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UNIT 1 – VITAMIN
I. CLOZE TESTS
1.1. Fill each gap with one of the words given in the box.

A. acid, B. amounts, C. called, D. catalysts, E. clotting,


F. decades, G. involved, H. ingested, I. intake, J. stored

What are Vitamins?


Vitamins are nutrients required in very small _________(1)
for essential metabolic reactions in the body. Vitamins are
biomolecules that act both as _________(2) and substrates
in chemical reactions. When acting as a catalyst, vitamins
are bound to enzymes and are _________(3) cofactors, for
example vitamin K forms part of the proteases
_________(4) in blood _________(5) .
Vitamins also act as coenzymes to carry chemical groups
between enzymes, for example folic _________(6) carries
various forms of carbon groups (methyl, formyl or methylene) in the cell.
Until the 1900s, vitamins were obtained solely through food _________(7). Many food sources contain
different ratios of vitamins. Therefore, if the only source of vitamins is food, changes in diet will alter the types
and amounts of vitamins _________(8). However, as many vitamins can be _________(9) by the body,
short-term deficiencies do not usually cause disease.
Vitamins have been produced as commodity chemicals and made widely-available as inexpensive pills for
several _________(10), allowing supplementation of the dietary intake.

biomolecule phân tử sinh học protease enzym tiêu protein


catalyst chất xúc tác ratio tỷ lệ
clotting sự đông (máu) substrate chất nền / chất phản ứng
cofactor đồng yếu tố supplementation bổ sung

1.2. Fill each gap with one of the words given in the box.

A. accepted B. caused C. eating D. feeding E. healing


F. known G. maintaining H. plagued I. practicing J. using

History of Vitamin research


The value of _________(1) certain foods to maintain health was recognized long
before vitamins were identified. The ancient Egyptians knew that _________(2) a
patient liver would help cure night blindness, now _________(3) to be caused by
a vitamin A deficiency. In 1747, the Scottish surgeon James Lind discovered that
citrus foods helped prevent scurvy, a particularly deadly disease in which collagen
is not properly formed, and is characterized by poor wound _________(4),
bleeding of the gums, and severe pain. In 1753, Lind published his Treatise on the
Scurvy, which recommended _________(5) lemons and limes to avoid scurvy, which was adopted by the
British Royal Navy. This led to the nickname Limey for sailors of that organization. Lind's discovery, however,
was not widely _________(6) by individuals in the Royal Navy's Arctic expeditions in the 19th century, where
it was widely believed that scurvy could be prevented by _________(7) good hygiene, regular exercise, and
by _________(8) the morale of the crew while on board, rather than by a diet of fresh food. As a result,
Arctic expeditions continued to be _________(9) by scurvy and other deficiency diseases. In the early 20th
century, when Robert Falcon Scott made his two expeditions to the Antarctic the prevailing medical theory
was that scurvy was _________(10) by "tainted" canned food.
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adopt chấp nhận morale tinh thần
citrus cam, chanh night blindness quáng gà
crew thuỷ thủ đoàn plague (n,v) dịch, gây dịch
expedition thám hiểm prevailing thịnh hành
gum lợi scurvy bệnh sco-bút
hygiene vệ sinh tainted hư, hỏng
lime, lemon chanh treatise chuyên luận

1.3. Fill each gap with one of the words given in the box.
A. avoid B. classified C. consumption D. couple E. deficiency
F. interfere G. limits H. liver I. occurs J. result

Vitamin Deficiencies
Deficiencies of vitamins are _________(1) as either primary or secondary. A primary deficiency
_________(2) when you do not get enough of the vitamin in the food you eat. A secondary deficiency may
be due to an underlying disorder that prevents or _________(3) the absorption or use of the vitamin, due to
a “lifestyle factor”, such as smoking, excessive alcohol _________(4), or the use of medications that
_________(5) with the absorption or the body's use of the vitamin. Individuals who eat a varied diet are
unlikely to develop a severe primary vitamin _________(6). In contrast, restrictive diets have the potential to
cause prolonged vitamin deficits, which may _________(7) in often painful and potentially deadly diseases.
Because humans do not store most vitamins in their bodies, a human must consume them regularly to
_________(8) deficiency. Human corporeal stores for different vitamins vary widely; vitamins A, D, and B12
are stored in significant amounts in the human body, mainly in the _________(9), and an adult human may
be deficient in vitamin A and B12 for long periods of time before developing a deficiency condition. Vitamin
B3 is not stored in the human body in significant amounts, so stores may only last a _________(10) of
weeks.

consumption, tiêu thụ underlying căn nguyên


consume absorption hấp thu
interfere with can thiệp varied diet chế độ ăn thay đổi
avoid tránh deficit thiếu hụt
primary nguyên phát regularly đều đặn
secondary thứ phát corporeal thuộc thân thể

1.4. Fill each gap with one of your own.

Classification of Vitamins
Vitamins are classified _________(1) water soluble,
meaning that they dissolve easily in water, or fat soluble,
and are absorbed through the intestinal tract with the help
of lipids. Each vitamin is typically used in multiple
reactions and therefore, most have multiple functions.
In humans there are thirteen vitamins, divided
_________(2) two groups; four fat-soluble vitamins (A, D,
E and K), and nine water-soluble vitamins (eight B
vitamins and vitamin C).
Vitamins are essential _________(3) the normal growth
and development of a multicellular organism. Using the genetic blueprint inherited _________(4) its
parents, a fetus begins to develop, at the moment of conception, from the nutrients it absorbs. The
developing fetus requires certain vitamins and minerals to be present _________(5) certain times.
These nutrients facilitate the chemical reactions that produce, among other things, skin, bone, and
muscle. If there is serious deficiency _________(6) one or more of these nutrients, a child may
develop a deficiency disease. Even minor deficiencies have the potential to cause permanent
damage.
For the most part, vitamins are obtained through food sources. However, a few vitamins are obtained
_________(7) other means: for example, microorganisms in the intestine - commonly known as "gut
flora" - produce vitamin K and biotin, while one form of vitamin D is synthesized in the skin
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_________(8) the help of natural ultraviolet in sunlight. Humans can produce some vitamins
_________(9) precursors they consume. Examples include vitamin A, which can be produced from
beta carotene; and niacin, from the amino acid tryptophan.
Once growth and development are completed, vitamins remain essential nutrients for the healthy
maintenance of the cells, tissues, and organs that make up a multicellular organism; they also enable
a multicellular life form to efficiently use chemical energy provided by food eaten, and to help process
the proteins, carbohydrates, and fats required _________(10) respiration.

blueprint bản vẽ maintenance sự duy trì


conception sự thụ thai permanent lâu dài
damage(v,n) tổn thương potential (n, adj) tiềm năng, tiềm tàng
facilitate làm thuận lợi precursors tiền chất
gut flora hệ vi khuẩn ruột ultraviolet tia UV, tử ngoại
inherit thừa kế obtain thu được, có được

II. READING PASSAGES Read the passages and answer the


questions below.

