = load, Ibs.
S = allowable shear stress, psi.
6 see page for designofweldand lengthofW.
121

SAFELOADSFOR ROPESANDCHAINS

The stress in ropes and chains under load is increasing with the reduction of the
angle between the sling and the horizontal. Thus the maximum allowable safe
load shall be reduced proportionally to the increased stress.

If the ailowable load for a single vertical rope is divided by the cosecant of the
angle between one side of the rope and the horizontal, the result will indicate
the allowable load on one side of the inclined sling.

Example:

The allowable load for a rope in vertical position is 8000 lb. If the rope applied
to an angle of 30 degrees, in this position the allowable load on one side will be
8000/cosecant 30 deg. = 8000/2 = 40001b. Forthetwo-rope sling the total
allowable load 2 times 4000 = 8000 lb. The table shows the load-bearing capacity
of ropes and chains in different positions. Multiplying with the factors shovm in
the table the allowable load for a certain rope or chain, the product will indicate
the allowable load in inclined position.

FACTORSTO CALCULATESAFELOADSFOR ROPESANDCHAINS

L . A AA &
Angle of 9(30 600 450 300 1(-JO
Inclination
On One 0.50 0.17
1.00 0.85 0.70
End

On Two – 1.40 1.00 0.34


1.70
Ends
122

O P
externalpiping is connectedto the vessel,the scope of the Code includes:
(a) the weldingend comection for the first circumferentialjoint for welded
connections
(b) the first threadedjoint for screwedconnections
(c) the face of the first flangefor bolted, flangedconnections
(d) the first sealingsurface for proprietaryconnectionsor fittings
CodeU-l(e)(1)

SHAPEOF OPENINGS:
Openingsin pressure vessels shall preferablybe circular,ellipticalor obround.An
obroundopeningis onewhichis formedby twoparallelsidesand semicircularends.
Theopeningmadeby apipeor acircularnozzle,theaxisofwhichisnotperpendicular
tothevesselwallorhead,maybeconsideredanellipticalopeningfordesignpurposes.
Openingsmaybe of shapesotherthan the above. (See CodeUG-36.)

SIZEOF OPENINGS:
Properlyreinforcedopeningsare not limitedas to size,but, whenthe openingin the
head of a cylindershell is largerthan one half the inside diameterof the head, it is
recommendedto use in place of heads, shell reducer sectionsas shownin the Code
FigureUG-36,

NOZZLENECK THICKNESS(CodeUG-45)
For vesselsunder internalpressurethe wallthicknessof openingnecks shall not be
less than:
(1) the thickness computedfor the applicableloadingsin UG-22 on the neck
(pressure,reaction of piping, etc.), plus corrosionallowance.
(2) forotherthan accessandinspection openingsshallnotbe lessthanrequired
for the applicableloadingsand not less than the smallestof the following:
(a) the thickness of the shell or head (to which the opening is attached),
required for internal pressure (assuming E = 1), p c o l r a r oul s l i
a b nf w c evu e ol ei n d, cs tle s rt ad e 1e ihl s / ns o a e n1 s n
(b) t m i tn h h i i omcs kut e naw
m e np s dp sa ac i or lf lrd a pr l oul l so e w
i soa
The minimumthicknessof a pipe (ANSI/AB36.1OM)is the nominal
thicknessless 12.5percent allowabletolerance(see page 140).

1 —
123

I O

All pressure vessels for use with compressed air and those subject to internal
corrosion, erosion or mechanical abrasion, shall be provided with suitable
manhole, handhole, or other inspection openings for examination and cleaning.
The required inspection openings shown in the table below are selected from the
alternatives allowed by the Code, UG46, as they are considered to be the most
economical.

INSPECTION OPENINGSARENOTREQUIRED:
INSIDE 1NSPECTION
DIAMETER OPENING 1. for vessels 12 in. or less inside diameter
OFVESSEL REQUIRED if there are at least two minimum %
in. pipe size removable connections.
2. for vessels over 12 in. but less than
16 in. inside diameter, that are to be
over 12 in. two - 1% in. installed so that they must be discon-
less than 18 in. pipe size threaded nected from an assembly to permit
I.D. opening inspection, if there are at least two
removable connections not less than
1% in. pipe size. UG46(e).
3. for vessels over 12 in. inside diameter
min. 15 in. I.D. under air pressure which also contain
18 in. manhole other substances which will prevent
to 36 in. or corrosion, providing the vessel non-
two -2 in. tains suitable openings through which
inclusive
pipe size threaded inspection can be made conveniently,
I.D. and providing such openings are equiv-
opening
alent in size and number to the require-
ment of the table. UG-46(C).
min. 15 in. I.D. 4. for vessels(not over 36 in. I.D.) which
over manhole are provided with teltale holes (one
or hole min. per 10 sq. ft.) complying
36 in. withthe provisionsof the CodeUG-25,
I.D. two -6 in.
pipe sizenozzle which are subject only to corrosion
and are not in compressedair service.
UG-46(b).
The preferablelocation of smallinspectionopeningsis in each head or near each
head.
In place of two smaller openingsa singleopening may be used, provided it is of
such size and location as to afford at least an equal view of the interior.
Compressed air as used here is not intended to include ~ which has had moisture
removed to the degree that it has an atmospheric dew point of -50 F or less. The
manufacturer’s Data Report shall include a statement “for non-corrosive service”
and Code paragraph number when inspectionopeningsare not provided.
NOZZLENECKTHICKNESS
The wall thickness of a nozzle neck or other connection used as access or
inspection opening only shall not be less than the thicknesscomputed for the
applicableloadingsplus corrosion allowance.
.1 2- 4.

O W R P
Below the most commonly used types of welded attachments are shown. For other
typessee Code, Fig. UW-16.I.
125

O W R
B the
e l o w
THREADED AND WELDED FITTINGS

T F I BGH USE R T L E
HE
M SOC OOOHW M UM WS TO E N S OT
YLW Y EPE LE D D
C O N N E C
S T CI O FN SO
UE. WI F D-~ G 1E T E6HO .Y. 1EP R ER

N O T A T I O N

a=~ t o ( ) w .h i3i tc 7 sh , m
5e. r via , hel rl e sn s et , .
+ = 1 t
- t i s 1 mm o /at ht loe 41 li se se t n f , . r .
o = the smallestof t, t. or 0.375in.
r
b= no minimumsizerequirement
c = the smallest o to 1 i 1 n f r 2 .
d=t t h i o cSh k1 pn ew cse i i 6s a plf h n 0l e , .
e = the smallestof t o 3/4in.
t = t h i o vc k we n l es ac s sos e lr ae r l f lolls ois w , i aos nn cn e ,
t =n o t mh i io fc n ki wan. tl el ct sa o sie r a nrl l fol gs ois wil aos nn cn e

T w s d ehi e h fzla ti eem


e nd i es r rn ehd qi u im
e r e u me em n t s .

S N O ~EF A PE C E IAS N N GG E

. .
THREADED AND WELDED FITTINGS

T F I BGH U$E R T L H
EE
M SOC OOO HW M UM WS TO E NS OTYLW Y EPE LE D D S E
C O N N E CS T CI O FN SO
UE. I1WF D O- GE T
1TE O 6 Y .H . PE R ER S

SEENOTATIONON FACINGPAGE:
GJ a
I I
318in.
min.

t t
7: %+
d

s 3i i z ne
Dm = o ud a it o asp m+i 3 exidi t e e pr/ n f e 4 .
— . . -
FITTINGS NOT EXCEEDING 3 IN. PIPE SIZE.
In somecasestheweldsare exemptfromsizerequirements,or fittingsandboltingpads
maybeattachedtothevesselsby filletwelddepositedfiomthe outsideonlywithcertain
limitations(CodeUW-16 (f) (2) and (3)) such as:
1. The maximumvesselthickness:3/8 in.
2. Themaximumsizeofthe openingis limitedtothe outsidediameterof the attached
pipe plus 3Ain.
3. Theweldthroatshall bethe greateroftheminimumnozzleneckthicknessrequired
by the CodeUG-45(a)or that necessaryto satisfythe requirementsof UW 18for
the applicableloadingsof UG 22.
4. Theweldingmayeffectthe threadsof couplings.It is advisabletokeep the threads
aboveweldingwith a minimumY’in. or cut the threads after welding.
5. Strengthcalculationof attachmentsis not requiredfor attachmentsshownin Figs.
A, C and E, and for openings:
3 in. pipe size fittingsattachedto vessel walls of 3/8 in. or less in thickness,2 in.
pipe size fittings attached to vessel walls over 3/8 in. in thickness. (Code UG-
36(c)(3)).
128
1
SUGGESTED MINIMUM
EXTENSION OF OPENINGS

The tables give the approximate minimum outside projection of openings. When
insulation or thick reinforcing pad are used it may be necessary to increase these
dimensions.
OUTSIDEPROJECTION,INCHESUSINGWELDINGNECKFLANGE
NOM. PRESSURERATINGOF FLANGELB
PIPE
150 300 600 900 I 1500 2500
SIZE

2 6 6 6 8 8 8
3 6 6 8 8 8 10
4 6 8 8 8 8 12
6 8 8 8 10 10 14
8 8 8 10 10 12 16
10 8 8 10 12 14 20
12 8 8 10 12 16 22
14 8 10 10 14 16
16 8 10 10 14 16
18 10 10 12 14 18
20 10 10 12 14 18
24 10 10 12 14 20

OUTSIDEPROJECTION,INCHESUSINGSLIPONFLANGE
NOM. PRESSURERATINGOF FLANGELB
PIPE 900 1500 2500
150 300 600
SIZE

2 6 6 6 8 8 8
3 6 6 8 8 8 10
4 6 8 8 8 10 10
6 8 8 8 10 12 12
8 8 8 10 10 12 12
10 8 8 10 12 12 14
12 8 10 10 12 12 1
14 10 10 10 12
16 1 1 1 12
18 10 10 12 12
20 10 10 12 12
24 10 12 12 12

INSIDE EXTENSION
a

& a c - S f d n -lc e uM o i sue n tx hi t m E


te tnxu stf meir eon i ns n pi of e ooo rn
P c t ti tupt hc u e r t vh of aew t eu o rle o e d o o i p n t r u g hr
129

R O E
D F I P

Single, welded openings not subject to rapid fluctuationin pressure do not require
reinforcing if they are not larger than:
3 inch pipe size - in vessel wall 3/8 in. or less.
2 inch pipe size in vessel wall over 3/8 in. (Code UG-36 (c) (3).
Largervesselopeningsthantheaboveshallbereinforced.Therules
for reinforcementof openingsare takenfromthe Code,UG-26 f
throughUG-44,andareintendedtoapplyprimarilytoopeningsnot
exceedingthefollowing:
Forvessels60in.indiameterandless:%thevesseldiameter,butnot
>
to exceed20 in.
Forvesselsover60in.indiameter:%thevesseldiameter,butnotto
exceed40 in. Largeropeningshouldbegivenspecialattentionas
Fig.A describedin CodeAppendix1-7.
Hereisgivena briefoutlineofreinforcement designforbetterunderstanding
oftheprocedure
describedin thefollowingpages.
Thebasicrequirementis thataroundtheopeningthevesselmustbereinforcedwithanequal
amountofmetalwhichhasbeencutout for the opening.The reinforcementmaybe an integral
part of the vessel and nozzle or may bean additionalreinforcingpad. (Fig. A.)
This simple rule, however,needs further refinementsas follows:
1. It is not necessaryto replacethe actuallyremovedamountof metal,but only the amount
which is requiredto resist the internalpressure.@). This requiredthicknessof the vessel
at the openingsis usually less than at other points of the shell or head.
2. The plate actually used and nozzle neck usually are thicker than would be required
accordingto calculation.The excessin the vesselwall (Al) and nozzlewall (AJ serveas
reinforcements.Likewisethe insideextensionofthe opening(Aj) andthe areaof the weld
metal (AJ) can also be taken into considerationas reinforcement.
3. The reinforcementmust be within a certain limit.
4. The areaof reinforcementmustbe proportionallyincreasedif its stressvalueis lowerthan
that of the vessel wall.
.5. The area requiredfor reinforcementmust be satisfiedfor all planesthroughthe center of
opening and normalto vessel surface.
The required cross sectionalarea of the reinforcementshall then be:
The required area for the sell or head to resist the internalpressure, (A).From this area
subtractedthe excessareaswithinthe limit(Ai.4zAj AJ). If the sumof the areasavailable
for reinforcement(AJ+A?+Aj +A,) is equalor greaterthan the area to be replaced, (A),
the opening is adequately reinforced. Otherwise t difference must h be supplied by e
reinforcingpad (AJ).
Somemanufacturersfollowa simplepracticeusingreinforcingpadswith a cross-sectionalarea
which is equal to the metal area actually removed for the opening.This practice results in
oversizedreinforcement, butwiththeeliminationof calculationstheyfind it moreeconomical.
130
1
REINFORCEMENT FOR OPENINGS
DESIGN FOR INTERNAL PRESSURE
(continue@j
1. AREA OF REINFORCEMENT
For vesselsunder internalpressurethe total cross-sectional
area required for reinforcementof openingsshall
— not be
less than:
A = d XI,, where
u d
d= the insidediameterof openingin its corrodedcondition,
inches.
f

t, = the requiredthicknessof shell or head computedby the


applicableformulasusingE = 1.0whenthe openingis in
solidplateor in a categoryBjoint. Whenopeningpasses
throughanyotherweldedjoint, E= the efilciencyof that
joint. When the opening is in a vessel which is radio-
graphicallynot examined,E = 0.85 for type No. 1joint
and E = 0.80 for type No. 2 joint.
When the opening and its reinforcement are entirely
withinthe sphericalportionof a flangedanddishedhead,
D t, is the thickness required by the applicable formulas
usingAl= 1.
Whentheopeningis ina cone,t, isthe thicknessrequired
for a seamlesscone of diameter,D measuredwhere the
nozzle axis intersectswith the wall of the cone.
Whentheopeninganditsreinforcementare ina2: 1ellip-
I-Q--l soidal head and are located entirelywithin a circle the
centerof whichcoincideswiththe centerof the head and
the diameter of which is equal to 0.8 times the head
E diameter,t,is the thicknessrequiredfor seamlesssphere
~ 0.8D , of radius 0.9 times the diameterof the head.
If the stress value of the opening’smaterial is less than
that of the vesselmaterial,the required area A shall be
increased.(See next page for examples.)
f 2. AVAILABLEAREASOF
i REINFORCEMENT
NC!?@
r ’ Area of excessthicknessin
) the vessel wall (t—t,)d or
+ ~2
(t–t,)(t,, use the largervalue, square inches,
If the stress value of the opening%material is less than
that of the vessel material, area AI shall be decreased.
(See next page for examples.)
Areaof excessthicknessinthenozzlewall (’t,,— h,)5t or
5t,,use — the smaller value, square inches.
(L-t,,,)
Area ofinside extension ofnozzle square inches (t,,-@2h.
Area of welds,square inches.
IfthesumofA, A2AJandA~is lessthanthe area forrein-
ud forcementrequired,A the differencemustbe suppliedby
reinforcingpad.
131
. .

REINFORCEMENT FOR OPENINGS


DESIGN FOR INTERNAL PRESSURE
(continued)
G 3. LIMITSOF REINFORCEMENT
xx Themetal usedas reinforcementmustbe located within the
k R limits. n
trn The limitmeasuredparallelto the vesselwall~= dor R. + t.
+ t, use larger value.
t Y
—, R 1, The limit measured parallel to the nozzle wall Y= 2.5 tor 2.5t., ,
use smallervalue.
troy When additional reinforcing pad is used, the limit, Yto be
d
+ measuredfromthe outsidesurfaceof the reinforcingpad.
NOTATION: Rn=insideradius of nozzle in corrodedcondition,inches.
t= thicknessoftheves- For other notations,see the precedingpage.
selwalllesscorro-
sion allowance, 4. STRENGTHOF REINFORCEMENT
inches. If the strengthof materialsin AI Az Aj AJ and A5 or the
t,= seepreceedingpage
materialofthe reinforcingpad are lowerthanthat of the vessel
1.= nominalthickness material,their area consideredas reinforcementshall be pro-
of nozzlewallirre-
spectiveofproduct portionately decreased and the required area, A in inverse
formles~co~osion proportionincreased.Thestrengthofthe depositedweldmetal
allowance,inches. shallbe consideredas equivalentto the weakermaterialof the
tm= requiredthickness joint.
Of;fy:;:sno=’e It is advisableto useforreinforcingpadmaterialidenticalwith
h= dist~nce riozzle the vesselmaterial.
projectsbeyondthe No credit shall be taken for additional strengthof reinforce-
innersurfaceofthe ment havinghigher stress value than that of the vessel wall.
vesselwalllesscor-
rosion allowance, EXAMPLES:
inches. 1. a. The stress value of nozzle material: 15,000psi.
c = corrosion allow- The stress value of shell material: 17,500 psi.
ance,inches. Ratio 15,000/17,5000 = 0.857
d= seeprecedingpage. To the required area, A shalI be added:
+ 2tMX (1Q 0.857)
b. From the area AI shall be subtracted:
—2t. (1— 0.857)
H
fn(f-1, ) 2. Usingidenticalmaterialforthevessel andreinforcingpad,
r f“ the requiredarea for reinforcementis 12 square inches.
Im If the stress value of vessel material= 17,500psi.,
TF
the stress value of the nozzle material= 15,000psi.,
\ --- I- ratio 17,500/15,000= 1,167
---
tr Inthisproportionshallbe increasedtheareaofreinforcing
I --- I pad:
12x 1.167= 14.00square inches.
P t. x t,
132

REINFORCEMENT FOR OPENINGS


DESIGN FOR INTERNAL PRESSURE
(continued

DESIGN FOR EXTERNAL PRESSURE.


The reinforcement required for openings in single-walled vessels subject to external
pressure need be only 50 percent ofthat required for internal pressure where t,isthewall
thicknessrequiredbytherulesforvesselsunderextemalpressure.CodeUG-37(d) (l).
REINFORCEMENTOF OPENINGSFOR EXTERNALPRESSURE.
The cross-sectionalarea (A)of reinforcementrequiredfor openingsin vesselssubject
to externalpressure:

/4=
dxt ~
where
ii= Diameter in the givenplane of the openingin its corrodedcondition,inches.
1,= The wall thicknessrequired for externalpressure,inches.
F = Factor for computation of the required reinforcement area on different planes
(as the pressure-stress varies) when the opening is in cylindrical shell or cone
and integrally reinforced. For all other configurations the value of F = 1


1-JJ

REINFORCEMENT OF OPENINGS
EXAMPLES

EXAMPLE 1. DESIGNDATA:
Insidediameterof shell: 48 in.
t“ Designpressure:250 psi at 200°F.
tr Rn ShellMaterial: SA-285-C
n
S 13,800 psi = t= 0.265 in. ,
~ I - The vessel is spot radiographed
tr t No allowancefor corrosion
I Nozzle material:SA-53-B
I “ S=15,000 psi. tn=0.432 in.
T Nozzle nom. size: 6 in.
* P? Extensionof nozzle insidethe vessel: 1.5 in.
+ d h = 2.5t~= 2.5 x 0.432 = 1.08in.
h w The nozzle does not pass through seams.
Fillet weld size: 0.375 in.

Wall thicknessrequired:
for shell,t ‘SE 6P = 250 X24 = 0.440 in.
—. 13,800X 1.0-0.6X
250 X 2.88
for nozzle, tm=~*p = = 0.048 in.
15,000X 1.0-0.6X 250

AREAOF REINFORCEMENTREQUIRED
A,= dt, = 5.761 x 0.440= 2.535 sq. k.

AREA OF REINFORCEMENT AVAILABLE


A,= (Excess in shell.) Larger of following:
(t–tr)d = (0.625-0.440) x 5.761 or 1.066Sq.in.
(t-t,) (...+ ~ 2 = (0.625-0.440)x (0.432+ 0.625)x2= 0.391 sq. in.
Az = (Excessin nozzle neck.) Smallerof following:
(tn–tm)5t = (0.432—0.048)x 5 x 0.625 = 1.200 s i q n . .
(tn–tm)5tn= (0.432-0.048) X5 X0.432 = 0.829 sq. in.
(No credit for additionalstrengthof nozzlematerialhaving
higherstress valuethan that of the vesselwall.)
Aj = (Insideprojection.)t. x 2h = 0.432 x 2 x 1.08=
0.933 sq. in.
A,= (Area of fillet weld) 0.3752 0.140 Sq.in.
Aj = (Areaof fillet weld inside)0.3752 0.140 Sq.in.

TOTALAREAAVAILABLE 3.108 sq. in.


Sincethis area is greaterthan the area required for
reinforcement,additionalreinforcementis not needed.
134

REINFORCEMENT OF OPENINGS
EXAMPLES

EXAMPLE 2. DESIGN DATA:


Inside radius of shell: R =24 in.
t“ Designpressure:P = 300 psi at 200° F.
Shellmaterial: t= 0.500 in. SA-516-70plate,
tr n S = 17,500psi
I The vessel is spot examined
tr ~ There is no allowancefor corrosion
Nozzle nominal size: 6 in.
Nozzle material: SA-53 B
J T S = 15,000 psi. t.= 0.432 in.
Extensionof nozzle insidethe vessel: 1.5 in.
! Fillet weld size inside:0.500 in.;
h Fillet weld size outside: 0.625 in.
Ratio of stress values: 15,000/17,500= 0.857

Wall thickness required:


Shell, t,= ‘R =
300 X 24 = 0.416 in.
SE - 0.6P 17,500X 1-0.6X300
300 X 2.88
Nozzle, t,.= sap
-. = = 0.058 in.
15,000X 1.0-0.6 X 300
Since the strength of the nozzle material is lower than that of the vessel mate-
rial, the required area for reinforcement shall be proportionally increased and
the areas available for reinforcement proportionally reduced.
AREA OF REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED
~ = dt, = 5.761 X 0.416= 2.397 sq. in.
Area increased:+2tnxt,(1-15,000/17,500) =
2 x 0.432x 0.416 (1-0,857)= 0.051 sq. in. 2.448 sa. in.
AREAOF REINFORCEMENT AVAILABLE
Al = (Excess in shell.)Largerof the following:
(1- t,)d= (0.500- 0.416)x 5.761= 0.484 s i o q n . .
(t-t,) (t.+ t,)2=(0.500-0.416) x (0.432 + 0.500)x 2 ‘O.156sq. in.
Area reduced:-2 x t.(t-t,) (1-0.857)=
-2 x 0.432x (0.500-0.416)(1-0.857)= -0.010 sq. in. 0.474 sq. in.
A2=(Excess in nozzleneck.) Smallerof following:
(t.- t,n)5t= (0.432-0.058)5X 0.500= 0.935
(t.- t,n)5tn= (0.432-0.058)5 X 0.432= 0.808
Area reduced: 0.857 x 0.808 = 0.692 sq. in.
Since the strength of the nozzle is lower than that of the shell,
a decreased area shall be taken into consideration.
15,000/17,500 = 0.857, 0.857 X 0.808 = 0.692 sq. in.
,43= (Insideprojection.)tnx 2A= 0.432 x 2 x 1.08‘0.933
Area decreased0.933 x 0.857 = 0.800 sq. in.
AJ‘(Area of fillet weld)2 x 0.5 x .6252x 0.857= 0.334 sq. in.
~j ‘(Area of fillet weld inside)2 x 0.5 x .5002x 0.857 = 0.214 sa. in.
TOTALAREAAVAILABLE 2.514 SCI.in.
Additionalreinforcementnot required.
135

REINFORCEMENT OF OPENINGS
EXAMPLES

EXAMPLE 3. DESIGNDATA:
Insidediameterof shell:48 in.
Designpressure:300 psi at 200° F.
t“
Shellmaterial:0.500 in. SA-516-60plate,
trn The vesselfidlyradiographed,E = 1
There is no allowancefor corrosion
tr Nozzlenominalsize: 8 in.
Nozzie material:SA-53B, 0,500 in. wall
t Extensionof nozzle insidethe vessel: 0.5 in.
r The nozzledoes not pass throughthe main
# + seams.
h d t
of fiilet welds 0.375 in. (Reinforcement
u pad to nozde neck.)

Wall thicknessrequired:
300 X 24 = 0.486 in.
Shell t,= ‘R
SE– O.6P = 15,000X 1-0.6X300
300 X3.8125
Nozzle, t,. = SAP
—. = = 0.077 in.
15,000X ].0–0.6 X300

AREAOF RE~FORCEMENT REQUIRED


A = dx [,= 7.625 X 0.486= 3.706 sq. in.

AREAOF REINFORCEMENT AVAILABLE


AI = (Excess in shell.)Largerof the following:
(t -t, )d= (0.500 - 0.486) 7.625= 0.106 sq. in.
or (t - [, ) (t. + t) 2 = (0.500-0,486)(0.500+ 0.500)2 ‘0.028 sq. in.
Az =(Excess in nozzle neck.) Smallerof following:
@-t,.)5t = (0.500-o.077)5x 0.5 = 1.058or
(tn–tr.)5t. = (0.500-0.077)5X0.5= 1.058 1.058sq. in.
A3= (Insideprojection.)L x 2h = 0,500 x 2 x 0.5 = 0.500 sq. in.
AJ ‘ o f w 0 0.141 sa. in.
(The area of pad to shell weld disregarded)
TOTALAREAAVAILABLE 1.805 SQ.in.
Thisareais lessthantherequiredarea,thereforethedifferenceshallbe provided
byreinforcingelement.itmaybeheaviernozzlenec~ kirgerextensionofthenozzle
insideofthevesselor reinforcingpad.Usingreinforcingpad,therequiredareaof
pad:3.706–1.805=1.901sq,in. UsingO.375in.SA-516-60plateforreinforcing
padthe widthofthe pad 1.901/0.375=5.069in.
Theoutsidediameterof reinforcingpad: Outsidediameterof pipe: 8.625
widthof reinforcingpad: 5.069
13.694in.
136

STRENGTH OF ATTACHMENTS
JOINING OPENINGS TO VESSEL

At the attachments, joining openings to the vessel, failure


a may occur through the welds or nozzle neck in the combi-
b nations shown in figures A and B.
The strength of the welds and the nozzle neck in those
combinations shall be at least equal to the smaller of:
P c
1. Thestrength intensionofthecross-sectionalareaofthe
P o p s o sfa i a bt i l elementof
lhe u s reinforcementbeing
r f e considered,or
1.
2 T h r a o un g
2. hdThe strengthin tensionofareaxf
.@ @ )
(A = ~ f less the ,
strengthin tensionofthe excessinthe vesselwall @j.
The allowablestressvalueof the weldsis the stressvalue
a of the weakermaterialconnectedby the weldsmultiplied
e by the followingfactors:
i b Groove-weldtension 0.74
c Groove-weldshear 0.60
& Fillet-weldshear 0.49
Possiblepathsoffailure The allowablestressvalueof nozzleneck in shear is 0.70
1. Through@and@ times the allowablestressvalue of nozzle material.
2. Through@@ and@ The strengthof thejoints shallbe consideredfor its entire
3. T h r a o u ng h @ d @
lengthon each side of the plane of reinforcementarea.
EXAMPLE3
b A = 2.397 sq. in. AI = 0.484 sq. in.
;“% d.= 6.625 in., outside diameterof nozzle
a dttr=6.193 in., mean diameterof nozzle
8 S = 17,500psi allowablestressvalue of vesselmaterial
S.= 15,000psi allowablestressvalue of nozzle material
Ft A dm c G= 0.432 in. wall thicknessof nozzle.
‘* t = 0.500 in. wall thicknessof vessel
0.375 in. fillet weld leg.
~heckthe strengthof attachmentof nozzle load to be carriedby welds.
Loadto be carriedby welds (A-AI)S = 2.397-0.484 x 17,500= 33,478 lb.
STRESSVALUEOF WELDS:
Fillet-weldshear 0.49 x 17500= 8575 psi.
Groove-weldtension 0.74 x 17500= 12950psi.
Stressvalueof nozzlewall shear 0.70 x 15000= 10500psi.
STRENGTHOF WELDSANDNOZZLENECK:
a. Fillet-weldshear ~ xweldIegx8575= 10.4065xO.375x8575 =33463lb.
b.Nozzle-wall shear ~, Xt. X10500=9.72x0,432X10500 = 44090lb.
c Gr~ove.weldtensi~n~. xweidleg x 12950-10.4065X().50()X” 12950=67382lb.
POSSIBLE PATHOFFAILURES:
1.Througha.andb. 33463+44090= 77553lb.
2.Througha.andc. 33463+ 67382=100845lb.
Both pathsarestrongerthantherequiredstrength33478lb.
127/

STRENGTH OF ATTACHMENTS
JOINING OPENINGS TO VESSEL

EXAMPLE4
DESIGNDATA
A= 3.172sq.in.,A,=0.641sq.in.,A.F0.907sq. in.
= 1 2i o . u d 8 t i n 4osa r mei5 i edn p. tf e oe r rac i n f gd
8.625in.outsidediameterof nozzle.
8 i .m d 1 i e noa2 n m ao 5e z t . nze rl e f .
S = 1 7p a , l l 5s o s v0w t ao0r vab leim
e le as s ut s s e e re
S 1 5p a . , l l 0s o s v0wt = ao0r nab leiomle sa z ut s z e e rl
t =0 i .t h 5i o vc n 0k w e n 0es a s . s s l e f l l .
t =0 i . t h 5i o cn n 0k w o.n 0ez a s . zs l l f l e .
0 i .l o f 3 - w i n 7e a l 5e l . eg l f t d
0 i .l o f 2 - w i n 5e d l 0e l . eg l f t d
t, = 0 i . t h 2i o rc n e5k i nn p0ef os . r s ac i n f gd
C the
h s t e of
r a ce t nt ka go cn t h ohm ez n z t l e f .
L T OB C A RB W
D
R I EO E EL D D SY :
(A–A,)S = (3.172—0.641) 17,500= 44,293 lb.
LOADTO BE CARRIEDBY WELDSa, c, e:
(A2+21“OS= (0.907 + 2 x 0.500x 0.500) 15,000= 21,105 lb.
STRESSVALUEOF WELDS:
Fillet - weld shear 0.49 x 17,500= 8,575psi
Groove- weldtension 0.74 x 17,500= 12,950psi
STRESSVALUEOF NOZZLEWALLSHEAR:
0.70 x 15,000= 10,500psi
STRENGTHOF WEL~S ANDNOZZLENECK:
a. Filletweldshear ~ x weldlegx 8,575= 13.55X0.375X8,575= 43,572lb.
b. Nozzlewallshem ~ x tnX10,5OO = 12.76X0.500X 10,500‘66,990 lb.
c. Grooveweldte~ion @ x weldlegx12,950= 13.55X0.500x 12,950=87,7361b.
d. Filetweldshear Z#2Xweld1egx 8,575= 20.18X0.25X8,575= 43,260lb.
e. Grooveweldtension ~ weldlegx 12,950-13.55 x 0.25x 12,950=43,868lb.
POSSIBLEPATHOFFAILURE:
1. Throughb andd 66,990+ 43,260 = 110,250lb.
2. ThOU@c andd 87,736+ 43,260 = 130,996lb.
3. Througha, c ande 43,572 + 87,736+ 43,868= 175,176lb.
Paths 1.and2. arestrongerthanthetotalstrengthof 44,293lb.
Path3. is strongerthanthe strengthof 21,105lb.
The outerf wi d sl et l 43,260
r ee llb. nis tgreater
g d than
t hthe reinforcing pad strength of
(dP-do) t. X 17,500= 1.055x 17,500= 18,463lb.
12R
.

LENGTH OF COUPLINGS AND PIPE FOR OPENINGS


139

LENGTH OF COUPLING AND P FOR OPENINGS


140

N N T
THE REQUIRED THICKNESS FOR NOZZLE NECKS IN VESSELS
UNDER INTERNAL PRESSURE (Code UG-45)

1 T t c f t a l i U p c h
but for other than access and inspection openings, not less
than the smaller of the following:
2. The thickness required for the vessel for internal pressure (assuming joint
efficiency, E = 1.0), but in no case less than the minimum for shells and
heads specified in UG-16 (b);
3. The minimum thickness of standard wall pipe plus corrosion allowance.
THE REQUIRED THICKNESS FOR ACCESS AND INSPECTION
OPENINGS (manways, handholes) IN VESSELS UNDER
INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL PRESSURE.
1. The thickness computed for the applicable load plus corrosion allowance
(there is no other requirement).
For selection of required pipe under internal pressure, see table “Maximum
Allowable Internal Working Pressure for Pipes” on the following pages.
EXAMPLES for using the table:
1. Opening Diam: 18”
Design Pressure: 800 psig.
Corrosion Allowance: 0.125”
The Required Pipe for Manway: Sch. 60, 0.750” Wall
The Required Pipe for Nozzle: Sch. 60, 0.750” Wall
2. Opening Diam: 18”
Design Pressure: 150 psig.
Corrosion Allowance: 0.125”
The Vessel Wall Thickness: 0.3 125”
The Required Pipe for Manway: Sch. 10, 0.250” Wall
The Required Pipe for Nozzle: Std. Wt. 0.375” Wall
3. Opening Diam: 18”
Design Pressure: 140 psig.
Corrosion Allowance: 0.125”
Vessel Wall Thickness: 0.750”
The Required Pipe for Manway: Sch. 10, 0.250” Wall
The Required Pipe for Nozzle:
Std. Wt. 0.328” + 0.125” Corr. Allow. = 0.453, Min. Wall=
Sch. 40 Pipe
141

THE REQUIRED NOZZLE NECK THICKNESS FOR VESSELS UNDER


EXTERNALPRESSURE(Code UG-45)

1. Thethicknessforthe applicableload less t h


t s m o t ah f l o ll l heoe wr i n f eg :
2. The thicknessof head or shell required for internalp r ue s t s sexternal u i r hen
designpressureas an equivalentinternalpressure,but k no case less than the
minimumthicknessspecifiedfor material in UG-16(b)(1/16 in. for shells and
heads,3/32in.incompressedair,steamandwaterservice,%in.forunfiredsteam
boilers),plus corrosionallowance;
3. The minimumthicknessof standardwall pipe plus corrosionallowance.
EXAMPLE1.
Externaldesignpressure:P = 35 psi.
MaterialSA 516-60; S= 15,000
Outsidediameterof cylindricalshell: Do= 96 in.
Shellthickness:t = 1 in.
The requiredticknessfor 14 O.D., 12 in. long nozzleneck:
1. To withstand25 psi externalpressureapproximately0.05 in. wallrequired,but
the thicknessshall not be less than the smallerof;
2. Thethicknessrequiredforthe shellunder35 psi internalpressure(as equivalent
externalpressure)
PR = 35x 47 = O~lo in
‘= SE - 0.6P 15,000- n “ -
3. The minimumthicknessof standard wall pipe: 0.328 in. (0.375 in. nom.) The
smallerof 2. and 3.0.110 in. for wall thicknessof nozzleneck is satisfactory.
EXAMPLE2.
Externaldesignpressure: P = 15 psi.
Material SA 516-60; S= 15,000
Outside diameter of cylindrical shell, Do = 36 in.
Shell thickness: t= 0.3125 in.
The requiredthicknessfor a 14 in. D.O., 12 in. long nozzleneck:
1. To withstand15psi externalpressureapproximately0.02 in. wallrequired,but
the thicknessshallnot be less than the smallerof the following:
2. The thicknessrequiredfor the shell under 15psi. internalpressure
PR = 15x 17.6875 = o 0~8 in
t =SE - 0.6P 15,000-9 “ “
3. The minimumthicknessof standardwall pipe: 0.328 in. (0.375 in. nom.) The
smallerof 2. and 3. is 0.018 in.,but the thicknessof the nozzleneck shall in no
case be lessthan 0.0625 in. UG-45 (a) (2).
142

M A
I W P F P
The CalculationsBasedon the Formula:
23Et , where
P=
D+ 1.2t
P = The max.allowableworkingpressure,psig.
S = 15,000psig.the stressvalueof the most commonlyusedmaterialsfor pipe
(A53B,A106B)at temperature-20 to 650°F. For highertemperature see
notes at the end of the tables.
E= 1.0joint efficiencyof seamlesspipe
D = Insidediameterof pipe, in.
t = Minimumpipe wall thickness,in. (.875 times the nominal thickness).
The figuresunderlinedare the maximumallowablepressurein corrodedcondition
for the pipe of which wall thicknessis minimumthe standard wall plus corrosion
allowance.
NOM. PIPE WALL CORROSIONALLOWANCE
IN.
DESIG-
‘IPE THICKNESS
NATION
UZE NOM. ~ MIN.