2.1. PASSAGE 1: Risk Factors for Vitamin D Deficiency

Exclusively breast fed infants: Infants who are exclusively breast fed and do not receive vitamin D
supplementation are at high risk of vitamin D deficiency, particularly if they have dark skin and/or
receive little sun exposure. Human milk generally provides 25 IU of vitamin D per liter, which is not
enough for an infant if it is the sole source of vitamin D. Older infants and toddlers exclusively fed
with milk substitutes and weaning foods that are not vitamin D fortified are also at risk of vitamin D
deficiency. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all infants that are not consuming
at least 500 ml (16 ounces) of vitamin D fortified formula or milk be given a vitamin D supplement of
200 IU/day.
Dark skin: People with dark skin synthesize less vitamin D on exposure to sunlight than those with
light skin. The risk of vitamin D deficiency is particularly high in dark-skinned people who live far from
the equator. In the U.S., 42% of African American women between 15 and 49 years of age were
vitamin D deficient compared to 4% of white women.
Aging: The elderly have reduced capacity to synthesize vitamin D in the
skin when exposed to UVB radiation, and are more likely to stay indoors
or use sunscreen. Institutionalized adults are at extremely high risk of
vitamin D deficiency without supplementation.
Covering all exposed skin or using sunscreen whenever outside:
Osteomalacia has been documented in women who cover all of their
skin whenever they are outside for religious or cultural reasons. The
application of sunscreen with an SPF factor of 8 reduces production of
vitamin D by 95%.
Fat malabsorption syndromes: Cystic fibrosis and cholestatic liver disease impair the absorption of
dietary vitamin D.
Inflammatory bowel disease: People with inflammatory bowel disease like Crohn’s disease appear
to be at increased risk of vitamin D deficiency, especially those who have had small bowel
resections.
Obesity: Obesity increases the risk of vitamin D deficiency. Once vitamin D is synthesized in the skin
or ingested, it is deposited in body fat stores, making it less bioavailable to people with large stores of
body fat.
bioavailable sinh khả dụng institutionalized ở hoài trong nhà
bowel ruột malabsorption hấp thu kém
cholestatic ứ mật obesity chứng béo phì
cystic fibrosis xơ nang osteomalacia nhuyễn xương
deposit(v,n) lắng đọng resection cắt bỏ
equator xích đạo substitute (n,v) thay thế
exclusively chỉ riêng mỗi sunscreen chất chống nắng
fortify tăng cường toddler trẻ mới biết đi
infant trẻ em wean cai, dứt, kiêng
Questions
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1. People with _________ skin are at high risk of vitamin D deficiency.
A. fair B. white C. dark D. bright
2. Which of the following is NOT true?
A. Infants cannot get enough Vitamin D from breastfeeding.
B. Older infants exclusively fed with milk substitutes are at risk of vitamin D deficiency.
C. All infants should be given a vitamin D supplement of 200 IU/day.
D. Infants receiving little sun exposure are at risk of vitamin D deficiency.
3. It is better for dark-skinned people to live in _________ areas to get sufficient vitamin D.
A. tropical B. temperate C. polar D. coastal
4. The percentage of African American women suffering from vitamin D deficiency is _________
times as high as that of American white women aged 15-49
A. 3 B. 4 C. 5 D. 10
5. Which of the following does NOT facilitate a vitamin D deficiency? -_________.
A. frequently staying indoors B. using sunscreen outdoors
C. overdressing D. reducing obesity

2.2. PASSAGE 2: Vitamin C


Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin used to treat and prevent a wide variety of conditions. Often,
people use it to prevent or treat the common cold. However, there are other claimed uses of vitamin
C as well, such as for reducing the risk of heart disease. Some of these uses are more valid than
others.
The vitamin has several different effects in the human body, such as:
- Antioxidant -- Many of the effects of vitamin C can be attributed to its antioxidant effects. As an
antioxidant, it helps prevent the formation of free radicals, damaging molecules or atoms that can
start a chain reaction of cellular damage. Free radicals play a role in various age-related conditions,
such as cancer and heart disease.
- Immune function -- There are numerous different proposed mechanisms by which vitamin C may
improve immune function. At this time, it is not entirely clear how the vitamin stimulates the immune
system.
- Iron absorption -- Vitamin C aids in the absorption of iron from the digestive tract into the body.
- Various metabolic pathways and synthesis processes -- It is important for many different crucial
processes in the body, including forming cartilage and proteins and building or breaking down
numerous other compounds or tissues in the body.
Vitamin C may be effective for several different uses. However, there is much controversy about
some uses, such as for the common cold.
Most people do not experience side effects with vitamin C (at normal doses). However, some people
may experience side effects (especially with high doses), including, but not limit to nausea, vomiting,
heartburn or indigestion, insomnia, kidney stones. Normal doses are probably safe for most people,
but high doses can cause problems. Some people may be more likely to experience problems due to
vitamin C.

Questions

1. As an antioxidant Vitamin C can be used to treat _______.


A. hepatitis B. heart disease C. common cold D. All of these
2. Vitamin C play an important part in the processes of _______
A. iron absorption B. cartilage formation C. protein synthesis D. All of these
3. The mechanism of by which Vitamin C fight common cold is _______.
A. entirely clear B. has been proved C. debatable D. its antioxidant
effects
4. Which of the following is NOT true?
A. Vitamin C is believed to reduce the risk of heart disease
B. Antioxidant effects of Vitamin C result in its many uses in prevention and treatment of
diseases .
C. High doses of Vitamin C can be safe for most people.
D. Vitamin C can strengthen the body’s defence against diseases.
5. Which one is NOT a side effect caused of vitamin C?
A. bringing up food B. sleeplessness C. nephrolithiasis D. malnutrition

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III. STRUCTURE & VOCABULARY
Choose the best answer among A, B, C, and D.

1. Although most Americans consume a wide variety of food additives daily, only a small number have
been associated _________ reactions.
A. by B. to C. with D. of
2. In vitamin deficiency, normal body functions can break down and make a person susceptible
_________ disease.
A. to B. with C. of D. for
3. The combination of vitamin A and iron seems to reduce anemia more effectively than either iron or
vitamin A alone.
A. decrease B. increase C. shorten D. minimize
4. People with diabetes have problems converting food to energy.
A. digesting …to B. changing …into C. exchanging … for D. introducing… into
5. The ancient Egyptians knew that feeding a patient with liver would help cure night blindness, now
_________ to be caused by a vitamin A deficiency.
A. knowing B. to know C. known D. is known
6. Women of all ages should be _________ about heart disease. All women should take steps to
prevent heart disease.
A. related B. concerned C. associated D. linked
7. In infants, rickets may result in delayed closure of the fontanels (soft spots) in the skull.
A. cause B. led to C. be due to D. be associated with
8. Your plasma glucose is measured immediately before and 2 hours after you drink a liquid containing
75 grams of glucose _________ in water.
A. solved B. soluble C. dissolved D. unsolved
9. Antibiotics are essential tools in improving and maintaining the quality of life by helping to prevent
infectious diseases
A. initial B. final C. principle D. extremely necessary
10 People with substance abuse problems, e.g. drinking alcohol excessively, find it very difficult to take
. medicines reliably every day.
A. immoderately B. frequently C. irregularly D. continuously

IV. MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY


Put one term in each gap
A. coenzymes, B. catalyst, C. arthritis, D. hypercalcemia,
E. homeostasis F. hyperalimentation, G. contagious,
H. hypercalciuria, I. gut flora, J. fermentation,

1. _______ might be produced if there is a high amount of calcium in the blood.


2. _______ is a relatively common clinical problem. It typically manifests as mild chronic calcium
elevation
3. _______ does not use the digestive system. It may be given to people who are unable to absorb
nutrients through the intestinal tract
4. Human _______ refers to the body's ability to regulate physiologically its inner environment to
ensure its stability.
5. The term _______ refers to the delicate balance of microbes and other 'germs,' both good and bad.
6. During the primary _______, the fermentable sugars, mainly maltose and glucose are converted to
ethanol and carbon dioxide
7. _______ disease is an infectious disease that is spread through contact with infected individuals;
also called a communicable disease.
8. _______ are small organic non-protein molecules that carry chemical groups between enzymes.
9. A _______ is a substance which alters the rate of a chemical reaction but is chemically unchanged
at the end of the reaction.
10 _______ is a disease that causes pain and loss of movement of the joints.
.
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V. REWRITING
Rewrite the following sentences, beginning with the given initials.

1. The currently available antibiotics are known to inhibit or kill some of these microorganisms
 People _______
2. This hormone that is believed to control how the beta cells make and release insulin
 They believed _______
3. Daily multivitamin supplements have been found to reduce HIV disease progression among men
and women.
 It has _______
4. The disease has been reported to be reduced significantly with 4000 IU of Vitamin D3 daily over
6 months.
It has _______
5. The pain results from a narrowing of the blood vessels feeding the muscle.
 The pain is caused _______

VI. LISTENING 1 Listen to an article about Vitamin D and answer the


following questions

1 Vitamin D is manufactured naturally in the _______.


A. liver B. intestine C. blood D. cell
2 Which is NOT mentioned as a natural source of vitamin A?
A. liver B. egg C. fish D. meat
3 Vitamin D helps to increase levels of _______ in the blood.
A. sugar B. calcium C. sodium D. serum
4 Vitamin D was added to milk in order to prevent _______
A. rickets B. beri-beri C. scobut D. All of these

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UNIT 2 – ALLERGY

I. CLOZE TESTS

1.1. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box.

A. antibodies B. characterized C. leading D. life-threatening E. named


F. refer G. response H. stem I. suffer J. which

Allergy
An allergy can _________(1) to several kinds of
immune reactions including Type I hypersensitivity
in _________(2) the person's body is
hypersensitised and develops immunoglobulin E
(IgE), a certain class of _________(3) to typical
proteins. When a person is hypersensitised, these
substances are known as allergens. The word
allergy derives from the Greek words allos meaning
"other" and ergon meaning "work". Type I
hypersensitivity is _________(4) by excessive
activation of mast cells and basophils by
immunoglobulin E, resulting in a systemic
inflammatory response that can result in symptoms
as benign as a runny nose, to _________(5)
anaphylactic shock and death.
Allergy is a very common disorder and more than 50 million Americans _________(6) from allergic
diseases. Allergies are the sixth _________(7) cause of chronic disease in the United States,
costing the health care system $18 billion annually.
The term and concept of "allergy" was coined by a Viennese pediatrician _________(8) Clemens von
Pirquet in 1906. He observed that the symptoms of some of his patients might have been a
_________(9) to outside allergens such as dust, pollen, or certain foods. For a long time all
hypersensitivities were thought to _________(10) from the improper action of inflammatory
immunoglobulin class IgE, however it soon became clear that several different mechanisms utilizing
different effector molecules were responsible for the myriad of disorders previously classified as
"allergies". A new four-class (now five) classification scheme was designed by H. Gell and A.
Coombs. Allergy has since been kept as the name for Type I Hypersensitivity, characterised by
classical IgE mediation of effects.

activation sự hoạt hoá hypersensitivity sự quá mẫn


anaphylactic shock sốc quá mẫn, phản vệ improper không thích hợp
annually hàng năm mast cells tế bào bón, dưỡng bào
basophils bạch cầu ái toan mediation trung gian
benign lành tính myriad vô số
coin tạo nên pollen phấn hoa
derive xuất phát scheme hệ thống, sơ đồ
effector chất tác động utilize sử dụng

1.2. Fill each of the gaps with one word of your own.
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Signs and symptoms of Allergy
Allergy is characterised _________(1) a local or systemic inflammatory response to allergens. Local
symptoms are:
Nose: swelling of the nasal mucosa (allergic rhinitis)
Eyes: redness and itching of the conjunctiva (allergic conjunctivitis)
Airways: bronchoconstriction, wheezing and dyspnoea, sometimes attacks of asthma
Ears: feeling of fullness, possibly pain, and impaired hearing due _________(2) the lack of eustachian
tube drainage.
Skin: various rashes, such _________(3) eczema, hives (urticaria) and
contact dermatitis.
Head: while not as common, headaches are seen in some with
environmental or chemical allergies.
Systemic allergic response is also called anaphylaxis. Depending
_________(4) the rate of severity, it can cause cutaneous reactions,
bronchoconstriction, edema, hypotension, coma _________(5) even death.
Hay fever is one example of an exceedingly common minor allergy - large
percentages of the population suffer _________(6) hay fever symptoms
_________(7) response to airborne pollen. Asthmatics are often allergic _________(8) dust mites.
Apart _________(9) ambient allergens, allergic reactions can be caused _________(10) medications.

ambient xung quanh eczema chàm


asthma hen eustachian tube vòi nhĩ
bronchoconstriction co phế quản hay fever sốt cỏ khô, cảm mạo
characterise đặc trưng hive, urticaria mày đay
coma hôn mê impaired suy yếu, suy tổn
conjunctiva kết mạc itching ngứa
drainage dịch thoát ra rash ban
dyspnoea khó thở swelling sưng

1. 3. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box.

A. allergic B. injected C. known D. marked E. performing


F. reduce G. sensitive H. suspected I. testing J. within

Diagnosis of Allergy
There are several methods for the diagnosis and assessment of allergies.
Skin test
The typical and most simple method of diagnosis and monitoring of Type I Hypersensitivity is by skin
testing, also _________(1) as prick testing due to the series of pricks made into the patient's skin.
Small amounts of _________(2) allergens and/or their extracts (pollen, grass, mite proteins, peanut
extract, etc.) are introduced to sites on the skin _________(3) with pen or dye (the ink/dye should be
carefully selected, lest it cause an allergic response itself). The allergens are either _________(4)
intradermally or into small scratchings made into the patient's skin, often with a lancet. Common areas
for _________(5) include the inside forearm and back. If the patient is _________(6) to the substance,
then a visible inflammatory reaction will usually occur _________(7) 30 minutes. This response will
range from slight reddening of the skin to full-blown hives in extremely _________(8) patients.
After _________(9) the skin test and receiving results, the doctor may apply a steroid cream to the
test area to _________(10) discomfort (such as itching and inflammation).

apply bôi lancet dao mỗ


assessment đánh giá lest để không, để khỏi
discomfort khó chịu monitor theo dõi
extract dịch chiết peanut lạc
full-blown toàn phát prick chích, chọc, châm
intradermally trong chân bì, nội bì scratching xước, cào
1.4. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box.

A. additionally B. by C. if D. react E. sensitize

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F. through G. to H. which I. while J. without
Problems with skin test
_________(1) the skin test is probably the most preferred means of testing because of its simplicity
and economics, it is not_________(2) complications. Some people may display a delayed-type
hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction _________(3) can occur as far as 6 hours after application of the
allergen and last up to 24 hours. This can also cause serious long-lasting tissue damage
_________(4) the affected area. These types of serious reactions are quite rare.
_________(5), the application of previously unencountered allergens can actually _________(6)
certain individuals to the allergen, causing the inception of a new allergy in susceptible individuals.
Skins tests also are not always able to pinpoint a patient's specific allergies _________(7) the patient
has an allergy but does not _________(8) to the skin test allergen.
Total IgE count: Another method used to qualify type I hypersensitivity is measuring the amount of
serum IgE contained within the patient's serum. This can be determined _________(9) the use of
radiometric and colormetric immunoassays. Even the levels the amount of IgE specific to certain
allergens can be measured _________(10) using of the radioallergosorbent test (RAST).

colormetric đo màu qualify định tính


damage(v,n) thương tổn radioallergosorbent hấp thu phóng rạ dị ứng
determine xác định radiometric đo phóng xạ
immunoassay xét nghiệm miễn dịch serum huyết thanh
inception khởi đầu specific đặc hiệu
measure đo susceptible mẫn cảm
pinpoint chỉ ra, xác định unencountered chưa gặp phải

II. READING PASSAGES Read the passages and answer the


questions below.

2.1. PASSAGE 1: Relationship with parasites

Some recent research has also begun to show that some kinds of common parasites, such as
intestinal worms (e.g. hookworms), secrete immunosuppressant chemicals
into the gut wall and hence the bloodstream which prevent the body from
attacking the parasite. This gives rise to a new slant on the "hygiene
hypothesis" — that co-evolution of man and parasites has in the past led to
an immune system that only functions correctly in the presence of the
parasites. Without them, the immune system becomes unbalanced and
oversensitive. Gut worms and similar parasites are present in untreated
drinking water in undeveloped countries, and in developed countries until
the routine chlorination and purification of drinking water supplies. This also
coincides with the time period in which a significant rise in allergies has been observed. So far, there is
only sporadic evidence to support this hypothesis — one scientist who suffered from seasonal allergic
rhinitis (hay fever) infected himself with gut worms and was immediately 'cured' of his allergy with no
other ill effects. Full clinical trials have yet to be performed however. It may be that the term 'parasite'
could turn out to be inappropriate, and in fact a hitherto unsuspected symbiosis is at work.
chlorination xử lý bằng clo hygiene vệ sinh
clinical trial thử nghiệm lâm sàng hypothesis giả thuyết, lí thuyết
co-evolution đồng tiến hoá immunosuppressant ức chhé miễn dịch
coincide with trùng với purification làm tinh khiết
evidence bằng chứng significant đáng kể
gut wall thành ruột slant thiên kiến
hence sau đó sporadic đơn lẻ
hitherto từ nay trở đi symbiosis cộng, đồng sinh
hookworm giun móc unsuspected không nghi ngờ
TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
1. _________ Intestinal worms harm the human body by secreting immunosuppressant chemicals.
2. _________ According to the text the human immune system cannot function correctly without the
parasites.
3. _________ It can be inferred that a significant rise in allergies in developed countries is related to

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the routine chlorination and purification of drinking water supplies.
4. _________ One scientist was successful in curing him of hay fever by infecting himself with gut
worms.
5. _________ The presence of parasites in the human body is inappropriate.

2.2. PASSAGE 2: Read the passage and answer the questions below
Medical scientists are becoming more and more interested in allergies. An allergy is a condition
caused by an excessive reaction in some people to a substance or substances which would not normally
cause a disease. In fact, some researchers do not classify allergies as diseases, although they can be
just as troublesome. Severe reactions can even result in death.
Substances that cause allergies are called allergens. The most common
natural allergens are dust and pollen. Some plants and flowers give out pollen to
the atmosphere during spring and early summer. Many people develop
symptoms like those of the common cold such as watery eyes and nose,
sneezing and a slight rise in temperature. This is commonly called the hay fever.
Allergic reactions can also be caused by food. Milk and eggs are known to be
allergenic for some people. However, almost anything eaten, drunk, inhaled or
touched can cause a reaction.
Drugs, even the common ones like aspirin, can result in distressing
symptoms. Some are dangerous. When penicillin was first manufactured on a large scale, it proved to
be effective against many pathogens. But it had a tendency to cause reactions so strong that patients
sometimes died. The sulpha drugs were also quite dangerous, although they did not kill as many people
as penicillin did. We now have better antibiotics, but they must be taken with great care.
There is no sure remedy for allergies. Sometimes the body cures itself. Treatment might consist of
giving drugs either to reduce the symptoms or to suppress the reaction. Drugs of the second type are
called antihistamines. They are not always effective, and they tend to make the patient sleepy. Some
doctors think it is better to identify and avoid the allergen, but this in not always possible.