T=E xX-STG.
STD.
X-STG.
0.294
0.113
0.154
0.095
0.129
0.164 ~-
0.257 12153 I 8526
0.099 1072 I
0.135 4299 2192 288
‘;:”:g
5392 I 2658
I I
1’4
252

3/4
SCH.160 0.218 0.191 6386 4069 1985 100
I XX-STG. 0.308 0.270 9712 7041 %7 2515 580
STD. I 0.133 0.116 2847 1261
1
X-STG. 0.179 0.154 3959 2287 I
744 I
732
I I
SCH.160 0.250 0.219 5764 3946 2274
XX-STG. 0.358 0.313 8820 7423 4842 — .3099 1494
STD. 0.140 0.123 2362 1126
X 0.191 0.167 3282 1988 774
1-1/4
SCH.160 0.250 0.219 4424 I 3059 ! 1779 ] 578 ! I
XX-STG. 0.382 0.334 7194 G 2848 1582 I

I
STD. 0.145 0.127 2118 1046 31
X-STG. 0.200 0.175 2982 1864 806
1-1/2
SCH.160 0.281
XX-STG. 0.400
0.246 4333 3139 2013 I
0.350 6481 I 5164 3924 2754
947
1648
STD. 0.154 0.135 1786 938 126
X-STG. 0.218 0.191 G 1696 852 44
2 642
SCH.160 0.343 0.300 4215 I 3260 I 2348 1477
I XX-STG. I 0.436 0.382 5537 X2 G 2629
— 1744 I
143

MAXIMUMALLOWABLE
WORKINGPRESSURE(cent)

NOM. PIPEWALL CORROSIONALLOWANCE IN.


DESIG- THICKNESS o I 1/16 I 1/8 3/16 I 1/4
PIPE NATION
SIZE NOM. MIN. Max.Allow.PressurePsig.
STD. 0.203 1245 561

2%
X-STG. 0.276 0.242 I l
2707 1971 1261 577
1525
I
I
831
SCH-160 0.375 0.328 3766 2991 2245
0.552 0.483 5822 4969 Z —3359 — 2599
XX-STG.
STD. 0.216 0.189 ~ 1116 556 12
0.300 0.263 2398 1801 1221 658 111
X-STG.
3 2964 2350 1754 1175
SCH. 160 0.438 0.383 3597 — —
XX-STG. 0.600 0.525 5113 4432 3773 3134 2515
. 78
STD. 0.226 0.198 1546 1044 555
3 X-STG. 0.318 0.278 G 1689 1183 691 211
XX-STG. 0.636 0.557 4701 4115 —3546 2992
— 1937
STD. 0.237 0.208 ~ 995 561 137
X-STG. 0.337 0.295 2075 1616 1168 730 280
4 SCH.120 0.438 0.383 2739 2= 1802 1350 908
1490
SCH.160 0.531 0.465 I 3379 I 2890 1- 2412 I 1946
——
XX-STG. 0.674 0.590 4394 3880 3379 2890 2412

STD. 0.258 0.226 1259 902 552 208


0.375 0.328 G 1488 1127 773 425
X-STG.
5 0.500 0.438 2520 2140 1767 1401 1042
SCH.120
0.625 0.547 3201 2808 2X 2044 1673
SCH.160
XX-STG. 0.75C 0 .3 6 39 5 3 40 6 2 1 96 2 7 0 9 30

STD. 0.280 0 .1 2 81 4 5 45 4 2 3 5 5 6

X-STG. 0.432 0.378 1793 1485 1181 882 58~


6 SCH.120 0.562 0.492 2368 G G 1431 112[
SCH.160 0.71$ 0.628 3077 2748 2425 =6 F
XX-STG. o.86f 0.756 3767 3427 3093 2764 2440
SCH.20 0.25( 0.219 777 552 329 113
SCH.30 0.27t 0.242 861 634 411 190

8
X-STG. 0.500 0.438 1587 1353 1121 892 665
SCH.1OO 0.593 0.519 1896 1658 E 1189 959
SCH.120 0.718 0.628 2319 2075 1835 = u
144

MAXIMUM
ALLOWABLE
WORKINGPRESSURE(con~

NOM. PIPEWALL CORROSIONALLOWANCE IN


DESIG-
PIPE NATION THICKNESS o I 1/16 I 1/8 I 3/16 i“”;/4
S NOM. MIN. Max.Allow.PressurePsig.
SCH.140 0.812 0.711 2647 2400 2155 1913 1675
8 SCH.160 0.906 0.793 2977 2725 2476 2231 1988
XX-STG. 0.875 0.766 2868 2617 2370 2126 1885
SCH.20 0.250 0.219 621 441 264 90
SCH.30 0307 0.269 766 585 406 228 50
STD. 0.365 ~0.319 ~ 729 549 370 193
X-STG. 0.500 0.438 1263 l= 894 712 532
10 SCH.80 0.593 0.519 1506 1318 1132 948 ~
SCH.100 0.718 0.628 1838 1647 1458 1270 1085
SCH.120 0.843 0.738 2179 1984 1792 1601 1413
SCH.140 1.000 0.875 2611 2413 2216 1986 1829
SCH.160 1.125 0.984 2963 2760 2560 2362 2166
SCH.20 0.250 0.219 522 371 222 76
SCH.30 0.330 0.289 692 540 389 240 91
STD. 0.375 0.328 ~7 635 483 333 184
SCH.40 0.406 0.355 854 701 549 398 248
X-STG. 0.500 0.438 1059 904 751 598 486
12 SCH.60 0.562 0.492 1194 1038 ~ 730 578
SCH.80 0.687 0.601 1469 1311 1154 ~ ~
SCH.100 0.843 0.738 1820 1659 1500 1341 1184
SCH.120 1.000 0.875 2178 2 10 1690
81 153054
SCH.140 1.125 0.984 2467 2 23 1972
10 181031
SCH.160 1.312 1.148 2910 2 2s72 2 2
SCH.10 0.250 z 475 338 202 69
SCH.20 0.312 0.273 594 456 319 184 49
STD. 0.375 0.328 716 577 440 303 167
SCH.40 0.438 0.383 839 699 561 423 287
X-STG. 0.500 4 o.43t 962 ~ 682 544 407
1
SCH.60 0.593 0.51$ 1146 004 863 pJ 585
SCH.80 0.75G 0.65{ 1460 316 1173 1031 ~
SCH.100 0.937 0.82( 1843 696 1550 1406 1262
SCH.120 1.093 0.95( 2166 2017 1869 1722 1576
SCH.140 1.250 1.094 2500 2348 2198 2048 1900

I
145

MAXIMUM
ALLOWABLEWORKINGPRESSURE(cont.)

NOM. PLPEWALL ROSIONALLOWANCE IN.


DESIG-
PIPE
NATION THICI iESS o 1/16 1/8 3/16 1/4
SIZE gOM. MIN. [ax.All :P s i
14 SCH.160 1.406 1.230 2834 E x
SCH.10 0.250 0.219 m ~ 166 5
SCH.20 0.312 0.273 518 398 279 1 43 6
SCH.30. STD. 0.375 0.328 625 504 384 2 146 6
SCH.40X-STG. 0.500 0.438 & 717 596 4 355 7
SCH.60 0.656 0.574 1108 C4 861 7 617 3
16
SCH.80 0.843 0.738 1436 1310 1185 1 937 0
SCH.100 1.031 0.902 1771 1643 1515 1 12633 8
SCH.120 1.218 1.066 2111 1980 1851 1 15957 2
SCH.140 1.438 1.258 2517 2384 2251 2 19901 2
SCH.160 1.593 1.394 2809 2674 2540 2 22754 0
SCH.10 0.250 G 368 262 157 5
SCH.20 0.312 0.273 460 354 248 1 38 4
STD. 0.375 0.328 554 447 341 2 130 3
SCH.30 0.438 0.383 649 541 434 3 222 2
X-STG. 0.500 0.438 744 636 529 4 315 2
SCH.40 0.562 0.492 838 729 621 5 407 1
18
SCH.60 0.750 0.656 1129 1015 ~6 7 689
SCH.80 0.937 0.820 1418 1306 1195 1 974
0 8
SCH.100 1.156 1.012 1766 1652 1539 1 1314
4 2
SCH.120 1.375 1.203 2118 2002 1 18 1658
78 77
SCH.140 1.562 1.367 2425 2308 2 21 1958
09 70
SCH.160 1.781 1.558 2789 2669 2 25 231445 30
SCH.10 B m T x m 4
SCH.20 STD. 0.375 0.328 4~ 402 3 2 0 117 1
SCH.30 X-STC 0.500 0.438 668 ~ 4 3 7 284 7
SCH.40 0.593 0.519 795 697 6 5 0 407 0
SCH.60 0.812 0.711 1097 998 900 8 ~ 0
20 1004
SCH.80 1.031 0.902 1403 1303 1202 1 1 0
SCH.100 1.281 1.121 1760 1657 1555 1 1353 4 5
SCH.120 1.500 1.313 2078 1974 1870 1 1665 7 6
SCH.140 1.750 1.531 2446 2340 2234 2 20251 2
ISCH.160 1.968 1.722 2774 2666 2558 2 23464 5
146

MAXIMUM
ALLOWABLE
WORKINGPRESSURE(cont.)

NOM. DESIG PIPEWALL


PIPE NATION THICI JESS
SIZE N MIN.
0.250 0.219 214 I 128 T
0.312 0.273 376 289 202 116 31
0.375 0.328 452 365 278 192 106
0.437 0.382 G 440 353 267 136
22 0.500 0.438 606 519 431 344 258
0.562 0.492 681 G 507 419 332
0.625 0.547 761 672 584 496 409
0.688 0.602 839 750 661 G 486
0.750 0.656 916 827 738 649 z
SCH.10 0.250 0.219 275 196 117 40
SCH.20 STD. 0.375 0.328 414 334 255 176 97
X-STG. 0.500 0.438 z 475 395 315 236
SCH.30 0.562 0.492 625 5Z 464 384 304
SCH.40 0.687 0.601 766 685 6X 524 443
SCH.60 0.968 0.847 1089 1006 924 842 G
24
SCH.80 1.218 1.066 1381 1297 1214 1131 1048
SCH.100 1,531 1.340 1753 1667 1582 1498 1413
SCH.120 1.812 1.586 2093 2006 1919 1833 1747
SCH.140 2.062 1.804 2399 2311 2223 2135 2048
SCH.160 2.343 2.050 2750 2660 2571 2482 2393
0.250 0.219 2 181 5 108 37 4
0.312 0.273 3 244 1 171 98 7 26
0.375 0.328 3 308 8 235 162 2 90
0.437 0.382 4 372 4 298 225 6 152
26 0.500 0.438 5 438 1 364 291 2 218
0.562 0.492 5 502 7 428 354 6 281
0.625 0.547 6 567 4 493 419 1 345
0.688 0.602 7 633 0 558 F4 7 410
0.750 0.656 7 697 7 622 548 2 474
0.312 0.273 275 211 148 85 23
30 0.375 0.328 330 267 204 141 78
0.500 0.438 443 379 315 252 188
147
NOTE: IF THESTRESSVALUEOF PIPELESSTHAN15,000PSIG.
DUETO HIGHERTEMPERATURE,MULTIPLYTHEMAX.
ALLOWABLE PRESSUREGIVENIN THETABLESBYTHE
FACTORSIN THISTABLE:
TEMPERATURENOTEXCEEDINGDEGREEOF
650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000
A 53 B Stress 15000 14350 12950 10800 8650 6500 – –
A 106B ‘ : 15000
s ’ 14350
+ 12950
: s 10800 8650 6500 4500 2500
FACTOR 1.000 0.9566 0.8633 0.7200 0.5766 0.4333 0.3000 0.1666

Example:

The MaximumAllowancePressurefor 6“ x Stg.PipeWitha Corrosion


Allowanceof 1/8” From Table= 1181psi.- at Temperature800°F
The Max.Allow.Press.1181x 0.72= 850 psig.

Example to find max. allow. pressure for any stress values:

The Max.Allow.Press.1181Psig.From Tables


The StressValue 13000psi.
For ThisPipeThe Max.Allow.Pressure ~Wo x 1181 = 1023psi.

I
NOZZLEEN~CMKpTT~CKNESS

C O R R O S I O N
w
I

o 0

1 Requiredfor Loadings(UG-22) 0.250$ 0.018 0.3125


J.E. 0.85 0.250 0.250 0.3125
2 Vessel Wall
J.E. 1.00 0.213 0.213 0.2660
NOM. 0.280 0.280 0.280
3 6 in. Std. Pipe
MIN. 0.245 0.245 0.245
Minimumf S &h H oe Ue l ( Ga l r s-d b1s 0 6 . 0 ) 0 . 06 0 . 2 6 0 5 2

4 I C o m pA rS e st i W
s een Sd ara e U mtr , ( vG
&e i 0- rc b. e1 0 0 . 6 090 ) .93 30 8 8

F U nS f o B ti o rUe i e r( lGad e -m r bs1 06 .)0 2 . 05 2 . 0 5 2 0 0


0 .C 0
* m Ti r n e i ht a mh u i ufei cn mr k onen deoz s e zs l cr e kI 0 . 3 1
148

R W T F P
U I P

The required wall thickness for pipes, tabulated on the following pages, has been
computed with the following formula:

PR
, where
‘= SE– O.6P

t = the required minimum wall thickness of pipe, in.


P = internal pressure, psig.
S = 15,000psig.t s vt ohr at e sm o f asen tfor
me l c s oe ouh sm u m t l epipe.
yer i a dl
A 53 B and A 106 B @temperature –20 to 650°F.
E = Joint efficiency of seamless pipe
R = inside radius of the pipe, in.

For the inside diameter of the pipe round figures are shown. With interpolation
the required thickness can be determined with satisfactory accuracy.

The thicknesses given in the tables do not include aIlowance for corrosion.

For the determination of the required pipe wall thickness in piping systems the
various piping codes shall be applied.

Selecting pipe,the 12.5% tolerance in wall thickness shall be taken into consider-
ation. The”minimum thickness of the pipe wall equals the nominal thickness
times .875.
149

REQUIRED PIPE WALL THICKNESS


FOR INTERNAL PRESSURE

1.s. PRESSURE PSIG.


11AM, 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500
1 0 0. 0.0 00.0 020. 30.0 0500. 07.0 8010. 10. 021. 0
2 0 0. 0.0 00.0 030. 710.0 0010. 103.0 7020. 20. 042. 03
3 0 0. 0.0 00.0 1050. 010.0 0520. 20.0 5030. 30. 054. 0
4 0 0. 0.0 00.0 1070. 320.0 0020. 307.0 400. 40. 085. 0
5 0 0, 0.0 00.0 1080. 720.0 0530. 404.0 2050. 501. 096. 0

6 0 0. 0.0 01.0 200. 030.0 040. 500.0 1060. 701. 018.


7 0 0. 0.0 01.0 2020. 30.0 0540. 507.0 9070. 810. 139.
8 0 0. 0.0 01.0 2030. 740.0 050. 604.0 0780. 910. 150.
9 0 0. 0.0 01.0 3050. 040.0 0560. 700.0 1690. 010. 162.
1 0 0. 0.0 01.00 3070. 350.0 060. 817.0 1400. 10. 183.

1 0 0. 0.0 01.01 3080. 750.0 0570. 914.0 130. 310. 104.


1 0 0. 0.0 02.02 400. 0600 080, 11.0 120. 410. 126.
1 0 0. 0.0 02.03 402. 4600 580. 17.0 130. 5120. 147.
1 0 0, 0.0 02.04 403. 700 090. 14.0 140. 6120. 269.
1 0 0. 0.0 . 02 5 0 55 7 00 . 50. 1.0 150. 720. 270.

1 0 0. 0.0 02. 6 507 480 00. 1.0 160. 820. 291.


1 0 0. 0.0 02. 7 s08 780 60. 1.o . 270 ~ 020. 3 21. (
1 0 0. 0.0 03. 8 60 090 10. 1.0 280. 120. 234.
1 0 0. 0.0 03. 9 602 490 6. 10 90. 20. 25.
2 0 0. 0.0 03. 0 613 700 1. 20 00. 20. 37.

2 0 0. 0.0 03. 1 715 00 7. 20 10. 230. 38.


2 0 0. 0.0 03. 2 71 410 1. 20 20. 230. 39.
2 0 0. 0.0 03. 3 718 710 6. 20 30. 3.0 31,
2 0 0. 0.0 04. 4 810 020 1. 20 40. 30, 32.
2 0 0. 0.0 04. 5 812 420 6. 20 50. 3.0 33.

2 0 0. 0.0 04. 6 814 730 1. 20 60. 3.0 3S.


2 0 0. 0.0 04. 7 951 030 6. 20 70. 3.0 46.
2 0 0. 0.0 04. 8 971 40 1. 20 80. 3.0 47.
2 0 0. 0.0 04. 9 981 740 6. 20 9. 340 9.
3 0 0. 0.0 15. 0 01 050 1. 30 0, 40 0.
150

REQUIREDPIPEWALLTHICKNESS
FORINTERNALPRESSURE(cent)

1 PRESSUREPSIG.
IAM. 550 950 1
600 650 700 750 800 850 900
1 D ). 0. 01 920 0. 0.0 20.0.031 620 82 9
2 0 .3 0. 30 740 1.0 0.0 50.0.062 250 5 9
3 0 .D 0. 50 60 2.0 00. 70.0.093 708 83 8
4 0 .3 0. 70 580 2.0 1.0 01.0.124 31 01 7
5 0 .0 00. 91. 410 12.0 110. 21.0,156 913 48 7

6 0 .0 10. 1. 210 3.0 130. 51.0.187 516 75 6


7 0 .0 10. 31. 140 53.0 160. 81.0.218 029 03 5
8 0 .0 1.0 51. 0610 47,0 280. 02.0.249 62 30 5
9 0 .0 10. 61. 9280 04.0 200. 32.0.280I 24 68 4
1 0 .0 10. 82. 0 2700 25.0 220. 52.0.311~ 827 95 3

1 0 .0 20, 02. 1 620 45.0 250. 83.0 340. 23 34


1 0 .0 20. 2. 2 2540 6.0 37.0 030. 93. 315 72 3
1 0 .0 20. 42. 3 2460 86.0 390. 3.0 53. 84 10
1 0 .0 20. 62. 4 3280 17.0 310. I 630 . 18. 4 64 13
1 0 .0 20. 83. s 3100 370. 34.0 48.0 174. 34 06

1 0 .0 30. 03. 6 3020 580. 46.0 41.0 42. 164 9


1 0 .0 30. 13. 7 3940 780. 48.0 43.0 684. 895 92
1 0 .0 30. 3. 8 4760 090. 40.0 46.0 945. 625 86
1 0 .0 30. 53. 9 4680 290. 43.0 59.0 205. 35 79
2 0 .0 30. 74.00 4510, 404. 58.0 5100 S 5. 16
8 0.694 72

2 0 . 30 9.01 40. 65. 5700 44.0 16. 16


0.729 65
2 0 . 40 1.02 420. 85. 5920 68.0 76. 46 58
2 0 .0 40. 34.03 5170. 15. 5250 92.0 36. 7 51
2 0 .0 40. 54.04 5090. 325. 6470 16.0 97. 07 4
2 0 0. 40. 56.05 5190. 526. 600 40.0 57. 37 37

2 0 .0 40. 85.06 5730. 736. 6820 74.0 07. 68 30


2 0 .0 50. 05.07 650. 036. 6140 98.0 67. 98 24
2 0 .0 50. 25.08 6570. 246. 7370 22.0 28. 28 17
2 0 .0 50. 45.09 6490. 464 5790 46.0 78. 9
15 10
3 0 .0 50. 6.00 6210. 675. 720 C
70. 38. 98 30
151

REQUIREDPIPEWALLTHICKNESS
FOR INTERNALPRESSURE(cont.)

1.s. PRESSURE PSIG.


)IAM.
1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000
1 0 .0 0.0 400. 240. 0604. 50.90 035.0 6070. 160.
2 0 .0 00. 70.0 7080. 940. 1109. 01.09 161.0 2140. 21,
3 0 .0 1.0 1.0 5210, 631.0 1074. 61.80 107.0 8110. 292.
4 0 .0 1.0 51.0 3610. 861.0 2039. 12.80 232.0 4280. 352.
5 0 .0 10. 92.0 210. 20. 2094. 62.70 368.0 0350. 423.

6 0 .0 2.0 32.0 0520. 27.0 3049. 13.70 394.0 6320. 584.


7 0 .0 20. 62.0 3890. 243.0 304. 73.60 429.0 2490. 654.
8 0 .0 30. 03.0 370. 63.0 4069. 24.50 465.0 8560. 615.
9 0 .0 30. 43.0 4570. 184.0 4104. 75.50 591.0 4530. 786.
1 0 .0 30. 84.00 420. 504.0 5079. 35.40 627.0 0600. 846.

1 0 .0 4.0 24.01 2650. 205.0 5034. 86.40 652.0 6770, 917.


1 0 .0 40. 65.02 500. 45.0 690. 36.30 78.0 3740. 078.
1 0 0. 4.0 59.03 4590. 69.0 604. 97.30 714.0 9810 8 04. 9
1 0 0. 50. 53.04 6870. 486.0 709. 47.20 859.0 598.1 109.
1 0 0. 5.0 67.05 3650. 087.0 7604. 98.20 985.1 1951. 270.

1 0 0. 6.0 61.06 740. 237.0 8209. 59.11 91.1 7201. 330.


1 0 0. 60. 75.07 7120. 748.0 9741. 090.1 046.1 3901. 491.
1 0 0. 6.0 79.08 5800. 628.1 9391. 50.1 082.1 9161. 462.
1 0 0. 7.0 72.09 981. 869.1 0831. 190.1 118.1 5231. 523.
2 0 0. 7.0 86.00 4891. 019.1 0481. 691.1 24.1 1201. 693.

2 0 0. 8.0 80.11 8951. 260.1 1013. 1.81 279.1 7371. 754.


2 0 0. 8.1 94.12 2401. 40.1 1168. 72.81 305.1 3441. 825.
2 0 0. 8.1 98.13! 6201 . 65.1 321. 23.1. 7 331.1 9411. 885.
2 0 .1 9.1 20.14 01. 891.1 2178. 73.61 476.1 5581. 956.
2 0 .1 9.1 501.5 951. 024.1 313. 34.61 502.1 2651. 017.

2 0 1. 9.1 091.6 971. 28.1 318. 84.61 538.1 861. 187.


2 1 1. 0.1 131.7 3261. 43.1 4134. 35.41 663.1 4781. 248.
2 1 1. 0.1 171.8 7241. 638.1 4180. 95.41 789.1 0852. 219.
2 1 1. 1.1 21.19 1321. 824.1 5163. 46.41 735.1 682. 379.
3 1 1. 1.1 251.0 631. 047.1 518. 97.31 8602. 292. I404.
152
4

REQUIRED PIPE WALL THICKNESS


FOR INTERNAL PRESSURE (cont.)

1.s. PRESSURE PSIG.


‘lM” 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000
1
2
3
4
5

6
7
8
9

1 1. 0.1 161. 141. 205.


1 0 0. 9.1 911, 2 6701. 5011. 163. 12.1 261. 121. 316.
1 0 .1 9.1 90.13 3401. 5911. 2851. 20.1 3514. 1371, 426.
1 1 1. 0.1 171. 4 2011. 6281. 231. 39.1 4516. 141, 537.
1 1 1. 1.1 241. 5 0621. 6361. 3271. 487.1 5519. 151. 637.

1 1 1. 2.1 21. 6 8331. 7451. 41. 586.1 641. 1681. 748.


1 1 1. 2.1 391. 7 6941. 7531. 501. 674.1 741. 147.1 858.
1 1 1. 3.1 471. 8 4651. 7521. 6901. 763.1 8147. 128.1 96.9
1 1 1. 4.1 51. 9 26.1 8601. 8741. 815.1 9239. 1.289 07.9
2 1 1. 5,1 621. 0 086.1 8781. 2789. 9.052 0232. 12.15 18.0

2 1 1. 6.1 601. 1 857.1 9872. 5293. 08.42 1234. 1.12 290.


2 1 1. 6.1 781. 2 6182. 9952. 0428. 137.2 27. 2.832 401.
2 1 1. 7.1 852. 3 489.2 9042. 312. 263.2 320. 2.524 511.
2 1 1. 8.2 932. 4 340.2 0122. 262. 342.2 42. 2.152 622.
2 1 2. 9.~ 1] 012 5 10.2. 022. 132.] 421.2 5125. 28.26 722.

2 1 2. 9.2 082. 6 917.2 0392. 0425. 510.2 6217. 2.527 833.


2 2 2. 0.2 162. 7 732.2 1382. 8420. 695.2 7120. 22.38 94.3
2 2 2. 1.2 242. 8 503.2 1462. 7524. 789.2 8303. 2.839 05.4
2 2 2. 2.2 312. 9 364.2 2542. 629, 868.3 9305. 2.530 16.4
3 2 2. 2.2 492. 0 135,2 2632, 573. 957.3 0038. 22.31 275.
153

N E F M
C V
P bi t ap d i j n ohn o ie gnz l ixzsy n eo l igtet evc r rs eT ea msth s esl below,to
steh hndetermine
l e o. de ,
thenozzleloadsisbased inpartontheBulletin107of WeldingResearchCouncilandrepresents
a simplificationof it. The vesselsare not intendedto serveas anchorpoints for the piping.To
avoid excessiveloading in the vessel,the pipingshall be adequatelysupported.

FRJW
r{,

4
A
R.

-—. *

———— — - - — — .
,
E x t F e or & Mnr ao c l m e e s n t s
T calculate the maximum forceoand moment, first evaluate ~and y. Then determine
CL2, and A from Figures 1, 2 and 3, for the specified~ and ~ substitute into the
aquationsbelow, and calculateFRRF,

fl=.875 ($) Y=+


Determine CL~and A from Figures 1,2 and 3.
CalculatePressure Stress (~.

0= (q(R.-;)

[f a is greaterthan S0,then use S. as the stress due to designpressure.


FM= —
R; (ST—O) = R~2roSy
A4RCM Mm =& S Y –0)
x

Plot the value of FN a FWand the smaller of .~~c~ands MM


as A4w.The allowable nozzle loads are bounded by the area
of FRF,O,A41w,
~R\f

EXAMPLE: Determine Resultant Force and Moment


Rm= 37.5 T= .7511 SY= 31,500 psi@ 460°
rO= 15“ P = 150 psi S. = 17,500 psi
y= + = ~= 50
b= .875(%)= .875 (&)= .35 ()
From Figure 1, a = 440 From Figure2,2= 1,070 From Figure3, A = 340
154

NOZZLE EXTERNAL FORCES AND MOMENTS


IN CYLINDRICAL VESSELS (continued)

;alculatePressureStress
2(150)375 ~ = 14,850psic&=17,500 psi
‘=%m-3= 75( ~ - 2)
Jse o= 24,850in the equationsfor calculatingFRRF
and MkM
~alculateAllowableForces and Moments
Fw= ~ (~y. @ =(#2(3 1,500—14,850)= 53,214 lb.

~RcM= Rm2~o~y =37.52 (15) (31,500) = ~zo 984 in-lb


z 1,070 9

M-m= y (sy — (37.5)2 (15)= (31,500—14,850—l,032,97~ in-lb.


‘-= ~

IL
P f t vl o a oo ah FRFl a t t u sr e meo n afh l s l
k fa ~, aQ A
1 ~nT 7 a&f l fLl n odW h Mwol as z.ob el z ea
a b o b ut r a n o dF’RF, r 0,
eh eMm.
d e y e a f
T h e a rn e rof oe zroa F e =zc2, t l 0l i ae o, nb 0 0f
k 1 0 i l0? w, b0b oan 0=l ul0s( o lA w
p. .a od b l ie
= i n b a- n l ro eub z o a F. =zc5 t ll t ,i a e oJ 0bn 0 nf s 4 0
6 2 i0 l , w 0 n0b onb 0 a *ul s l (o ol . w Bp. da o b t l ie
* N
U a ob v ts s oiae t l gl : u rute ehae ps hn

S O T A T I O N :
P = DesignPressure,poundsper sq. in. Z = DimensionlessNumbers
‘ =N oO uz R
t za i s odl ni ie d c Au e =hs D i , em e ns N
s i ou n lme s bs e r
R =M R e ao S d iah i . n e un c l FRRFs h= l Maximum
f e, s Resultant Radial Forc(
T = S T hh i ice k n n l e c s l sh , e pounds* s
S =Y S i t or eM e a nlaytD g e d te r h is a fi R
k f
M la g R x c t eni , s mC ui@ur l c tum ma f ne r t
T e m p pe r aop t su u r qie n, eu d n a s M o
r cr m
, i e n ce hh n- p t o um n d s *
o = S Dt sp r te sso s I uo ur e M, n a WdRx e is s Lm uo Mnul g t miMat un d t
Dr ue s ie g e n P
p s qi eu n a r cr e hm i ne c h n- p o t u n d, s *
s = S Vt eliu= aM
o r a f Me Sl a s. pth u e seo r FRF l nl a , dRx e is sF m u poul t omr a u nc nt
p s qi eu n a c r r h eF = .M ’ a xR R ei s mMuMu lo tm i m a en n
~ =D i m e n N s i ou n lm e s bs e r p s o u n d s *

Y = D i m e n N
s i ou n lm e s bs e* ar bs Uv s ao s l l u u et ee s
a =D i m e n N
s i ou n lm e s bs e r s

REFERENCES:
Local Stresses in Spherical and Cylindrical Shells due to External Loadings, K. R.
Wichman, A. G. Hopper and J. L. Mershon — Welding Research Council. Bulletin
107/August 1965 — Revised Printing — December 1968.
Standardsfor ClosedFeedwaterHeaters, Heat Exchange Institute, Inc., 1969.
155

NOZZLE LOADS
Fig. 1
1OJ
9
8
7
6
5
4

, , , , , , 1I I I 1I I I I I ( ,
1
1 t I 1 1 I 1
,,, I 1 !, , I [ I I I I I I I I I 1 t
1 i
I I 1 1
I
I
I
i::: i
, , f, I I I [ WI I ! ,: I I I ! I I [ I I I I I I I [’1 I I I

9
;
6
5
4

3
, - ,
t
2

a
I :-+-!r i ! { I--+--L - l-l++ +--l-%-l-~ -: . .: I \. I I : i I ~i i ~

9
8
7
6
5
4

I, ;,I
,, ; I,
1
I! I
II
, ?

]02 ; I : I !;,1 I ,-,4 ----:: : 4-%-4 ~•••ì´„•


i ! .’ .!”” i! !:”m!!!-
9
8
7
6
5
4

2 1 . . . . !.


1
, I
1
1[ t
1, ! r
I I ,

10
1 5 6

NOZZLE LOADS
Fig 2

!
1.11
1

NOZZLE LOADS,
Fig. 3

1OJ
9
8
7
6
5
4

6
5
4

A
lo]
9
8
7
6
5
4

]02
9
8
7
6
5
4
3

10
0 .05 .1 .15 .2 .25 .3 .35 .4 .45 .5
1
.“,

R
T J C C
U I P
A the junction of cone or conical section to cylinder (Fig. C and D) due
to bending and shear, discontinuity stresses are induced which are with
reinforcement to be compensated.
DESIGN PROCEDURE (The half apex angle cz<30 deg.)
1. Determine P/S,EI and read the value of~ from tables A and B“
2. Determine factor y, For reinforcing ring on shell, y = s~~~
For reinforcing ring on cone, y/S’~E~

TABLE A - VALUESOF A FOR JUNCTIONS AT THE LARGE END


P/S,, EI 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 0.006 0.007 0.008 0.009*
A, deg. 11 15 18 21 23 25 27 28.5 30
TABLE B - VALUES OF A FOR JUNCTIONS AT THE LARGE END
P/S,, EI 0.002 0.005 0.010 0.020 0.040 0.080 0.100 0.125*
A, deg. 4 6 9 12.5 17.5 24 27 30
* A = 3 d f g e r v e oogP/S~EI
aa 0t l . e r u r e f

W t v o Ai l t c r s b p e
3 D f =y/S, E, (Use minimum 1.0 for k in formula). e
4. Design size and location of reinforcing ring (see next page).

NOTATION
E = with subscriptss,c or r modulusof R~=insideradiusof largecylinderat large
elasticityofshell,coneorreint20rcing endof cone,in.
ringmaterialrespectively,psi. R=inside radiusof smallcylinderat small
Seechartsbeginningonpage43 for endof cone,in.
modulusof elasticity. S= withsubscriptss,corrallowable stress
E= with subscriptslor 2 efllciencyof of shell,cone or reinforcingmaterial,
weldedjoints in shellor cone psi.
respectively. t= minimum required thickness of cylin-
For compression E=l.O for butt der at thejunction,in.
welds. t,= actualthicknessofcylinderatthejunc-
fi= axialload at largeend due to wind, tion,in.
deadload,etc.excludingpressure, t,= requiredthicknessof cone
lbfin. at thejunction,in.
j= axialloadat smallenddueto wind, t.= actualthicknessofconeatthejunction,
deadload,etc.excludingpressure, in.
lblin. U= halfapexangleof coneor conicalsec-
P= Designpressure,psi tion,deg.
Q~=algebraics~ofPR~/2 andfi 1b/in. A= anglefi-omtableA or B, deg.
Q,= algebraicsumof PIL/2 andfi lb/in. ~ = factor:SSE, orSCEC
160

R
T J C C
FORMULAS
JUNCTION AT THE LARGE END
M ; x .
Required area of reinforcement, A sq. in. when tension governs
(see notes)
~ r~ . kQLRL 1 .L tan a
S,EI () a

E!l
Area of excess metal for reinforcement, sq. in.
FIG. C
A.L = (t,—t) G+ (t.—t~ {h./ cos CZ

The distance from the junction within which the additionalrein-


forcementshallbe situated, in.
G
M;x.
30”
P The distancefromthejunction withinwhichthe centroidof the
FIG. D reinforcementshallbe situated, in.
0.25 X~

JUNCTION AT THE SMALL END


Requiredarea of reinforcementA sq. in. whentension governs(see notes)
kQsR, A
‘,, = —S,E1 ()la tan a

Area of excess metal available for reinforcement A., sq. in.


A,, = (t, /zj cos (a—A) (t.+ m+ (tC/t,)
x (a—A)
{Rst. / cos a
The distance from the junction within which the centroid of the reinforcement shall
be situated, in.

The distance from the junction within which the centroid of the reinforcement shall
be situated, in.

0.25 X &
N O W Ta t t h eE
hj u n c St i o ne c:o m pl r ens s ioovref i eax c e edd t h est el n s ~ido noea l t bea r ymd
2o P r eR s p e,t c d t i/ sve erb 2lhsi hya , ci ca gw o erUl nd( a(i l ns e cgan tt“e ap h) r ha bo2fo :v
t r o tu C h S l o e hVe dcDe Ist i e l fvi eI io, s. In i o, ” n )
W t r h e md hoeu o ca o enm f r ceud ts oos w ne o citrf o tdc ai ir afe aof l enw
pn r sei kg n et nt l hu
a w t h h an a a he apni g d gl nr t e l3e df aehxt det , em ae gs r hbs a .n oi as0y , gp a es b nne aece
( 1 C( ( o - d~g e ) 5 & .
161

R
T J C C
E
DESIGN DATA:
= 30 deg. half apex angle of cone.
;.ECE,=30x 1 m o e p
= 1.0,joint efficiencyin shell and cone
= 0.55,joint efficiencyin reinforcingring
= 800 lb/in, axial load at largeend
= 952 lb/in, axial load at smallend
= 50 psi., internaldesignpressure
a = 100 in., insideradius of largecylinder
= 84 in., insideradius of smallcylinder
= 13,800psi., allowablestressof shell material
= 13,800psi., allowablestressof cone material
= 14,500psi., allowablestressof ring material
= 0.429 in., requiredmin.thicknessfor large cylinder
= 0.360 in., requiredmin. thicknessfor smallcylinder
= 0.500 in. actualthicknessof cone.
= 0.4375 in., actualthicknessof large cylinder
= 0.375 in., actualthicknessof smallcylinder
= 0.41 in., required thickness of cone at small cylinder
dL t,L = 0.49 in., requiredthicknessof cone at large cylinder

Jsing the same material for shell and cone.