A. Circle the letter of the best answer.


1. A good title for this passage is
A. Treatment of Allergies B. Causes of Allergies
C. Definition and Classification of Allergies D. Allergies
2. Sulpha drugs were _______ than penicillin.
A. less dangerous B. more dangerous C. more common D. less common
3. The word ‘they’ refers to _______
A. drugs B. sulpha drugs C. penicillin drugs D. better antibiotics
4. The word ‘antibiotics’ means _______.
A. chemicals that work with life B. chemicals that work for life
C. drugs that work against allergies D. drugs that work against life
5. From the last paragraph you can infer that antihistamines are _______
A. allergy causing substances. B. disease causing agents.
C. drugs to suppress allergic reactions
D. drugs to reduce the severity of the symptoms.
6. Which of the following statements is true, according to the passage?
A. Dust and pollen are the rarest allergens in nature.
B. There is no definite treatment for allergies.
C. Antibiotics are given to patients to reduce the symptoms.
D. People should avoid milk and eggs to prevent allergies.

B. Say whether the following statements are true or false.


1. _______ A substance causing an allergy can easily be avoided.
2. _______ Some scientists do not think allergies are diseases.
3. _______ Early antibiotics were quite dangerous.
4. _______ Penicillin is an effective antihistamine.
5. _______ The common cold is also known as the hay fever.
III. STRUCTURE & VOCABULARY
Choose the best answer among A, B, C and D.

1. The value of eating certain foods to maintain health was recognized long before vitamins were
identified.
MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.com 12
A. invented B. recognized C. produced D. consumed
2. The manufacturer should be responsible for ensuring that its dietary supplement products are safe
before they are marketed.
A. seller B. physician C. consumers D. producer
3. Consequently, PTH (pancreatropic hormone) production by the parathyroid glands is increased
and calcium is mobilized from the skeleton to maintain normal serum calcium levels
A. In fact B. Moreover C. As a result D. Finally
4. A healthcare provider diagnoses sinusitis after obtaining a complete medical history and physical
examination.
A. checking B. getting C. making D. reporting
5. This can occur as a cold, which may clear rapidly or continue with symptoms longer than a week.
A. last B. end C. happen D. serve
6. The symptoms of contact dermatitis need to be brought under control; otherwise the results will be
unreliable.
A. or else B. unless C. likewise D. other than
7. Patients should take medications as prescribed by your doctor.
A. demanded B. commented C. remarked D. recommended
8. Waste is released in water from factories and processing plants.
A. dissolved B. disposed of C. transported D. treated
9. Most of the physiological effects attributed to vitamin A appear to result from its role in cellular
differentiation.
A. ascribed B. contributed C. described D. mentioned
10 A deficiency may result in changes in the conjunctiva (corner of the eye) _________ Bitot's spots.
. A. known as B. called as C. told as D. spoken as

IV. MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY


Put each term in each gap.
A. hyperparathyroidism, B. irradiation, C. metabolism,
D. metabolites E. micronutrient F. nausea, G. night blindness,
H. nutrients, I. obesity, J. osteomalacia
1. Billions of people in developing countries suffer from _______ malnutrition, also known as "hidden
hunger," that is caused by lack of vitamins and minerals.
2. Food _______ can prevent the growth of microorganisms that cause food spoilage
3. _______ is overactivity of the parathyroid glands resulting in excess production of parathyroid
hormone (PTH)
4. Lack of vitamin A causes _______ or inability to see in dim light
5. _______ is the sensation that there is a need to vomit
6. _______ from food are absorbed by the body as it passes through the digestive system
7. _______ is a condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to such an extent that health may
be negatively affected
8. _______ is the general term for the softening of the bones due to defective bone mineralization.
9. Our bodies get the energy they need from food through _______.
10 Secondary _______ are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth,
. development or reproduction of organisms.

V. REWRITING
Rewrite the following sentences, beginning with the given
initials.

1. Long-term chemical exposure is capable of causing many systemic disturbances.


 Long-term chemical exposure is _______
2. Thickening of the skin of the palm results in loss of ability to hold hand straight.
 Loss of ability to hold hand straight _______
3. It is thought that the use of purified insulin helps avoid or reduce some of the problems of people
with diabetes such as allergic reactions.
MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.com 13
 The use of purified insulin _______
4. Patients find that it is hard to remember things
 Patients find it _______
5. You may find it useful to breathe through a wet towel or tissue when you feel the symptoms are
acute.
 You may find that _______

VI. LISTENING 2
Listen and fill in the gaps the words you hear.

Tobacco smoke contains many harmful chemicals including nicotine which is a _______(1), addictive
drug. It also damages the heart, blood vessels and _______(2). Smokers become addicted to nicotine
and so find it hard to give up smoking. Tar causes lung cancer and other types of cancers. This has
been _______(3) by comparing the numbers of smokers and non-smokers who _______(4) cancer.
Carbon monoxide is a poisonous gas. It reduces the amount of oxygen that can be _______(5) in the
blood by irreversibly combining with the haemoglobin in red blood cells. In pregnant women, this can
deprive the developing foetus of oxygen resulting in a low birth mass or a _______(6) birth.
Tiny particles in the smoke get trapped in the _______(7) of
the trachea and bronchial tubes and extra mucus is
produced. Chemicals in the smoke paralyse the tiny
_______(8) which normally clear the mucus out of the air
passages. The only way to clear this is by _______(9).
Because the lungs cannot be kept clean, smokers often
develop bronchitis and chest infections. Repeated coughing
causes the delicate walls of the alveoli to be _______(10),
which reduces the surface area for gas exchange. This is
one of the reasons why smokers are often short of breath. The lungs can develop large holes which
blow up like balloons. This condition is called emphysema (khí phế thủng).

UNIT 3 NONCOMMUNICABLE DISEASES

I. CLOZE TESTS
1.1. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box.

A. accounting, B. considered, C. developed, D. diabetes, E. estimated,


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F. factors, G. level, H. preventable, I. urban, J. vulnerable

Chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs), mental health


disorders, and injuries and violence are major problems,
_________(1) for over 40 per cent of the disease burden in
high mortality developing countries, and over 75 per cent in
lower mortality developing countries. NCDs, such as
cardiovascular disease, _________(2), chronic respiratory
disease and major cancers, are often _________(3) to be
"diseases of affluence". However, the majority of their disease
burden occurs in developing countries, and at rates, particularly
in _________(4) areas, that are often higher than in
_________(5) countries. As the populations of developing
countries age, and with rapid urbanisation and globalisation
driving increases in the risk _________(6) for chronic NCDs,
their burden is increasing rapidly.
Of the _________(7) 400 million persons affected by mental
disorders, most live in developing countries which command
only a fraction of global mental health resources. Mental
disorders account for 5-10 per cent of the burden of disease in
these countries. _________(8) populations, such as the poor and those affected by disasters, are at
greater risk. Mental disorders can be effectively and affordably treated at the local _________(9).
However, most of those in need do not receive any treatment. Injuries, including those caused by
violence, are also a major public health concern, leading to over five million deaths worldwide each
year. They include motor vehicle crashes, homicide, suicide, falls, poisoning, drowning, fires and
burns. On the whole, injuries do not occur at random: they are largely predictable and, therefore,
_________(10).

affluence sự giàu có health resource nguồn lực y tế


affordable có thể, đủ sức mua homicide giết người
age già đi mental disorder rối loạn tâm thần
at random ngẫu nhiên mortality tỷ lệ tử vong
burden gánh nặng predictable có thể dự đoán được
chronic mạn tính preventable có thể đề phòng được
command a fraction chiếm tỷ lệ public health y tế công cộng
concern quan tâm risk factor yếu tố nguy cơ
drive thúc đẩy, tạo động lực suicide tự sát
drown chết đuối urbanisation đô thị hoá
estimate ước tính violence bạo hành
globalisation toàn cầu hoá vulnerable to dễ bị tổn thương

1.2. Fill each of the gaps with one word of your own.

Common non-communicable Diseases


Cancers: Cancer is amongst the three leading causes
_________(1) death in the UK. The most common killers are lung,
breast, colorectal and prostate cancer _________(2) together
account _________(3) about 62,000 deaths each year.
Lung cancer: About one fifth of all cancer cases and one quarter
of cancer deaths in men are due _________(4) lung cancer. This
represents about 23,000 cases and 18,000 deaths in men each
year (12,000 and 10,000 respectively in women). In both men and
women only about six patients _________(5) every hundred will
still be alive five years after diagnosis. More than £130 million is
spent by the NHS _________(6) lung cancer care each year.