.. P/SsEI = 50 = 0.0036 f t A A= 1
13,800 X 1
S Ai l t ~ r i r e
! U r r o t s e
~ SsE.= 1 X 1063 0 X
1. Factor k=y/SrE~= 13,800 x30x 106/ 14,500x30x 106= 0.95
Use k = 1
1. QL=PRL12fI , l =5 + 800= 3,300 lb/in.
j. The required cross-sectional area of compression ring:
kQLRL~ - + t a = 1 X 3,300x 100 1- 19.8
ArL= SE ~ tan 30°= 4.69 sq in.
() 13,800 X 1 (
The are: o’fexcess in shell available for reinforcement:
AeL= (ts- ~ ~+ (tc- tr) @t~ /COS~
= (0.4375 - 0.429)X ~100 X 0.4375 + (0.5 - 0.49) x{1OO X 0.5/cos 30°
= 0.132 sq. in.
A,L - AeL= 4.69-0.132 = 4.55 in. the required cross sectional area of
compression ring
Using 1 in. thick bar, the width of ring: 4.55/1 = 4.55 in.
Location of compression ring:
Maximum distance from the junction = ~= ~100 x 0.4375 = 6.60 in.
Maximum distance of centroid from the junction= 0.25 ~~ =
0.25 {100 x 0.4375= 1.65 in.
162

R
T J C C
E (continuea)

JUNCTION AT SMALL CYLINDER


1. PAS,El = 0.0036; fromtable B A = 5°
SinceA is less than et,reinforcementis required.
2. Factor~= S, E,=13,800x30x10s
3. Factork=l
4. QS=PR, /2+~lb./in =50~84+ 952= 3,0521b”/in”
5. Therequired cross-sectionalarea of compressionring:
~r, = kQsRS ~-~ tan ~= 1 ~~>~~~~ 184l~o tan 300= 8.94 sq. in.
S,E, () u ? ()
The area of excess in shell available for reinforcement:
A,. = (t, / t,) –A) (t, - ~ %+ (LI t,)
x cos (a – A) (tc- t,) * StC/cos a
(0.395/0.36) X COS(30-5) X (0.375 - 0.36)X 484X .0375
+ (0.5/0.41) cos (30-5) x (0.5-0.41) x ~84 x 0.5/cos 30°= 0.77 sq. in.
A,. - A,, = 8.94-0.77 = 8.17 sq. in., the required cross sectional area of compres-
sion ring.
Using lfi thick bar, the required width of the bar: 8.17/ 1.5 = 5.45 in.
Location of the compression ring:
Maximum distance from the junction: a = 484 x 0.375 = 5.6 in.
Maximum distance of centroid from the junction:
0.25 fi= 484 x 0.4375 = 1.5 in.
Insulation ring may be utilized as compression ring provided it is continuous
and the ends of it are joined together.
Since the-moment of intertia of the ring is not factor, the use of flat bar rolled
easy-way is more economical than the use of structural shapes.
To eliminate the necessity of additional reinforcement by using thicker plate for
the cylinders at the junction in some cases maybe more advantageous than the
application of compression rings.
1

R
T J C C
U E P
D, Reinforcement shall be provided at the junction of cone
t-l to cylinder, or at the junction o t l e o c
section to cylinder when cone, or conical section doesn’t
have knuckles and the value of A, obtained from table E,
L. is less than ct.
dr I 3 TABLE E - VALUES OF A
P/SE o 0.002 0.005 0.010 0.02 0.04 0.08 0.10
!$! A,deg. o 5 7 10 15 21 29 33
;L P/SE 0.125 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35
A, deg , 37 40 47 52 57 60
w -
I
CX= 6 d f g e r v e ooag Pa l 0t . u/e r re S s f E
N I no t e rt mp ob el ma t f i: iao ann t e rvodm y ae de lei a urt e e
The required moment of inertia and cross-sectional area
I
of reinforcing (stiffening) ring — when the half apex
T ‘angle a is equal to or less than 60 degrees — shall be
FIG. F determined by the following formulas and procedure.
1. Determine P/SE, and read the value of A from table E.
2. Determine the equivalent area of cylinder, cone and stiffening ring, ATI,,
sq. in. $3:: pa~~ 46 for construction of stiffening ring)
A~lJ= ~ + ; + A., 3 FIDI.
Calculate factor B B = ~ (~ ,)
where
M = -RL tan a + L[ + R{?-R.?
F[.= PM+ J tan a 2 2 3RI,tan a
3. From the applicable chart (pages 43 thru 47) read the value of A entering at
the value of B, moving to the left to the material/temperature line and from
the intersecting point moving vertically to the bottom of the chart.
For values of 1?falling below the left end of the material/temperature line
for the design temperature, the value of A=2WE.
If the value of B is falling above the material/temperature line for the design
temperature: the cone or cylinder configuration shall,be changed, and/or the
stiffening ring relocated, the axial compression stress reduced.
4. Compute the value of the required moment of inertia
For the stiffening ring only: For the ring-shell-cone section:
AD[.2A 1[. ADI,ZA 71,
Is = ~400 I’,Y=
10.9
5. Select the type of stiffening ring and determine the available moment of
inertia (see page 87) of the ring only 1, or the shell-cone or the ring-shell-
cone section 1’.
164

R
T J C C
(continue~

If 1 or 1’ is less than I, or 1[, respectively, select stiffening ring with larger


moment of inertia.
6. Determine the required cross-sectional area of reinforcement, A,~,sq. in.
(when compression governs):

A,~ = @fi;;an~ [,@&):]

NOTE: Whenatthejunctionthe compressiveloads determined byPR~2 orPRJ2 are


exceeded by~l or~J tensional loads respectively, the design shall be in accordance
with U-2 (g) (“as safe as those provided by the Code Section VIII, Division 1.“)
Area of excess metal available for reinforcement: A,~ sq. in.:
A.~ = 0.55 ~D~t, (t, + t. /COS @
The distance from the junction within which the additional reinforcement
shall be situated, in.
a
The distance from the junction within which the centroid of the reinforce-
ment shall be situated, in.
0.25 ~

R, Reinforcing shall be provided at the iunction of


small end of conical section without flare to cylin-
.~
der.
The required moment of inertia and cross-sectional
L~ area of reinforcing (stiffening) ring shall be deter-
LL mined by the following formulas and procedure.
~ = =I
1. Determine theequivalentareaofcylinder,cone
and stiffening ring, Am
L,
L, L,t, Let,
“ I An= ~+ ~+A,
2. Calculate factor 1?
t
B . ; ( :~’
)
I R1 where
L A
Fs = PN +jjtan a
RL2- R~2
FIG. G N=~ + Z+ 6R. tan a
165
R
T J C C
(continued)

3. F t a c ( t r e a p e
v o B m t t l t t m l a f at
i p m v t t b o t nc
F v o t l e f n l f t d
d t t v o =2 e
I t v of B is falling above the materialhemperature line for the design
temperature: the cone or cylinder configuration shall be changed, and/or the
stiffening ring relocated, the axial compression stress reduced.
4. Compute the value of the required moment of inertia:
For the ring-shell-cone section: For the st~~e~~~ ring only:
~; = AD,2ATS ~.=
10.9 1:.0
5. Selectthe type ofstiffeningring anddeterminethe available moment of inertia
(see page 89) of the ring only, land of the ring-shell-cone section, I! Iflorl’ is
Iessthanl..orli respectively,selectstiffeningringwith largermomentofinertia.
6. Determine the required cross-sectional area ofreinforcement. A,,, sq. in:
A~s= kQSR~tan~
SE
metal available for reinforcement Ac,sq. i n .
A.s = 0.55 % [(t,-~ + (tc-tr)/cos
ix]
The distance from thejunction within which the additional reinforcement shall
be situated, in.-
G
The distance from thejunction within which the centroid of the reinforcement
shall be situated, in.
025 G
NOTE:Whenthereducersmadeoutoftwoormoreconicalsectionsofdifferentapexangles
withoutknuckle,andwhenthehalfapexangleisgreaterthan60degrees,thedesignmaybe
basedon specialanalysis.(Code1-8(d)and(e).)
NOTATION

A, = area of excess m a ev af t i lA.a a = bcross-sectional


ol l e arear of the stiffen-
reinforcement, sq. in. ing ring, sq. in.
A,,L = requiredareaofreinforcementwhen AT = equivalent area of cylinder, cone
QLis in compression, sq. in. and stiffening ring, sq. in.
At.’ = requiredareaofretiorcementwhen B = factor
QLis sq. in. D~ = outside diameter of cone or large
end of conical section, in.
66

R
T J C C
(continued)

D,, . outsidediameterofcylindricalshell, shelljunctionandone-thirdthedepth


in. ofhead o theotherendofthelarge
D., — outside diameter at small end of shell.
conical section, in. L, design lengthofavessel section, in.
E —
. lowest efllciency of the 1ongitudi- forstl~enedvesse[section: distance
naljoint inthe shell,head or cone;E between the cone-to-small-shell
= 1 for butt welds in compression. junction and an adjacent stiffening
— ring on the small shell.
E with subscriptsc, r ors modulus of
elasticityof cone, reinforcementor f unstlflenedvessel
o section: dis-
r
shell material respectively,psi. tance betweenthe cone-to-small-
— shelljunctionandonethirdthedepth
k S&L5’RERbut not less than 1.0. ofheadontheotherend of the small
A . axial load at large end due to wind shell.
etc., Ib./in.The value offi shall be P external design pressure, psi.
taken as positivein all calculations. PRL PRs
— Q~ — +fi Q,= ~ +fz
fi axial load at smallend due to wind, 2
etc. lb./in. The value of~2 shall be axialcompressiveforce duetopres-
taken as positivein all calculations. sure and axial load.
I = available moment of inertia of the RL outside radius of large cylinder, in.
stiffeningring, in4 R, outside radius of small cylinder, in.

T availablemomentofinertia ofcom- s allowable working stress, psi. of
bined ring-shell cross-section, in4. cone material.
Thewidthoftheshell whichistaken sR allowable stress of reinforcing ma-
as contributing to the moment of terial, psi.
inertia of the combined section:
s. allowable stress of shell material,
1.IO~D,,t psi.
. required moment of inertia of the
IS t minimumrequired thicknessofcyl-
stiffeningring, in4. i wn i da t l hel oof rw u a
I,’ = r e m
q u o oi i mr n o e et ed n r t t c i of ar i o s i o n n ,
c o mr i nb g i- s nh c e el l rd- c oo n e s s -
t. a ct h t i o cuc k w an oei l s t
s e ic t ni o n4 , .
c o r a r l ol osi wi ao nn c n e
L . a l x eo c i n i o ag nt l n t, he f , .
m i r ne q ui i r me d t uoh i cmfk n e
L, . I e n g t a h os fl cu oo onr f e f cn a o w cg n ei ce t o , hr a r lo ol uosi wi t oa
o d i bs et s at t niw r f c efr e ie e n nin n g g s
t, a ct h t i o cus k w an h ei l s et
o c i o n n e f , . a l l f o c wo ar rni oo c s e i o
LL . d el seo a vin esgg e snt c as ht i he f oa l na a , pdn l g ee l f ex g
in~or stifle-nedvessel section: the —
distancebetween the cone-to-large A valueto indicateneed for reinforce-
shelljunction and an adjacent stiff- ment, from table E, deg.
ening ring on the large shell.
for umtl@enedvessel section: the
distancebetweenthecone-to-large-
167

R
T J C C
E
t, DESIGN DATA
T DL = 96 in., o d o l c
Ds = 48
~ =

E,, Ec, E m o e o s
c a r m p
a
fl = 100 lb./in., axial load due to wind
A = 30 lb./in., axial load due to wind.
LL = 120 in., design length of large vessel
section.
L, = 244 in., design length of small vessel
section.
Lc = 48 in.
~ = 15psi, external design pressure
F = 48.00 in. outside radius oflarge cylinder
LL R
“ = 24.00 in. outside rad;us ofsmall cylinder
Designtemperature=6500F SS = 13,800 psi. maximum allowableworking
stress of shell and cone material.
SR = 12,700 psi. maximum allowable working stress of reinforcement mate-
rial.
t = 0.25
t = 0.1875 in. minimum required thickness of small cylinder.
t. = 0.25 in. actual thickness of cone.
t, = 0.25 in. minimum required thickness of cone.
t. = 0 i a t o c

JUNCTION AT THE LARGE END


1. P/SE= 15/13,800= 0.0016; from table E A = 4
since A is less than U, reinforcement is required.
2. Assuming As=O, A~~= h/.2+LJd%A. =
=120X0.125 +48 X0.125+ O=21 in2.
~.— RL tan
~ a+— LL RL2-&2 48X 0.5774+ ~0+ 482–242
2 +3RLtana=— 2 =66.9
2 3 x48X 0.5774
FL=Pk?+fi tan a = 15 x 66.9+ 100’x 0.5774 = 1061
168

R
T J CONE TO CYLINDER
EXAMPLE (continue~

~ = :(~L) = 0.75 x 1061 X96/21 = 3636


TL

3. A = 0.0003 from chart page 43


4. Required moment ofinertiaofthe combined ring-shell-cone cross section:
ADLATL 0.00035 x 962x 21
= 5.32
‘L= 10.9 = 10.9
5. Using two 2% x $4flat bars as shown, and the effective width of the shell:
1.10 x ~= 1.1 ~96 x .025 = 5.389 in.,
The available moment of inertia: 5.365 in. (see page 96)
It is larger than the required moment of inertia. The stiffening is satisfac-
tory.
6. T r c a o r r
S,E, = 13,800 X 106=
3 ~ 09 0 X
k= ~-
12,700 X 1063 “ 0 X

~L= ~ ‘fi ’15 j48+ 100 ’460


kQ~RLtan a
A,L = SE I
s L

= 1.09 X 460X48X 0.5774 ~-025( 15 x48 -460 4


460 )33]= 1.412 in?
13,800 X 0.7
The cross-sectional area of the stiffening ring is 2.5 in2.It is larger than the
area required.
The reinforcing shall be situated within a distance from the junction:
m,, = 448x 0.25= 3.46 in.
The centroid of the ring shall be within a distance from the junction:
0.25 ~ = 0.25~48 x 0.25 = 0.86 in.
JUNCTION AT THE SMALL END
1. The conical section having no flare, reinforcement shall be provided.
2. Asuming A,,= O, ATS= LJJ2 + L~tJ2 + A.,
A,.,= L.,tl2 + L&J 2 + A.,= 244 x 0.25/2 + 48 x 0.25/2 + O= 36.5 i

~ = R 8 t +~ ; n ~~ + +a2 ; ~ ; “+ +;4 5 : ( X
=7 ~ 74 x 4 =4 149.72 in.
: + j
169

R I
T J C C
E (continue~

F,= PN +fJ t a =1 X 149.7+30X 0.5774= 2263

3 F$.DS
= 3/4~22;; :48) = 2232
B ‘? x
3. Since value of B falls below the left end of material/temperature line:
A= 2 B/E = 2 X 2232/30X 106= ().()()()14
4. Required moment ofinertiaofthe combined ring-shell-cone cross section:
AD.?An = 0.00014X 482X 36.5 = ~ 08 in ~
1’,,=
10.9 10.9
5. Using 2% x % flat bar, and the effective shell width:
1.1448 x 0.25 = 3.81 in.
The available moment of inertia 1.67 in.4 (see page 96)
It is larger than the required moment of inertia; the stiffening is satisfactory.
6. The required area of reinforcing:

k = 1.09 Q,= ~ +j= 15 zX24 + 30 = 21O lb./in.


kQ,~. tan a = 1.09X 210X24X 0 . ~ 05 inT z3 T 24 8
A,., =-
13,800X 0.7
Area of excess metal available for reinforcement:

A. =~~a (tc - t,)+ ~, (t.,


-Z)

== (0.25 - 0.25) + d24 x 0.25 (0.25 - 0.1875)= 0.153 i


.
Ar,,-A, = 0.328-0.153 = 0.175 in.2
T a of ring used for stiffening 1.25 in.2. It is Iargerthan the required
area for reinforcement.
The reinforcing shall be situated within a distance from the junction:
G,=d24 x 0.25 = 2.44 i n .

and the centroid of the ring shall be within a distance from the junction:
0.25 ~R,,t,,= 0.25424 x o = O . i . z nb s l .
170

WELDING
O P V R

There are several methods to make welded joints. In a .particular case the choice
of a type from the numerous alternatives depend on:
1. The circumstances of welding
2. The requirements of the Code
3. The aspect of economy

1. THE CIRCUMSTANCESOF WELDING.


In many cases the accessibility of the joint determines the type of welding. In
a small diameter vessel (under 18 - 24 inches) from the inside, no manual
welding can be applied. Using backing strip it must remain in place. In larger
diameter vessels if a manway is not used, the last (closing) joint can be welded
from outside only. The type of welding may be determined also by the
equipment of the manufacturer.

2. CODE REQUIREMENTS.
Regarding the type of joint the Code establishes requirements based on service,
material and location of the welding. The welding processes that may be used
in the construction of vesselsare also restricted by the Code as described in
paragraphUW-27.
The Code-regulations are tabulated on the followin~ -. DaEesunder
- the titles:
a. Types o W eJ l o d i e nf d t s
( J permitted
o i byn the Code,
t s their efficiency and limitations of their
applications.) Table UW-12
b. D eo W s e Ji l go d ni e nf d t s
( o J t b u f v i v s a u c
tain design conditions.) UW-2, UW-3
c. E x a m io nW a t e iJ o l no d i e nf d t s
The efficiency of joints depends only on the type of joint and on the degree of
examination and does not depend on the degree of examination of any other
joint. (Except as required by UW-ll(a)(5)
This rule of the 1989 edition of the Code eliminates the concept of collective
qualification of butt joints, the requirement of stress reduction.

3. THE ECONOMY OF WELDING,


If the two preceding factors allow free choice, then the aspect of economy
must be the deciding factor.
Some considerations concerning the economy of weldings:
V-edge preparation, which can be made by torch cutting, is always more ec~
nornical than the use of J or U preparation.

[
171
Double V
V
a

Lower quality weldingmakes necessarythe use of thicker plate for the vessel.
Whether using stronger welding and thinner plate or the opposite is more
economical,depends on the size of vessel,weldingequipment, etc. This must
be decidedin eachparticularcase.
172

T W J

JOINTEFFICIENCY,E
TYPES -
b c
CODEUW-12 F us ; pN ~ o
R a E d x ia E mo x i a- n m
g r a p h e r

w m oe e tl a d l n
t i an o hs u i t n 1.00 ds e i e d0d e . 8
w s ue r f la c de .
B as ci u t k i rs n ig e p fd
s b rh e a am of l v t l e e de r
c o m op w l e et i o l n d f .

S i n g l be - j w e ulo d e di t n t t
w b a is c tk t i r nh ig 0 p .0 8.
w r h e i m i ac i hn s n
p a l w f ea lt c d e i e nr g
c
j

3
S i n g l be - j w e ulo d e di t n t t
w i u ot b h a o sc u k t i en f g 0 .
s t r i p

D o u b l e - f u l l —
f l ij l o la i e nt p t

5
S i n fg l ie - lf u ll l e t
l j o a i n p t
w p w i l e t lu hd g s

S if u n l l ; gj i ~ l ol $ea ; i ~ n p t

p w l e lu d g s
173

T W J

L I M I T A T I O N S
I A P PV L A Y R I IN N OG U S NOTES
WELDTYPES
FORTYPE1:N O N E
J C oa tA Bie g ,no r Cty : , ,D

T F 2 N YO O P R N E1 I t: E t ah a s tbhi t r . lon ys hew p


J
C oa tA ie , g 1 no 3 r , ty C: ,o w D ej low d ia h pe n f i d t e r c s
E bx w cw uo e ep ipo t l lft n t fat d- thms e beie t t Ct i t a oahe g d d r y n e
— f c i r c u mjo f e oor e n itn i ra nl l t w y s e p . lr od c i e sn s g e s .
F T 3 YO P R2 ET s: oh t h e a t d pb. h e g e
J C oa tA ie g, no rB ty : , j Cob b i u t ns t b-e sh w d e a ul y d
C i r c u mjf e rooe nn t i oni a l n l vto y sa te p, t ec r o r m
f m pua li s soe t t i
5 i t a nh 1o n2 i i onv co u8 . t ken sd tpi re d4n .e et r a t i o n .
d i a m e t e r .
3 B j uos bi h ft n f a . t rt lrs e
F T 4 YO P R Eu n : d oe r v c ae u art sl b , a n rp
( L o n gj i a t nou o d 3i in a)vn ol t 1 e nsr t ai r v 8d a. Tgl an l e tse s ys dsh u .
t h Ji C oca tA kie g no r t ty w : e l d -h ag cr oo o mv eper sl e
( C i r c u mjb f e nro eo n 5ti i )a lnv o t / ef s iwt rlm 8 l m e e eb b dlt u u,a a d i
i t h J in C oca tBk ie . g. no r. aty r : e i n fC o rT c et mh e ni st hc. k n
o t r e i n f h o s r c ne hmf ee n a t
F T 5 YO P R E e xt f c o l et lh eoi c wkd in ene s g
( Circumferential ajoints f a t ) t o a P c t l hh r i i- a cM k at n rxe n e isie sm i u
ment of heads n o 2 i ov o u te n s ut i rt 4d i . e n 3 c p l/ o . 3
d i t as mn h o e 1 eti t ev l o rh l / eoin s o ct ‘ r t k21v i . . nYe 1 c r lz o / .
J a o t hti ea mn ci shhtp iht esen r gi c a a l od 1 s v o 3 e / r 1
s a h e xe c l l r u l d se de .
J o B i n t w e t ls d es i o hc n i o g
( C i r c u mb fj e r eof n [ t i ) a l n o hl a d s owr eu eb bj l luotd eei t dn
a t t t a s c ohhj m a ene onc l t k l v eoo s t i fems p otu tr r f i st i w eh si r e s fld
5 i i n ot/ m hn iwi c t n kh8 an. n eel s h psr i s b h r n
e r oei n mn e a b m c l o g h
v l e e
p l g i e
dgo i
l t ,n t g i u
s u es go
cm fu euc r o tn m e o pa d l
w t t e e o t pd lhi n l l ghd a o ee oe t fp e see n s e ta t s fr a u t F i ssno ni ou o n
t 1 t h - t i d 1a i moa 1t hm n e 2e ts h eme r ea wf r e e gc l rhde oi i dpn pgc i
h f t po l ol h u e g r e . a g ri t o c o ir r vha e e t c ne
J C oa t e i g o n r y t: C m e n d e d .
F T 6 YO P R E
( F t a t ta oao h hc ch e m o) e r anen t 5dv T fems ax xha l i l mj o . uw
e o am b
e f f i cg i e i in t c it v e sh a e b
t p r t es s nh so u5e i r vol oe l /oe sn a tt br u 8 i . rf so r w m e eu o lhe ad
r e t q h ui o ci w kr nu en eo dis s l . st t y j h omade e fh iby arcn or gas
t e s
f w i o i l e on sl s ehl i te dd l n e l weldingprocesses.
f :
JointCategory:A , B
( F a t t bao ohc h h m e ae) nar vt di f ns g
p r o e e s s i s t u[si r nhh de ee ne rl6 oJ . l e oof s f iEt i=c I fi ben jn .c toyu o , i
o 2 i i v d n i aesna n m oi re d 4 tnv. oee ir c e o dm tp r r e s s i o n .
1 r e t q h 1u iw icf rkw iien 4 edl es t ls el h t d
o o uo h t f s oel i adn na ne l gf d y e .
J C oa tA ie g no r. ty : B
1 .
-. 7 4

D W J

WELDED JOINT LOCATIONS

T t j ou hic n enc d roo t ent se sd a p i r r i et e qin uc o i arni e am


pw e l npa ht t s l i y
s f ja od e moi s ib nig edn t aerl t sne e t dt i t c e ay rI s .
T s h p r e e q uc si rwi e emaa eh bnl t sio ,a s r ce s mr have tt ei ehdc ri aenic ,ak l n
o d t ec oh sn d aei i t t gair ob bnn ur s el , a l t eeo d w .

P W O E
D E S JI TO
G N I Y R AN D PI OT G RE JA P H OI C IH N E
C O N D I AT CI OA NT N E EG X OA D MR I YNE AF TF I IO CNT I RE EN AC TY

1 T d ie A hsc a i A ta gD.le eb gn F o snu r l yu t dl t l


b o ja w os i ve ei s e l end s c nd tts i s e o n ln s
e f f 1 i ca ih e n.e c n y a 0d d s
o 0 A c . a B to C elb r 9g o u r l y t T r( Tt y(
( d Se w s ( eeni i bgnl e c n dls o uu ds p i t n t g o t y 1p 2p e
c o n d t i ti nih o oon o zs 1.0 0.9
zs l ee n s r P C o e
l bi sec o m t l m eu c no hi d c aaw tmi nb g e r s ) U C S
w f h w u i ehn tlt ei n r slc e hc h t s e
r a d i o c g ar Aatw p e hi vyge oe l r s y d s se n l
i s e o ch t o eis o Na n sd o r s nr e
m a n) d c a to s o ner vyan . mee l cs e t ss se 0 l 0 . . 8 8 5
Uw-11 s e o ch t ei o a n sd r s
U 1 2 W ( d - )
C a Ata eB b g o nur
Joints y
Band C t
butt din
welds t r e
w i ve s e l e s c d cn ts i s ec no n len s se r
i p
f

a h s e b onhT a a dy d l s p l1 ein f ee t
(1) or T ( y 2p thickness do not
wall e require
) UHT-57

2 F u T ( ol Ty ( . b l 1yp s u 2pe p ) t r Te (o) T t (y Pt yC1 p 2 p o ee


r a d i o wg r jae p hol i cdi en dt s 0 0 . U . C8 8S 5
e x a m i n a t i o n
i n o s t
m a n d a t o r y
U l ‘ W ( - b 1 )
175
I
DESIGN OF WELDED JOINTS (CONT.)
P W NO ET
D E S JI T
GO N IY R A T G REJ A P HO I C IH
N DP I O E
C O N D I AT CI OA NT N E EG X OA DR I YNE AF TF I I O CNTI RE E
M N AC YT M

F u l l r ( y 1p e )
r a d i o gmy rT a op w h yi j ec ol pione id ne fr dt ( s 0y 2.p 6e )
e x a m i n a t i o n r ( 0y P3.pC 6e o e )
i n o s t r ( 0y U4.p C 5eS )
m a n d a t o r y . T ( 0y 5.p 5e )
T v ie hs s e e l s T ( ’ 0 y 6. p 4e )
d e fs i g no e d r
e x t e r n a l
p r oe s ns u rl e y
Uw-1 l ( c )
o A s i b hn at ls l e
~ N ( p o 1 F e . )u I. l l
J W( ( - 2 ( 1 aa ) ) )
o B a i C s nb h n t a s l d l e / ef sa s b
, V ec s r soN e( yo l n . s op 1- e . ) 1r T
t al i e n Nt i ( hn ga o 2l ( ya . o c 1pt a 0r
. ) 0 ( j .
l a 2
s l 9
o
s u b s Jt a Wn( (c- e 2 s ( 1 ba ) ) )
U W - 2 ( a ) h b p a o
]intsB andC butt v h t e re
n
J Dos bi f h n aiut b wls l eu l l el l t d eJl t W d - 2
o c p e n w
e t r ea t Di l oi sn id h ns et ls n l
n e x tt e h tn r d io, hn u hgs ge hnh a e a d dl s l
x e t n h ito t c i k }nr f e rhe s u s a l f de l
1 iey -
t v oe n swo s z }ae z g el lr l rax e p cl h ee dp t
c r U W( ( - 2 d( 1: a x )c)t h )ua . n gb e re s
o e
x r J oo c ai C tf n e mgt e oxs o cr fh y a n gr e rd s
e s t f a b l r j h i c o aJ at Wie(e da - n 2 p (t2 na ) ) d
p
s e 3 a
U t W n- 2 (u a d) ( l b ) (s c ) p n e ) d r
n
r U
J l ( W ( - 4a 1 ) )
J Aos b iT h Nn ay t ls p l e e o
( ( e f a x u1 cs t eoe pn ) i t f i T r c ( Type(y 1p 2 e
c h nr os i m t cai i uk n m le e l s s
s t e e l ) . . 0
$ V eo s ps l B os b i
e e l .r st h N n ay- t ls op l e e .
a b te le( o d w 2 )
– o2 U 0 W( ”a - ( 2 F ( 1 r nb 2 ) ) d )
i t i pJ e Caof p ci se nutn e t t t r sl a st i ol i n
m F s PhC o e
r e fq uwelds iextending
ro ethrough d r spot UCS-56
t m a tthehentire
e r
sectioni of theae l No
o w m ejoint
e tl ar d l
U W - 2 ( b )
J Dof p i e nun e t t r l a s t i ol n
w e ex tt le h n rdd oi sn u g g h
t e s n ea htt c i t ri eh oe n t e
j U o W( ai- ( 2 n ( 2 nbt 3 ) ) d )

6 U nstean f J i Aosr b ei t h. dNn aA


yt b w ls op eul l el e t d. le t d
boilers
with ( 1 j i o s) i h n e t slV nef l s a s b
d pe sr i e g sn a- h s e nh a 1 a d dcl s o . cal a t r

A
s e xu c er e de - b f r u a l d l o
ie y l a - s l o
i 5 p J n Bos s bit h N n a
g 0 io
y t g lse r op axl pe ce h . e
e rs p b p h
t ao
S n a o(be o N o(t 1ve e o eu2 t )np r . r d) 1 hoT e ( v ryw i. he -t 1pe r e 0e
i t c oh U l W iu - mn2 s (n s C o )i o ~ T n ( 0 sU y fW. 2p- 29
a d e s i g t n U l ( W ( - 4 a I ) )
c o 4n d i t i o n :
176

DESIGN OF WELDED JOINTS (CONT.)


P W NO E
D E S JI GO
T N I Y R AN D PI OT G REJA P HOI C IH E T
C O N D I AT CI OA NT N E EG X OA D R I YNE AF TF I IO CNTI RE E
M N AC Y
T

l Aos b i t h Nn ay t ls op l e e . w t t h h
: 1 ) l a w e e l
o o ci a n
J Bos b i t h Nn ay t ls op l e e . ; (t P
1) e - e
[1) o N o h 2- F he r . uT ) n ( Te l(y : y 1xp5 i c2 p ee
7 P r ve s se u wr s. t e
(
m a .l t
t h j l ec x 5kc isc n
ei t ee os es / s nd spI. 8 .0o h 90 i
s s ut e b D 0. n .8tf e l s 85 s
d fi i r N wr e j ei c oolnt t N s.7o l t
di g y ne o dt p 0s f e 0. a 60l e
( a p e rf 3emr i i t to ) e e h d e r r , to P t h h
A o Bj ioa i n n t r s n y ~ 1 p w oo
t h i c k n e s s I t r eei a t
U W - 2 ( d ) n a n d a
8 E l e c tA r b ow s U l ae .l g u Wl ( Fd l - t as u 1 I T ) ( l y . P l C 1p o0 e
w e l ( d i n 6 g ) 0 T ( y . U 2C
p S9
F u l l
U l t e r a xs o na i cm -
9 F c i l Aon w s a ue n. r l l e i d nwy ats t h 1 iT (ohe ny . P nC 1pe o0 e
o v e sU sl ( eW (l f s - c7 a o n 1 s t ) r )u0 c T t i( o ny . U 2C
p S9
d n p o e roe m si t t
r a d i o g r a p h s
1 S e a 0m l e s. s s p o t
v e s s e l
s e o c Jt ci o oo ni nv n nse e c t rt s Ni s ns g oe l n Pe C o e
h e s a e a c hd t o w
ies on an A o B h
s d d s 0 e . r n U8 r C5 S
U l W ( - a 1 w
) a te 3 l y r d p s e e ,
( ( 5 b ) ) 4 5 6 , ,
U W - 1 2 ( d )
1 J o 1i n t . s N g rt e o ah t ea t
c o m pA lW e t e e n d l d y s , 8 0
b u r e s s u r y e
u w - 1 2 ( f )

E F F I C (I E
T NB CU YE I SC A L C )EUO L EA D
T I O NN S
O S E A M K N Code
H L TE EHSF I S C A A E S S UW-12(d)
D S M E

TYPE OF T OFY P E
HEAD JOINT

N o1 .0 l 0.0 08 .
H e m i
s p h e r i cN a l 00 .0 2 9 .0 08.
O t h e Ar s N 1 Y . 0 0 . 0

* c a F l ic un l vo a ot il rov n i n g
c i r c u ms f e ort , e n rt i aa el s @ s r r
t h io s c ek h an m e sel s e s af s d
177

EXAMINATION OF WELDED JOINTS

RADIOGRAPHICEXAMINATION
FuUradiographyis mandatory of joints: (Code UW-11)
1. All butt welds in shells, heads, nozzles,communicating
chambersofunjired
steam boikrs having
lethalsubstances.
2 All .

1 1
Exemption: B and C butt welds in nozzlesand communicating
chambers that neither exceed 10 in pipe size nor 1 1/8in. wall thickness do not
require radiographicexamination in any of the above cases.
3 All categoryA and D butt welds . in vessel sectionsand heads where the design
of the joint or part is based on joint efficiency 1.0,or 0.9. (see preceding
pages: Design of Welding Joints).
4 All butt weldsjoined by electroslagweldingand
, all electrogasweldingwith any
greaterthan 1
radiography,as a minimum,ismandatoryof
1 B or Cweldswhichintersectthe
. CategoryA buttweldsinvessel
sections(includingnozzlesand communicating chambersabove10 in. pipe
size and 1in.wallthickness)or mmect seamlessvesselsectionsor headswhen
the designof Catego~ A and D buttweldsinvesselsectionsand headsbasedon
ajointefficiencyof 1.0or 0.9.
2 S radiography
p isoptionalofbutt
o . t weldedjoints(~ 1 2 w a hn i r c o ) h
required to ~ filly ~diographed. If spot radiographyspeciiled for the entire
vessel, radiographicexaminationis not required of CategoV B and C butt
welds in nozzlesand communicatingchambers.
No Radiography.No radiographicexaminationofweldedjoints is required when
the vessel or vessel part is designed for external pressure only,or when the
design of joints based on no radiographicexamination.

ULTRASONICEXAMINATION

I f e m r a r te i le etr c wi tn arca ole e ss l l lea wcgn dt w r e ao s sg li da i s d nnt sg h l y


p g rat e 1 1 asih s t b esuha /l rtn r aa ns e o lnx2 i .cat al hm l elr yi ot nu ge h hd o eu t i
e ln e t n i g r t eh .
2 I a d t d t ir e t q iu ih.oornr en a md e i onoet gxs r a a m p ia h nwifa c tm ie ob lnt l,a d d lh
e l be cp ter or bo to aci n en a msce h os r n tdnr iy if ne r rua oi i du c s tv i eo n
w e p l r sd o b i uhc ln t er aga ss e o slnx i caf al tml el eyi h n lno e e td n i g r r rt eh
3 U l t er xa as mo mi n nb i .sa c tu ib oas f n t r i a t d u i yt foo eetg d fr a c p i ohlr hy on s a ru e
s i t ec o n sa tho rt uv cm t dei f oen hsn p o s ei n eftoeree rl m rp ars edi tt i a ot b gl er a p
178

B W J
P C L U T
B T A IP T E D RI F E FE
H E
D
I TR H E NFI ECI MEK N T E O S 1N S
H R
I O O N E N - FO OT UT R. HT
R HPIH NL C N AFU EEOW
T RU - E 9DW . ( - C E 1) , 3
T L E OH NT TG ATE T H
P HR E A RNF SSEE I DTH
B I M O AIN N 3LT I TMLI UME
O F B FE STT WA
E DET J H
ES A U
N C R E F TENA WTC EM SH E B. p LAA OE R D
E N T I IT R T E A L SP
HY E OC R N
AT EE D DI J TOA I C
N E NR T O

x2 3

&

1
L &3
T e ai t ~ p oe o{ evu $ jt r ~ s ~ i

&

r L
e g i e nn t e

‘ s L @ & y H TE S AH E
D LS L
A T T A C H M E N T
$
z ~ l
/ 2 ( t @
T s p h c h le en mat el er t l l i a e
b o e si o t hi h eeed hn r
p c le n t a e r tl i n e e

‘ ~ % ’
Y %
Y

a nL g~ e n - t ~ ~ H TE S AH ED LS L
A ~ A C H M E N T
Y ;
~ ~ 3 Z z l / 2 ( t h - ty
S -. —-
1 ~ “ $ ~W t e h~ t,., t c m e e i le n nhdoe is h ~ m
tn r u g ea
z f il 3 ba n tnn e ge u 1xh e i coee- s , e xt 1 d e
w n e h ct p e rser s oe al qvnr oeuyit i nd a ro e ge
a n g e- n ti L i- n /e f W l t i e h t oql et u1 e .tnh a l 2k ssoel 5a o nhrr
s t f r sla bi ash gu n fhf a fatg i r lc ee i qoel nnue
t Ta s pp hc eelh nemr tab oe .le r te sl i lai ent ei
o t h p c e ehl n t aae r f lte id n e e .
— —7 -
th
@ e :
1
APPLICATIONOF WELDINGSYMBOLS

WELD SYMBOL MEANINGOF SYMBOL

n
m +rt

v P

m =

m K

8
& & w

~ ‘

&
APPLICATIONOF WELDINGSYMBOLS

WELD SYMBOL MEANINGOF SYMBOL

b G ‘i’’’g%N:i;E’”E

~q g~g2g9D
~,

SYMBOL
INDICATES

L d

SYMBOL INDICATES 1/4 IN.