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Breast cancer: Nearly one third of cancer cases and one fifth of cancer deaths in women result
_________(7) breast cancer. This represents about 30,000 cases and 11,000 deaths each year.
About two thirds of women with breast cancer survive _________(8) at least five years after diagnosis.
More than £150 million is allotted by the NHS _________(9) breast cancer care each year.
Prostate cancer: In men approximately one cancer case out_________(10) seven are associated
_________(11) prostate cancer. This represents about 15,000 cases and 8,000 deaths each year.
About two fifths of men with prostate cancer can expect to live for at least five years after diagnosis.
Nearly £100 million is spent by the NHS every year to cope _________(12) prostate cancer each year.

account for giải thích cho, chiếm tỷ lệ NHS National Health Service
allot phân cho, giao cho, cấp prostate tiền liệt tuyến
approximately xấp xỉ represent đại diện cho, thể hiện
colorectal thuộc kết-trực tràng respectively theo thứ tự đó
diagnosis chẩn đoán survive sống qua, sống sót

1. 3. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box.
A. circulatory, B. death, C. developing, D. factors,
E. gap, F. intake, G. lifestyle, H. pressure, I. reductions, J. target

Coronary heart disease and strokes


Coronary heart disease and stroke, along with other diseases of the _________(1) system, account
for over 200,000 of the half a million deaths which occur in this country each year. While
_________(2) rates are improving substantially for the best off in society, the worst off have not
benefited to anything like the same extent, thus widening the health _________(3).
Several of the major risk _________(4) which increase the chances of people _________(5) coronary
heart disease or having a stroke are now well established. The key _________(6) risk factors, shared
by coronary heart disease and stroke, are smoking, poor nutrition, obesity, physical inactivity and high
blood _________(7). Excess alcohol _________(8) is an important additional risk factor for stroke.
Many of these risk factors are unevenly spread across society, with poorer people often exposed to
the highest risks.
In England the Department of Health has set a _________(9) to reduce the death rate from cancer in
people under 75 years by at least a fifth by 2010 - saving up to 100,000 lives in total. It supports all
efforts to reduce the toll cancer take on our society. There are many supported actions including
improved screening programs, the promotion of healthy diets and occupational health protection.
However, the biggest gains will be made through further controls and campaigns to reduce smoking.
The target includes: major changes in diet, particularly among the worst off, with increased
consumption of such foods as fruit, vegetables, and oily fish; large _________(10) in tobacco smoking
particularly among young people, women and people in disadvantaged communities; people keeping
much more physically active - by walking or cycling, for example - on a regular basis; people
controlling their body weight so as to keep to the right level for their physique; avoiding drinking
alcohol to excess.

benefit (n,v) lơị ích, làm lợi, hưởng lợi physique cơ thể
best off nhà giàu, người giàu reduce giảm
campaign chiến dịch screening khám, tét sàng lọc
consumption tiêu thụ society xã hội
disadvantaged bất lợi, yếu thế stroke đột quỵ
effort nỗ lực substantially về thực chất, căn bản
extent mức độ, tầm support ủng hộ, hỗ trợ
improve cải thiện target mục tiêu
occupational thuộc nghề nghiệp toll, take toll on tử vong, gây tử vong
on a regular basis đều đặn worst off người nghèo, nhà nghèo

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II. READING PASSAGES Read the passages and answer the
questions below.

2.1. PASSAGE 1:
Non-communicable Diseases are not disease of Affluence

Non-industrialized regions often have lower life expectancies, even for non-communicable causes of
death. Although these diseases, including heart disease and stroke, are the largest proportional killers
of people in the industrialized world, they often kill a large population in non-industrialized world, and
at a younger age. For example in
1990, of the 6.3 million people that
died of heart disease, 57% were in the
non-industrialized regions; among the
4.4 million people that died of stroke,
68% were in non-industrialized
countries. When one looks at the
probability of dying between the ages
of 15 and 60, the industrialized and
non-industrialized worlds have similar
rates for non-communicable diseases.
For people between the ages of 60 and
70, some non-industrialized regions
have a higher rate of death from non-
communicable diseases than the
industrialized regions. This shows that
unequal access to treatment and other
factors causes premature mortality rates in non-industrialized countries.
This refutes the myth that non-communicable diseases, such as stroke and heart disease, mainly
impact the affluent. Instead, it highlights that communicable diseases kill children in non-industrialized
countries most often, and these deaths have a significant impact on overall world mortality rates.
Controlling these diseases, through immunization and other means, can be one large step toward
achieving health equality.

access to tiếp cận với means phương tiện


equality bình đẳng myth quan niệm sai lầm
expectancy tuổi thọ overall toàn bộ, toàn diện
highlight nêu bật, làm nổi rõ premature chưa tới tuổi trưởng thành
immunization chủng ngừa probability xác suất
impact (n,v) tác động proportion tỷ lệ
industrialized đã công nghiệp hoá refute bác bỏ
killer nguyên nhân tử vong significant quan trọng, có ý nghĩa

1. The number of people dying of heart disease in the non-industrialized regions in 1990 was
_________.
A. 6.3 million B. 3.6 million C. 5.7 million D. 4.4 million
2. The mortality from non-communicable diseases between the ages of 15 and 60 in the non-
industrialized world is _________ that of the industrialized world.
A. higher than B. lower than C. different from D. similar to
3. The mortality from non-communicable diseases between the ages of 60 and 70 in the non-
industrialized world is _________ that of the industrialized world.
A. higher than B. lower than C. different from D. similar to
4. The word refute in the last paragraph is similar in meaning to _________.
A. improve B. disprove C. prove D. discover
5. Which of the following statements is not true?
A. Non-communicable diseases kill a large population in industrialized countries.
B. Non-communicable diseases are found only in aged people.
C. Non-communicable diseases increase overall world mortality rates.
D. Non-communicable diseases impact both the rich and the poor.

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2.2. PASSAGE 2: CANCER

It would be much easier to detect and treat cancer if it were a single disease, as many people think.
There are actually some 200 different diseases that can be called cancers. They all have different
causes; originate in various tissues; develop for various reasons and in different ways; and demand
very different types of treatment.
Cancers can be categorized into three major groups: those arising in epithelial (covering) tissue are
called carcinomas; those originating in connective tissue, such as bones and muscle, are sarcomas;
and the third group called leukemias and lymphomas are cancerous diseases of blood tissue and
lymphatic system respectively. The last group is very different from the previous two in that it does not
produce solid tumors.
Carcinomas are the most
common type of cancer that
people suffer from. They develop
on the surface of an organ such
as the skin, the lining of the
uterus, mouth, nose, throat, air
tubes in the lungs, inside a duct in
the breast or any other site. Most
of these cancers can be treated
successfully as long as the
cancerous (malignant) cells
remain as a separate mass—
without invading the nearby
tissues.
Sarcomas include tumors of
the kidney, pancreas, liver and
brain, and bone tissue like the
spine, pelvis, ribs and femur.
Cancers of muscle, tendons and
ligaments are very rare. The bone cancers, named separately as myelomas, usually cause the bone
to break easily or collapse under pressure. Again, as in many forms of cancer, early detection can lead
to treatment by excision or destruction (using radiation) of the affected part or area of an organ.
The third category is that of cancers of blood tissue and the lymphatic system known as leukemias
and lymphomas. Leukemias (usually referred to in the plural) are different forms of cancer affecting
various white blood cells. Children under 12 outnumber adults of all ages in developing leukemias.
Lymphosarcomas and lymphomas are cancers of lymph nodes and reticular cells respectively. Cancer
of the thyroid glands is the most common example in this group.
Whatever the type, cancer remains one of the fatal diseases of modern times. It is the second
biggest killer in the developed world and may soon become the number one killer. After detection, only
one out of five survives—only for a period of five years.

A. Circle the letter of the best answer.

1. Cancer of the skull would be called a _______


A. myeloma B. carcinoma C. sarcoma D. leukemia
2. The word ‘two’ refers to _______
A. leukemias and lymphomas. B. carcinomas and sarcomas
C. leukemias and carcinomas. D. myelomas and sarcomas.
3. The most frequent type of cancer in man is _______.
A. carcinoma B. sarcoma
C. leukemia D. A&B
4. If a patient has lung cancer, he has a _______
A. leukemia B. sarcoma C. carcinoma D. myeloma
5. Cancer is a deadly disease because it _______
A. develops in various ways and reasons. B. it is treated very differently.
C. develops in various body organs. D. it kills four out of five patients.
6. The topic of the second paragraph is _______
A. causes of cancer. B. classification of cancer.
C. explanation of cancer. D. treatment of cancer.
7. From the passage it can be inferred that _______
A. there is no definite treatment for cancer. B. all forms of cancer are fatal.
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C. cancer is an incurable disease. D. any part of the body can develop cancer.