INTERMITTENT FILLET WELD.
EACH 2
P

E
* 8 -

P
s
181

C R RELATED To VARIOUS SERVICES

Code
Service Brief extracts of Code requirements
paragraph

i A ip r ve lse rf s us uw s r cl e oe i m sl pas r et e r sxiea s hUec -d r e( p , 4t


p e r o m t i h ti et t r pe wad h ir ssa ebg i hp r ra n aops hv l i dl ee d
w s u i i i n t s t apo ebp chl e t e in o i n n g .
V e w s a r s ei e m q l uit si tn rh ih ei omcld kut n m ? e e Uh s - s s a C f s 2n
i t an t hb u c i rac so h m tpa e res eo eess ds r bei n hvd i a c r le l
p r ow vc io i dr a r e l ot dl sno il who ta n n1e o coh e s a/ t s n 6
t c a l cp h u t l lh a i t caM e k d t nt he i is 3e cs i .kn n1 Ue 1. s 3n s( 6 -2
~ l a mE mx a p c b oa l nne n dse cen t hdbi uo na ss o l e l dUt -e .( 4
m o n o x d r -
o g a u s e s s
m l i q u i dd s

L e B
t wh ueja loil vt d i e t ecnts odst l ne ses tlu ntbas s ih U
to an- a n( c l e s
s u b s st ab hnf c r eaua ds i ol g r al p eh ye d .
W f a h b or ci e c a oa l t nr ae dbs l soo t fbl nph e o rUaw oe- y ( l l s l e
w h te r e e l a a t de td .
T j oo v hi a c nra t it see ogsc ohu orf sti nape fas lr o a r lg mr a p o h
Uw -2.
S p t cl oe an f t et os pr ee m
l c i s f nSi cg aASt i o-A no s U
3- - 62 ( ( ,8 C 3
s n hb u a s o l e l dt e .

V e w s a r s ei e m
q l uit sitn rh ih ie omcld kut %e e ucs
nm h s -25
ss a f s n
S t i e na m c h

i & n .

i s &h h ne ~l l .d s I s J ( G -

V ew sar s ei e m q l uit sitn rh ih ie omcld kut n m ? e e ucs


h s -25
ss a f s n
W ( a i t t 2ane t hb ru c i )raw s hs a te se e tr bo hepv ed r i nao rc v le i dl ee d
w a c oi r a r l t o l soo ni hw lo a tn n 1ec o ohe t c s af/ t ash n 6l f
c u p l t alh i t ca ek ndt e s e s .
M t h i i 3 c i kns n/ &he h . s 3en s e l 2a l . ds u s ( G( -

N O T E S :
1 U ns f b t i om r eai eb l .ca dole an mrsi at ss rc uc y c o ot r eed d a n c n e
w t i ht h e
2 V ei w s s s a e e xt w l f.c s etil j unruc r rd ie oes hot dd i c m t i ohe n
c a l o ii srd t ee e d n
.

1 Q?
1

C R R
V W T V
T h i c k -
?
n i e 1 s n3 s < 3 , .A x 6 4 5 2 3 6 4 7 % 6 4 A
241 24 1 2 3 4 5 2 4, 5, 65 4 6 ,8 ,95 4, 6,, 8,, 9, ‘, 7 8, 9, 11, ,27 8, 9, 1, 1
a p p 5 l6 8i 9 c 5 a6 a b9 6l 8 e9 1 8 9 , 1, , , 1 1, ,1 , ,11 ,1 , 11, 121 ,1 , I , 1 1, 1, 2 4 4 ,
N 1o 1 1 t I1 1 e11 21 1 s 1 21 1, ,2 441 , ,2 41 , , 5 , 4 5 5
v t ha i ic k l - 1 4A 516 4
n i e 9 s n5 s ~ 1, . 31 6 1 4A 36,
%

a p p 7 l1 i1 c 7 a1 1b 0l7 11e 1 07 11, 1, , 0 7 31, 1, ,0 7 31, 1, ,0 7 31, 1, , 07 31, 1, ,0 3 ,


N o1 1 1 t 1 1 1e2 41 2 s 2 41 2, , 6 5 1 2, ,6 5 1 2, 0 6 1 2, 0 6 1 2, 0 6 ,

i T ha i lc k 1l - 1 l 3 1
m i s1 n 1s1 ,< . 6 1 <A 15 6 1X% 3 &7 o6 XAv

7 1 1 7 1 1 3 7 61 1 3 7 61, ,1 ,37 61, 1, , 3 6 ,
\ p p 7 l 1 i1 c 7 a1 1b 3l 7 61e 1 3 1 62, , 1 , 3 1 6 1, ,27 , 01 91, , 7 , 818 ,1 2, 7 ,,1 1, 1, 721 8 ,
N o
1 2 t 1 2 e7 1 2 s 7 2 , 0 7 1 2, 02 1 2, 029 01 22 29 02 2, , 9 2 0 ,

N o t e s
( B
E x r ot Ci r Rae e oqc fu t i r s de m e fn et s )

1 T m i m e easc os oln t s dtsf r e ube cnhr t dui oa ( n G ol


tn h h i i omcp .ku fe nl w -
l t 1e h / s 1a s6 n .
T m i tnh h i i omcs ku e ahn m he e s u esl ni cl a sof m s d pa de r se s ds ien d
s e sr vs t i e a ce rw e vas , a i en smc tr b eh3v e i id a /rc le 3nU l G e ( 2- 1. 6

2 M a n u f a m
c t u a r s e rr b.s k’ho i t ta nd ghdl s e t el aa e meri pUn i ( pnG ge .-

3 I c o m pa r s e sai t s .wen ed sr a ne ac tro, mrv ae r ldi o l rcsno i eU wo aC


n n o cS e
l t 1 e o h t c s a a/ l pc hs u t n ll h a6 i tsfacee bkd ph t n r e oae s v s il d el de .

4 S i w n e og pl l eued .nt , e3i i ndp g s s di n n i p r po e zU. qo e ( u(C e io- r


r e i n f o r c e m e n t .

5 T m i tnh h i i omcs .ku eahn mh e e so eusl n nlas f f s bdti d o r use i e ( fG


l ad b e -m)r
s n hb l ta o1 e il h l s at ne s n % .

6 D of f u l iu bj o ttn u ejpd ti liona ra cdil c ,een T p dUtt aa sbW lb s


l f l oll. loea n i eg l iw

7 S i w n eo g p l l ue dte n2. i ,ei p n ds g d i nsn ir ep r o zqe o . i-ue Un ei f( o (G


ro t r e -c
f o r c e m e n t .

8 S fi f n l iu jg l wl o l p.l ae wiie l fl tna ett p t ut a oolhch h g nmetd eT nr aU t a dW b f


o 2 i vo u d et in sat s m ri h4aed .c et ec eel pr l t as ob ,l e .

9 M a tx h i i omcr e ku i .nnmf eo f rs bc se wm e3ufno ti e /t l U


r 3n t ( dW 2 -

1 M a tx 0 h i i omcr eku i . n mf eo f rs bc se wm e1ufno i t e t /l rUW


n t ‘d 8- (.
1 S if f 1n l ui gj l lw ol. l pea w
iei l l ft ne ct pi r utlc u hmo df j ge rt esTn ot Uir aa l Wi b
a c c e p t a b l e .
.
183

C R O U
R ED L LT V
A
EE AT S E
R
W DI T OHA I UC
O KSL NO EV S LS E E S S S
( C o n t i n u e d )

N o t e s
( B
E x r ot Ci r Rae e oqc fu ti r s ed m e fn et s )

1 S fi f 2n l iu gj l low l. l aeii p et nlw ht lta ope c s cu ulef t pa dt t ga Tbt so U


l a ea c W bh r
m o h e c e ont ap n r dt tve s fs es h s xeu rl o e l s o .

1 W ej 3l o p d i r even . sed st s s u sut s dbr f e ejfi l e iir sc c rea t t iU


c eo (nt g Wog r n dy
Bs b th ( oa y( P l w1p2 l ho et ee) r es)e rr al .e t atq m du e i tn r (2) t e d .

1 S w
i 4neb jgl wudl o . i eu itt o d bh n aot s s ctu a ktct ci erfe n p f tgi a b po l e

P-1 shall be fully radio- UCS-57


graphed.

19. Post weld heat treatment of P-1 materials is mandatory for all welded TableUCS-56
connections and attachments.

20. Double welded butt joint or single welded butt joint with backing Tableuw-lz
strip shall be used for circumferential or longitudinaljoints.

21. Pull radiographic examination of butt welded joints of P-1 Grade


1, 2, 3 materialsis mandatory.
22. Post weld heat treatment of P-1 materialsis not mandatory pro-
vialedthat material is pre-heated. Note(2)(a)(b)

See page 179 f l t e m o p ooe pr ae t r ru awr t e i o n .

N O T E :
P w h o t e r ees i nal t ea trm ide e nqttn p tuh r ioe fhrs ojr ie b od i t io er dn t r s
b e a tu w s s t et e asne ii ont nt t i P
l e c e 8 ges- sh r(l N T os a oob fu eu .l p a t . e d
p 1 ) a 8g e 5 .
1- . 8 4-

T A V
C F A C L
Excerpt from the Departmentof Labor OccupationalSafety and Health
Standards(OSHA),ChapterXVII, Part 1910.106,
(FederalRegister,July 1, 1985)
CLASSIFICATION REGULATION

ATMOSPHERIC
TANKS Atmospherictanks shall be built in accord-
ance with acceptable good standards of
Storagetank whichhas been design.
designedto operateat Atmospherictanks may be built in accord-
pressuresfrom atmospheric ance with:
through0.5 psig. 1. Underwriters’ Laboratories, Inc. Stand-
ards
2. American Petroleum Institute Standards
No. 12A, No. 650, No. 12B, No. 12D,
& No. 12F.

LOWPRESSURETANKS Low-Pressuretanks shallbe built in accord-


ancewith acceptablestandardsof design.
Storagetank whichhas Low-Pressuretanks may be built in accord-
been designedto operate ancewith
at pressuresabove0.5 psig. 1. American Petroleum Institute Standard
but not more than 15 psig. No. 620.
2. ASMECode for PressureVessels,Section
VIII.
(These tanks are not within the jurisdiction
of the ASMECode SectionVIII (U-id) but
may be stamped with the Code U Symbol
U-lg)

P V P V s b b i a
Stora e tank or vessel with the ASMECode for PressureVessels,
which i?asbeen designed SectionVIII.
to operateat pressures
above15 psig.
In addition to the regulationsof the above mentioned standards and code, the
occupationalsafety and health standardscontainrulesconcerningtanks and vessels
as follows:
1. Definitionof combustibleand flammableliquids
2. Materialof storagetanks
3. Locationof tanks
4. Ventingfor tanks
5. Emergencyreliefventing
6. Drainage
7. Installationof tanks
185

LOW TEMPERATURE OPERATION

I am i d n me i t m es e m uipaf tem
t gr a ahtn u nir l e -c k d -
n e s s - c o omc b i naaa lt i aro n s b l ni t oo l ef n oe d w l y s s
b t ce i uFl Urh o Cfvi Swtm
e -Geei sp 6 s n a6. t , ci nt g s
r e q u i r e d . N I tO H aT t n mhE
d c b o. oouh mno e m
k ss o
. m a a t l e iFr o is rsa t t Al heosC dSe ee o . r r
M
I
I
I
I A c aa a rsl l l bt ni itl oe f l soneo l t d l hy oe s
~ I - ‘‘ p a an s gb h n eeo 4o l s wod t wn
I
1 0 0 . S A
G &-6 Sr 5- G1_A5&02B5 5 8 , A
I S A
G & -7 i nr 5 n o 1 r6 m6 oa l 5 i z 0e f
8 / 0
I
6 1Y .~ S A
G 5 &-6 i n 5 n o1 r 6 o a rl 5 i
m 0z f
I /0 -
I / {
: 40
I /{ A / -
; 20
I
I

j 4i a t m i n dn n h mei ms .e du i e tm g
t e m pi ce r t oa 1t ul ihr2 de m0 ea p°s r aF
: I tm en p xs a pt cid ntrt egme da s t b tueh rUe s iCa d aS e l-l 6 dl6
:- I 8 1 0
0.394 1 2 3 4 5
N ot hm ii ci k n n ae Nsl i s , tm i rm p e e f aqm uac s oit t ero ret si d a
S G
A B a -t e 1m -p 9Fa e r w3 a ta Ru4 7rr nt e m
F U ICI M
S T G -PC 6E
AU. 6CR S STV A GEBT a t- S e m
3 -p 0Fe a r w7a t a u2r rr n
te m
F s t a v t eoi w os t n cs aho e r ri r yl n hsec a i, d
i F U C1i i l S t - go e 6t h nF6 ,n s ,ih a g es s
p r f o ubv rti uadtm e has w
s et siie r t r s hi
i tm e Up s G ta - i 6 c n6 t(g b . ) .
R E D OU MC IT IN O I N M U FM
M TE E M TP E RA A T LU R E
E X A M P L E :
>
3 V 3
Z F 1 O R
: 0 . 6 g - d t ee ms ip f ei F r U
ag r tC uISn r - eo6 6G 5 stm
; W
. \ A I t a sc i thtt er uf nie af ens r s l t i se oo
~ c a
@ o.4-
- ~ p r a e o s l st i 1uon hpr 2 ae te s @d r i Ons
m a a zl sli oomtt hwe umra a tmbe en la l ei as 1 5 ,s
; S J p t r s a i ht .i o, e :
1 ~ 0 0 =00 / 1 5 , 0 .0 0
~ “ “ 0 ” 2 ; ” ’ a f r n t r o e di d2 m uh c 0 t i
Z * T m i d n the ei m smip 5 eui er 30mag t - us n 0r 2 e
< .
( A p j p el fio fc isa cib ii l he enn i cc ai tle sul
o
T

w 3 ht v ii he y d cshr o t ss ht ae te i .sce al tl l sye d


s aa o t f i o sl l l t ho j w J i nl 4f gt e d: t e e msh ip n eli r t ag o-t. eFu no rhw e 2e a
1t t h oi m c h a kl t ni ic ee A.rsdeu si t aa r onf el h v td i e 6n eFgo h s h 5dea t r n 0
n e 1x i eo e 1 ne t d 5 t 2 h. m e e rcs hml a ha ono cli a.oc,y ad c lc i l ni k
2t t h oi m c h a kl t ni ic ee rs ~eu si t lan f eol i n wacd o dn ns d ti ror enoe lq gslu ii sirn t eg m g e
a D n1 d
P M
CARBON& LOWALLOYSTEEL*

Nominal Specification
Form Composltlon Number Grade APPLICATION

SA-283 c Structural uality. For pressurevessel


c maybeusea withlimitationsseenote: 1

c SA-285 c Boilersfor stationaryserviceand other


pressurevessels
C - Si SA-515 55 * Primarilyfor intermediateand high
temperatureservice
~ —— 99
C - Si SA-515 60 *
2 C - Si SA-515 65 – “ –
C - Si SA-515 70 – “ –
C - Si SA-516 55 * For moderateand lowertemperature
service
C - Si SA-516 60 * ——99

C - Mn - Si SA-516 65 * 99
——
C - Mn - Si SA-516 70 * 99
——
a&: C - Mn - Si SA-105 For hightemperatureservice
C“S
~z C - Si SA-181 I For generalservice
‘u
c1 C - Mn LF1
e SA-350 LF2 For low temperatureservice
C - Mn - Si
C - Mn SA-53 B For generalservice
E
z C - Mn SA-106 B For hightemperatureservice
ICr-1/5Mo. SA-193 B7 * For hi temperatureservice
M Bolt2* in. dam. or less
.-G
3 SA-194 2H For hightemperatureservicenut
m
SA-307 B* Machinebolt for generaluse
*Forlowtemperature
operation
seepage185

* Dataof the most frequen~yused materialsfrom ASMECodeSectionII and ~11”


PROPERTIES OF MATERIAL (cont.)

Specification P Tensile Yield See


Form Number Strength Point Notes
Number Grade 1,000 psi. 1,000 psi.
SA-283 c 1 55.0 30.0 1

SA-285 c 1 55.0 30.0 2,6

SA-515 55 1 55.0 30.0 3

SA-515 60 1 60.0 32.0 3’


w SA-515 65 1 65.0 35.0 3
b
e
2 SA-515 70 1 70.0 38.0 3

SA-516 55 1 55.0 30.0 3,8

SA-516 60 1 60.0 32.0 3,8

SA-516 65 1 65.0 35.0 3,8

SA-516 70 1 70.0 38.0 3,8

a .- SA-I05 1 70.0 36.0 2,3


JZQHz
<z~ SA-181 I 1 60.0 30.0 2,3
~<_
& u LF1 60.0 30.0 —
SA-350 1 70.0 36.0
LF2
~ SA-53 B 35.0
2W 1 60.0 2,3,4,7
E%
3A SA-106 B 1 60.0 35.0 3
m
DIAM> 2k’2in —
u SA-193 B7 – 125.0 105.0 and<4 in
z
G SA-194 2H 55.0 – —
:
SA-307 B 55.0 – 5
188

PROPERTIES OF MATERIAL
(continued)

NOTES:
1. SA-36and SA-283ABCDplatemaybe usedfor pressureparts inpressure
vesselsprovidedall of the followingrequirementsare met:
(1) The vessels arenotusedto contain lethal substances, either liquid or I
gaseous;
(2) Tmaterial isnotusedintheconstmctionofunfiredsteamboilers(see
Code U-1 (g) ~;
(3) Withtheexception of flanges, flatboltedcovers, andstiffeningrings
on which strength welding is applies does not exceed 5/8 in.
2. For service temperatures above 850° Fit is recommended that killed steels
containing not less than O.IOOA
residual silicon be used. Killed steels which
have been deoxidized with large amounts of aluminum and rimmed steels
may have creep and stress-rupture properties in the temperature range
above 850° F, which are somewhat less than those on which the values in
the table are based.

3. Upon prolonged exposure to temperatures above 800°F, the carbide phase


of carbon steel maybe converted to graphite.

4. Only killed steel shall be used above 850° F.

5. Not permitted above 450° F, allowable stress value 7000 psi.

6. The material shall not be used in thicknesses above 2 in.

7. For welded pipe maximum allowable stress values are 15Y0less. No


increase in these stress values shall be allowed for the performance of
radiography.

8. The stress values to be used for temperatures below -20° F when steels are
made to conform with supplement (5) SA-20 shall be those that are given
in the column for -20 to 650° F.

MODULI OF ELASTICITY FOR FERROUS MATERIALS

Material Millionp f T es m p Foeoi r a t .u r e


70 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100
C as w
rt Cbe 0 i oe .2 n l 32t s920 h82 C <2.8 k 2.7 572. 826. 32.5 742, 32.1 7.0
C as w
rt Cbe 0 i oe 2. n l 2t 3 s92 I 8h20 >2. % I 2.78 32 626.7 25. 542, 2.1 5.0
H a si l t lg e 7-.
oe 3h -. 7 l y6 2 s 2 27 26 852. 725. 02.4 542. 832. 3.2
T v ia t hEl x u P t hree eCe r s sanh nis ae anu l ftrr e ree tx n p t sd roe e e r d s n s
c a l c ou l a nt i o l n s y .
1 8

PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS CARBON& LOWALLOY STEEL


Maximum Allowable Stress Values in Tension 1000 psi.*

Specification For Metal Temperature Not Exceeding Deg. F.


Number G :r , a 5, d~ :0 e 5 900
0o 950
0 0 o
c 13.8 - - - - - - - - - -
SA-285 c 13.8 13.3 12.1 10.2 8.4 6.5 - - - - -
SA-515 55 13.8 13.3 12.1 10.2 8.4 6.5 4.5 2.5 - - -
SA-515 60 15.0 14.4 13.0 10.8 8.7 6.5 4.5 2.5 - - -
SA-515 65 16.3 15.5 13.9 11.4 9.0 6.5 4.5 2.5 - - -
SA-515 70 17.5 16.6 14.8 12.0 9.3 6.5 4.5 2.5 - - -
SA-516 55 13.8 13.3 12.1 10.2 8.4 6.5 4.5 2.5 - - -
SA-516 60 15.0 14.4 13.0 10.8 8.7 6.5 4.5 2.5 - - -
SA-516 65 16.3 15.5 13.9 11.4 9.0 6.5 4.5 2.5 - “ -
SA-516 70 17.5 16.6 14.8 12.0 9.3 6.5 4.5 2.5 - - -
SA-105 17.5 16.6 14.8 12.0 9.3 6.5 4.5 2.5 - - -
SA-181 I 15.0 14.4 13.0 10.8 8.7 6.5 4.5 2.5 - - -
LF1 15.0 1 1 41 3 7 . 0 5.0. 3.0
4 . . 1.5
0 8 8
SA-350 ]7.5 lfj.b 14.&l12.(.) 7.8 5.() 3.0 !.$ - - -
LF2
SA-53 B 15.0 14.4 13.0 10.8 8.7 6:5 - - - - -
SA-106 B 15.0 14.4 13.0 10.8 8.7 6.5 4.5 2.5 - - -
SA-193 B7~2%’‘ 25.0 25.0 23.6 21.0 17.0 12.5 8.5 4.5 - - -
SA-194 2H - - - - - - - - - - -
SA-307 B
Seepage177forlowtemperatureope;ationo

* The StressValuesin this table may be interpolatedto determinevaluesfor


intermediatetemperatures.

I
190

PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS
STAINLESS STEEL
P No.8 GroupNo.1. -
——
TABLE 1 TAklLE3
P r S o N dp G u eN
rc o t c ao . dt P . ree So sNd pG u eNcr ot 6oa
Plate 304 2 3 . P l S aA 316-t 2 23 e 4
S Tb. m SA-213 l TP304s 2 . g Plate SA-240 317 2 3
00
Smls. Tb. SA-213 TP304H — ~ SA-213 TP316 2
z 3 :
y +@ y:: ;’: SA-312 TP304 2 ; ;? %: ;;: SA-213 TP316H —
SA.312 TP304H — & Smls. Pp. SA-312
~ q ~ 33 Smls. pp. SA.312 TL~?l~\ :
~ “gg H:: ;;: W;: TP304H
‘p304 —
2 ‘ =-~ Smls. Pp. SA-312 317 2
z . . C Pp. a SA-452 s TP304Ht — . 5 “Z
g“ Smls. Pp. SA-376 TP316 2
Q SE Forg. SA-182 F304 2 s “? Smls. Pp. SA-376 TP316H —
Forg. SA-182 z ijg Cast Pp. SA-452 TP316H —
* F304H —
a Bar SA-479 304 235 Forg. SA-182 F316 2
g [ F o SA-182 r F316Hg — .
g TABLE 2 g b SA-479a 316 235 r
a
d Product Spec. No. G Nr gao dt e s
< u TABLE 4
~ Plate SA-240 304L — A Product Spec. No. G Nr oa
z O* Smls. Tb. SA-213 TP304L — :
: ~ Smls. Pp. SA.312 TP304L ~ —
s =jS ;::: Tb SA-240 316L —
~~ Bar g ~’g . . SA-213 TP316L —
SA-479 304L 5 Smls. Pp. SA-312 TP316L —
j’ ~
>*
B S aA 316L
- 54 r 7

M A XA LI LM O SUW M
A
T V B RA
L 1E L
E P US. E S0 S d, 0 0
MATERIALS

N O
1 1 81 71 . 61 . 61 8 . 51 8 . 51 6 . 51 2 . 51 9 . 51 9 . 51 9 . 4 19 . 4 6 .
1 1 1 81 51 . 41 . 21 8 . 21 7 . 111.11 . 110.fj9 . 10.61 . 10.44 Io.z2
1 1 61 61 . 51 . 41 7 . 41 5 . 41 3 . 31 7 . 3] 4 . 3 30 . 7 . . 15 ( 3
2 1 1 61 41 . 21 . 11 3 . 01 3 . 01 8 . 0 9 7 . 0 9 9 . 3. . 1 . 0 8
18.8 18.8 18.4 18.1 18.0 17.0 16.7 16.3 16.1 15.9 15.7 15,6 1
3 1 1 81 71 . 51 . 41 8 . 31 7 . 2] 6 . 21 3 .2 1 3 . 11 6 . 11 3 . 1 1 . 1 9.
1 1 61 6‘ . 61 1 . 1 7 5. 41 7 41. 0 . 31 6 . 31 8 . 31 0 . 3 8 . 2 15 . 2.
4 1 1 61 41 . 21 . 11 7 . 01 1 . 01 7 . 0 9 7 . 0 9 9 . 9 4. . 2 . 0 . 8
M A T E RF I MA L TESEO M TP E R AA RT UL R E S
TAyLE

1
1 1 1 . .
1 1 51 5] . 49 . 2 7 4 . 5 3 . . 4 5 . 3 I4 . 2 8 . 1 4 1 5 . 11 . . .
3 1 1 11 11 . 19 . 17 4 . 5 3 . . 4 2 . 3 0 , 2 8 . 1 4 . 1 5 . 1 . 1 .
N
T h s v e e y s t t s v r
d c p s T s v r f g o a
w s a d c l m
t a I t s v a c 0 h
F a 1 t s v b m t h am t o
1 q w r c o m
S [ 6
e p c m b p s r o
191
-

THERMAL EXPANS1ON
LinearThermalExpansionbetween70F andXndicatedTemperature,Inches/100Feet
THE DATAOF THISTABLEARE TAKENFROMTH~:AM~KIcANsTANllAItll ~Ol)E:
FOR PRESSUREH~lNC. I 1 N O T S T

MATERIAL
~mp. g::;.;toy; 5 Cr Mo ;“:::;:C 120 25 Cr
)gF Low-Chrome thru 17 Cr
20
&l ~:n~’cu 3%Nickel Aluminum &q:on
9~ 18s!W8’\i 27 Cr
-2.04 –2.62 -2.25 -4.68 -3.98
300 -2.24 -2.10 –3.63 -1.92 -2.50 -2.17 -4.46 -3.74
275 –2.11 –1.98 -3.41 -1.80 -2.38 -2.07 -4.2I -3..50
2s0 -1.98 -1.86 -3.19 -1.68 -2.26 -1.96 -3.97 -3.26
22s -1;85 -1.74 -2.96 -1.s7 –2.14 –1.86 -3.71 “ -3.o2
200 -1.71 -1.62 -2.73 -1.46 -2.02 –1.76 -3.44 -2.78
17s -1.S8 - I.50 -2.s0 –1.3s -1.90 -1.62 -3.16 -2.S4
1so -1.45 -1.37 -2.27 -1.24 -1.79 -1.48 -2.88 –2.31
12s -1.30 -1.23 –2.01 –1.11 -1.s9 -1.33 –2.s7 –2.06
100 -1;15 -1.08 -1 .7s -0.98 –1.38 -1.17 –2.27 –1.81
7s –f,oo -0.94 -1.s0 -0.8S -1.18 -1.01 -1.97 -1.56
so -0.84 -0.79 -1.24 -0.72 -0.98 -0.84 –1.67 -1.32
25 –0.68 –0.63 –0.98 –O.s7 -0.77 -0.67 –1.32 -1.25
-0.49 -0.46 –0.72 –0.42 –0.s7 -0.50 –0.97 -0.77
2: -0.32 -0.30 -0.46 –0.27 –0.37 -0.32 –0.63 -0.49
so -0.14 -0.13 –0.21 -0.12 -0.20 -0,1s -0.28 -0.22
o 0 0 0 0 0 o 0 0 0
1:: 0.23 0.22 0.34 0.20 0.32 0.28 0.23 0.46 0.21 0.36
125 0.42 0.40 0.62 0.36 0.S8 0.s2 0.42 0.8S 0.38 0.66
150 0.61 0.S8 0.90 0.53 0.84 0.7s 0.61 1.23 0.52 0.96
17s 0.80 0.76 1.18 0.69 1.10 0.99 0.81 1.62 0.73 1.26
200 0.99 0.94 1.46 0.86 1.37 1.22 1.01 2.00 0.90 1.S6
22s 1.21 1.13 1.7s 1.03 1.64 1.46 1.21 2.41 1.08 1.86
2s0 1.40 1.33 2.03 1,21 1.91 1.71 1.42 2.83 1.27 2.17
275 1.61 1.s2 2.32 1.38 2.18 1.96 1.63 3.24 1.4s 2.48
300 1.82 1.71 2.61 1,S6 2.4S 2.21 1.84 3.67 1.64 2.79
32S 2.04 1.90 2.90 1.74 2.72 2.44 2.0s 4.09 1.83 3.11
350 2.26 2.10 3.20 1.93 2.99 2.68 2.26 4.S2 2.03 3.42
37s 2.48 2.30 3.s0 2.11 3.26 2.91 2.47 4.95 2.22 3.74
400 2.70 2.s0 3.80 2.30 3.s3 3.25 2,69 S.39 2.42 4.05
42S 2.93 2.72 4.10 2.50 3.80 3.52 2.91 S.83 2.62 4.37
4s0 3.16 2.93 4.41 2.69 4.07 3.79 3.13 6.28 2.83 ;.:;
47s 3.39 3.14 4.71 2.89 4.34 4.06 3.3s 6.72 3.03
Soo 3.62 3.3s Sol 3.08 4.61 4.33 3.S8 7.17 3.24 S:33
S25 3.86 3.58 5.31 3.28 4.88 4.61 3.81 7.63 3.46 S.65
S50 4.11 3.80 5.62 3.49 5.1s 4.90 4.04 8.10 3.67 5.98
S7S 4.3s 4.02 5.93 3.69 5.42 5.18 4.27 8.s6 3.89 6.31
::; 4.60 4.24 :.;; 3.90 S.69 5,46 4.50 9.03 4.1I 6.64
4.86 4.47 4.10 5.96 S.7S 4.74 4.34 6.96
650 5.11 4.69 6:87 4.31 6.23 6.05 4.98 4.57 7.29
675 5.37 4.92 7.18 4.S2 6.S0 6.34 S.22 4.80 7.62
700 5.63 5.14 7.s0 4.73 6.77 6.64 5.46 5.03 7.95
72S 5.90 S.38 7.82 4.94 7.04 6.94 S.70 S.26 8.28
7s0 6.16 5.62 8.15 S.16 7.31 7.25 S.94 5.s0 8.62
775 6.43 5.86 8.47 5.38 7.s0 7.ss 6.18 S.74 8.96
8 6.70 0 6.10 8.80 0S.60 7.8S 7.8s 6.43 5.98 9.30
9.64
82S 6.97 6.34 9.13 S.82 8.1S 8.16 6.68 6.22
8S0 7.2S 6.S9 9.46 6.0S 8.4S 8.48 6.93 6.47 9.99
87s 7.53 6.83 9.79 6.27 8.7s 8.80 7.18 6.72 10.33
900 7.81 7.07 10.12 6.49 9.0s 9.12 7.43 6.97 10.6S
92S 8.08 7.31 10.46 6.71 9,3s 9.44 7.68 7.23 11.02
9s0 8.3S 7.S6 10.80 6.94 9.6S 9.77 7.93 7.s0 11.37
97s 8.62 7.81 11.14 7.17 9.9s 10.09 8.17 7.76 11.71
1000 8.89 8.06 11.48 7.40 10.2s 10.42 8.41 8.02 12.0s
102s 9.17 8.30 11.82 7.62 10.5s 10.7s 12.40
10s0 9.46 8.ss 12.16 7.9s 10.8S 11.09 12.76
107s 9.7s 8.80 12.50 8.18 11.1S 11.43 13.11
1100 10.04 9.0s 12.84 8.31 11.4s 11.77 13.47
112s 10.31 9.28 13.18 8.S3 11.78 12.11
1150 10.s7 9.S2 13.S2 8.76 12.11 12.47
117s 10.83 9.76 13.86 8.98 12.44 12.81
1200 11.10 10.00 14.20 9.20 12.77 13,15
122s 11.38 10.26 14.s4 9.42 13.10 13.s0
1250 11.66 10.s3 14.88 9.65 13.43 13.86
1275 11.94 10.79 1s.22 9.8& 13.76 14.22
1300 12.22 11.06 1S.S6 10.11 14.09 14.S8
132S 12.s0 11.30 15.90 10.33 14.39 14.94
13so 12.78 11.ss 16.24 10.s6 14.69 1s.30
137s 13.06 11.80 16.s8 10.78 14.99 1s.66
1400 13.34 12.0s 16.92 11.01 I S.29 16.02
142s 17.30
14so 17.69
147s 18.08
1s00 18.47
192

DESCRIPTIONOF MATERIALS

Whendescribingvarious vesselcomponents and parts on drawingsand in bill of


materials,it is advisablethat a standard method be followed. For this purpose
it is recommendedthe use of the widelyacceptedabbreviationsin the sequences
exemplified below. For ordering material the requirements of manufacturers
should be observed.

MATERIAL
PART DESCRIPTION SPECIFICATION

9 Bar2 x 1/4x 3’-6


BAR Bar3/4 @x 2’- O SA-7
9 Bar 1 @ x 3’- O

3/4 @x 2-1/2 H. Hd.M.B. WI(1) sq. nut SA-193B7bolt


= BOLT 1 @x 5-1/2 stud w/ (2) h. nuts SA-1942Hnut
~ CAP 8“ Std. Cap
$,
1“ – 6000# Cplg.
Screwed 2“– 3000# Cplg.
D COUPLING 1“ -6000 # HalfCplg. SA-105
1“ -6000 # 4-1/2 Lg.Cplg.

6“- Std. 900 L. R. En.


Welding 4“- X Stg.450 S. R. En.
h ELBOW SA-234WPB
6“ x 4“ Std. L. R. Red. Eli

4“ - 300# RF. So. Fig.


B. 6“- 150# RF. Wn.Fig. Std. Bore
g
,, FLANGE 6“ - 600# RTJ.Wn.Fig. X Stg. Bore SA-1811
3“ - 150# FF. So. Fig.
8“ -150 # R.F. Bid.Fig.

1“ - 6000# 900 Scr’d.En.


b 1“ -3000 # 900 Scr’d.Street En.
~’:kw:d
2“ -3000 # S.w.Cplg. SA-105
~ Welding 1“ - 3000# Sq. Hd.Plug
FORGED
Q FITTING 2“ -6000 # Scr’d.Tee
2“ -3000 # 450 S. W.En.

18-150 # 1/16” Serv. Sht. Gasket


30 GASKET
18-300 # Spiral Wound ASB. Filled
ASB.

48 “ID x 0.375 min. 2:1 ellip. head SA-285 C


2“ S.F.
9 HEAD 48” OD x 0.500” min. ASME F & D SA-515-70
Head 2 S.F. L = 48” r = 3“ SA-516-70
54” ID x 0.375” min. Hemis. Head
1

DESCRIPTIONOF MATERIALS(cont.)
I
L o n g
W eN l
1 -
d e i
RF.3 8LWN
n c g k
0 ” 0 SA-1811

6“ - Std. Pipex 2’-1


PIPE 8“ -X Stg.Pipex 1’- 6-1/2 SA-53B I
4“ - S. 160Pipex 2’ 4
24” - 0.438” WallPipex 1’-0
FL96” X 3/8 X 12’ -6

0 PLATE ~ 24”OD X 1/2 X 18” ID


~ 18” OD X 1-1/2

6“ x 4“ Std. Cone. Reducer


SA-285C

Welding SA-234 WPB


REDUCER 8’”x 6“ X Stg. Ecc. Reducer

Welding 6“ - Std. 1800 L. R. Return SA-234 WPB


RETURN 4“ - X Stg. 1800 S. R. Return

Welding 4“ - Std. Tee SA-234 WPB


TEE 6“ x 6“ x 4“ X Stg. Red. Tee

— —
EQUIVALENT AND COMPARABLE MATERIALS OF FOREIGN COUNTRIES
G e r m a n y F o r m e r
U . S F. rA a. Wn ( c eR Fe e se p d t E . .( R)a eS Ds oUp v t n. i. J i) e a o t pn a n
SA -204 B 15 D 3 1.6415/15MO3 15Mo 3 — —
SA - 283A = A 33 =1.0035 I = St 33 = St 33 CT O-2 —
SA -283 C TSE 24 a =1.0036 I Ust 37-2 St 381[-2 CT 3 kn 2 —
SA -284 B = E24–2 = 1,0038/= Rst 37-2 St 38 b -2 BCt 3 cn 2 —
SA -284 B E -24-3 1.0116/St 37-3 St 38-3 =181 cn —
SA -285 C A 37 1.0345111 Mb 13 = 12 K —
SA -299
SA -455 A 52 1.0844/ 17 Mn 4 17 Mn 4 K47
SA -440 15 CD 2.05 1.7335/13 CrMor 13 CrMor 4.4 12X M —
A
& -

SA- 572-55 A 50-2 1.0050/St50-2 St 50 Ct 5 Cn 3 Ss 50


~.. —
SA -51560 A -42 1.0425 / H 11 Mb 16 16 k
I SA -51570 I – I 1.0435/HIIi I Mb 19 I 18 k —
SA -51660 A -42 1.0425 / H II Mb 16 16 k —
SA -516-70 — 1.0435/ H 111 Mb 19 18 k —
SA -572-55 A 50-2 1.0050 /St 50-2 St 50 Ct 5 Cn 3 SM53 C
I
SA -240-304 — 1.4301 / X 5 Cr Ni 189 X5 CrNi 189 08X 18 H 10 SA453 c
SA -240 -316~ =22 CNDIT-1$ =1.44041X 2 CRN]MO1810 X8 CRN1T11810 03X17 H14M2 316L
195

S
FOR THE DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF PRESSURE VESSELS

N O T E S
P r ve sue sa s smu a sr n e ue efnha r c ld t ue sar vecdre s e[sv ort ppat eer n adawd ic ha tnh ri dc ia
p ra d ov a nvi t ade g e aeno cu hoss n si otn pr g nu re c vn et i e sdoT sns s spu e herc filei f isni c .ac t li
t p h r awo c h t h s bi c iaeete mscc w v o h oaih mce dc e ase e fp eot l tal byln l o e w e d .
T s h t a a e np d rsa a e rfr e tde t trss e el n aelcly hte es cpr net a roebt e tm
idA
viM
e t sC t he o d
a p da e nrs d c t aer cli sdo b ny esi mtnd rg ue nc n ttc i hdo bn otv oC de Ts ro r he tgd d uo hl e ay et
t C a n o hq ui dtr ooS pe eteh c i eef it ci d a t i n o s n .

A G E N E R A . L
1 T S p eh c i t f ioi c wag .t t ei s po t ni u h or eh tca rr dh rahd acs e n weeot ir evnr q gude i hs r re
f t d ae o f hsa b i ro nip grc rea vnet i es do ssn su er f le s .
2 I c o c oa n t fp ls u i . orc n htcea rsdfh , r a d ta s enpwee r iae ncro egtd kd Ss evp enh ceci fee i ci
3 P r ve es s ssb duh s e r. esfae ial bg ls rin i necl s da e pts, ee t dci ,a t n c em c d ow
p r t edd adi n
l ea d ot t i Ae t Bsi S haot P niMr Velf en sE Cee s Ssruo e rsdV dce De It i el 1iv aI oi, s nI
i s u b as t e d q d u ee nns t d a .
4 V e a sv s ae pe pn s ul . r sts e nce adh n olw
c eatm
s r ielp g ul olhltt ya O t c i ch o u enhp sa t
S aa H f Ae e ( na O t l Sy c t Hd hA )t .
5 V M
e a ns u f s aa ci et .un trl eqv rr s pi u tor a oe iel dt mtc e ao reeta n ec saor nt ni se ant rl u
m e i et c h o oono od a mts s i m chp fi sr e eae ac rts rtd ok s sn a eb l t oe o o
6 A d e v f i l at t Sr ip oe. h c nl i o fst i pci a um
t i oros hnc or, t h dd a r see as e h w
rh h it , n aar g e
w ra ip otp t rt~ oue r v nc ha h la s ef er .
7 V fe a bs ra si r c i eae .ot p lcol ur e , ore i csr prh f dtha u t sepfrae u rn r cl i,c h hssl ea h s c eh
d r af a w p i p n ro g o sv a lr .

D E S I G N
1 PressureVesselsshallbe designedto
. withstandthe loadingsexertedby internalor external
pressure,weightof the vessel,wind,earthquake,reactionof supports,impact,and tempera-
ture.
2 The maximumallowableworking
. pressure shall be limited by the shell or head, not by
minor parts.
3 Wind load and earthquake. All . vesselsshallbedesignedto be free-standing.To determine
the magnitudeof wind pressure,the probabilityof earthquakesand seismiccoefficientsin
variousareas of the United States StandardANSI/ASCE7-93 (MinimumDesign Loads in
Buildingsand Other Structures)shall be applied.
It is assumedthat wind and earthquakeloads d n o s ic m ou l c t a t n eutoo vut hs r l ey ,
s hb d oe fsu e i l w
gi dno ot e e iae hdr tl e hn or q w
r a u h da i kiircge nhr ge e v, a e t r e
4 H o r vi z e so nus tp s b.a p s le o a lrs dt sb edhd d e l aas ec iy csl gt to n mrl e de eodi L nht g
P Z ( i S ti cLr e H kas o s.r ,rPei zsr goVe n nseteo asTs l uS s r eaS e uwl d p s p d o n rl o t
5 T d e f ol hv e ce vt r .i et euo isn n cns oaoef dlp r l e c esm
ro an arstd ii nl tnhe i g o x6a n osc
i np 1 cf oh l e ee0 ns e g r 0t th f .
1 9 6

S p e c i ff i t c Da t i eaoo nFh s a b i r noirgPce arn t Ve i dose (n scs ou sn r tf e ei nl u s

6 S t i r s e ks s ai s odreo . dst s lt s u ne ,aphs tp , eao ht r nt r t aewcs hmi emde e r lnx t a cd


t m a axh l i l ms o uwvt e am raob m l el ae tusg e in esr iPart
i s UCS
a v loff the
s e ASMEn
Code by 33-1/3 percent.
7. Vessel manufacturers shall submit designs for approval when does not
furnish a d eo d s n is o pg t e reon ce r qpi s h uft t l hi y i r ca eek dnt e s e s .

C F A B R I C A T l u. N
1 M a t s e b r hs i p a ae lb. csp li u f r lia c e et h d ad hse nsey i er ig n i ad dot i itr co na
s d r h a Mw oai tns eg np r sh b i . s a ua l b oss fl t t i t l suh ptt oeee wod c i i ps ft r i her e
w r a i p top p tr u oer cv n h a a l s e rf .
2 T t h i o chp k u nl f e. s esas as h ht oe fseee bn dh1/l a r 4 almd - di li sn ni l mc e u h
3 M a n u f a wc t u e r pe l rr .’ dos a c i qe nu da glu in rrf i e ce as tc ibdoohs n u r ba df m sli
a p pu r r o pe vo cpa ouel roi cnpr W h t da e ss fel en dhrb ip . aen ro g plf o lrr
t p u r c a h pa s op ew rr ’oeo ps vl r aod a cl i qe un daf l gui nfr i ec a t i od n .
A w e s l l b dh d i ba n lt o gml e n ls t h hea eial oely t lei s dc ur e b dhm
a e cr
w e p l r d o i c ne sg s .
P e r m ia nn e s bn t t a la sy lc lst k e n ri dh b nui agwp o sil sw t lr hea it po e topdu tr t
p u r c W h au s hbe s ra .s eec st k d nbri ht n,si agcp o a hlms p sol ms aei t et i e oe
w t h a a ih t tct era hc hy o e e d .
4 L o n g i s t u ide ci yn al. li o n m c d ro sis nc h an i sl e c il e sa rl pl l a hs s e , m ahr il esc
b u hi l s e t b -hl a u o tapd c aol s l p t le te ne rdi hea n i ogn epr fs o a, ira sc i ardn gdn
w p el C ai r cat u me f sers r e n.oe t si a las h b m hl e o ast lcc f la ol l pt l eee en d
t r he i n e pf o t ir a ca i r idnr ng s s usna l u, a r tpy i ai pdo s nno awrg npdt s le d , a
W t ch o ov ehc ei r cr unim fnsee r g eb n r te ie fa i l n paf oi ur ncm ai vany o tg i d a
s s e b hg ara f o alm
l ue lxu n ae pn dsm t irwh n e idet l dr oed i inr hpf n oo gr
i p l a c e n .
N l o n g ij t u os d i bi nhaoa nll aw lt oitl s dwt ol ewh e hand i co aon ar m o e r e t
p w l p h a rv e coii n r pess po eeut e w
cr a t i i l moeh pn o sl s f i e b d l e s .
T m i nsh oi f mi wi ue smlz e la rs e e tvl f rwti e fdn ni eg ng t t s s eol h br h n d
1 i n / c h 4 .
5 S kV ei vr r te s it s b. c hp.s a re la owl vasl s i i wdl k e se htd i h h i a rho aac ut lth v
d i ae m t qet to u e u dr ath i s aol tim os deeu tep vehp ro.e Tr st mf ee si d nhe i
t h i f c a sk ns ke ob sh1 is i a r nr l/ t c l he 4 .
S sk b i hp r aowt va lm s i i di l oen e t tdi 2 m -hv u whim el n o o fca olcnh ha e
a p o 1s d s ei a bg8 pl rs e ae er0 s t .
S 4k f ii d er i aat m le s se thetnh e on r aaas co d l pvn sc el l ne aet ’ s i4er n sh -g ;
d i as m sk e h ith t e r 1aar t 8 Ol sw
-v a i l .co ne p cco reD he n i i snw. nf ss og lr is c e e

6 B rings sa b dh se afs . aie a l g l nl lob oe e w


ed p aa r b rroe lnc ise o sn on u6g c rp r e e
7 A n c h o . r b u w sr h e aqee iu a eric d r wne ae dl h s
v he ese xsi 6 c gef e lhT ee n t d e u so ha m
t 0n bb . cs e eo bh rhi lmo fua tr l tl
o 4 am i on 8 i i p m r ef u ;f em r r ef d s .
8 .

S a s d b dh w l ea te t l s l v d e le e she x w ds c se op helee c , pio fe irt ct dabnl el y


s h l i opS poa t edbs s dd e h l l .i e s po s b p fh o oe tie atds vt l eate mlhes ea ds n
m af fr i k in soet ea dlT l las t r i d do nhrh . s a bowh d ei eaepn it ng al s a ti rl l u
c o n ct e r h n i in g s .
197
Specificationfor the Designand Fabricationof PressureVessels(continued)
Whentemperature expansionwill c ma t u 3o i h s c r neha/i t ead c nin s8 ghht
b et t s w a e ad sh e d bnll ee p iesa s, rl d bi h ua ne aW
gst tl eeh v l de ei e h r.s
s u p b p c o o r snt eca d1 r d i e dt t y lnehc/ eo i rs cp rc o24 ilksh inw,a o ct n i t h dhe e
t c o ns h c a s r dbe hwet d e eat l t l esl d w lh eah ce edoi n tol w tie n lTeu ho ul
c o r p r os l s b ihp ao r na otw v al e1i i i dl ve e tdnh / pe hlco w un4 p ghl li gt a ee
s e a a t fl v a het nb h s et p s re ar tee e se el s s su t nr e e d .
9 O p eo n2 i i n a g c.s s mh s na efb hl 6 s l l a def0 rl o s 0 rlf t oeg h0 eu e b eda
c o u p l i n g .
O p e2 n i -i nan 1l gc sas / h bnr fhe2 lg s aa e nd l rg el de .
F l s a c nh o gt naS e f t sl oaA nr lB d6mN .a 5 r o- Sd 1 9 I7 31 .
F lf sa a b n ah cf g o a eel ll s o lw es s :
Raised face. . . . . . . . b re a6 l l t A o i 0 Nw
n g S 0 b I
Raised face. . . . . . . . r a6 l tA i p N0 sn 3Si g i naI0 psbc ,z m h e an ee l
Ring type joint. . . . . . r a6 l tA i p N0 sn 4Siig i naI0 plbc ,z a h e nr e g
R t ji yo. . .n .i . pa n gr b t e a6 .ol tA vi N0 ne Sg 0I b .
F l a n g e - b o sl t - sh ho tl e srt a pa rdl i dc hn ell cn eti o e pt r eavl il en Oe sh sp s e en f
s b hf wal i ul ino v lss tw ee i h us dhha s d e s e roe f wl ae l n i ho ds nct s eas thr
t wh b o ie n tu re r wfl ee v r de ien n ce ste teI s r n n etha elol dosr . pn g sea nle h i
b r o t u a mn i d rn e ei aod 1m di uo oi tm na ru/ aes c tdf qo8 ihn uoeru t o - as h
p w ti h a i w pc ik li lnh e te ls 1 eesi h nsn a/ t cs s nh 4 .
W t ih nd ehi s a o i tm n nde e t oen e h zar et z wf l e ecn ne lh f dk e loi d nae c
w e f l i dd t ibi t 1/n fi i g nf o mgne 1 t or p c yo r s 6 ah m
he d ra i r, las e m
lb t h e f t r
t a a pa r e 1 : a r e t d 4i t o .
O p es n b hri en i ag nf sfn l o a r lcc oeeae dow n a fl rec w do d rcl o, or nso ld d i s et
T p u l fh r as e i nt poeef os e r bcd ht i asnr gac o a m
hl dp so lms a ei tt te ui e oe hn se
f t s o hho h t we e i hilr c ea o li n rn dc e co ht e td s .
R e i n pf o s r cba ihp n rg da ow va l 1 si i d l t e e tnda /t ep hhlc pl l 4- eooht a cad l al
9 o t l o 0 n gf iha t ou v°d xi fen e a s l i s e s l f .
T m i onh iu d mt i useao m tim r de e tie n ehpf ros r bc h4fi i aen ganp tc l dl h l
o u d t i sao t m i o de p t e n ehn ri e n g fc ’e s k .
W c h oa t vb e p e r r nrof ov s pi eeda oocne e cid t o nt r pg rdu s ir cn rh hg ea s q e our
t m i a n uo f s a cnf t h uu r,t erar r ne l qgi h uasl a i hs s r k etet edn us th n ds hb e sd a s
u f t s e t sv oe te i shd ns r ge le .
M a c n os wbv hp a er yaow r vd l s i ai d l v e e ti d t hs .
C o tu ph ml r bi ec n u aag l fd sf es dr n at re a e feni onfe ds tce at mlt l aes t i or n

10. I n t e T r ns r a bl h afs u. ary b n t l is sf lah r bee rad i ai c n a ys tbyntov ar el l s


m a n u f a Tc t su r ure rr p. a api d oo n w yr nnb tg c o ob s lms det bar hif u n rar g n il
a i n s b nt v a em l al ns de u fds a Tc et t yu r lf e ar r h.b sr i sa ch aue c t ya oob rm m l p
s d he i t n a oc i i l n lus pt ds ai i,ln lns at g tr aiu ocp nt ia ol cn t s pki u i rs fndc ght a
a p pa tr r o a vn nt s av m l i fe t a t bds a r l is c ae ot ol r .
T s r b hda e a ysf ai ul s g n nl l oi e el fd o i o1 o p r o v m t aw es eo dwh i f 0ag f
s e wt l t t ii g bn rh gaee ,vf a ae c t r o enn cro es l ,n lt r doai 2t roel d v a 5 eb d
A t d el ohs t a mi d a gt iedx h nen i f gmol t e u ec s m
rt ni hoea n xa y oc fl s e l e
u t 1 0 d -i fa- 1 m
oi peo o t tn /e r c 8 h
l at 1r h0 gd - i e afa- 3 rm
o6 i neo t t n/e r c 1 h
198

Specificationfor the Designand Fabricationof PressureVessels(continued)


T m i tnh h i i omc i kuen nm
pt el e as rtsa en s w a fou lrr pnk s spi n oh bn lrd a tg o e
t 1 ih n a/ c nh 4 .
I n ct e as r pr nt bias elbpo sh etin aawn l n e lgd i a l g r e hd t .
I n ft le s ra b nhA
n a g1 al N
e 5s ls l 0t S i l o- fpe yalI - b bfro pi pnc ra l et e ar od t
C as r i t nb tfeo el nser a nb nhlfa gal a esw t slc e i anl s e res tdq b u ae ohr e ne
m a bc ah o s i lnq n ne ut a uca s k -rt d wt ee f l dls et adha n l v go oo eoes se
R e m io nv ta s eb brl h men a ia ls a s e l w
c d lt c hi e b eo r i n ne sactm h oh r v n
t m a n h w a y se .
R e m i o n v t as eb n r l h bne p a ar l ows l vc oi li rd at r el eotl d so F w
i ohoa pn ec oen
c o n t n p e sc utu eacv d tm ob i ror sp ne t b , ahp e r k oax e v ril d el de .
1 A p p u r 1t e nV a n e cp e. ssr . sow ev m il ai d s n l e w tdil a qcy eh os u ,onv r i t red o
v a1 f l a v egb e rs oes ba he 2v dqt a ueew i cl , p i lpla ae e a gtdd p dl e ah e t n dfr o
L aa pd l d al n tes f bur hos h rd o agm p -t twl sve l l ed Wee shd v hs e ev re o leet r.is
r e i qn s u u f l i a a brt sir e oi f nc h ,au at ra oi nr n ls i snu sl rt p h ai Rp eldnoi ln rgf ot
r mi a bn u l at g i i s lsus pi y piz ono e sre udt l i an nt g i o n .
I n s us l u a r tp i s poi nbo h 1n r i atg l inl /s w e l tci e t s2 dthh h sti oahcn hk
i n s ua ls a pt 1 i fn ao o n cio tce d - ns d l1 t /aa2 ect 2 r t tat hi a rnhl nog T gi te en
t r s bi o hc o n na t i w np l u g oet ult sl hel y d a e o eh ra dt m li d ohb ea n ; te at lg ar
b a l -l fi owni o lcy 1n e lh 2 c e-gle i tnT n dtb ce no hrh h ts o i. te n os e ua m l
v e vr tse i b s hce qsa a ul we i 1/l lp i2p ls -e e qntdi wun huceaw htlr t eideh ed s et
t t o u o tt h h s o i a eophd ep r e o ax 1i f me2 asd t -e nqlc iy eun n ca t h er re s
1 F a b r t2i oc al tes i r on. a hnen c xate lsoc l i e n lhmed it i tid ct ta eb ta seeh gdb i n
o p I a T g On e .

D I N S P E C T I O. N
1 P u r r c e h ts a r es etr . ii rv h n egt ssv hp ae e ae ht st c o ds t i nufe ea rbl mr t iit yc na e
a st t s v h u em r ahas tea es t tr we ieo arnl kl hmsa a i na sdc h cei r opw r td a i ne h
s p e c i f i c a t i o n .
2 T a p po h a r wo vb . teaon pl u r r cf hr hye ap k rs ee ys rae e ’n hst ar t i e von e al i e
v se n s h r s e at el m
o ali l n eu lhf ova ta c etr ue sr epe orn n f s ic b ai lf oiry t ot yr y i
p r o ov t i ss p i e hoc in f si ci a t if os n .

E .
1, Radiographicexamination shall be performedwhen required by the ASMECode
or whendeterminedby the economicsof design.
2. The completedvesselshall be providedwith a nameplate securelyattachedto the
vesselby welding.
3. If the vesselis post-weldheat-treated,no weldingis permittedafter stressrelieving,
4. Removableinternalsshallbe installedafter stressrelieving.
5. The location of all vesselcomponentsopenings,seams,internals,etc., of the vessel
shall be indicated on the shop drawingsby the distance to a commonreference
line. The referencel s b i hp e r anm m
a nl eao n tl tr sle yk h e h e d l nl e
6 T hydrostatichtest pressure. s e b hm a ia nf t al aa i dln oete dq t pu i a er t n mr
a t h oi nr s o p i ue a cg ct hi n o l nan t, 3e osmhn iy s ne a ut ts ne s0 .
7 V es s n hsb p e a a luo. i sl sn n p lelt c t seie ef dito s co aa sl r l t y d e e d r n .
, .

199
Specification for the Design and Fabrication Pressure V e( cs o sn tei nl u s e

F P R E P A R F A TS I HO . NI O P M E RN T
1 A f f h i y t d rn t eo sv .a ter ase t l sbi s hdc sta ra c e , l il lt ehn eloa rei nod unae d g dsh l
o u t rt se g i mr l d eo se o a vrc os oae aed u s ,l i een s r , tt d .
2 A f i sn lui w
sr fh a .haenl cdp i er orsc b ot b e h fc l etl set ai db hcn n gow
ya de a ls i t
r p r eu v e n ts a t i v t e .
3 A f l o a lp n ew g n a. eih l n nd pi g r s r cow o v c h i iosde ebtv hptd er ao rhb te les c
s u si pt t al bae l t ee e sl .
4 T h ro ep ase dnb hpei . dln aug gs l g el de .
5 F i n pt o e sa r u rn s.i ar tut l apss bp b , holp err a tot asv l i d v dl a edeo m
d u i a ro
s h i p m e n t .
6 B a on s l bun hc t o.wats wa d al i stt ell e ru tepbd r r o i h oc f a n t .
7 V e s s b hsc e l ai l ed. sel a nb r tpl i la ef tyii oen d t a r i ih n y dn g t nu e i eam er b
c o n s lp i o c ocu t o a vu t s e i soh ns e n le .
8 S p m w a a a h rt l b i.st l hr c ls i hspo bpe hb ooe ea oads b g l eaog m l ex ea d ner
w t o i a r i ht nd t un hoe t m e ve r be d semh sr e f le .
9 V ef a sb sr s i t c eh a. ntl aa oe r c lp ekl r se l cs iaea l u r l t oyi b oa b n dls oai c n nk g
b r t av c ae i f hsun r sgnan ni e se hcl mi e ldnas gt ts p ae r r rld ye i a vam le a ng o et

G F R
I EN P O
A R. L T S
1 B et vf ieo r h s r f e . se ha e ei t oldpm m a s ny eu hfnrs a tc f t h uu rpe eraur nr lc i h
c oo r ep p r i o t dre ua cn s i s bep lra oe r t e a fn oc y l cr lh eo pwh oi f ner g t s :
a M a n u f a dc t ru r eea r .’ ps ot r at .
b S d rh as wh o ti o vn. wpgae i sd hsni m gs en“ neb es uil o i dan sl t ”s .
c P h o tco s oo t r a pe t ci. ci c o resh d hsai p on frr gw de t i s uh snsy rdug r rti o es n te a g
d P h o t co s oot ar pte i. c ic c o er hs d s hai t no fer gmw tp i de sr n aup tg our rs eit -
h t r ee a t am e n t t .
e R u o bn bp ia l n . a gm t f e .

H G U A R A N T E. E
M a n u f ga cu t a u rrt ea rtn tvh e eef s hau s a l c s f ot ine e dlal l i sl t si t i o t nal s t h
S p e c i fa i ct a ti ii ohfn n f raf r di adet oe tuws soe r lmi k mga t a nm
n n s a, h t i n pe r
S ha do edu nefl d v ed ute cf ylr y t oi o hop nerp eg trs aame ta t ni uro hf nafa ,c gt u rr
t m a n a e c a ekll ts e so r eaa etral i ypro en aps l , i an fc r e o msc er hn d t as e r g e e
200

V F T
T d i m e h tn os il oei ntre a a t l n h-c ua e sno bi t l h nl n ees r e- osaw b i s t s o ae er
p r wa c if t o di lb c eul e ola s wmy ae en du nf ar o c pyt usr r eved r se ss us re f e
A t o l ea l ri a n n u cc r elno h s t l eh i ees ne r d, swi ics sa et e d .
T o l en r l a ni tc oset s tsh a be hht bi dw a lne ia sp l etr l a llh c ei ti d i mn c ai l

Q b & a : R : : : : ; e ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ ’ : ’ : :
c D i ts t t r a e nf l ceh . . re. ei. n o ce ne
d D e v c ii r ca u m t f i e r om
e. nnte i a al l ys u r
at the joint of structure . . . . . . . t 1
D i bs te at t an w dc ecje w ea l~ cn1 i e nop

@ ~ ~~ a n ~ w a y
e D i fs t t af r no f c a.oh elo a cm n e e
c e n ot me r a lt ri n ne ew f l e a r if ey n n
v se u s l p bs p uoe oo s tl r ag t t d o d, m
c e n ot v e re wl shi ni si ec e h el f v , e
applicable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i 1
d f D e v c ii r ca u mt f i e rome. nn te i a al l ys u r
. . . . o t o s u uh o vtr f e. en. a. e .s trc 1s e e
*
,
7
.
o
.
f
g P r o j s e hc tdo i ior fns. t ; t e a rs
u s t u os vr i fte dt a fse c s e
nt
a he
c o
f l
of manway . . . . . . . . . . . . . t 1/2
h D e v f i ha o tr r i i voz. onoe n r t tm a li , c
o t i n tp he o ni s a d i r ete di on n
direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ 1°
i D e v o ib a h t ioi oa o . n l l enf t s
e direction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t 1
e N o C z o zw u lp a hlen i t, ibn gr c o h e
c o n t n p e i c pt e i d n g o .
Q ! ! ! l
- - - T t - o l ef h rm a an scn oeeb wsh a ay r s
a p p l i e d .
N o C z o zw u lp a hlet bi , i n gr c h e
c o n t n p e i c pt e i d n g o .
D i fs t t af r no f c aoh elo a cm n e eg
c e n ot o e rp lt eri nen ef li e nr i f eg n n
v se u s l p bs p uoe oo s tl r ag t t d o d, ml
c e n ot v e re wl shi ni s i ec e h el f v , e
applicable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . f 1
f D e v c ii r ca u m t f i e r ome. nnte i a al l ys u r
o t o s u uh o tvr f e.en. a. e .s ?rc 1s e e
g P r o j s e hc tdo i ior fns. t ; t e a rs n t c o
o u s t u os vr i fte dt a fse c s e a he f l
of opening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ 1/4
201

VESSEL FABRICATION TOLERANCES


(continued)

N o (z c zo nl tei ns u, e d )
h D e v f i ha o tr r i i voz. onoe on r t tm a li , c a
t i n tp he o ni s a d i ete di on n n
direction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t 1/
i D e v o ib a h t iio oa o . n l l enf t s n
direction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i 1

N o Cz o z u lu p e f l sl i s ,n8 eg oesa v g de re i
l c e o en v t ret o l l c , .
D i bs t e ac t en wn c ot e ee er l n i n e
openings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i 1 /
S a d d l e
k D i cs et n a ot bne ocr . l et it nh e o l ef s
reference line . . ., . . . . . . . . . ~ 1
k D i cs et n a ot bne ocr . l et it nh e o l ef s
centerline of shell . . . . . . . . . . I 1
1 D i bs te ab t on w l ci . tbe e h e o na l e s s
p o lb e ab t o w t l o tes e h oe olr n l eo s t
two saddles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . k 1
m T r a nt so bv eip r sa. . .l e.l . . aks 1 t tf e / e
p F e
n L o n g i t t ou bd iip n a. .a l.l . l . ~ as1 t tf e
&hell
o. Deviation from verticality for vessels
of up to 30 ft overall length . . . . . ~ 1/2
for vessels of over 30 ft overall length ~ 1/8
per 10 ft.
max. 1-1/2
P Vessels for internal pressure. The
. difference
between the maximum and minimum inside
diameters at any cross section shall not exceed
one percent of the nominal diameter at the
cross section . . . . . . . . . . . . . t 170
Deviation from nominal inside diameter
as determined by strapping . . . . . ~ 1/32
@ @ p F e
O o r o u u Cn dU n o eG
t s f sd- 8 e 0
E x pt re e rS s nC s a U
u l ro e G
e . d- e8 e
F o H r eC m U
a e o d G d s d- , 8 e 1
T installation
r a y
r O o l i ae u d vi r . . .nee.t . c .f ttl 1i n yo n/
‘ + - - I - T p F e
t Tray Support
r. Out of level in any direction . . . . . ~ 1/32
p F e
202

V E F A
S B SR I C
ET AO T
L L I EO RN A N C E S
( c o n t i n u e d )

T S ru ( p c aop n ot i yr n ut e d )
B s D i bs te a t nd w tcj . e ae ec r en n a t
v
supports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t 1
s
E } + t. * Distance to reference line . . . . . . ? 1
s. Distance to seal pan . . . . . . . . . f 1
v D i ts d t o a w n ns cc u. oe. . pm
. ~ epo1 r o
w
w w T f a iw o oisl n u d .r pt . .tr p ~yi 1oh r nf
x W P e l ai t r e
/ x. Out of level . . , . . . . . . , . . . ~ 1
Y. Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 1/8
I *
z D i ts i t nao v n s w
ce . i e. s. . d at so1 e e l f
*
203

A S p e c iP ff i c a t i I oo n r
SHOP WELDED TANKS
S u om M m R aae q r uj iyor Aeo mS fe rtnP t aI s nT I d Z
E ea f d .r1 nFid t t9 i, ho
S C O P E
specification covers material, design, and construction requirements for
vertical,cylindrical,aboveground, shopwelded, steel productiontanks in nominal
capacitiesof 90 to 500 bbl. (in standard sizesup to maximumdiameterof 15 ft.,
6 in.) for oil field service.
A M A T E R I A L
Plates shall conform to the following ASTM Standards
A36, A283 C or D, and A285 C.
MINIMUMPLATETHICKNESS
Shell and deck: 3/16 in., Bottom: 1/4 in. Sump: 3/8 in,
CONSTRUCTION
The bottom of the tank shall be flat or conical; the latter
may be skirted or unskirted. Fig. A, B, C. The deckshall
be conical. The slope of the bottom and deck cone= 1:12
B WELDING
Bottom, shell and deck plate joints shallbe double-welded
butt joints with complete penetration. Fig. D. The
bottom and the deck shall be attached to the shell by
double-weldedbutt joint or 3/16 in. fillet welds, both
insideand outside.Fig. E through K.
OPENINGS
Tanks shall be furnished with 24 in. x 36 in. extended

R
neck cleanout. APIStd. 12F Fig.3.4
TESTING
Tanks in diameters up to and including 10 ft. shall be
tested to 3 psi. air pressure; tanks in diameterslargerthan
D 10 ft. shallbe tested to 1-1/2psi.air pressure.
PAINTING
Onecoat primer.

E H N o m W i o n r aO k l u i tn s g i d e
C a p aC ca i p t aD y c i , i a t mHy e , et e i r ,g
b b b l bf i . l f t n. t .
JQ9
9 7 7 0 - 1 21 1
1 7 0 9- 6 0 8 9
1 1 5 9- 26 0 1 9
2 1 0 1 60 0 102 6 -
2 2 1 1 00 0 10 0 -
2 2 5 1 20 0 11 4 -
3 2 0 1 60 0 12 6 -
4 3 0 1 60 0 22 6 -
5 4 0 1 6 0 2 2 6 - 0
5 4 0 1 7 0 5 1 9 - 6
7 7 5 1 4 0 5 2 6 - 6
T o l e r— a n c* ie 2 1i n 3 An /
204

WELDEDSTEEL TANKSFOR OIL STORAGE


API. S t a 6 n E d 5 iaE r gd d0 1i h t ti , 9 oh n 8,

APPENDIX A — OPTIONAL DESIGN BASIS FOR SMALL TANKS


(Summav of major requirements)

SCOPE
This appendix provides rules for relatively small capacity field-erectedtanks in
which the stressedcomponents are limited to a maximum of 1Ainch nominal
thickness, including any corrosion allowance stated by the purchaser.

MATERIALS
The most commonly used plate materials o t p b t s
A 2 C A 2 C A 3 A 516-55, A 516-60
The plate materials shall be limited to !4 inch thickness

WELDED JOINTS
The type of joints at various locations shall be:

Vertical Joints in Shell


Butt joints with complete penetration and complete fusion as attained by dou-
ble welding or by other means which will obtain the same quality of joint.

Horizontal Joints in Shell


Complete penetration and complete fusion butt weld.
Bottom Plates
Single-weldedfull-fillet lap joint or single-weldedbutt joint with backing strip.
Roof Plates
Single-weldedfull-fillet lap joint. Roof plates shall be welded to the top angle
of the tank with continuous fillet weld on the top side only.

Shell to Bottom Plate Joint


Continuous fillet weld laid on each side of the shell plate. The sizeof each weld
shall be the thickness of the thinner plate.

The bottom plates shall project at least 1inch width beyond the outside edge of
the weld attaching the bottom to shell plate.

INSPECTION
Butt Welds
Inspection for quality of welds shall be made by the radiographic method. By
agreement between purchaser and manufacturer, the spot radiography may be
deleted.
Fillet Welds
Inspection of fillet welds shall be made by visual inspection.
+
,.. 205

W S T S
API. Standard 650, Eighth Edition, 1988

TESTING

Bottom Welds
1, Air pressure or vacuum shall be appliedusing soapsuds,linseed oil, or other
suitablematerialfor detectionof leaks,or
2. After attachment of at least the lowest shell course water shall be pumped.
underneaththe bottomanda headof6 inchesof liquidshall be maintainedinsidea
temporarydam.

Tank Shell
1. The tank shall be filled with water, or
2. Painting all joints on the inside with highly penetrating oil, and examining
outside for leakage
3, Applying vacuum

APPENDICES OF API STANDARD 650

Appendix A — Optional Design Basis for Small Tanks


Appendix B — Foundations
Appendix C — Floating Roofs
Appendix E — Seismic Design of Storage Tanks
Appendix F — Design for Small Internal Pressure
Appendix H — Internal Floating Roofs
Appendix J — Shop-Assembled Storage Tanks
Appendix K — Example of the application of variable design point procedure
to Determine Shell-Plate Thicknesses
Appendix M — Tanks Operating at Elevated Temperatures
Appendix N — Use of Unidentified Materials
Appendix O — Under-Bottom Connections
WELDED STEEL TANKS, API. Std. 650 — APPENDIx A
FORMULAS

NOTATION G = specific
=
H =
D = t minimum required plate
=
ft. thickness, in.
E = joint efficiency, 0.85 R = radius of curvature of
when spot radiographed roof, ft.
0.70 when not radio- 6 = angle of cone elements
graphed with the horizontal, deg.
(2.6) (D) (H– 1) (G
t = ) + C.A.
(E) (21,000)
but in no case less than the following:
Mean diameter of Plate
tank, ft thickness,in.
@
Smallerthan 50. .., ., . . . . . . . . . . . . %
~.-l 50 to 120, excl.. . . . . . . ... ., ... , ., ~
120 to 200, incl.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . ., ;
S H E Over
L 200L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .

= 4 *0 but0not less
~ than
i 3~6in,
n

* ~m:umt . ,,*in
SELF-SUPPORTING Maximum@ = 37 deg. 9:12 slope
CONEROOF Minimum6 = 9 deg. 28 min. 2:12 slope
r= R/200 but not less than ~lG in.
~, Maximum t= 1Ain,
D R= radius of curvature of roof, in feet.
SELF-SUPPORTING Minimum R = 0.8D (unless otherwise specifiedby the
D A O MN E D
M R 1
T c a o t t a hni sro g q fl eu e
i n p c t h cl r eo s s hu- s , ae c t osi r ot ne sa el a h ah e s
r p ow
l aia do tti os eh 1f t t si a t inn t chhm ei ce ek f 6n i
e m e af s s t u r mr h er , odeoe p m i mo so a or t i tt t ena
m t t et a n nsh ob g htm lio aen e pi l ,m u l me :
F S e l f - So u p p o r t i rFn gS e l f - So u p p o r t i r n
C R oo o n fD sea oU: m Rm b n r o e e ol
T ~2 DR
T R IO N3,000 P d
G 1,500

All b op t sl t ha h oa m
t aam ie n l s v io t lmm ehui m
in
BOTTOM
n o 1 ei s / n s f 4 .
207

WELDEDSTEEL TANKSFOR OIL STORAGE


APL Standard 650, Eighth Edition, 1988

APPENDIX J – SHOP-ASSEMBLED STORAGE TANKS


(Summary of major requirements)

SCOPE
This appendix provides design and fabrication specifications for vertical
storage tanks of such size as to permit complete shop assembly and delivery to
the installation site in one piece. Storage tanks designed on this basis are not to
exceed 20 feet in diameter within the scope of API Standard 650.

MATERIALS
The most commonly used plate materials of those permitted by this standard:
A 36, A 283 C, A 285 C, A 516-55, A 516-60

WELDED JOINTS
As described in Appendix A (see preceding page) with the following modifica-
tions:
Lap-welded joints in bottoms are not permissible
All shell joints shall be full penetration butt-welded without the use of backup
bars.
Top angles shall not be required for flanged roof tanks.
Joints in bottom plates shall be full penetration butt welded.
Flat bottoms shall be attached to the shell by continuous fillet weld laid on
each side of the shell plate.
BOTTOM DESIGN
All bottom plate shall have a minimum thickness of ?4 inch.
Bottoms may be flat or flat-flanged.
Flat bottoms shall project at least 1 inch beyond the outside diameter of the
weld attaching the bottom to shell.

SHELL DESIGN
Shell plate thickness shall be designed with the formula:
(for notations see Appendix A on preceding page)
(2.6) (D) (H– 1) (G) + ~ ~
t =
(E) (21,000) “ “
,but in no case shall the nominal thickness less than:
N o T m D i ia na N am no Ple m tT klieh irn ac a k lt n e e s s
( f e e ( ti n) c h e s )
up to 10.5, incl. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3/16
Over 10.5.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ‘/4

ROOF DESIGN
Roofs shall be self supporting cone or dome and umbrella roofs.
See Appendix A for design formulas.
TESTING
Apply 2 to 3 pounds per square inch internal air pressure.