B. Fill in the following classification chart by using the given words.

A. myelomas, B. leukemias, C. prostate gland, D. blood cells,


E. lung cancer, F. pancreas, G. carcinomas, H. sarcomas

CANCER

1. _______ 2. _______ 3. _______


affect nose, throat and affect & lymphomas, affect
4. _______ 5. _______ 6. _______

include: 7. _______ include: 8. _______ include


and breast cancer and brain tumors thyroid cancer

C. Write the synonyms of the following words from the passage.


1. begin/start (v) = _______
2. classified (v) = _______
3. covering (adj) = _______
4. in the same order (adv) = _______
5. attacking (v) = _______
6. resulting in death (adj = _______

Leukemia

III. STRUCTURE & VOCABULARY


Choose the best answer among A, B, C, and D.

1. Rapidly growing bones are most severely affected by rickets.


A. changed B. increased C. stopped D. moved
2. _________ average, the intake of this vitamin from food in the U.S. is approximately 9 mg daily for
men and 6 mg daily for women
A. In B. On C. At D. For
3. The best way to prevent allergic rhinitis is to avoid the things to which you are allergic.
A. keep on B. keep away from C. get used to D. prevent
4. It may create a potential pathway for infection, which could result in meningitis.
A. reduce B. produce C. delay D. block
5. Ultrasound investigation of the renal tract is often used to distinguish between various sources of
bleeding.
A. differ B. differentiate C. extinguish D. distinct
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6. Chemical exposure - particularly long-term - is capable of causing many systemic disturbances,
especially within the functioning of the immune and central nervous systems.
A. disorder B. contribution C. discomfort D. distance
7. An estimated 14.6 million have been diagnosed with diabetes
A. required B. roughly calculated C. highly valued D. predicted
8. Nonsmokers who are exposed _________ constant smoke also have an increased risk.
A. with B. for C. to D. of
9. Other symptoms include fatigue, blurred vision, increased hunger, and sores that do not heal.
A. extreme cold B. extreme heat C. excitement D. extreme tiredness
10 Measles and malaria, are more frequent causes of death in Sub-Saharan Africa than elsewhere.
. A. severe B. habitual C. unusual D. special

IV. MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY


Put one term into each gap

A. osteoporosis B. overdose C. parathyroid D. plague E. precursors


F.rickets G. scurvy H.substrate I.sunscreen J. tuberculosis

1. Accidental drug _______ may be the result of misuse of prescription medicines or commonly used
medications like pain relievers and cold tablets.
2. In biochemistry, a _______ is a molecule upon which an enzyme acts.
3. _______ is the silent disease that makes bones prone to fracture and is a major public health
threat for more than 28 million Americans.
4. _______ hormone is the most important endocrine regulator of calcium and phosphorus
concentration in extracellular fluid.
5. Persons with a history of intravenous drug abuse also are more likely to have _______ of the
lungs.
6. _______ is a disease of rodents that can be spread to humans another animals by infected fleas.
7. _______ is a disorder primarily caused by lack of vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate, which leads to
softening and weakening of the bones.
8. _______ was a serious problem in the past, when fresh fruitsand vegetables were not available
during the winter in many parts of the world.
9. _______ can be applied to the bridge of the nose, ear tips, skin surrounding the lips, and any area
where pigmentation is low.
10 The _______ of vitamin A (retinol) are the carotenoids (most commonly beta-carotene).
.

V. REWRITING Rewrite the following sentences, beginning with the given initials.

1. Organisms causing an infectious disease in a host with depressed resistance are classified as
opportunistic pathogens.
 Organisms that _______
2. Malaria is caused by Plasmodial parasites.
 Plasmodial parasites are _______
3. You should take care of yourself so that a disease has less of an effect on your body.
 You should take care of yourself in _______
4. An area near the center of the retina of the eye is responsible for fine or reading vision.
 An area near the center of the retina of the eye is involved _______
5. Although there are many claims of nutritional cures, there is no reliable proof of their
effectiveness.
 Despite _______

VI. LISTENING 3

6.1. Listen and complete the text with what you hear

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Diseases can cause many problems. Alzheimer's disease makes people have problems with their
_______(1). Even easy tasks are _______(2) to do.
A German doctor discovered the disease in _______(3). Back then, it was considered a _______(4)
disease. Today, it is known to be more _______(5).
Alzheimer's disease attacks the _______(6). It slowly destroys a person's _______(7). It changes their
thinking and the way they act. About 4 million American adults have this disease.
At times, a person with this disease can become confused. They can have a hard time trying to
_______(8). Sometimes they forget where they are. Sometimes they do not remember their own
_______(9). Eventually, people who have this disease can no longer take care of themselves.
Alzheimer's disease cannot be cured, but it can get better with treatment. It is important to see a
_______(10) doctor if you have this disease.

6. 2. Listen to the story and answer the questions.

1 How many people died of skin cancer this year?


A. 900 B. 1900 C. 9000 D. 90,000
2 How many types of cancer are mentioned?
A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4
3 Your chances of skin cancer are higher if you _______.
A. have light-colored skin B. have black eyes
C. have black hair D. are fat
4 If found and treated early about _______ victim of skin cancer can be cured.
A. 18% B. 28% C. 80% D. 78%
5 How many therapies for skin cancer are mentioned here?
A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4

UNIT 4
DIABETES
I. CLOZE TESTS
1.1. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box.

A. blindness, B. developed, C. glucose, D. hyperglycemia,


E. incurable, F. interaction, G. leading, H. pregnancy, I. renal, J. single

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by _________(1) (high glucose blood sugar),
among other signs. The World Health Organization recognizes three main forms of diabetes: type 1,
type 2 and gestational diabetes (or type 3, occurring during _________(2)). Although these share
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signs and symptoms, they have different causes and population distributions. They are not a
_________(3) disease or condition. Type 1 is generally due to autoimmune destruction of the insulin-
producing cells — pancreatic beta cells — while type 2 is characterized by tissue wide insulin
resistance and varies widely. Gestational diabetes is due to a poorly understood _________(4)
between fetal needs and maternal metabolic controls. Type 2 sometimes progresses to loss of beta
cell function as well.
Since the first use of insulin (1921) Types 1 and 2 have been _________(5), but treatable chronic
conditions; gestational diabetes typically resolves with delivery. Aside from acute _________(6) levels
abnormalities, the main risks to health are the characteristic long-term complications. These include
cardiovascular disease, chronic _________(7) failure (the main cause of dialysis in developed world
adults), retinal damage (which can lead to _________(8) and is the most significant cause of adult
blindness in the non-elderly in the _________(9) world), nerve damage, microvascular damage, the
_________(10) cause of non-traumatic amputation in developed world adults.

abnormality bất thường distribution phân bố, phân phối


adult người lớn failure suy
amputation cắt cụt (chi) gestational diabetes đái dường thai nghén
aside from ngoài, bên cạnh interaction tương tác
autoimmune tự miễn loss mất
blindness mù metabolic chuyển hoá
cardiovascular thuộc tim mạch pregnancy mang thai
characterize đặc trưng renal thuộc thận
chronic mạn tính resolve hồi phục
complication biến chứng retinal damage tổn thương võng mạc
delivery sinh, cuộc sinh traumatic thuộc chấn thương
dialysis thấm tách typically thông thường

1.2. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box.