I
208
S u om M m R ae q r u j iy or eo m fe rn t s f
P I PC O I ND G E S
p e r tt a i n i n g o
P W I T A
H IP C ALK EA
N LEL LS NOS PW RA BE D LS ES U R E

C a SO C D O EP E F O R M U L A S
I n P t r e e r s n s a u l r e
PD. ● ~
= +
/ . W+2 + S E
A B 3N 1 . 1S- 1 9I 9 2 .
+@-
-
T C p h r o e ms i ci d rr n i se bi eqe m su u i m r e - -2y(r. – A)
m f te d enm oas httf i ae bgsr r i irn ace la, st i , o n , 2 –SA E ( t
e r te ac iet n i s os pp nn e at, co t ,i wod nn e df – r2y(f” d
- A) +

F M a At oe A 5r Ba Si A a 1 lTrB s n M 0
p la d a i hn s ents t aysr e st,i txicd e tnc Fm M g e s T , pee mo pt tne Er a ax t ucrD r leoFe es de
a l i b h m 1 i 0 Tt 0 a se . hs yd1 s.ey– 3. t t s6. e me 27 s 5 7 00 o 0 8 5 0
m n l i b pm o i l t a e t d n y t 1 41 .13 4
l u i t n a n sl ph eee cl i rseifs i i sm
c a y il el t y e d n
P 1 a 0 r 0 s. 1. . E x R t e e sr na au t r e
1 d e t w e rt mh iaai ns c i t %tn irlgmef nqef uetsl i nsr ei
p r o cu i dRt uUt sr i 2G e arn s3 o-eaS d2 eV s n n8c . I
D i 1o vt A i Bs aiS oPh o r iV n Me Cl nes fs e esE
bs ouh r s
f o l l o w e d .

U B 3S 1 . 2A - 1 I9S 6n P8 t r e e r s n s a u l r e
= P - t
C c oto d v e fd esa h bir e rg s i n ec , a - D
t i ni s t ao l t l ane ot ips on, n ti , i p( n di 1g3S on 5 6f 6g t ,e e 4e s , , ,
s y f fs g t s ue aao n m usages t e rc u al sr h a s s l O S, 0 p F , s0
m a n u fg a l c ti uaqpr eue d et s fr io Fe,l Med ua Am t eoA 5r Ba Si Aa 1 lT
rB s n M 0
g ( - aL m a iP a x tiGt bu us )rop e hFr vspM T eeee meo p r tNe rE a axt urcDr leoeF se de
c o m bl u sli t i i mqpb ule i e et frt – oi t, el 1 ed u 2 m 03 4 0 o 400 00
g ( i Lt ga P a p s G hoh mes a) o nsiu2e se 0 x ,1 . r 19- S0 . 8 0 16.80 1 . 0
tures of these gases.

A B 3N 1 . 3 S - 1 9 I 9 3
C H E P M A
IL C A L NN T D
r= - P(l - r)]

1, 7, S) t = +

A A
F
– to 100 2 2 3 4 0 0 50 00
a l l 2 02 . 20 020. 010.0 8.00

300.1.2 or 300.1.3. Only Category For determining thickness and stiffening requirements the
p r o c e d UG-28,
u r 29eands V I
D and M fluid D i1 v i s i o n
Summary of hiajor Requirements of
PIPING COD ES
(continuation from facing page)

NOTATION NOTES
1. The minimum thicknessfw the pipe
A= an additional thickness,in inchesto compcn
- sclcctcd. cunsidcring manufacturer’s
sate for materialremovedin threading,groov- minus tolerance,shallnot be lessthan
ing etc., and to provide for mechanical t,n, The minus tolerance fur seam-
strength,corrosionand erosion, lesssteel pipe is 12.5% of the nurninal
For cast iron pipe the following valuesof A pipe witl! thickness.
shallapply: 2. Wheresteelpipe is threadedand used
Centrifugallycast . . . . . . . . . . 0.14in. for steam service at pressureabove
Statically cast . . . . . , . . . . . . 0.18 in. 250 psi, or for water serviceabove
100 psi with watel temperatureabove
c= the sum in inches of the mechanicaldlow-
220 F the pipe shall be seamless
llav-
ancesithreador groove depth)plus corrosion ing the minimum ultimate tensile
anderosionallowance, :
strcngth of 4tt,0(XI psi and weight
d = inside diameter of the pipe in corrodedcon- at least equrd to Sch 80 of ANSI
dition, inches B36.JO, (Code ANS1 B31.1, Paris.
)&D. = outsidediametcfof pipe, inches 104.1.2 Cl)

~ = efficiency factor of weldedjoint in pipe(see 3. Piping systemsinstalledin open ease-


applicablecode)For seamlesspipe E = 1.0 ments, which are accesible to the
generalpublic o: to individualsother
~ = for cast iron pipe casting quality factor F ‘than the owner of the piping system
shallbe usedin placeof E or his employee or agent, shall be
P= internal designpressure,or maximum allow- designed in accordancewith USAS
able workingpressure,psig B31.8. (Code USAS B31.02, Para.
S = maximum allowable stressin materiistdue to
201.1)
internal pressureat the design temperature, 4. When not specifically required by SI
psig. gas using processor equipment, the
t = thicknessof pipe requiredfor pressure,inches maximum working pressurefor pip-
ing systemsinstalled in buildingsin-
tm = minimum thicknessof pipe in inchesrequired
tended for human useand occupancy
fer pressureand to compensatefor materitil
shall not exceediO psig. (Code USAS
removedfor threading,grooving,etc., Jnd tu
B31.2, Para201.2.1)
providefor mechanicalstrength,corrosionist~d
erosion. 5. Every pi~ing systcm,regardlessof an-
ticipatcd smviccconditionsshalllurvc
V&Y = coefficientsas tabulatedbelow
a designpressureof at least }0 psig
between the temperaturesof minus
20 F and 250 F, (Ct,idcUSAS B31.2,
Values of y & Y Para.201.2. 2,b.)
900‘ I I so
6. Where the minimum wall thicknessis
Temperature and ‘wd in excessof 0.10 of the nominal dia-
1: below 9s0 1000 toso I boo above
meter, the piping system shall meet
I:rrrilic Steels 0.4 0.5 0.7 0,7 0.7 0.7
the rcquirem$nts of USAS B31.3.
Austsnitic Stmek 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.7
h (Code USAS B31,2, Para.203)
Note: For intermediatetemperatures thevaluesmaybeintcr- 7. pip witht equaltoor,greaterthanIY6, or
pcdated.Fornonferrous
materialsandcastiron,y equals PISE greaterthan0.385, requiresspecial
0.4. consideration, trskinginto accountdesign
I For pipe with a f)o/ftn ratio lessthari 6, Ihe valueof y and materialfactors such as theory of
fur ferritic andaustcnilicsteelsdesignedfor temperatures failure, fatigue, and thermal stresrses.
of ~900F d bCkrWdlti[] be tukcli iSS: (Code B31.3, Para.304.1.2,b.)
J’ “* 8. pi~ ~nds s]M]I meet the flattening
limitations of Ihe applicableCode.
210

S u om M m R ae q r u j iy or eo m fe rn t s f
P I PC I O N DG E S
pertainingto
PIPEW T A
H I CA
LK A
N LEL LS NOS PW RA B
E D LS E S U R

C & SO C D O EP E F O R M U L A S
A B 3N 1 . 4 S- 1 9 I 9 2
L I P EQ T RU O I L ED U Internal
M Pressure
TRANSPORTATION PIPING SYSTEM t“ =t+A
T C ph r o e msi c id r r nsi bi e e m s eu . m - ~
q u i rf e t m d e en m o t sahs t i e gr r i n ea t,l 2s s , ,w h e r
c o n s t a r us c s it ein osmn pa,b e l c yt i~, on n , d
t eo p s tit r aip n lns i p pgio n r qtf gi e nu g a i pt pd a l li- lc s oa vbw t . l a are b le
r os al c ue o r cu oc um p
ni d edh n l ss ea t , e , i a c s c wo r
C i d P ai o n , ac n dte
402.3.1 a, b, c, or d. For pipe
n ag at ns u oag r ll t iai uln ql e riau , aiq dl u s s ,e -
f p e i t g r a o le la pie eudnq t sm r u o l, i dem dua m At e A 5r SBia aA 1 lT s n
p r bo ed p ut r ocwl dt efu s ecea e ncra s i ’ s f B, S G 25,200
ie - psi. at –20 F to
t t if anae arg s npt mr u,o skcr a e , a st =sl 2p i Fnrs dge sw
5
e st shu ai iri c ekg nl
0
p lr e a f sin nt teta rest i r i ae,mos i ,n n s a ,nl s , d
c ( nh 1s o e t,e s e 2e
o d t e a l rh i e vpce eeno irr i v y in nd t g s .
A B 3N 1 . 5 S - 1 9 I 9 I 2 n P t r e e r s n s a u l r e
R E F R I G E PR A TI I OPN I N tm =t+c
G c
ThisCodeprescribes
materiats, design, fabrication, assembly,erec- ; = z~) ‘r t = 2(s + -
t i o n ,
p= - ,w h e r
S= m a ax l i l s m
o i twum a rm b el
p a r a g r a p h s . t de t ir n i p ut rae a e r l s n e
advised that
p m ai A t e A rp5 SB i a a el T s
p i it r p eh sj i up er eni s c digti ci nt vr i oe n s A. 1 B S s 1 0p5 a 1, F s 0 6 0
T C s hn oa h t i p ad p sl oe l l w y t 4 : F 0 o 0
( a s e l f -oa cun os n tysan i sutn) ye t bd i e jt =merp t src d e t sw o
e st shu ai iri c ekg ln
t h e
o n at t i h o n e a l rl y c ( nh 1S o e t,e se 2e
( w p a b t e ) r E x P t r e e r s n s a u l r e
( p d i e f pces xii gt n noe ) ger nd Ta rp l r d e h ste h s si ut cs irkeb nehg e s
p r n ee xs 1c sp (e ou Ie rr d 1eei sg n at & g 0r d d e5l i t e3 ei s) ar s mc ci onw re C dd ai on cn
o s i z e f . P 5 a0 4r . 1a . .3 .
A B 3N 1 . 8 S - 1 9 I 9 2
G T R A N AS MA I S S I SO N D
D I S T R IP B U I ST I PYO NSI TN E G M S
T C c h oto d i v efd esa hs bir e rg sI i nn ecP t, ar e -e r s n s a u l r e
t i ni s t iao nl l s anpt t ei e oca, nst , i t o i n n, g , d
t s aa s ohf o p pe eea t mrc e a yt ta sin o i f n 2n t xd F x- E x T, where s
t e o gn t ra a n as acmd i ie s ss ifnt os r n i b ud -
t s y i i s n t cgo e pl m iu pdngs e ia, l n i gSn =aes sp , em c i s i y nf s i i t e mr d eeu n
c o m sp rt eag s tm s i eo oar t na e s r , i n pn s g s d i .
r e g s u t l gaa mtt i a a nos gani e s nr ,n vs sF i , p c dm e a i oA t e A pr5 SBi ra el T
l u ti t o n ou t e cht u ssl tp h oe em t e a r fA’e1 s B S = 3n p50 , ds 0 6
m s ae s st M e ei m e n b wcrl s l y t i u. Cd = t neo dho w m - t i h a in ic a k nl ln e c
i t s o tc s h oeah g c sp nt tei ei ro aof rs n (a neg s 1Se2o 3 4 5te e e s
e q u o it pc m pl e t nho f t i s y ef p e apd e e b
n oc f a fo tp r o ref g ai d be o r r idp c ma t e e r d
f p ar f i i oat gnt p si m nt eng o ads r , a d g s e
l i n e s .
211

S u om M m R aae q r u j iy or eo m fe rn t s f
P I PC I O N DG E S
C o n t i fn u f a tr api o nc o a i nm g g e

N O T A T I O N
m e c h ci i ol l r ~i rc ao l s, i n o
A= s o a l l uio w fn a nc m c he f o, ee rst i o rl l s u iw a o n nc e s
t h ra eg a r da o r in o n vg i T en=d T g e m spD- e er Fa r t aua r t ec i nt
q uu Ci n P r o 4d e da e d e 0rr f , S aP t . o ie ep r l e
4 c o . r a r r o2e s q i uo, in r T ee s md p e r a t u r e
u C n P o d 4 a 0d e 2 r e .r 4a , D. .1e F , ag h r r F e nTae h sec i t
a i n i cw ntr h e ai a c sdk l e n e n2 sl F os l 5 e1 . s 0 0 r s
i u a p rs o m t eee c a t f ids v sue 3 r F e 0 0 . 0 9
u C n P o 4d a d0 e r 2 e r a. , 1 3. F. 5 0 . 0 9
c f i n p t r oe te sr s ns= ua r hr l u e ,4 F e m 0 0
o a l l o i w i a n c cfe s h e Fn s 0 . 8
t ha gr red n oae odp v dt Ne h ,
i on t eft ri p e on l a:ot t ee
m a n u f amc t ut ir e or sn ’ l u e m sr e v - d a i l a ut ee s
a p nc o lcra re eo u s r,in os n o d -
s a l li o w oa n c ne .Y= c o e ff fm i ac it eoe n r t i an
f e x pt or e etr s n s aru l rh e d , i c e a t e d :
s i i no uc co r h r moe sn si Fo fd n u n co o n t mf ie r l rr eo a u
a e r a lo nl os p w i a on dl c ne s ut, e f r se s i r aat r a l ie s t eu, ni cl
m a n u f amc t ut ir e or sn ’ l u e t sr es - nyt = 0i e t e i l.c s
a n c e .
d = I D i r { o a4 ) u n / - f g t s 6n
i nd i s ao i pm de i t e e p r e f ,
i n c h e s Y ‘ d +dD
f D o u) d . t i sao pm i& =de i t e e p r f e d f u~, tc o e t r i i al r l e s
i n c h e s
F b r m i ao t u e t r l ir ae s l
h L o n g- ij t u f do i an= ia lc n t y ot= 0.0 r
o b ft aC i r t no e ao dd b em l , e
8 4 F 1 s .e p1a o m2 i l . ep sr se ,
E= 1 . N 0 O T E S
V oa D l Fe u Fas e ci s gt 1 If osn e r ol p e t c m tai ni u o.f nhapnc t u rf e
m t i o l sn e b r thu a i naas c eknl
F
c o n s i d Te rma t ti ioo nh l. n e r u a
f s e s a opm t i l 1i ee os 2pr se .e l
t n o w mth h i ia Tnc tk a enl lhe os ls
e m
r b au an w a s c s l e hpe y s e ee
fication is not available.
2 Pipe b s e m h tn f eal d . a t l hset e l n
P &Pi = i n d t pee r r spe n s i a s slgu rl n i e i m , oi t t gaa tp i p Co l hn i s oc a bdf el
s as describedat the formulas, 3 C l a s s oi L f i oc ac tI ai Cot. n i o on
and i a p p c l ip oc a bds ln Be 1e i P , 8 . a . 4 f 1rc8 .loa a30a , 1.s u
sf
,s
tt=a d e sa t c f r o i r b mhe s ud ld ae t sesa a, cb rf pi a rb e esst dco r i i sb s
i n c h e s t o cy o n sp t r ue c t i s o nf .
t“=n o w mt hi ais n c ak l nl t 4e L ils i s ms oi Pt- a D t i V e o . nas p l i uf g
f r ye q u i if r p e n m er ng o t esC B s . oPr - 8 t 3d4 i8 1 r e. 1a1 , 4.
s a a ul l o b nwrn a n c e eu5dsL o , N e o t W tamT hi sai nCc . tka ln l o e s
l t t e nh o w s mha i sa n n B a e. l T l 8 a l34 8 1 b . 1l 1 4 , e1 .
t h i l c kii C n s e ost s e d d e n ,
T 4 a 0 i 4 b n. 1l c . he1 T , ef o s ar rhme g u l alne t aiexo ns t s - ra d l ae
e f A rm Ne aro Sit tdci maao nnn da
tml = m i r n e i t q mh u i u i c mr k Cen fde Ps o rs P e od swi st p pue i ir r e ne ht
i i ns a ct r i les fqw y nu i smin gri o tes p - s u bi T l hoAi sm n h e hef rer i,
m f de pe n r osu e t is ss g S unr noro Mec e ic d Eh e an ntg i i yc n f e lf el r
213

R T
U NH Y D R OE SP T RR
A TE I SC S U R E

F l a t t- w daa l t l t ne d muh ke c he s a dn i eis ac oda vrl a l n syt a g aeh o u u s af lsrp eeo


h y d r po sr t eoa ts iTns c q u lu r oa ehm y n a t .r t i eete qfry uri e ia cf rlt otae n diga u l nr a
h it fg c h hy l ie vaon dre o r t sin sc s ra c l e aa h lp H as m
oc w fsi e ote e m
y v t .e ea t r pi , mp h el s
t o r i e c t tao n i ga p unr l neaf fbr ek e r o ac ts b a les heu f as eab er aii cst f a gr t i yno onh
u t i l o i s z a p t i ao n c e f .

M A XS I MI U MZ E
U n s t ti f m f a e b n n ne l d a kat 3or s c h fgy a eet at uw
r a t snn t ni i0 f .f1ke. cdtn i s n u gh4 s
f c a e p a ce i t ty .
F l at oart u gn o s ek rrh rsis t a o,d vafe i eed s cf ay o rbso nel s oea ms ior cn s .

R O
A S T I I D O E F S
I a s a i e l dqt l r u e efo al o hsn s l e gB ,=i @tn e ;d hw eV
f h=e v : e o c f lr u e um t
P r e rf e aLr a tosb l in1ei Bog Sd :e h .ser o : ( r: i )tB5 e;. d r 6 e6 7

D E S I G N
T f o r oh mt uf ol lea phl s o a aw bni gen oa g m r e sa s xa e li e l m
d do euwnf m
al eb c l t
L =t w t dh # e te nt hro i, ot cseh iek d. ns e e- pse l s a t ef .
V ao ~ a l un e d s / f 3

Ratio,~ or; 0.25 0.2$6 0.333 0.4 0.5 0.667


(lmstant,~ - 0.024 0.031 0.041 0.056 0.080 0.116
Constant,cr 0.00027 0.00046 0.00083 0.0016 0.0035 0.0083
Ratio,~ or? 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0
Constant,/3 0.16 0.26 0.34 0.38 0.43 0.47 0.49
Constant,a 0.022 0.043 0.060 0.070 0.078 0.086 0.091
h eo t i L =ga l h eo nt t n I f =gka m t a n hdx ii f bskm te u sa t mun w pc e pe eo

W E LO PD IL
E N A
D
G T
G F EE S
Somepreferable welded joints of plate edges:

T
w
s t i f
e a l m
m
LL
hf eb na i t n eatgt sta tc hwy eaehe d abi in nt o t leeh rk o mec li ot rnt et yn i t n
d b pi n nli a g ano o cds u y eit e s dd i ed er .
u

B I B L I O G R A P H Y
O d t me h e sa ot ei hf i gt rof fr ndeo lsrp l h eao e dw
p i en ne r g s :
V o j 1t A a Ss z at a Dk. r e, f e oln Re.s e: c c ts t i a do n ng u l af r
3

K
214
RECTANGUI.AR TANKS
UNDER HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE
WITH TOP-EDGE STIFFENING
NOTATION
= factordependingon ratioof lengthand heightof tank,H/L (SeeTable)
2 = modulusof elasticity,psi.;30,000,000forcarbonsteel
G = spectlcgravityof liquid
H= height of tank, in
I =
1 = maximumdistancebetweensupports,inches
L = length of tank, riches
R = reactionwithsubscriptsindicatingthe location,lb./in.
s = stressvalueof plate,psi.as tabulatedin Code,TablesUCS-23
t = required plate thickness, inches
t. =
t~ =
t* = thicknessof bottom, inches
w = load perunit of length lb./in.
Y = deflection of plate, inches
REQUIRED PLATE THICKNESS

‘=’-
/
B T h i tc m k bn u e as asf s , t l e y os
b op ti i l et aosn um tti r i ef r fa
s u p p o r t e d .
,.Dl_ ‘
T h i cf s k bn hi e n s cas i r, el a sl
c o r s r e o r s vi vi ec e .
M a dx e i f om l pe uc l m t i a o nt
a 0 G. 0H 3 L
=
H

6 ] ~ S T I F FF E NR I N AG M
0.036 Gl% R, = 0.3w
w=
2 Rz = 0.7W
~
Minimumrequiredmomentof inertia
for top-edgestiffening:
w H
I
= W2Eta
~ -
B O P T LT OA M T
W S H
U P P EBO BR TN E E DA

“ = *
M a sx pi o m
sa uuc fp m
i ap n o g r
g t i h i ov cb k oe n t e n st s o m
I B
4 I 1 ~
‘ 1 G. ” 4 ’ .
1
215

R E C T A N G U L TA R A N K S
E X A M P L E S

D E D S IA G TN A
C a op t a t c 6ia gth ny a= 8 0c kl ff e al p: p o r 0uo txn i m a0 t . e l. y
C o nw t G a e= 1 nt t e : r ;
T s o a c i hu b e dt- s f he ta ae pd fe e d nocs h ai pg k~ a n r c=ee4 i d tf y . : 3t
P r e p f r eo rpo sro er i td i d o n e s f :
L = 4.31 x 1.5 = 6.47 ft. = 78 inches
H = 4 x . . = 2 6 f 3 = . 3 6 i 1 8nt 7 c 7 h . e 4 s
W o it t d 4 athf = .h5 n i f e3nt k c 1 h . e 2 s
s = 1 3u 7S s 2 5 C im 0 a n ,8t eg r A i 5 a l
C o r a r l ol so 1 w i 6 ioa n c /e : n 1 .
HIL = 34178 = 0.43; /3 = 0.063

R E Q PU I LT R H E A
I DC K
T N E S S

10.063 X134x 10.036 x 1


t= 78 = 0.18 in

+0.0625 corr. allow = 1/4in.

S T I F FF E NR I N AG M E

0.036 X 1 X 342 = R = 0.3 x 20.808 = 6.24 lb/in


w. 20.808 lbiin Ri = 0.6 X 20.808 = 14.57 lb/in
2 2
6.24 X 784
= 0.214 in4
~min= 192 x 3Q000,000 x 0.l~T5

1-3/4 x 1-3/4 x 3/16 (.18 in4)satisfactoryfor stiffeningat the top of the tank

B O P T LW
T OSA HUM PT P EBOE BR TN E E DA M Y S
i n u o bm =eb4 1 =ea2 if r mn f cs h ; e 6 s
lb =
L 2 5 4 k 0 4 i “= 1 n’ 6 ’
O u t sp t i l h h inOa c r ka.g tc n 1ae e le s8ac su 7btl am5o t ae sv dx h ei m,
s p f as uc p i po n o gr t sr :

IB=
1=4x0
.187’m “
216

RECTANGULAR TANKS
WITH VERTICAL STIFFENINGS

N O T A T I O N

P = F ad e c p o et nn o d lr i r aena gheight,lf/1
t n i g on t f h d
(SeeTableon page 213)
E= m o o ed l ua ps l t ui c ss i t y f i, .
If = heightof tank inches
I = momentof inertia,inq
= specificgravityof liquid
?= the maximumdistancebetweens[iffcnings
on the longeror shortersideof [hc t i a n nc h k e ,s .
L = l eo t n i a g n nt c h kh fe, s
s = s vt or ap epl l s a u s s t e e i f , .
t = r e pq ut lhi i r ica ek n dnt e=c sa e sh pc, e t t lh s iu ica aka n nt l e c s e sh
9 .
9 -

“ ; ’ ~ l ” : : l l ! ! ! ! A
1
L

R E Q PU I LT R H E AI DC K
T N E S S

t = ’ r

L O l A b D /S ,i n

~ 0 . 0 3 6 =G0.3W
R, =H 2 Rz = 007W
2
—...
S T I F FF E NR I N AG M E

R e qs ue mi c ro t oe dvi d ue o s rl nt tui if s fc e a nf l i n g

0 . 0 6 4 2GH31
. 0 . 0 3 6
z=
s

M i rn ei m
q m u ou oi mmr ee d n t f

Iti~ = ‘1 ‘4
192 E t.
217

R E C T A N T
G U LA A R N K S
W V IE R S TTT II FC F
H AE NL I N G S
E X A M P L E S

D E D S IA G TN A

E = 30,000,000 psi
L = 78 i Content:Water
n
H= 34 in G=l
B = 52 i n
s = 13570psi HI! = : = 1.31: /3= 0.22
1 = 26 in

R E Q PU I LT R H E A
I DC K
T N E S S

0.22 X 34 X 0.036 X 1 = o ~15 in


t= 26 X .
1 3 7 5 0

+0.0625 corr. a = l 3/16 i l o w n

S T I F FF E NR I N AG M E

0.0642 X 0,036 X 1 X 343 x 26


z = = 0,172 in3
13750

2 x 2 x 3/16 (.19 in3)satisfactoryfor verticalstiffening

w= 0.036x 1X342 =2081b,in


. ~1 = 0.3 x 20.8 = 6.24
2

I = 6.24 X 784
X X =
218

RECTANGULAR TANKS
Under Hydrostatic Pressure
WITH HORIZONTAL STIFFENINGS

NOTATION
E = modulusof elasticity,psi.; 30,000,000tor carbon steel
G= SpeCifiC
gravityof liquid
H= heightof tank,in
I = momentof inertia,in.4
L = l eo t an n kg , it n ch h ef s
P = pressureof liquid,psi.
R = r e wa sc u t i b i s noc td rnt i i kcp hatx tsl it h bn i g . o / ne i , n .
s = stressvalueof plate,psi.
t = requiredplatethickness,inches
t. =

S P A
O C I N G F
S T I F F E N I N G SHI = 0.6H H2 = 0.4H

0.036 GH
T H I C K N E S S 1 = 0.3
s—

w = 0.036 GH2
L } Ob . A / i Dn .2

R1 = 0.06 w Rz = 0.3 W Rz = 0.64 w

M r m o i
f t s
11= RI L4
O I N EF R T OI F A 1R E ta
9 2
S T I F F E N I N G
M i nr ei qm
m u u o i om i rm en e de n r t t
f i n t e ro m
s et di i f a frt e n i n g
Rz L’
1 =— 2
192 E to
219
R T E
W I H S N
E
DESIGN DATA
Designed Capacity= 1,000gallon = 134cu. ft. (approx.)
Content: water
s = 13750psi., using SA285 C material
Corrosion allowance = 1/16in.
The side ofacube-shaped tank forthe designed capacity: 3~~= 5.12 ft.
Preferred proportion of sides:
width = 0.667 x 5.12 = 3.41 ft; a p 4 ip rn oc x h . e 2 s
L = 1.500 X 5.12 = 7.68 ft; approx. 92 inches
H= 5.12 ft; approx. 60 inches

For h 6 i i n s. , r

SPACING OF STIFFENINGS:

H1 = 0 H =36 i . Hzn = 60.4H = 24 in.


.

REQUIRED PLATE THICKNESS:

t = 0.3 x 60 0.036 X 1 X 60 = o.2X ~ .


13,750

+ 0.0625 corr. allow = 5/16 in.

LOADS:

w= 0.036 X 1 X 602 = ~ .~ ~b,k


2
RI = 0.06 w = 3 l .b / Rz8 =i 0.3 wn =
9 19.44
l lb/in

MINIMUM MOMENT OF INERTIA FOR STIFFENINGS:

3 X 9 .: 8 2 9 4
11 = = 0.4690 in4
1 x 30,000,000
9 x 0.25 2
19.44 x 924
12 =
192 X 30,000,000 X 0.25 = 0“967 ‘4
220

T R IS UOP -E P O
D R T
F R E C TO A N T G U LR AA R N K S
U Hn y d d r Po ser t ea r ts i sc u r e

T a t v u o o h h is esto i df a f t e snve i ofn ilyg h s t d,a ma er b es n sug pa fk pe os


m e c o n o bms t i rc a tl ol y i d sy e .
N O T A T I O N S
A= R e qc us r ie rc ao et o id s or n s a e l a f
t r s i o i qd n e , . .
a = h o r ip z iio n t t a c l n h , .
b = v e pr tii i t c ca n l h , .
G s p g e rc o lia f vi = i i qc t u y i *f d
P= p r oe l s i sl qu ru e i b d f , .
?‘
s s vt or ar em l a s= tp uoes r e si af dl4 i , 4 . + +
= r e qp ut lhi i r cai e k dnt e s en s* , .
; = s vt o r ap em ll a sP pt ua es r et i fas e l , i

R E Q U I R E D
P L A T when
E a- b t = 0.7~
V
T H I C K N E S S P

L O O A D N
P=ab 0.036 Gh
T R I O E D

R E Q CU I R R E O D S S
S E C T A I O NR A L E A A = %
O T R I O F E D

E X A M P L E
D E D S IA G TN A
L e n f g wt hi t 2=fd 3h t 0 .e th 5i f =g , .hl t t= , l .
a = 6 i n = 60 in 0 .
hl
b = 6 i n 0 .
G= 1 hz = 120 in
S = 20,000 psi.
S = 2 0J , s0 0 i 0 . 15’
Sp= 20,000 psi

t = 0.7 x 60
0 x. 1 x 0120 3 6
20,000
= 0.625 = 5/8 in. plate
P =a b 0 . =0 6 03 x 66 0Gx *0h . 02 3 61 x 1 25l 0 = , 5 b5 2 .

A = 1 5= 0 , s . 5i = 175Z r q2 7 n o 8 .d . $ s
20,000
PI = ab0.036Gh1 = 60x60x0.036x60= 7,776 lb.

Al = 7,776 = om389Sq.in. = 3/4 # rods


20,000
l I.

C
Vesselsor parts of vesselssubject to thinningby corrosion,erosionor mechanical
abrasion shall have provisionmade for the desired life of the vesselby suitable
increase in the thickness of the material over that determined by the design
formulas,or by using some other suitablemethod for protection(code LJC-25bi).
The tie does not prescribethe magnitudeof corrosionallowanceexceptfor vessels
with a requiredminimumthicknessof less than 0.25in. that are to be used in steam,
water or compressedair seMce, shallbe providedwith corrosionallowanceof not less
than one-sixthof the required minimumthickness.The sum of the requiredminimum
thicknessand corrosionallowanceneed not exceed1/4in. This requirementdoes not
apply to vessel parts designed with no x-ray examinationor seamlessvessel parts
designedwith0.85joint efficienq. (Code UCS-25).
Forothervesselswhenthe rateof corrosionis predictable,thedesiredlifeof thevessel
will determinethe corrosionallowanceand if the effectof the corrosionis indetermi-
nate, thejudgmentof the designer.A corrosionrateof 5 roilsperyear(1/16in. = 12
years) is usually satisfactoryfor vessels and piping.
The desired life time of a vessel is an economicalquestion. Majorvesselsare
usually designedfor longer (15-20 years) operating life time, while minor vessels
for shorter time (8-10 years).

The corrosionallowanceneed not be the samethicknessfor all parts of the vessel if


differentrates of attack are expectedfor the variousparts (Code UG-25c).
Thereare severaldifferentmethodsfor measuringcorrosion.The simplestwayis the
use of teltaleholes (Code UG-25 e) or corrosiongauges.
Vesselssubjectto corrosionshall be suppliedwith drain-opening(Code UG-25 f).
All pressurevessels subject to iintemal corrosion,erosion, or mechanicalabrasion
shall be providedwith inspectionopening(CodeUG-46).
To eliminatecorrosion,corrosionresistantmaterialsare usedas liningonly,or forthe
entire thicknessof the vessel wall.
The rules of liningare outlinedin the Codein Part UCL,ApendixF and Par. UG-26.
The vessel can be protected against mechanicalabrasion by plate pads which are
welded or fastenedby other meansto the exposedarea of the vessel.
In vesselswherecorrosionoccurs, all gaps and narrowpockets shall be avoided by
joining parts to the vessel wall with continuousweld.
Internalheads may be subjectto corrosion,erosionor abrasionon both sides.
222

SELECTION OF CORROSION RESISTANT MATERIALS

T t a i bnh f uo ro l mt aaef t or i lo pnlh oi a w a in gt ne tg e e am


s ps n t

Footnotes have been generously used to explain and further clarify information con-
tained in this table. It is most important that these notes be carefully read when using
the table.

In rating materials, the letter “A” has been used to indicate materials which are
generally recognized as satisfactory for use under the conditions given. The letter “F”
signifies materials which are somewhat less desirable but which may be used where a low
rate of corrosion is permissible or where cost considerations justify the use of a less
resistant material. Materials rated under the letter “C” may be satisfactory under certain
conditions. Caution should be exercised in the use of materials in this classification
unless specific information is available on the corroding medium and previous experience
justifies their use for the service intended. The letter “X” has been used to indicate
materials generally recognized as not acceptable for the service.

Information on metals has been obtained from the International Nickel Company,
the Dow Chemical Company, the Crane Company, the Haynes-Stellite Company,
“Corrosion Resistance of Metals and Alloys” by McKay & Worthington, “Metals and
Alloys Data Book” by Samuel L. White, “Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering” and
“The Chemical Engineers’ Handbook,” Third Edition by McGraw-Hill.

-
a
H o sw ge vo ar es uar m
c , cd er s ees f s u l el

a c
per and

a e l e c con nt dry ui c c t dai vl i t y .


)
223

by any
i c h e sm i t c to a6a170F
l lbut,
bs y being
l a plastic,
e it is not recommended
unless confined a

* Sources of D A -a A r tm s at C
r -: o n g D-
E - & J - P .
S- U-


224

C R O M
A n Good; F G F
Resistance Ratings:
C a Du n t u i table
o no s: o t ec = C a - d
u et o pi c oe n n d di
w i r t e fh ao o od a ut ti n t n o e gt n e x s x = N
t d r .e c o mo m e n d et d .

v ~ v
:
o
C h e m i~ c a& l 7 + + * ; ;
z : ~“
w ~ ~ b 3E
5 m E - ; : i : ~ 2 Z
“ $ g ; & g g ;:
c w ~ ~ :
& 2 ‘ s G : z 2 z $ 3~ $ 3 $

4 a c c ec .............................
r t i iu d c c dc , F ec F A c c c c c c A A
P .....................................................
u r e x .c F c F A F A A F A c A A
V ........................
a p ...........
o .......... r x s c F c F c c c - c c x c A A
1 l b @ / 4 s5C )q O.... *......... Fi .x n.0 .- . .x . .x . .F c - c c - A c A A
4 ac n h ey d ..r............ t i d ........
ei . . c.c . F. . F A F A A A A F A A, A A
a c e t o................
n e . ............
. . .............
. . .A. A A A A A A A A A A A A A
a c e t y ..........................................
l e n e . . . . .A. x A A A - A A A A A A
4 1 uc mh ........................
il no ur... xmi c d c e x c c c c c x c x A A2
.... ....................
x F F A c c c c F A A A A A
4 1 u n ..............................................
l s . . . . . . . .x . F F A F F c - c A A c A -
4 ~ gn d ~ ............................
sa r r i y sFa A . A , A . A A - A - A A A A A B
............................ ........... ........... F x x A x c c A c A A A A -
i m mc oh .........................
nl i o u r F m i x d x eA x c A c A c c c A &
immonium hydroxide ................. ...... A x x A x A c A : : ; A A A
........................... F x x x x A - - - A A
.................... c c c A c c : ~ ; : : :
.............................. F c c A c F
.............. ............... A x x - x x - - A A A A A
... ....... ............. – - - - - - - - A A A A A A
.................................... - - - - - - A - - c c - F
h - - - xy x x A - - A A – A d-
..................................... - - - A x - - - A A A A - -
......................................................... c - A - A A A A A A A A - A
.............................. c – - – A c A A A A A A A A
t e 1n 2 ez n ...........................
zc o nl . .c . A. , . A. . A. A A A A A A A A A A A
l e p n e z t e ir nont l ea heA , p uAe m A
h A
r t A h, A A
a A A A A A A A
I s I ul al ........................
i f cq a .... uAtk - eo F Fr x - A A A A A - A -
I a o..............................................
c r i i d xc A . A c c A - - c A A A A A
.......................................... x c c - c x c c c x x x c A

2. 12S0 maximum.
All Perrentj;
70”.
5.
TO 122”. 14. Hasleiloy

h
f 18. Sqo


-

C R O G
( C HS E M O EOI CP APPEL O S A S I G
TN E E )
R e s iR s a t taS ni ac nf ea g ap s mc: ai e n gs g e

* text a S f er o e n t t


48~0 — U n s a t fi s f a c t o or y r

R t e o m p t e1o r aC 5t o m
u rri 8 re o 9
c r e a s e s
200”F.
26. UPto 176”F.
27. 10~0
;

I
226

C R O M
A F G
c = C a - du et o pi c ooe n nd i d
w i r t e fh a o o od a ut ti nt n oe gt n e x s x G t N d r .e c o mo m e n d et d

u ~ $
2 t b
0 o
C h e m i zc aG l ‘
w % + * * p $
G ~ ~ E ( K
~ ~ : 1 s ~ s : ~ ~ .g g
m m E m =
c ~ E z ~ j $ g ; g : g ; :
& 2 6 3 G < z : z $ $ 2 u s

Butane......._..............-....---.--+---.o-..,
A A A - - A
B a u l bc ut to a nhy...o... A ol . lA
.l . A., . A
. . A
. A x i , : t i : ; 2
C a c l h c............
l ~o............
ur F imF d F ex F c A A A c c c A A
~ a h y l p oc ................
c hm l oC mr c i tF e x c c c c c c F c c x
= a a r pb c oh................ l i e i. A cdnc F o ,A llc A A Ao A ,c A c A ,A
F A A A A A A A A A A A A A
......... ............... .. ...... c A A x - A A A A A A A A A
...... ... .. c c F F c F A A A c A c A A
Z h &
d .o... ...............
: r~ ........ n eAy , A A A . A x A A x x A
........ ........... .... ..................... x x c F c x x x x x c x x A
Z h a r ...............oc ................
m i i c cdx x .A x c c c c c c x c A
~ acid..-..--.~..
i t .-..-r._.-....-i----x c A A A c F F A A A A A A A
Z t h e ... r .......
s . .........................
. . . . . . c. . A A A A A A A A A A A A A
Z t ghl y c oy l - . .l. . . . .e. . . . .n. A . . . .e-A. . - . .A. . , A A A A A A A A A A A
‘erric chloride . ...................... .... x x x x x x x x x x c x x I
‘ se u................
r l r ...............
f i a x ctx xe A x F c c x ,A A A A ,A
f o r m a _ l - d e. ....... . .h . y F .d. eA - A . —- i.A . c A A tA c c c A A
‘ oa .. ..................
r c m ........... i i . x dc A A . - c x F F F A A c A A
: dr ........e .. ........o... .............
r n A ,A Ay A A A A A A A A A A A
‘ u .................................
r f u r .. ......a A lA c - - A A A A A A A A A
;asoline, sour----------------------------- c x x A x A A A c A A A A A
R e ....................
f i .... ......
n .. ....eA A d A A A A A A A A A A A A
; l yg c l ............ e y r c....i.. .... e nA r,A oA lA A
, A A A , A A A A A A
H y d r oa c ( hS cl Oo ”r xiFi c.c . dc. - c . , c. . lx . c c F x x x A A
$ y d r oa f cl cu ( o o r ixi6 c xl dx5 dF , x% ,x c. c A x x x F A
> 6 5 x % x x c x x c – A x x x F
x x x x x x x x A x x x
x x x x x x c c A x x x c
A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

N c oo n to t o i epn ppu s eo d sa i tn g e e DO

A ercents;709. l l
T f o

1>.
1 A r 6o o . t m
H b i n o
f
9 .