A. attracted, B. dependent, C. excessive, D. kidney, E. mean,


F. named, G. related, H. sweet, I. tasting, J. urine

Diabetes mellitus - Terminology


The term diabetes (Greek: διαβήτης) was coined by Aretaeus of Cappadocia. It is derived from the
Greek word διαβαίνειν, diabaínein that literally means "passing through," a reference to one of
diabetes' major symptoms - _________(1) urine production. In 1675 Thomas Willis added mellitus
from the Latin word meaning a sweet taste. This had been noticed long before in ancient times by the
Greeks, Chinese, Egyptians, and Indians. In 1776 Matthew Dobson confirmed the _________(2) taste
was because of an excess of a kind of sugar in the _________(3) and blood of people with diabetes.
The ancient Indians tested for diabetes by observing whether ants were _________(4) to a person's
urine, and called the ailment "sweet urine disease". The Korean, Chinese and Japanese words for
diabetes all _________(5) "sweet urine disease". Medieval European doctors
tested for it by _________(6) the urine themselves.
While the term, diabetes, usually refers to diabetes mellitus, there are several
other, rarer, conditions also _________(7) diabetes. The most common of
these is diabetes insipidus, in which the urine is not sweet; it can be caused
by either _________(8) (nephrogenic DI) or pituitary gland (central DI)
damage.
The term "type 1diabetes" has universally replaced several former terms,
including childhood onset diabetes, juvenile diabetes and insulin dependent
diabetes. "Type 2 diabetes" has also replaced several older terms, including
adult-onset diabetes, obesity _________(9) diabetes, and non-insulin
dependent diabetes. Beyond these numbers, there is no standard, so a type 2 who has become
insulin _________(10) has sometimes been called type 3, while the same term is also used for
gestational diabetes in some cases.
A. attracted, B. dependent, C. excessive, D. kidney, E. mean,
F. named, G. related, H. sweet, I. tasting, J. urine,

ailment bệnh literally theo nghĩa đen


MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.com 22
ancient times thời cổ đại Medieval thuộc thời Trung cổ
attract thu hút nephrogenic do thận
coin tạo ra obesity chứng mập phì
confirm thừa nhận, khẳng định observe quan sát
derive from xuất phát từ onset sự khởi, phát bệnh
diabetes insipidus đái tháo nhạt pituitary gland tuyến yên
excessive thừa refer to đề cập đến
juvenile thanh thiếu niên universally phổ biến

1. 3. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box.
A. accumulated, B. addition, C. associated, D. consumption, E. elevated,
F. levels, G. prevented, H. preventive, I. protective, J. reliable
Diabetes - Prevention
As little is known on the exact mechanism by which type 1 diabetes develops, there are no
_________(1) measures available for that form of diabetes. Some studies have attributed a
_________(2) effect of breastfeeding on the development of type 1 diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes can be _________(3) in many cases by making changes in diet and increasing
physical activity. Some studies have shown delayed progression to diabetes through the use of
metformin or valsartan. Breastfeeding might also be correlated with the prevention of type 2 of the
disease in mothers.
As of late 2006, although there are many claims of nutritional cures, there is no _________(4) proof of
their effectiveness. In _________(5), despite claims by some that vaccinations may cause diabetes,
there are no studies proving any such connection.
Individuals with _________(6) levels of persistent organic pollutants (DDT, dioxins, Chlordane…) in
their body are 38 times more likely to have diabetes than individuals with low _________(7) of these
pollutants, according to a Korean study. Among study participants, obesity was _________(8) with
diabetes only in people who was tested high for these pollutants. These pollutants are _________(9)
in animal fats, so minimizing _________(10) of animal fats may reduce the risk of diabetes.
accumulate tích lũy minimize giảm tới mức tối thiểu
attribute cho là, quy cho participant người tham gia
claim sự cáo buộc , cho rằng persistent lâu dài, bền bĩ
correlate tương quan pollutant chất gây ô nhiễm
delay chậm, trì hoãn reduce làm giảm
elevate gia tăng reliable đáng tin vậy

II. READING PASSAGES


Read the passages and answer the questions below.

2.1. PASSAGE 1: Types of Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is a disorder that is marked by


elevated blood glucose (commonly referred to as
blood sugar). A large portion of the food that we
eat is converted by the body into glucose. The
blood delivers glucose throughout the body, but
the hormone insulin is needed in order for it to be
transported into most cells. Insulin comes from the
pancreas. If the pancreas does not make sufficient
insulin or cells are resistant to its activity of
promoting glucose uptake, the blood glucose level
becomes elevated.
Type I diabetes represents approximately 5-10%
of diabetic patients. It usually has a rapid onset
and most frequently manifest in children and
adolescents. Because the body cannot use dietary
glucose, the level in the blood is elevated and
excess glucose is lost in the urine, causing
weakness, thirst and hunger. The treatment for
type I diabetes is insulin replacement.
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Type II diabetes is found in some 120 million adults, who are able to produce insulin but the liver and
body cells are resistant to its actions. Some type II diabetics can be effectively treated with diet alone,
but many require oral medications. Historically, this has been thought of as maturity onset diabetes
because it tends to occur after age 50, but there has been a dramatic increase in the number of
adolescents with the disease. This is thought to be due to increased obesity and decreased physical
activity in this age group.
The major complication of diabetes is damage to the heart and blood vessels, which can cause heart
attacks, strokes, and poor circulation. The effects on blood vessels also increase the risk of developing
high blood pressure (hypertension).
Diabetics have an increased risk of eye disease. Damage to the retina associated with diabetes is the
leading cause of blindness in adults under age 65 in the US.
When blood glucose is high, nerve cells swell and scar. The disease associated with damage to the
nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord is referred to as peripheral neuropathy. The most common
type of neuropathy in diabetics involves impairment of sensory nerves. Impaired nerve signals to the
brain about sensations such as the detection of heat or pain may lead to burns or undetected cuts that
can become infected. If untreated, infected foot and leg ulcers can spread to the bone and may require
amputation. Burning, pain or tingling sensations in the hands, legs and feet are also common.

adolescent vị thành niên scar sẹo, thành sẹo


convert chuyển đổi sensation cảm giác
detection theo dõi swell sưng
dietary thuộc chế độ ăn thirst khát
impairment suy yếu tingling sensation cảm giác đau nhói
peripheral neuropathy đau thần kinh ngoại vi ulcer loét
promote gia tăng, tăng cường uptake sự hấp thu

1. Insulin is used to _________.


A. break down glucose. B. change food into glucose.
C. transport glucose into cells. D. make glucose.
2. Insulin is made by this organ _________.
A. liver B. brain C. pancreas D. heart
3. When blood sugar levels are elevated, glucose is lost through the _______.
A. urine B. blood C. pancreas D. liver
4. The treatment for type I diabetes is _________.
A. controlling diet. B. drinking lots of water. C. increased exercise. D. insulin
replacement.
5. The treatment for type II diabetes is _________.
A. controlling diet. B. drinking lots of water. C. increased exercise. D. insulin
replacement.
6. Type II diabetes is increasing in adolescents because of _________
A. increased obesity. B. decreased physical activity.
C. both of these D. none of these
7. The major complication of diabetes is _________.
A. damage to the eyes. B. nerve damage.
C. damage to the heart and blood vessels. D. damage to the kidneys.
8. A disease damaging nerves outside the brain and spinal cord ________.
A. diabetes. B. hypertension. C. stroke. D. neuropathy.
9. A diabetic may be forced to have an amputation if_________
A. infection begins. B. hypertension begins.
C. poor circulation develops. D. infection spreads to the bone.

2.2. PASSAGE 2: Type 2 diabetes


Type 2 diabetes is the most common of the two forms of diabetes,
affecting 90% or greater of the people with diabetes. In type 2
diabetes the pancreas produces insulin but the cells of the body
become resistant or the amount of insulin produced is not enough.
Glucose builds up in the blood stream (hyperglycemia) and the cells
of the body are unable to function properly.

MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.com 24


Type 2 diabetes can affect anyone at any age but is more common in overweight populations, people
with a family history of type 2 diabetes, the elderly, and people with metabolic syndrome (problems with
hypertension and cholesterol issues.)
Some life-threatening problems that can occur with uncontrolled blood glucose levels. Retinopathy is
caused by damage to the small blood vessels of the retina. These blood vessels begin to leak fluid into
the retina, which leads to blurred vision. Kidney damage is caused by destruction of the small vessels in
the nephrons allowing protein to flow into the urine. As this neuropathy continues, the function of the
kidney declines and leads to kidney failure and end-stage kidney disease. Circulatory problems and
nerve damage are cause by a hardening of the arteries. This causes loss of sensation, risk of ulcers,
infection and can lead to amputation.
51 What is the problem with insulin in type 2 diabetes?
. A. The pancreas stops producing insulin. B. The body cells are resistant to insulin.
C. There is not enough insulin. D. B&C
52 What populations are most likely to get type 2 diabetes?
. A. too fat people B. too tall people C. young people D. All of these
53 What causes retinopathy in diabetes patients?
. A. Damage to retina capillaries B. Damage to retina fluid
C. Damage to the kidneys D. Metabolic syndrome
54 What causes kidney damage in diabetes patients?
. A. Damage to small vessels in the nephrons B. Damage to small vessels in the liver
C. Damage to small vessels in the retina D. Damage to small vessels in the stomach
55 What causes the circulatory problems in diabetes patients?
. A. hardening of the arteries B. loss of sensation C. ulcers D. All of the

III. STRUCTURE & VOCABULARY


Choose the best answer among A, B, C, and D.