C R O G
(SEE C H E MO I O C PA PLP O S SA I T N
G E E )
R e s iR s a t atS ni ac nf ae g ap s mc: a i e n gs g e

— A s b e s t— o s isce l e l o a
u
C o m
Woven p . ,
n
~
R u Rubber
b b e r
B o n d e d
>
1U I -
~

2
~
z
QJ
.- n
2
$ 3
z PI PI F r DI C c P
F
:
c
A
A
c
A c c c k
A c c c A
c c c A
: c c c x
x $ $ : F
1 c c c E
A A A
: c c c :
A A
? t > A
: A A A A
A A A A A
x A A A A
- - - x
: - - — x
A - — - x
A x
A z t z A
A A F
E — - - F
x . - - x
x - - - c
x - - - c
A - - - F
1 1
iee tex t f p r oh : oa t h n ge e t es f e :
O alloyJ .
— .

a
- - -

C R O M
R e s iR s at : Aa t= n( i c lenF n gO
F s oa
C a Du n t u i t o ano s: b o l t ec ce C a – du et o pi c ooe n nd i
w i r t e fh a o o od a ut ti nt n o e gt n e x s x E N
t d r .e c o mo m e n d et d

w g p
z u L
~ o
C h e m i zg c a ml 7 * + m
b
y >
m ~ .z E ~
- ~ ~ 5 g; ; ; : : g
C m E T e
g ‘ ; ~ j g g g ; ; ;
c ~ E z Q
i 2 G 5 8 - z s z $ $ c G 4;

H y dp e r or x i do e . . g- . . . .e. c. . .n- .c. . . .F. . . , c c c c c c A A c A A


H y c s i u ;d l: ( gf .......ei2A ndrx 0ex –, ) x y A .c A c c A A A A
----------------------------------------------- c x x - x A c c c c A A A A
L a l ev er c n s ct sc )A c A
(c s q o u................... A A A A A A A A
L aa .......................
cc i i x d c A A. – c F
t ............. c c c c A A A A
L u b r o i rc ai e ............. t i f l nA ig A s n A A e , Ad A A A A A A A A A
M a g c n he .................... sl i o u Fr m Fi Fd x e F F A A A c ,c ,c A
, A ,
k f a gh n y e d .... r i ou A m
s .......... x c i cd - e x x A A A A A A - A
M a g s n eu................ s l i ..... uf c maA –t - e A c A A A A A - A –
tiercury......-.......................-..-......., A x x - x x A – A A A – –
~ a g t..........au.....................
r s a A .l c c . A c x A A A A A A A i
{ a i c t c ................ rr i ....... iu . xd c xd x, xe x A x c x A . A An c
D i ......................................
l u t e x dx x x x A x c x A A A Am C
n t r a t xe dx x x x A
C o n c e........................... x x x ,A A A A , –
3 i i ... cd c A A
a 1 ...................................
c e . x c A ,A A A lA , A A .A , A
) ax .....................................
ac l i i c d c A A. x c c F A A c F c A A
? a a l ..............
m c i ...............t i i c cdc A2a. c CZ1A A A A A A A A A
? e t Or ( o S 1O l Oe ° luFA-mcc sr uc d A:e . c. A c A c c F - A A
‘ h o as p............ o r e ic c c d C c . C x
hc .............. 2c c 2c c 4 F A4 A A
‘ o t h a y s d ................. s r i o u cx m xi xd xe x x A A c c - - A
‘ o t s a us.........................s l i f u c am A t - Ae A A A A A F F – – A
P r ................
o p..............
a ........ n A eA A A A A A A A A A A A A
S e( ............................
w g a a g.. c se x ; ) : : A c A c A A - - -
; a ( o s s c oad r d bh oAi an F ua , t me ) . . c A A A A A A A A
S if a tu e .x .m .F . .F . A F c
ob i sd u l ................... – – – A A A A A
S oc hd ....l.......i o... .......
ur ... Fi m Fd F e A c c A. A,, A,, c c c A A
s oc dy . _ ai _ n .u....... . . iA m._xd . x_e . x _x. . x _ c – c c –
s o h yd d ......................
ir o u x A m i c d Fe F c x A A A A A A ; x
$ oh y pd o c i h.....l .......... ou r ix tm ec . .F . x c x c c c c c c F A

N c oo n ot t o i epn ppu s eo d sa i
IO. tn g e e

Pre$ence
oj water temperature.
8. H h I
f SVO

,
-

C R O G
( C HS E MOE I O C PA EPLP O S SA I T NG E E )
R e s iR s a t atS ni ac nf ea g ap s mc: a i e n gs g e

- g a s e s
— 8070. 3 3 .
?3. R t e or n tp 1eo r Ca Sto m~ rir 8 re o ” J
c r w e a i ~ e~ ~ b

; 320”.
19.


I
230

C R O M
R e s iR s a t Ata D niG c n eF ogD Fs o :
C a Du n t u i t o na o :s b o l t Ce = eC a – du et o pi c oe n n d di
w i r t e fh a o o od a ut it nt n o e gt n e x xs c N t dr e. c o mo m e n d et d .

uN
v $
s u L
: o
C h e m i zc a ; l
‘ wY + w v g &
G w .% ~ ~ m t - :
- : ~ a 0 : ~
2 4
u
&
L K
z T z: : : ~
w w
c ~ ~ : : ‘ & g u w e$ :
2 E z Q Q
& 2 2 5 v : # i 2 s 2 $ c &

; onitrate d......................
i uA A m A A A A A A A c ,A ,A ,A c , ,
i o p de ......................
ir ot xlc i cm d- e- - A A - A A A A - ~ ;
; os t d e u . .i .............
. l. u. A. . A
fm. .A . a.A . A. A A tA A A Z 7z z 5 ~
; oS f d.........................
ii U ud A cm e c IA . c x c A A A A
iodium th iosulfate, “ h Ay c p c e A ” Zc . c . – – 9 - A A A A .
itearic acicl...... ...................... F A A A c A A A ,A Al A A ,A lA , ,
~ulfur.........................................., A A F - c A A A A c c c A A
,ulfur dioxide, dry.................., A A A A A A A A A c A c A A
u d l i wo f ................ x e ui x d tFr e F ,. A A . c x F x c A c A .
u l a f ( cu c 1 r ...... i xio0 cdc cl % A, dc , x .c c F c A x A A
H ........................................
o t .x x . x A x x x x c x x x A A
1 0 c - ........................
7o 5 l x% x d, x A . x x c c c c c c A A
H .......................................
o t .x x . x A x x x x F x x – A A
7 5 c - .......................
9o 5 l A% c ,d c A . c x – - A F A c A A
H ........................................
o t .A – . x A - x x x c x c x A –
F u.................................
m i nA – g – A c A x , ,
u l af ........................
u cr o i X-u Fsd F A . F F c E c ; e ~ A- c
‘ a a r ............................
t c a ri Xi cdc – A. – A c c c A – A * c
‘ o l u e ............................
n e _ . . . .A . .A . A A A A A A A A A A A
r i c h l o r o e dt h ......... y l reAn eA, y A F . A . A A c A cA A A
W .....................................
e t .X F . F – c – c
u r p e n ..........................
t i n e . . C . . .c . c A C – i x i i A i i
J fa ( t r b et e o r a is , pl h e , r
f e e ................................
t e a d A ,A , A )A A A A A A Ax A A
? sa w t .................... a e e trc A , e 4 aA r x c A - c cC A A
i h a i w s .................. ik n X e n c y ce -d s c A A A AA A C
i c h ............................
l no r Xi xdc xe A x - – x c xA A
inc sulfate ............................... C c c – – – A F A A

N c oo n to t o i epn ppu s eo d sa i tn g e e

All Percenls;7 0 8 .
Gas;

b
f S


231

C R O G
( C HS E MO E I O C PA EPLP O S SA I T N
G E E )
R e s iR s a t taS ni ac nf ae g ap s mc: a i e n gs g e

A s b e s t o Rs u b b M i e s c re l l a n e o u
. C o Wm po . v , e n
n - R u Rb ub be br e r
ca B o F n r i dJ c te i do n e d
> ~ . . ~ >
; L m *
:3 ; z~ :~ ~ % m u . :
l . w g .
o s u ~ c ~ ~ ~
2 & ~ “ ~ Q - $
~ & ~ ~ $ ~ ~ : s 2 & Q :
v ~ a Q ~ &
g g : ~ ~ ; w ~ z
w m z m ; $ o + :
~ z 7 7
s & u w - - Q - ~ & ; 2
Q A 0 + z ~
: g ~ : : $ ; ~ : ~
$ = “ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ z * g ~ ~~ *2 0 g g

I *J J u P P P P P 1 u A u u- u u D ’c c A A P
c A c A A A A A A c A c A - c - A A A A A
A – c - – - – - - c F c A – c - c A x x A
A - A A A A A A A A A A A – A A A A A F A
A – A – – – – – – A A A A – A – A A x x A
. - A A A A A A 4A A A A A – . A A A A F A 4
A - A c c c x x x c A A c – c A X3 1 Fa] A A A
A – A - – - – – – F A F F A F - A c A A -
A – – c c c – – – c c c c - c - F c F x A
- — - - — —
F i i i i i x i i i z x i : x A A A x x A
F A A c c c c x c A F A A – A – F A x x A
x A F x x x x x x c c c A - : ~ ; ; ; $ :
~ 2 : : % % : : ;$ : : : 2 : c x x F x x A
x A c x x x x x x x x x c - x - x F x x A
x A x x x x x x x x x x x - x – x x x x A
x A A A A A A A A c F c c - A - F A x x A
‘A – – A A A A A A c A c c – A – A A A F A
A – A c c c x x x x x A x A x x x c A A A
c c c c x x x x x c x x x x x x A A A
1: : - - - - - - – . — —
A – A c c c x x x c ? i 2 t t ~ t 5 ~ A A
~A – A A A A A A A A A A A c A A A A F A A
~A – A A A A A A A A A A A c A A A A F F A
~A – A c c c x x x A A A A x A - A A A A A
x A c A A A A A A c A c A - c - A A F x A
x A A A A A A A A A A A A - A - A F F A A
* t aS the e f e p rx o et oa tt h nt a g ebt l es e f es .

2 0 .

– b a 330”. o i l 32. t

i n cw r o e pha as n re e t~ i[ a
;
UJe ij

i
t
i
232

F C

THE TABLES BELOW ARE FOR DATA OF FABRICATING CA}) ACITIES OF THE SHOP
WHICH HAVE TO BE KNOWN B T V E D HES S ST
I YGCE EN OLE L
HH
R U
. BEEN
M
A NE
LEFT OPEN AND ARE TO BE FILLED IN BY THE USER OF THIS HANDBOOK
ACCORDING TO THE FACILITIES OF THE SHOP CONSIDERED.

MAXIMUM MAXIMUM MINIMUM


WIDTH in. THICKNESS i DIAMETE; Rni

ROLLINGPLATES
TENSILE
STRENGTH
OFPLATE p s i .
NOTE:
FOR MATERIAL OF HIGHER
STRENGTH THE THICKNESS
OR WIDTH OF THE PLATE
MUST BE REDUCED IN
DIRECT PROPORTION TO
THE HIGHER STRENGTH

MAXIMUM MINIMUM
SIZE DIAMETER in.

LEG
IN
3
LEG
Q OUT
R O LA LN I G N LG E S 4
MINIMUM MINIMUM
SIZE DIAMETER in.
LEG
.% IN

LEG
Q OUT

MAXIMUM MINIMUM
SIZE DIAMETER in.
ROLLING BEAMS

MAXIMUM MINIMUM
SIZE DIAMETER i

ROLLING CHANNELS FLANGES


Q IN

FLANGES
Q OUT

MAXIMUM MINIMUM
SIZE DIAMETEllin.
ROLLING FLAT BAR
ON
Q EDGE
233

F C

NOMINAL MINIMUM
SCHEDULE
PIPE S1z i? RADIUS in.

BENDING PIPES

PLATE MiNiMUM PLATE MINiMUM


THiCK~ESSin. iNSiDE THICKNESSi iNSiDE
n
RADIUS in. RADiUS

BENDINGPLATES
WITHPRESSBRAKE

PLATE MAXiMUM PLATE MAXiMUM


THiCKNESS DIAMETER
in “ri-ilCKNEss
in. OFHOLE in. ::AHMoELTEEi:

PUNCHINGHOLES

vliNiMUMiNSiDEDiAMETER
3E’VESSELAccessible FOR inches
iNSIDEWELDING
TYPES OF WELDINGS
AVAILABLE

FURNACES FOR STRESS WIDTH ft. HEIGHT ft. LENGTH ft


RELIEViNG MAX. TEMPERATURE F.

I
234

P A IT B PN
UE N* EB D D I EN G

I b e a np do t ii tnu n o gp bp u oh eet t a br , ei s er e ht r r a et n t t f i ce hd nn e sh
s e c co m t p ari e aos t s nre dn eo, o h s p paud ous l esn t si en tt f qr et eup s ad s l ieh
o tube tends to flatten or collapse.
r To prevent such distortion, the common
practice is to support the wall of the pipe or tube in some manner during the
bending operation. This support may be in the form of a filling material, or,
when a bending machine or fixture is used, an internal mandrel or ball-shaped
member may support the inner wall when required.

MINIMUM R4DIUS: The safe minimum radius for a given diameter, material,
and method of bending depends upon the thickness of the p w i ba pel
possible, for example, to bend extra heavy pipe to a smaller r at pd ho i i u
standard weight. As a generalrule, wrought iron or steel pipe of standard weight
may readily be bent to a radius equal to five or six times the nominal pipe dia-
meter. The minimum radius for standard weight pipe should, as a rule, be three
and one-half to four times the diameter. It will be understood, however, that
the minimumradius may vary considerably,dependingupon the method of bend-
ing. Extra heavy pipe may be bent to radii varyingfrom two and one-halftimes
the diameterfor smallersizesto three and one-halfto four times the diameterfor
largersizes.

d d

R R
( t 4 3 f d i o )( to 4d) 2 %

I
S t aP n d i a r pd Ee Hx Pe t a ir va p y

MINIMUMR4DIUS

*FromMachinery’sHandbook, Industrial Press, Inc. - New York


235

PIPE ENGAGEMENT
LENGTH OF THREAD ON PIPE TO MAKE A TIGHT JOINT
I Nominal I Dimension [ Nominal I Dimension
Pipe A Pipe A
Size inches Size inches

I 1/8 I 1/4 I 3-1/2 I 1-1/16 I


I 1/4 I 3/8 I 4 I 1-1/8 I
I 3/8 I 3/8 I 5 I } I

I 1/2 I 1/2 I 6 I 1-5/16 I


I 3/4 I 9/16 I 8 I 1-7/16 I

I 1 I 11/16 I 10 I 1 -
I 5

I 1-1/4 I I 12 I 1-3/4 I

I 1-1/2 I 11/16 I
I 2 I 3/4 I
I 2-1/2 I 15/16 I
D I M E DN NS IA O NL
F SO V L A R OOI T A WT I R
O N
I T A OP T PH R I EN A N GD I NR G

DRILLSIZESFORPIPETAPS
Nominal Tap Nominal Tap
Pipe Drill Pipe Drill
Size Sizein. Size Sizein.
1 / 1 1 8 / 23 2 2 - 3 /

1/4 7/16 2-1/2 2-9/16

3/8 19/32 3 3-3/16


b
I 1/2

3/4
23/32

15/16
3-1/2

4
3-11/16

4-3/16
1 1-5/32 5 5-5/16
1-1/4 1-1/2 6 6-5/16
1-1/2 1-23/32

- .
236

BEND ALLOWANCES
For 900 Bends in Low-Carbon Steel

Metal Bend Allowance Inches With Inside Radius (r) in.


Thickness
(t) in. 1/32 1/16 3/32 1/8 1/4 1/2

0.032 0.059 0.066 0.079 0.093 0.146 0.254


0.050 0.087 0.101 0.114 0.129 0.168 0.276
0.062 0.105 0.118 0.132 0.145 0.183 0.290
0.078 0.128 0.142 0.155 0.169 0.202 0.310
0.090 0.146 0.160 0.173 0.187 0.217 0.324
0.125 0.198 0.211 0.224 0.243 0.260 0.367
0.188 0.289 0.302 0.316 0.329 0.383 0.443
0.250 0.382 0.395 0.409 0.424 0.476 0.519
0.313 0.474 0.488 0.501 0.515 0.569 0.676
0.375 0.566 0.580 0.593 0.607 0.661 0.768
0.437 0.658 0.672 ~ 0.685 0.699 0.752 0.860
0.500 0.750 0.764 0.777 0.791 0.845 0.952

r&I ‘1
4
=a+b+c– w=a+b+c+d– w=a+b+c+d+e–
ben~~l~o~~n~e (2 x!end allowance) (3x bend allowance) (4x bend allowance)
Note: w = developed width (length) of blank, t = metal thickness,
r = inside radius of bend.

EXAMPLE: Carbon steel bar bent at two places.


The required length of a 1/4 in. thick bar bent to 90 degrees with 1/4 in inside
radius as shown above when the sum of dimensions a, b and c equals 12 inches, is
12 -(2x 0.476)= 11.048 inches
MINIMUMRADIUS FOR COLD BENDING:
The minimum permissible inside radius of cold bending of metals when bend lines
are transverse to direction of the final rolling, varies in terms of the thickness,
t from 1-1/2 t up to 6 t depending on thickness and ductility of material.
When bend lines are parallel to the direction of the final rolling the above values
may have to be approximately doubled.


237

LENGTH OF STUD BOLTS


FOR FLANGES *

1. Length of the stud bolts do not include the heights of the point.
(1.5 times thread pitch)

2. Plus tolerance offlg. thk’s.


Sizes 18in. &smaller 0.12in.
Sizes 20 in. andlarger O.19 in.

3. Minus tolerance ofstud length


Forlengths upto 12’’incl. O.O6in.
For lengths over 12“ to 18” incl. 0.12 in.
For lengths over 18” 0.25 in.

4. Rounding.offto the next larger 0.25 in. increment.

5. Gasket thickness for raised face, M & F and T & G flanges 0.12 in. For ring
type joint see table page 346 and take half of the dimensions shown, since
in dimension “A” only half of the gasket thickness is included.

*Extracted from American National Standard :


ANSI B 16.5 - 1973 Steel Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings.

1
238

P V D

IN THE PRACTICE THERE A S E RVD E I FRFW EAE RLO EAD N E T TY A I


P R E VS S E . UB
S RMS E EA TL K DS IR A NHYAWG L I WN WEG T A
S S YT SH
A
M E CT O NH S OI D T
E
D R ,AC B I BL ES MAA
A A VE T NE N
Lp OE S DS SH DI L OI T
I BO
E R A R L O TE R R ESSC OHS ME MM E. N E DEI E T D FH O O L H PLD OR ~N OE N
P R A C A T G I EC NAN E A
L R CA CL D EL PY T E D .
A. Select the scale so that all
HORIZONTALVESSELS openings, seams, etc., can
4
be shown without makin
the picture overcrowd f

f
or confusing.
B. Show right-end view if
necessary only for clarity
3nd View 1- Ref.line because of numerous con-
nections, etc., on heads.
In this case lt is not nec-
ELEVATION essary to show on both
views the connections etc.,
w in shell.
Saddle
GENERAL C. Show the saddles separate-
MIS~~~~~SEOUS SP~~EC~~CA- ly, If showing them on the
end view would overcrowd
the picture. On elevatlon
1 TITLE
BLOCK show only a simple ic-
~
ture of saddle and ! he
centerlines.
D. Locate davit.
E. Locate name plate.
F. Locate seams, after every-
th.mg 1s m place on eleva-
tion. The seams have to
L
clear nozzles, lugs and
saddles.
G. Show on the elevation and
end view a simple lcture
F etc.,
of opemngs, internas,
lf a se arate detad has to
be mat e for these.
H. Dimensioning on the ele-
vation drawing. All loca-
tlons shall be. shown with
taded chmenslons measur-
ed from the reference line.
The distance from ref. line
~odbeshown for one saddle
The other saddle
shaY1. be located showing
the dimension between the
;-w$~~ bolt holes of the

I. Two symbolic bolt holes


END VIEW
$~aytdy tlgn%~le~~t~
straddling the parallel lines
with the principal center-
lines of vessel.
239

P R E VS SE D
U SER TES A( EI cL L Io N n G t . )

A. Select the scale so t a h


VERTICAL VESSELS openings, trays, seams,
etc., can be shown with-

‘-E*
out making the picture
overcrowded or confusing.

+ B. If the vessel diameter i


O r i e n t Ea tl i e o vn a t Bi o na
unproportionally small to
s e
the length, draw the width
of the vessel in a l a r
s t ch s a ae p ln av eo
G e n f e a dr ea ot l la i l r s l
M I S C E L L AD
N E EO U TS SA pI eL c S i f i -
c a tc. T i o o r in e h sin nt a a t i e o no
t v b i ao s ec h u we pm ,
b
[ TIIle Block
i n f o r a m at b t l i oo n h
c ao n t o e iz z o lt ne

D. S t ho r i oe h sn t aw t

E .

mS 3

. .

@ : --- F .
u
Em

G.
degrees: 00, 900, 1800,
ORIENTATION PLAN 2700 and use it in the
same position on all other
orientations.
240

PRESSURE VESSEL DETAILING (cont.)

Nozzle on 00
Top or ~ottom ~—+
H. It is not necessary to show
internals on vessel orienta-
tion if their position is
clear from detail drawings
or otherwise.

J. Draw separate orientations


for showing different in-
, ternals, lugs, etc. if there
is not space enough to
show everything on one.

K. For vessels with conical


sections, show 2 orienta-
tions if necessary, one for
the upper section, one for
the lower section.

L. Two, symbolic bolt holes


shown in flanges make
clear that the holes are
straddling the lines parallel
with the principal center-
lines of vessel.
~1 M. If there is a sloping tray, ,
1800
partition plate, coil, etc.,
in the vessel,show in the
orientation the direction
of slope.
( J O

(JO

27oo . .

w t

1800 1 8 Lowest 0
Point of
Plate “D”
ORIENTATIONS
2

PREFERRED LOCATIONS
Of Vessel Components and Appurtenances

A. Anchor bolts straddle principal centerlines of


vessel.

B. Skirt access openings above base minimum to


clear anchor lugs, maximum 3’-0”.

c. Skirt vent holes as high as possible.


I I
D. Name plate above manway or liquid level con-
trol, or level gauge. If there is no manway,
5’-0” above base.

r
I
-.

H
I E. Lifting lugs - if the weight of the vessel is uni-
form, “E” dimension is equal .207 times the
overall length of vessel.

F. Manway 3’-0” above top of platform - floor


plate.

1
G. Insulation ring must clear girth seam and shall
be cut out to clear nozzles, etc.

H. Insulation ring spacing 8 - 12 feet” (approx.


length of metal jacket sheet).

J. Girth seams shall clear trays, nozzles, lugs.


.,

K. Long seams to clear nozzles, lugs, tray down-


I comers. Do not locate long seams behind down-
comers. Seams shall be located so that visual
&
%’ inspection can be made with all internals in
+
place. Longitudinal seams to be staggered
1 i p 8o s s0 i b 0l ef .

L. Ladderand platformrelation.

M. Davit and hinge to be located as the manway


3_u i most accessible, or right hand side.
s

N. Ladder rung level with top of platform floor

v
. + plate.
. The height of first rung above base varies,
minimum 6“, maximum 1’-6”.
A
242

COMMON ERRO RS
in detailing pressure vessels

A. Interferences

Openings, seams, lugs, etc. interfere with each other. This can occur:
1. When the location on the elevation and orientation is not checked. The
practiceof not showingopeningsetc. on the elevationin their true position,
may increasethe probabilityofthis mistake.

2. The tail dimensionsor the distances between openingson the orientation


do not show interference, but it is disregarded,that the nozzles,lugs etc.,
havecertain extension. Thusit can take place that:
a Skirt access opening does not .clear the anchor lugs.
b Ladder luginterferes with nozzles.
.
c The reinforcing pads of two nozzles
. overlap each other.
d Reinforcing pad covers seam. .
e Vessel-davit interferes with nozzles.
. This can be overlooked especially if
the manufacturer does not furnish the vessel-davititself, but the lugs only.
f Lugs, open%gs, etc. are on the. vessel seam.
! There is no room
3 on perimeter
. of the skirt for the required number of
anchor lugs.
Particular care should be taken when ladder, platform, vesseldavit etc., are
shown on separate drawings, or more than one orientations are used.

B. Changes.

Certain changes are necessary on the drawing which are earned out on the ele-
vation. but not shown on the orientation or reversed. Making changes, it is
advisableto ask the question: “Whatdoesit affect’?”
For example:
The changeof materialaffects: Billof material
Scheduleof openings
Generalspecification
Legend
The changeof locationaffects: Orientation
Elevation
Locationof internals
Locationof other components.
c. ShowingO.D. (outside diameter) instead of I.D.(insidediameter)or reversed.
D. Dimensionsshownerroneously:
l’4Yinsteadof 10”
2~0’insteadof 20’etc.
E. Overlookingthe requirementof specialmaterial

)
2

\
PRESSURE VESSEL DETAILING (cont.)
1
M A A M A X A H .Y X . D .
D E S
W O I R G KN &INC N GT . E

P R E P S @ SS U R
I E G .

T E M P E R
O A T U R EF .
a .
L I BM I T E D Y
z
o
z W P I RL B
E N
F SS / D
S S T. QC O. R RA
. O LSI I L O N
O NW .
u ‘
c R A D I O G R A P H I C
S E C I F IS EO M I EC
C N FE x I TM I N A T I O N
A
8
E R E ( CS H
T I I P O P NI N G L )O N G I T JU D I ON A LI N
W E L I GS H ST E
. F F I C I E N C Y
W E F I G
U H LT LP W OH E SE L TA D T
T . R E A@ 1
T M 1 E N0 T 0 0

.
W W L
A T B E /S R

O P E R
W A ETL I I N G
G
B H ST .

5 A .

T Y P E
T H K . T H K

FL A N G E S R K I T

~ N O N Z Z
E L CE KB A S E

E
* B O L T I N G A BN CO H L . T
a
z c L o I u N p G S A D D L E S

.
.
W
F

G A S K E T

P A I N T

I m

A P P R O X .
V E S S E L S S H I P P I N G
R RE QE U D I : W E L I GB H ST .
-
d
PRESSURE VESSEL DETAILING (cont.)
OPENINGS
m ●
) ! I
1
5

I
Detailingopenings as shownon the oppositepage with data exemplifiedin the scheduleof
openings below, eliminatesthe necessity of detailing every single opening on the shop
drawing.

c-1 2 6 c 0G -& ~– “- ? - f- . – — 29Z” MIN. v - yg- Nw. -


) 0 ) ( “ ’ I 5 ( 5343 — // /~ yd” M//u.-
A/-f /lvLET 3 3 w 0~ . Y. —. H 8 A
“ MlIv.
.
M-l /%llvw/ly /8’ 3 w0N X 0 = 6&” S* 53-49
. . 24*X~2“
H S/l 5 ~/ 5
2 ~- j 0 7T # 0 % ”/ & “ /~ r
M D M a b c
SEnVICE SIZE RATING TYPE BORE O
R WE LO SIZE
1 L

E LE OF GS
246

TRANSPORTATION
OF VESSELS

Shipping capabilities and limitations.

1. TRANSPORTATION B TRUCK.

The maximum size of loads which maybe carried without special permits

a. weight approximately 40.000 Ibs.

b. width of load 8 ft., Oin.

c. height above road 13 ft., 6 in. (height of truck 4 ft., 6 in. to 5 ft., Oin.)

d. length of load 40 ft., Oin.

Truck shipments over 12 ft., Oin. width require escort. It increases considera-
bly the costs of transportation.

2. TRANSPORTATION BY R41LROAD.

Maximum dimensions of load which may be carried without special routing.

a. width of load 10 ft., Oin.

b. height above bed of car 10 ft., Oin.

With special routing, loads up to 14 ft., O in. width and 14 ft., O in. height
may be handled.
247

P
O S T
S U ER F E A F CL E S

P U R P O S E
T m p ahu o r p ipa eio t ns p t r e ei s nhe of r ga vs a ts sit euo nT r e fp ae r fac eh l e it . a
t c o r 1 hr b op sr ei .vtoe ecn n o t o i nc,h nyo tg r aa r ocgfe s tte i vr v nf ese t ouhsa s r s m f ea
2 b r i n .uh ie lb e ics tt r ,io y-v cpt eh er , mo i cop at el pr t m ia ae h st i e r n fi e a t l .
T p am h ib s un u tie sr t s aet tbe s l ef oie fht s e on tcv i thre oh sn m
i eef mne t ap, a
a b ar aa s co i cn toh en i m oi d c na l sf .
S U RP RF E PA A CR AE T I O N
T p r r ih e mq f uaa si reus yc i ocp t e ej s a is t f r iru loe n o mhm t os bvrci s aed a u l l li s f
g r o ea fa os m
i ren a e, M t i s lt gdi i ect n br lal .u i hsl t hl - l ehg r osa iei y o, y c r x e ki o
w fh oo i s t r cr us mhc s t t uus b r esnat e tl qe h u r e l no hot lpo e l r Io i ate tnmt i go n ih .
s i ic na a a t dl at hn ei c te gts tr mh ed tie sp hl tr yop a rv ool ie tt d,et ces tt s hit o hen o e
e d v t t e r u or a lh d , l i e oi snpo n eh l cg i ao nmdt pig e l enm s ft s ,et l i i aycs ce al tl l
e n c o ui np t r e a r ec dt i c en .
I m s i i nc b a l c a r ol f ald s ce p lks ht er wy dgi ,ol m i l i iepoml ir ev n nvil i fre o gnl m e e
p r ot vt l i h dm o es had orci o atsug le l r eeis ea l rt a , lt e s ,m er c,o , v e . de .
E C O CN O N O SM
I D EI R CA T I O N S
T s e l o hep c a ta s i eoui p n rrn ne f p f baat r cead t t etyi oe noc a h n sn i dnip ca e eat clu rt
a p r o o e cb o l n eo mm i c sf .
T c o p oh i na os i r2 e m n5t oa lf - l t o l t3 s eyc 0 o p %soha ai sr snts rft etu i ct t n t f hgu r
a d v o a u n ht s a q g i iue p an i galaf gpi i p ht Sa yn r p ie et n oxtrm s . c ot t e o t y n tor h
e x o p a pe jn a l s i i et i os n fu p etrrh e fb p saa rnt cae ct e i o on p nohr e p tas d r ae t t
d i f d f ee i rvg e ar ni erat p ye r osi p on o1s trg 1t i n0o F n e- x 1 atf o 2mc o p.o l oh er
s a n d bi la a s 1bt i tn 0og h i - u it ms1tgt ohe h2t h h es a w r aabh nr i u t nTs f chre i d n oehg
o s u p ~r e f p saa r hcab fbt eoi a o unla a gl t n ai dc n i e ce lndrh o set avit s e ee fsdh s ee
S E L E O C P T I SA O YN I S TN FE T M S
T t ao t h b f ol l pelhe o ss aw a inegg ne gurt e s i v ste d p el e r pse shao c si op nt y te e s i r
a e s tt n ir me aqq h dtuu eiao pr n eetf a dvi t ai sy r o en ci fro otn v du rTii st dci o e n ash
t a b t u lh h a b t eaet de fr a v t eekSr e S e t nt o h r neuP c m a te Ciue onr l euts snpi cen ic g li f’
t a i r e c oo m mn ne n d a st i o dn s .
C o n s ti ds e er vi vnha g re o i pr a a aeb ip ll rne ots i b ii lan fed g mv t si r ,s e a t bq t l su e
a s s oi ps t ma a a n n cu i f e a c nt u fr et r s .
S P C
E O CN D
I I A T IL O N S
A B R A S I O N
W t ph a m i eh nr t uaen i b nser tsga ig s asit odoht nho t, e oc s oei i dpoah a ntr t i i cf n ue l
i m p o F r mt a a n xaot d.i h mb e ucsr l m il oei at na b, ns a i a etnh p g i l ns ic ss ke s alt id t
f a cP r t e to r er sa yt am . he u np t hs oc oos w p hph asa r att eei xs mc f re eeh l t l r ec o ne h
and rougheningthe surface.
Urethane coatings,epoxies and vinyl paints have very good abrasion resistance. Z i
rich coating,and phenolicpaints are also good. Oleoresinouspaints may develop m u
greaterresistanceby incorporationof sand reinforcement.
248
H T EI M P E GR A T H U R E
B t e e m lp e o r o5a t0 uw0 r -et so6 0 ba 0g °t f s F aou f ir c o ofon ha optdc h i e o n os gr
t r e i a s ta t mi se fAna ct 5t b o 0 r 0yso . a- blast
6v cleaned
0 0e °surface
F is desirable.
Recommended Paints:
u to 2 2 0F Oil base0 5ppaints limited
- period
0
2 3 0F An alkyd
0 0 or phenolic- vehicle
0
3 4 0F Specially
0 0 modified- alkyds 0
3 5 0F Colored0 5silicones - 0
7 8 0F Inorganic
0 0 zinc coatings
- above
0 550 F
Black or Aluminum silicones
8 0 0 F - Aluminum
1 2 silicones
0 0 up to 1600-1800 F
Silicone ceramic coatings
C O R R C O H S E I MV IE C A L S
See tables I and V for the selection of paint systems.
THE REQUIRED QUANTITY OF PAINT
Theoretically, one gallon of paint covers 1600 square feet surface with 1 mil (0.001 inch)
thick coat when it is wet.
The dry thickness is determined by the solid (non volatile) content of the paint, which
can be found in the specification on the label, or in the supplier’s literature.
If the content of solids by volume is, for example, 60%, then the maximum dry coverage
(spreading rate) theoretically will be 1600x .60-= 960 square feet. - -
THE CONTENT OF SOLIDS OF PAINTS BY VOLUME $%
I
% %
1 50

2
3 &
4 70 15 70
1 6
5
6 Black Alkyd Paint 37
Varnish Paint 103 Black Phenolic Paint 57
8 Aluminum Vinyl Paint 14 104 White or Tinted Alkyd Paint, 47 - 50
9 White
70 106 Black

In practice, especially with spray application, the paint never can be utilized at 100
percent. Losses due to overspray, complexity of surface (piping, etc.) may decrease the
actual coverage to 40-60$Z0,
or even more.

.
)
- .

P A I N T I N G

T A
I P B SA YL I S E TN E , TM S

c z Paint and Dry Thickness, Mi]s


System .-o E-
Number :?= ;= See Table IV
s C ~ 1St 2nd 3rd ::h, & :;::.
Ps ~ 0: Coat Coat Coat
WL+ @ ness
i 104 104
(:?7) ( I .3) (1
2 Not 14 104 104
Condensation, chemical fumes, brine drip- (1’.;) 5.0
pings and Other extremely corrosive con- or Req’d 104
ditions are Q present (1‘7) (i .3) (1
3 I I
(I
I I
(
I
Steel surfaces exposed to the weather, ( lc5) ( IC5) 5.0
high humidity, infrequent immersion in 6 Not 104 104
fresh or salt water or to mild chemical ( 1?) (1 .5) (1
a or R I
( ( I .5) (1
8 E I
(I
Steel s exposed to alternate im-
mersion. high humidity and condensation 5, 6, I , 2, 5, or 6 5. or 6 I 03 5, 6
or to the weather or moderately severe 8, or 3, or ( 1.5) ( I .5) (I or 103
chemical atmospheres or immersed in 4 *
fresh water
Immersion in salt water or in many chem-
ical s c severe G 9 9
weather exposure or chemical atmos- (1G5) 5.5
pheres
Fresh water immersion, condensation,
4.02 very severe weather or chemical atmos- 10 Not H H H
pheres Req’d (lHs) 6.0
Complete or alternate immersion in salt 6
water, high humidity, condensation, and or 3 9 8
exposure to the weather 8 ** ( 1!5) 4,0
404 Condensation, or very severe weather ex- 6 Not
posure, or chemical atmospheres or 8 Req’d (192) 9 9 9 4.5
4,05 Condensation, severe weather, mild chem- 6 3
]cal atmospheres or 8 ** (1:5) F F 4,0
I
3 (1% G G G (2.0) 7.0
Steel vessels t s 6
p f w f w 3 (1?) G G
w 6;r G
6.03 8 3 (1.5) G G L K 6.25
Dry, non corrosive environment, inside n o m i n a l
of b
t
t w c
ing Req’d (1 3 I
Longtime protection in sheltered or in- 1 and ,/
8.01 accessible places, short term or temporary 2 or Not M
in corrosive environments R ( ) (wet)
p 3
Corrosive or chemical atmospheres, but
9.0 I should not be used in contact with oils, Not 12
6 Req‘d 63 63
solvents, or other agents
10.01 Underground and underwater steeJ struc- ~ Not
tures R ( ) ) )
U u d
c e r 0
1 6
p w or for high tempera- Req’d (1!-18) (25) (8! 5) 35
ture
*Four coats are recommended in severe exposures **The dry film thickness of the wash coat 0.3-0.5 roils.
250
T A
I P BS
A YL I S( Ec T
No nE , T
t Mi n S u e d )
G ; P a a T h i iroils
n c nk n te
{stem .-o E- See Table IV
Imber Uz=
Ob ;=
sPc- gbl 1 2nd 3rd
:
Ps ,Zg coat Coat Coat & ::!t ;;:-
?J&~
Fresh or sea water immersion, tidal and
splash zone exposure, condensation, bur- 6 Not
I ial in soil and exposure of brine, crude oil, Req’d (’l:) (’l:) 32
:;
sewageand alkalies, chemical fumes, mists
High humidity or marine atmospheric ex- Zinc-rich coatings comprise a number of
posures, fresh water immersion. With different commercial types such as:
I ~,oo proper topcoating in brackish and sea- chlorinated rubber, styrene, epoxies,
water immersion and exposure to chemi- polyesters, vinyls, urethanes, silicones,
cal acid and

I Epoxy Paint System


subject to chemical exposure such as acid
and alkali.

T A
I P RB E I T RL E AI T
E
S PME EC N
,I FT I C A T I C I N S

R e f e r e n c e
t To a iP ut rn l p oe sdS p e e c i f i c
T I a b l e N u m

1 W E T
O TT R I E NA
I G
T M E LN T S S 1-64
P C
Saturation of the surface layer of rusty and
scaled steel with wetting oil that is compatible
with the priming paint, thus improving the adhes-
ion and performance of the paint system to be
applied.
2 C P O
H O S LSP U H AD RT T RF E E A A CT ME ES N ST 2 P C-
C o n vt es r ut of
i rsteel
hn gf to insoluble
a c e salts
e
of phosphoric acid for the purpose of inhibiting
corrosion and improving the adhesion and per-
formance of paints to be applied.
3 BASIC ZINC CHROMATE-VINYL BUTYRAL
WASHCOAT(Wash Primer) SSPC-PT3-64
Pretreatment which reacts with the metal and at
the same time forms a protective vinyl film which
contains an inhibitive pigment to help prevent
rusting.
4 HOT PHOSPHATE SURFACE TREATMENT SSPC-PT4-64
Converting the surface of steel to a heavy crysta-
llinelayex of insoluble salts of phosporic acid for
the purpose of inhibiting corrosion and improving
the adhesion and performance of paints to be
applied.
2— . 5

P A I N T I N G
T A
I , SB U PRL R FE E
PA A CRSI A
E~ T
~ lI FO I NC A T I O N S

% e f e r e n c e
t T oa iP ut rn l p oe sd Se p e c i f i c a t i
N u m b
T I a b l e

1 S O LC V
L EE AN N T I N G S 1-63
Removalof oil, grease, dirt, soil, salts, and con-
taminantswith solvents,emulsions,cleaningcom-
pounds,or steam.
2 HANDTOOLCLEANING SSPC-SP2-63
Removalof loose mill scale,loose rust, and loose
paint by hand brushing,hand sanding,hand scrap-
ing,hand chippingor other hand impact tools, or
by combinationof thesemethods.
3 POWERTOOLCLEANING SSPC-SP3-63
Removalof loose mill scale,loose rust, and loose
paint with power wire brushes, power impact
tools, power grinders,power sanders,or by com-
bination of these methods.
4 FLAMECLEANINGOF NEWSTEEL SSPC-SP443
Removal of scale, rust and other detrimental
foreign matter by high-velocity oxyacetylene
flames,followedby wirebrushing.
5 WHITEMETALBLASTCLEANING SSPC-SP5-63
Removalof all mill scale,rust, rust-scale,paint or
foreignmatter by the use of sand, grit or shot to
obtaina gray-wh~te,uniformmetalliccolor surface.
6 COMMERCIAL BLASTCLEANING SSPC-SP6-63
Removalof mill scale, rust, rust-scale,paint or
foreign matter completely except for slight sha-
dows, streaks, or discolorationscaused by rust,
stain, mill scale oxides or slight,tight residuesof
paint or coating that may remain.
7 BRUSH-OFFBLASTCLEANING SSPC-SP7-63
Removalof all except tightly adheringresidues
of mill scale, rust and paint by the impact of
abrasives. (Sand, grit or shot)
8 PICKLING SSPC-SP8-63
Completeremovalof all mill scale,rust, and rust-
scale by chemical reaction, or by electrolysis,or
by both. The surface shall be free of unreacted
or harmfulacid, alkali, or smut.
10 NEAR-WHITE BLASTCLEANING SSPC-SP10453T
Removalof nearly all mill scale, rust, rust-scale,
paint, or foreign matter by the use of abrasives
(sand, grit, shot). Very light shadows,veryslight
streaks, or slight discolorationscaused by rust
stain, millscale oxides, or slight,tight residuesof
paint or coatingmay remain.
I
252
—— .

P A I N T I N G
T A
I P B A W
LI NE T , S

:e r e n c fe
t Mo a t e r i a l N u m b
~ 1 a b l e

1 Red Lead and Raw Linseed Oil Primer 1-64TN0. 1


2 Red Lead, Iron Oxide, Raw Linseed Oil and
Alkyd Primer 2-64 No. 2
3 Red Lead, Iron Oxide, and Fractionated Linseed
Oil Primer 344TN0. 3 m
4 E x tR e L n R de aee Bad aoLd nd di O, n i ws e d e di e d z l
P r i m e r 4 - 6 44 : T N
5 Z D Z
i u O nsi xa P it cnh d V e, n neak P o r, l na id 5-64T
i c i sNo. hn5 + t
6 R L I e Oe ar xa P di ohd dV e, n nean P o r, l na di i c i -s 6 hn 64
6 < Tt N
8 A l u V m Pi i n a un m i y n l t 8-64 No. 8 :
9 W ( hC o i V l o ot P i r eea n dr i) y n l t9-64 No. 9 ~
U
1 R I O r exZ Ci 1 oh i d r dRo en L nm , ai Ot nca e s, e iw e d l
and Alkyd Primer 11-64TN0. 11 :
12 Cold Applied Asphalt Mastic (Extra Thick Film) 12-64 No. 12 ~
13 Red or Brown One-Coat Shop Paint 13-64 No. 13 m
14 Red Lead, Iron Oxide & Linseed Oil Primer 14454TNo. 14 “
15 Steel Joist Shop Paint 15%8TN0. 15 &
16 Coal Tar Epoxy-Polyamide Black (or Dark Red) Paint 16-68TN0. 16 ~
102 Black Alkyd Paint 102%4 No. 102
103 Black Phenolic Paint 103-64TNO. 103
104 White or Tinted Alkyd Paint, Types I, II, III, IV 10444 No. 104
106 Black Vinyl Paint 106-64 No. 106
107
.— Red Lead, Iron Oxide and Alkyd Intermediate Paint 10744TNO. 107
Paint; Red-Lead Base, Ready-Mixed
A Type I red lead-raw and bodied linseed oil TT-P-86C ;Z
B Type II red lead, iron oxide, mixed pigment- z.~
alkyd-linseed oil TT-P-86C ~z
c Type 111red lead alkyd TT-P-86C 32
D Primer; Paint; Zinc Chromate, alkyd Type TT-P-645 z~
E Paint; Zinc Yellow-Iron Oxide Base, Ready ~k
Mixed, Type II-yellow, alkyd MIL-P-15929B ~ j
F Paint; Outside, White, Vinyl, Alkyd Type MIL-P-16738B ~ 2
G Primer; Vinyl-Red Lead Type MIL-P-15929B ~ &
H Vinyl Resin Paint VR-3 a II
Lg
I Paint; Antifouling, Vinyl Type MIL-P-15931A I >
J Paints; Boottopping, Vinyl-Alkyd, Bright Red *
!+;
Undercoat and Indian Red Finish Coat MAP44 X’2
K Enamel, Outside, Gray No. 11 (Vinyl-Alkyd) MIL-E-1593513 .5 :
L Enamel, Outside, Gray No. 27 (Vinyl-Alkyd) MIL-E-15936B ~ ~
M Compounds; Rust Preventive 52-MA602a ~ .5
N Coal Tar Enamel and Primers MIL-P-15147C j z
o Coal Tar Base Coating MIL-C-18480A ~ ~
P Coating, Bituminous Emulsion MIL<-15203c
2

P I N IN A T C
T A
V C H
B E L
RM E I SE CI SAO,T LCA N
O C AME T
A TI EN F R G I A L

Acetaldehyde . . . . . . . . 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 2 2 3 3 2 3
Acetic acid, 10% . . . . . . 1 2 1 1 1 1 4 3 3 4 4 3 4
A ac g e c l . t . . ai. . i 1 c2 dc1 i 1 1 a,1 4 l 3 3 4 4 3 4
Acetone . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 3 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 3 4
Alcohol, amyl . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 3 3 3 3 2 3
A l b c nu o o th . . r 1. oy 1ml1 l 1 a 1 , 1l 3 .2 2 2 2 1 3
Alcohol, ethyl . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2
A l ic s o o h. .p . o. r. 1 lo 1 ,p1 y1 1l 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2
A l m c o e . h. t. . o. .h 1 l 1y , 1 1l 1 . 1 2 1 1 1 11 2
A l u c m h i l . .no. . 1ur 1m i 1d 2e 2. 2 4 31 1 3 1 3
A l u s mu i l . .np. . 1uh 1 m a1 1t 1 e1 4. 1 1 2 2 1 2
Ammonia, liquid . . . . . . 1 1 1 3 2 2 3 1 3 3 1 3
A m m c o h n l . i. o. 1u r1 m1i 1 d1 1e 3 .1 1 3 3 1 2
Ammonium hydroxide . . 1 1 1 3 2 2 3 1 3 3 1 3
A m m n o i n . t. i. . r1u 1 am1 1t 1 1e 3 .1 1 3 3 1 2
A m m s o u n l . i.p. 1u h1 m1a 1 t1 1e 3 . 1 1 3 3 1 2
Mdline. . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3 2 24 4 44 2 4
Benzene . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4 4 1 1 1 3 3 3 4 4 3 4
Boric acid . , . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Butyl acetate. . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 4 4 3 31 3
C a c l h c .l . .i .o . . u1r 1 m i 1 1d 1 e1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2
C a h l y cd r .i . o. . ux1 i1m d1 e 2 . 1 1 2 21 1 2 1 2
C a h l y pc o ci . .h . u1l o2 mr2 i 3 t 2e 2 4 1 1 2 21 3
C ad i r s ub. . l. . p.o4 h4 4ni 1 d 1 e1 4 4 4 4 4 3 4
C at e tr r a bc .h . .lo4o 4r 4ni 1d 1e 1. 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
Chlorine gas . . . . . . . . . 1 2 2 4 4 4 4 2 1 4 4 3 4
C h l o r o b . e. .n. .z . e. 4n 4e 4. 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
Chloroform. . . . . . . . . . 4 4 4 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
C h a r 1 o c . . m. . .i 2i 20 2c d 4 3 3 , 4 2% 2 4 4 2 4
C h a r 6 o c . . m. . .i 2i 20 2c d 4 3 3 , 4 2% 2 4 4 2 4
Citric acid. . ; . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 21 1 2 1 2
C os u p l . .p. . .h . e1 a 1 1tr 1e 1 .1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Diethyl ether. . . . . . . . . 4 4 4 1 1 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
Ethylene glycol . . . . . . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 11 2
Ferric chloride. . . . . . . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 3 3 1 3
Ferric sulphate. . . . . . . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2
F o r m a l 4d e . h. .y. 1d 1e 0,1 1 1 1 3 % 1 1 2 2 1 3
F oa r2 c m . . . .0i , i 1 1 dc1 %1 1 , 1 3 . 1 1 2 2 1 3
F oa rc c m . .o. .i . i 1 n 1 dc 1 e 1 , 1 . 1 3 21 1 2 1 3
Gasoline . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4 1 1 1 1 2 41 1 4 2 4
Glycerine . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2
H y d r o a c h1 lc o . 1r i01i c1 1 d1.%1 3 , 1 1. 3 3 1 3
H y d r o a c h3 lc o . 1r 2i0i c2 1 1d 1% 3 1, 1 3. 3 1 3
H y d r o a c hc lc o . 1ro 2ii c2 1n 1d 1 3e 1, 1 3. 3 1 3
H y d r oa f l 1 uc o. . r1 ii2 c 1 0 1 d 1 1 3, 2% 2 2 21 2
H y d r oa f l 4 uc o. . r1 i2i c1 01 d1 1 3 , 2 2% 2 2 1 3
P A I N T I N G
T A
V C H
B E L
RM E I SE CI SAO,T L
CA N
O C AME T
A TI EN F R G I A
(continued)

N
m

vc

H y d r o a f l 7 u c o. . r1 i2i c 1 5 d 3, 2 2 2 2 3
% 2
H y dp re or 3 og . x1e 1i n1 d:% ei ; , 3 1 .3 3 4 1
H y dp er ro 3i g o 2ex 2 0ni 1 d3 2e 2% , 3 2 .3 3 : 4 2
H y ds ru o.l . .gp. . 1e h n1i d e 2 1 2 2 1 2 1
H y p o c h ao l .o. .r . oc1 u: s 1 : i ; : 4 d 1 3 1 4 1
Kerosene . . . . . . . . . . .4 4 1 1 1 1 2 1 4 : 2 4 1
L u b r o i c. . .a . .ti. .i n 4 g1l 1 1 1 .2 1 4 44 2 4 1
M a g s n ue sl. . .i p. 1u h m a 1 1 1 1 t 1 e 2 1 2 2 1 2 1
M ee kt t he. . h. .yt1 1 yol2 1 n1l 1 4e 4 3 3 1 3 4
Mineral oil . . . . . . . . . .4 4 1 1 1 2 1 4 4 2 4 1
Nitric acid, 5%. . . . . . . . 1 1 : 2 2 4 3 3 1 3 1
Nitric acid, 10% . . . . . . 2 ; 4 2 2 4 : 3 3 2
N ai 4 t c . .r . 0.i . i 2d c;% 3, . 3 . 4 2 4 24 : : 2 m
N ai c t c . .ro . .i . i n d c :e 3, . 3 . 4 2 4 34 2 4 2
N i t r o b . e. . n. .z. .e . n e . : : 1 1 1 3 3 4 44 3 . 4 3 .
Oleic acid . . . . . . . .. ..3 3 2 1 1 1 3 2 4 4 2 4 2
Oxalic acid . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2
Phenol, 15-25% . . . . . . . ; 1 1 1 4
Phenol . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4
P h o sa p 1h c o. . .r 1i i 1 c01 d1 1 1 , 3 1% 1 3 3 1 3
P h o sa p 6 h c o. . .r 1i i 1 c01 d1 1 1 , 3 1% 1 3 3 1 3
P h o sa p ch c o . .or 1 ii 1 c1n 1d 1 e1 ,3 1 . 1 3 3 1 3
Potassium alum . . . . . . . 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2
P o t h a y s d s r2 i o u1 x2 mi1 :d 02e 2 , 4 1 1 % 2 2 1 3
P o t h a y s d s r9 i o u1 x2 mi1 d4 52e 2 , 2 2
% 3
P o t p a e sr m s ai .n 2u g 2 m a 1 n 3 a 2 t 2e 3 ; ; 3 3 ; 4
P o t s a u s l s . p. i. . h1u 1am 1 t 1 e1 1. 2 1 1 2 2 1 2
Sea water . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Silver nitrate . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 ; 1 1 1 1 1 2
. S b o i sd u. .i .l . .pu1 h1 m1a 1t 1 e 1 1 1 2 2 1 2
S 1
o c ad r bi. . .o . u. n1 am t e . 1 4 2 2 : 1 1 2 2 1 4
S o c hd l . i. o. . . ru. 1 i md1 e . 1 1 1 1 1
S o h yd d ir1 o u. x1 ;i0m1d : e ; ,% ; ; 1 1. 1 1 1 ;
S o h yd d ir2 o u. x1 2i m d 0 e , 2 4 1 1% 2 2 1 3
1 4 2
S o h yd d ir4 o u. x1 2i m1d 04 e 2 , 2 4 1 % 1 2 2 1 3
S o h y dp o ic .h . ul. 1o 2rm1i t4 e3 . 3 4 1 1 3 3 1 4
Sodium nitrate. . . . . . . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2
S o s ud l . i.p. . .hu. 1a 1 mt 1 e1 1. 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2
S o s ud l . i. p. . . hu. 1 i 1mt1 1e 1 . 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2
S u d l i p o. . .hx. . . u1i 1 dr1 1e 1 . 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2
S u l a p 1h c u. r- i1 i 1 0c1 d 1 . 1 1, 3 %1 1 .2 2 1 2
S u l a p 3h c u. . . r. i1 i 10c1 d 1 1 1, 3 %1 1 3 3 1 3
S u l a p 6h c u. . . r. i1 i 10c1 d 1 1 1, 3 % 3 3 1 3
S u l a p ch c u. . . r. oi2 i 2 c d 1n 1 1, 3 e; ; 3 1 23
Toluene . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4 1 1 1 3 : 4 44
T r i c h l o r o e .t .h. y. .l e n4 e 1 1 1 4 : : 4 44 : 44
255

CHECK L F I

1. Codes and Addenda..............................................................................

2. Drawings:
a)‘“ All info& detailsrequiredbyQCManual shownon drawing. . . .
b) Headscorrectlyidentified..... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..---.
c) All metalcorrectlyidentified. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ------
d) Nameplate facsimiliestampedcorrectly:
MAWP,MDMTand RT.............................................. ..................
e) Approvalby fabricator(on drawing) ..............................................
9 Revisionsor metal substitutionshownand approved. . . . . . . . . . .

3. Bill ofMaterial:
a All materialidentifiedas SAor
) SB ----------------- .......
b RequirementsofUCS 79 (d))specifiedwere applicable. . . . . . . . .
c Requiredmaterialtest reports) specified ..ti.-....=. ----- . . . . .
d Shoporder, serial number,and/orjob
) numbershown. . . . . . . . . .
e Materialrevisionorsubstitu~on
) approved
and shownwhenapplicable ... ... . ....... ... ....~..~--.-..”.””.....~.”-””

4. Calculations:
Dimensionsused match drawing ....................................................
Correctstressvaluesandjoint efficiencies(S &E) used.. . . . . . .
Correctformula&dimensions used for heads ----------------
Do nozzleneckscomplywith UG-45? -..--..-..---.-.=. ....
Requiredreinforcementcalculationsavailablefor all openings. . .
9 Specialflangeorstructural loadingcalculationsavailable . . . . . .
Identificationwith S/O or S/N andapprovedby fabricator. . . . . .
Externaldesignpressurecorrect-template
calculations&template available. .... ... .... . .. ... ... .. ... ... .... .. ...
MAWP&MDMT matchesdrawingand specifications.
MDMTcorrect formaterials used (UCS-66,UHA-51) . . . . . . . . .
5.P O u
a Is job n s ( a ....................................... p
b) C~rrectspecification(SA or SB) used ............................................
c) USC 79(d) & UG 81 requirements specified as applicable ............
d) Material Test Reports requested .........................................."".".""."""
e) Immaterial ordered identical to Bill of Material
d=
or drawing requirements? ...............................................................

6. Welding:
al Are correct WPS(s) shown ondrawin~s? ................. ””””..”...””””.”.”””.”
b> Are complete weld-details for all welds shown on drawing? .........
c) Are copies of WPS(s) available to shop
v i s ..............................................................
s u p efor rinstruction? o r
E
256

CHECKLIST FOR INSPECTORS(corztinuec/)


1 I
QC Al
d) Isa Welder’sLog and QualificationDirectory
kept up-to-dateand available?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
e) Are WPS,PQR, & WPQforms correct and signed?......................
f) Are weldersproperlyqualifiedfor thickness,position,pipe
diameterand weldingwith no backing(whenrequired)?...............
g) Is sub-arcflux,electrodesand shieldinggas(es) used t
same as specifiedon applicableWPS?. ...........................................
h) Do weld sizes (fillet& butt weld reinforcement)
complywith drawingand Code requirements? . ...............................
i) Is welder identificationstampedor recordedper
QC Manualand./orCode requirements?.......................................... I

7. Non-DestructiveExamination& Calibration:
a) Are SNT-TC-lA cmalificationrecords with currentvisual
examinationavail~blefor all RT techniciansused? ....................... .
b) Do film reader sheets or checkoff recoid~sbo.wfilm.
intemretationby a SNT’-~CLeve1 —. I or II examiner
or interpreter?..................................................................................
c) Are the requirednumberof film shots in the proper
locationsfor thejoint efficiencyand weldersused
(UW-11, 12,& 52)? ........................................................................
d) Is an acceptablePT and/orMT procedureand personnel
qualifiedand certifiedin accordancewith Sec. VIII,
Appendix6 or 8 available?.............................................................
e) Is the PT materialbeing used the sameas
specifiedin the PT procedure?.........................................................
o Do all radiographscomplywith identification,
density,penetrameter,and acceptancerequirements
of Sect.VIII and V? ........................................................................
!3) For 1331.1fabrication,is a visual examination
procedureand certifiedpersonnelavailable? ................................. ,
h) Are tested gasesmarkedor identifiedand
calibratedas stated in QC Manual? ................................................
i) Isa calibratedgage size per UG-102available
for demovessel?.............................................................................. I I

ABBREVIATIONS:
AI Authorized Inspector
MAWP Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
MDMT Maximum Design Metal Temperature
$; Quality Control
Radiographic Examination
s/N Serial Number
Slo Shop Order
Wl?s Welding Procedure Specification
257

PART II.

GEOMETRY AND LAYOUT OF PRESSURE VESSELS

1. GeometricalFormulas........................................................................... 258

2. GeometricalProblemsand Constmction.......""".."""."""-""""".".""""""."..."""""-"
268

3. Solutionof Right Triangles .................................................................. 270

4. OptimumVessel Size ............................................................................ 272

5. Flat RingsMade of Sectors .................................................................. 274

6. Fustrumof ConcentricCone ................................................................. 276

7. Fustrumof EccentricCone ................................................................... 278

8. Bent and Mitered Pipes ........................................................................ 280

9. Intersections.......................................................................................... 281

10. Drop at the Intersection of Vessel and Nozzle ..................................... 291

11. Table for Locating pointS0n2:l Ellipsodial Heads ............................ 293

12. Length of Arcs ...................................................................................... 297

13. Circumferences and Areas of Circles ................................................... 300

1 A p p u r4 t ............................................................................
e n a n c .e s 312
258

G E O M E T FR O
I C RA M
L U L A S
( e xS ao m
t e fp l ap ee h cs a i gn n e eg )

S Q U A R E
A A% r e = a


l ’
A = a2
b d = 1 .~ 4 1 4 a

I . = ;

a = 0 , d o 7 a =0 7 1 r -

b R E C T A N G L E
A A r e = a
A a x = b
b d = ~ ~

B a = o a =$ - r
A
b = or- b = — 2
a
P A R A L L E L O G R A M
b
A A r e = a
A a x = b
= A
o a
T
D = J A
b y

R I G H T - A TN G
R L IE D
A N G L E

c A A r a . e =~ a ~ ’
o 900
axb b ‘I/==
A ,6, A=, ~=
a2 +b2

A CA NU T G R
T LI EA E N DG L E
A A r e = a
b
h .
[ A

w ;s : ’ \

O B A T N UT G RS LI E A E N DG L E
A A r e = a
b x h
* A = ~

*
“ A : ~ s (w : s ; ; ~ : x: s - ’b ’ s - c )
s
259

E X A M P L E S
( F oS ro tm e Fu l aP ea h c s a i gnn e eg )

S Q U A R E
Given: Side a = 8 inches
Find: Area A = ~2 = 82 = 6 s i q n 4 . .
D i a d g= 1o n a. a= 1l 4 . 41= 11 4 41i x. 83 n1 2 .
Area A= d = 12 1 . = 3/ 61 s 2 2 q2 / . 2 - i n4 .
Side a = 0.7071 d = 0 . x 1 7 1 =0 8 . i 7 3 1 1 n 2 .
Side a = G ‘ = g i * n
R E C T A N G L E
Given: Side a = 3 in., and b = 4 in.
F iArea n A = ad x b = : 3 x 4 = 1 s q . - i n 2 .
D i a d g= -o n a = l_ = ~ = f5 i =i n
Side a = A/b = 1 =3i2 / n 4 .
Side b = A/a = 12/3 = 4 in.

P A R A L L E L O G R A M
G i H v e a e= i 8 in g a : t h n s t b =n . 1i h i ,d d en e 2 .
F iArea n A = adx b = :8 x 12 = 9 s q . - i n 6 .
Height a = A/b = 96/12 = 8 in.
Side b = A = 96/8 = /12 in. a

R IA NG T G R
H LI A T E N DG L E
Given: Side a = 6 in., and side b = 8 in.
F iArea n A = ad x b = : 6 x 8 = 2 s q . - i n4 .
2
S c i= d h ~ 6 e+z 8 m = *= =2f l i= i n
S i
a - d ‘ e
~– 8 = ~1 2 – 0 1‘ 2 =06 6 i2 0 4 n~
Side b ‘~c2 – az ‘*102 – 62 =4 1 – = 0 =3 8 i 0 6 n~

A CA NU T G R
T LI EA E N DG L E
Given: Side a = 6 in. Side b = 8 in., and side c = 10 in.
F iArea n A = sd z % (a: + b + c) = %(6+8 + 10)= 12
Ad s (s- a) x (s-b) x (s-c) =i12 (12-6) X( 12-8) X (12- 10)=
24 sq. in.

OBTUSE ANGLED TRIANGLE


Given: Side a = 3 in., b = 4 in., and c = 5 in.
Find: Area A = s = % (a + b + c) = % (3 + 4 + 5) = 6
A= # 6(6 -3) X(6-4)X (6-5) =fi = bsq.-in.
260

G E O M E TF R O I C RA M L U L A S
( e xS a o m
t e fp l ap ee h c s a i gn n e eg )

R IT R GI A
WH N 2 G
4TI LA E N
T 5G HL Eo
A = A r e a
A = a — 2
h 2
[ b =~ l e 4 1 4 a
a h = 0 .a 7 0 7 1
a = 1 . 4 1 4 h

E Q U I L A TT ER R I A AL N G L E

A A r e = a
6 e
a x h
A ~ =
m
h = 0.866 a a = 1.155 h
&

u T R A P E Z O I D

A A r e = a
- (c b h a + )
D : (
w ‘= 2

R E G H U E LX AA R G O N
A A r e = a
A R R aRo c id r c i u mcu=s c irs i b r ef d c l e
= R ao i dn s ic c uri i sr b e cf d l e
f 2 i 2 a0. = 2 5 R . = 93 = 5 r 8. 9 z 4 8 6 z 4
R = a = 1.155 r
@ r = 0 a .= 0 8 R. 6 8 6 6 6
a = R = 1,155 r
R E G O U C L T AA R G O N
A A r e = a
R R ao c id r c i u mcu=s c irs i b r ef d c l e
r = R ao i dn s ic c uri i s r b e cf d l e
A 4 a . = 2 8 R . = 23 = 8 r 8. 2 z 3 8 1 z 4
R 1 a .= 1 3r . 0 =0 7 8 2
r = 1 a .= 0 2R. 0 9 7 2 4
a = 0 R. = 0 7 r. 6 8 5 2 8
R E G P UO L L AY R G O N
A A r n = Ne = u o as m ib ed r e
r * ’ @ = ~go” – a “
a =
,(3 ~
r
@ - J
261

EXAMPLES
(See Formulas on the Facing Page)

RIGHT TRIANGLE WITH 2 45° ANGLES


Given: Side a = 8 in.
Find: Area A=~ a2 =7 82 = ~=
64 32sq.-in.
Side b = 1.414a = =
h = 0 . a = 70 0. x 8 7= 5 01 .i7 6 1 5 n6 8 .

E Q U I L A TT E R R I A AL N G L E
Given: Side a = 8 in.
F i n h = 0d x .a: = 0 8 x .8 6= 6 8 6i . 6 9 6 n2 8 .
Area A = ~a = 8 X 6 x =. — 5 95 = h2 . 2 7s4 8 .q 2 .7 4 - 1 i 2 n
2 2

T R A P E Z O I D
Given: Side a = 4 in., b = 8 in., and heidt h = 6 in.
( b h = ( a 4 6 =+ 3 s 8+.-i . ) ) X 6 q n
F iArea nA = d z : 2

R E G H U E L X AA R G O N
Given: Side a = 4k.
F iArea n A = 2d x .a: = 2.598
5 x 49 = 4 8 1 w 2 . - 5 i 62 8n .
r = 0 x .a = 0.866
8 x 4 6= 3.4646in.
R = a = 1.155 r = 1.155x3.464=4 in.

REGULAR OCTAGON
Given: R= 6 in., radius of circumscribed circle
Find: Area A = 2.828 R2 = 2.828 x 62 = 101.81 sq.-in.
Side a = 0.765 R = 0.765 x 6 = 4.59 in.

REGULAR POLYGON
Given: Number of sides n = 5, side a = 9.125 in.
Radius of circumscribed circle, R = 7.750
Find:
r=m=-v= 625ino
nra 5 X6.25 X9.125 = 142.58 sq.-in.
Area A = ~ = 2.
262

G E O M E TFR O I C RA M L U L A S
( e xS a o m
t e fp l ap ee h cs a i gn n e eg )

C I R C L E

A A r C ie r c= u ma f e r e n c e
d
A= r2 x ~ = rz x 3.1416 z x

d n = d 3 . 1 x 4 1 x 6
@
L eo a n f ag a tnr = o0h g. 0f d Icx0a r 8 e 7 2 7
C I R S
C UE L CA R
T O R
A A ra = A e = a=a r A n c g
A =
‘ r X 2 &
a r x a x 3 . 1 4 1 6
< a =
1 8 0
a=— 5 7a . 2 9 6. 2A
v r
r Y

C I R S
C U
E LG AM R E N T
A A ra A e =n a cg = C l = oe
A A o s r em cea i =ot t nar or f iu r ae sn ga l
:
< c = 2r x sin a
T

a E L L I P S E
A A rP = P ee =r i a m e t e r
* A z x =a3 . x xa= x1 b 4b 1 6
— .
+ A a p p r of x oi m f r ap ntmee ut o il ea t er r
P = 3 . 1 ( a4 + 1b ) 6 { 2 z z
w

x E L L I P S E
L o pc a oo t e ii l n n l g ti ps s n e
a
~ L — = R o am at i =ct m
i nx a oa o i f j xr os i
— . b . —
+
x = az - ( 2C x y2 )
u
Q m4
Y = c —

0 d ~ ( w
D 0 N = the required number of holes (diam, d) of
0 which total area equals area of circle diam. D.
D
2

EXAMPLES
(See Formulas on the Facing Page)

CIRCLE
Given: Radius r = 6 in.
A = r2x ~ = =
A = = 12ZX0.7S5Q =

C = dx = x =
if a = 60°
= dx a = x x =

CIRCULAR SECTOR
Given: Radius T = 6 in., =
Area A = r2 ~ x ~ = 62 x ~ x ~ = 18.85 Sq. h.

a = rx x = 6x x =

a = xa = x =
r 6
C I R S
C U
E LG AM R E N T
Radius r = 6 in., a =
A a
= r2 x ~ x — . x X~ =

A =
Chord c = 2r x sin ~ = 2 x 6 x sin ~ = 2 x 6 x 0.7071 = 8.485 in.

E L L I P S E
Half axis, a = 8 in. and b = 3 in.
Area A = ~ x a x b = 3.1416 x 8 x 3 = 75.398 in.
P = + ) = + ) =
@ =

E L L I P S E
G i A va = 8 ein.
x andn b = i 4: in., then s C = ~ = ~ = 2, x = 6 in.
~ = ~ - ~ . .
c 2 2 2
-( ) (2 2x ) ‘ 6

E X
H m %i @holes have same areas as a 6 in. diam. pipe?
N= (’/d)2 = (6/0.25)2 = 242= 576 holes=
Area of 6 in. @pipe= 28,274 in.2
Area of 576 H in. #holes= 28,276 in.2
G E O M E TFR O I C RA M L U L A S
( e xS a o m
t e fp l ap ee h cs a i gn n e eg )

C U B E

b V = V o l u m e
~ i– v= ~3 1

S Q P U RA RI ES M
I
I V = V o l u m e
— —

I J L : .; ; :* ’ ,: - ’ : = C &

P R I S M

m T
‘ f : oh : c r ‘b; m
ai Ay rpu efaa elpsoa f easl n d iso ho”nere nf=esa dca eu prrn y
i h i p e r p e nt de i cs fu ul as r r n f a c o de .
w

C Y L I N D E R
v Volume S = A o =c ry l i s ne du r ri a c f af la
. . —. .
.

%
+ ; “‘ ; : ; : : 0: ” x: : 7 = d 82 x ’ h

C O N E
q
v Volume S = A o =c r o s n ue i r c fa a af l
. . (—. 3 . . x r x1 h 4 1 6 2
v = 1 =. x r x0 h 4 7 2

h d “ d
%
L
S = 3.1416 rc = 1.5708 dc
F R U O SC T UO M N F E
‘ - v i
Volume S = A o =c r o s n ue i r c fa a af l
0 . ’ i
v 0.2618 h ( D2 + Dd + dz ) = a = R–r c. ~
P
h s =% 1.5708 C( D + d )
~

I I
265

E X A M P L E
( F oS ro tm e Fu l aP ea h c s a i gnn e eg )

C U B E
Given: Side a = 8 in.
F iV on V =l ad =u 8 : =m 5 ce u .1 ~- 3i n2 .

Side a = G 8i = n

S Q P U RA RI ES M
Given: Side a = 8 in., b =6in., and c ‘4 in.
F iVolume n V = adx b x c : = 8 x 6 x 4 = 192 cu.-in.
v =1 9b = = n = 1 2 . = 6 i 9 2
a ! — = 8- i
8 4
;
x
5 n

4
b 6 x x c
c . = —1 = 4i 9 ~ n 2 .
a 2 x x b 6

P R I S M
G i E vs ue A r=nn 1 f s : aq a c. d h -=e 8 iin. n .2 , d
F iVolume n V = hd x A =: 8 x 12 = 96 cu.-in.

C Y L I N D E R
G i vr = e 6 in., nand h : = 12 in.
F