1. Because the microbes and their hosts have co-evolved together, the hosts have gradually become
resistant _________ the microorganisms.
A. to B. with C. by D. for
2. In people with allergies, the immune system becomes sensitive to normally _________ substances
known as allergens.
A. harmful B. harmless C. harm D. unharmed
3. Central air conditioning also has the benefit of lowering the humidity within the home.
A. fresh air B. ventilation C. temperature D. moisture
4. This test is less convenient to administer.
A. effective B. appropriate C. harmful D. complicated
5. Sometimes disability is caused by abnormal genes inherited from parents
A. separated B. received C. resulted D. suffered
6. Unless the HIV lifecycle is interrupted by treatment, the virus infection spreads throughout the body
and results in the destruction of the body's immune system.
A. stopped B. intensified C. increased D. relieved
7. A possible source for the misconception holds that AIDS infects only homosexual men
A. misuse B. incorrect use C. incorrect view D. abuse
8. In early childhood mild disability (IQ 60–70) may not be obvious, and may not be diagnosed until
they begin school.
A. clean B. clear C. bright D. light
9. Symptoms are not localized to one particular site.
A. sensitive B. insensitive C. specific D. unspecific
10 The misconceptions prevent many people _________ HIV testing.
. A. to seek B. seeking C. in seeking D. from seeking

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IV. MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY
Put one term in each gap

A. adrenalin B. allergic C. allergy D. alternative E. antibodies


F. antihistamine G. threshold H. ultraviolet I. viscera J. vomit
1. An _______ is a drug that blocks the receptor on the smooth muscle known as H1
2. Complementary and _______ medicine is a group of medical and health care systems, practices, and
products that are not generally considered part of conventional medicine.
3. In Chinese medicine, the internal organs in a human body can be classified into five _______ organs
(Wu Zang) and six bowel organs (Liu Fu).
4. Long-term exposure to _______ irradiation from sunlight causes premature skin aging (photoaging),
characterized in part by wrinkles, altered pigmentation, and loss of skin tone.
5. People tend to diagnose themselves, believing they have _______ reactions to certain foods or food
ingredients.
6. The body’s immune system recognizes an allergen in a food as foreign and produces _______ to
cope with the “invasion.”
7. The feeling that one is about to _______ is called nausea.
8. The level below which all sounds are inaudible to the human ear is called the _______ of hearing.
9. While pollen or other environmental sources are typical allergens causing a lot of discomfort during
spring, summer, and fall, food _______ is one condition that knows no season.
10 In case of anaphylactic shock _______ can be injected subcutaneous or intravenously using doses of
. 0.2 - 0.5 mg, maximally - up to 1 mg.

V. REWRITING
Rewrite the following sentences, beginning with the given initials.

1. Despite the fact that over three hundred years have passed since the discovery of microbes, the
field of microbiology is clearly in its infancy relative to other biological disciplines
 Although _______
2. Bacteria were first observed by Leeuwenhoek in 1676 using a single-lens microscope
 Leeuwenhoek _______
3. The first microbiological observation was made by Robert Hooke.
 Robert hook was the _______
4. Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) and Robert Koch (1843-1910) are often considered to be the
founders of medical microbiology.
Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) and Robert Koch (1843-1910) are regarded _______
5. Robert Koch is famous for his contributions to the germ theory of disease.
Robert Koch is best-_______

VI. LISTENING 4
Listen and complete the text with what you hear.

Diabetes -- What Is It?


To have _______(1) you need sugar, so there's a little bit of sugar in your blood at all times. Your
body uses a _______(2) called "insulin" to let this sugar into your cells. Insulin is produced in the
pancreas, which is an organ that sits behind your stomach.
Most cells in your body have insulin receptors on their outer _______(3). Insulin fits into these
receptors like a key opening a lock. When this connection is made, it signals special transporter
MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.com 26
proteins to move up to the cell membrane, where they allow more sugar _______(4) to enter the cell.
This sugar fuels your body's cells, giving them the energy they need to work properly and _______(5)
themselves.
Normally, your body is able to maintain proper levels of sugar in your blood and inside your cells. But
in people with diabetes, the body's cells stay locked and sugar can't get in to provide energy. This
causes too much sugar to _______(6) in the blood. Over time, high levels of sugar in the blood can
lead to serious health problems in the eyes, feet and hands, _______(7), and heart.
There are two main types of diabetes -- type 1 and type 2.
Type 1 diabetes usually begins in young children and _______(8). People with this type of diabetes
have a pancreas that doesn't produce enough insulin -- or stops producing it altogether. This means
they need to have insulin shots on a _______(9) basis to help keep their blood sugar at the right level.
Type 2 diabetes happens in people whose pancreas DOES make insulin. But in a person with this
type of diabetes, the insulin receptors on the cells' surface become less _______(10). Since the
receptors don't respond to the insulin anymore, sugar stays locked out of the cells and _______(11) in
the blood. Type 2 diabetes is usually seen in older people. Also, things like being overweight and
_______(12) can make a person more likely to get type 2 diabetes. This is especially true for those
who are African American or Hispanic.

UNIT 5
MENTAL
RETARDATION
I. CLOZE TESTS
1.1. Fill each of the gaps with one word of your own.

What Is Mental Retardation?

To understand mental retardation, it helps to know what intelligence is. Intelligence is a way of
describing someone's ability to think, learn, and solve
problems. Mental retardation means that someone has
_______(1) than average intelligence.
The person may have _______(2) learning and might
need longer to learn social skills, such as how to be
friends or how to communicate _______(3) others.
People with mental retardation also might be less able to
care for themselves or unable to live _______(4) their
own as adults.
During school, a kid _______(5) mental retardation will
probably need help. Some kids have aides that stay with
them during the school day. Special education and other
services are available to help with learning and behavior.
They can also receive help in learning "life skills” to take _______(6) of themselves as they get older,
such as how to ride a public bus to get to work. More and more people with mental retardation are
_______(7) to have jobs and to live independently.
Mental retardation is not a disease itself. It occurs when something injures the brain or a problem
prevents the brain _______(8) developing normally. These problems can happen while the baby is
growing inside his or her mother, during the baby's birth, or after the baby is born.
Some medicines can cause serious problems if a woman takes them when she is going to have a
baby. A woman also can put her baby _______(9) risk of mental retardation if she drinks alcohol or
takes certain drugs _______(10) her pregnancy.

aide sự trợ giúp behavior hành vi


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available có sẵn risk nguy cơ
independently độc lập pregnancy sự mang thai

1.2. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box.

A. adults, B. considered, C. diagnosed, D. distinguish, E. encounter,


F. join, G. life, H. services, I. solving, J. speaking,

Children with developmental disabilities may learn to sit up, to crawl, or to walk later than other
children, or they may learn to talk later. Both _________(1) and children with intellectual disabilities
may also have trouble _________(2), find it hard to remember things, have trouble understanding
social rules, have trouble discerning cause and effect, have trouble _________(3) problems and
thinking logically.
In early childhood mild disability (IQ 60–70) may not be obvious, and may not be _________(4) until
they begin school. Even when poor academic performance is recognized, it may take expert
assessment to _________(5) mild mental disability from learning disability or behavior problems. As
they become adults, many people can live independently and may be _________(6) by others in their
community as "slow" rather than "retarded".
Moderate disability (IQ 50–60) is nearly always obvious within the first years of _________(7). These
people will _________(8) difficulty in school, at home, and in the community. In many cases they will
need to _________(9) special classes in school, but they can still progress to become functioning
members of society. As adults they may live with their parents, in a supportive group home, or even
semi-independently with significant supportive _________(10) to help them, for example, manage their
finances.
Among people with intellectual disabilities, only about one in eight will score below 50 on IQ tests. A
person with a more severe disability will need more intensive support and supervision his or her entire
life.
academic thành tích học tập intensive support hỗ trợ tích cực
performance
behavior hành vi manage finance quản lý tài chính
community cộng đồng mental disability thiểu năng tâm thần
crawl bò, trườn mild nhẹ
discern phân biệt obvious rõ ràng, hiển nhiên
encounter gặp phải score điểm số
expert assessment đánh giá chuyên môn supervision giám sát
intellectual trí tuệ, trí thức supportive group nhóm hỗ trợ

1.3. Fill each of the gaps with one word of your own.
Causes of mental retardation
Genetic conditions: Sometimes disability is caused _________(1) abnormal genes inherited
_________(2) parents, errors when genes combine, or other reasons. Examples of genetic conditions
include Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, and phenylketonuria (PKU).
Problems during pregnancy: Mental disability can result when the fetus does not develop inside the
mother properly. _________(3) example, there may be a problem with the way the fetus's cells divide
as it grows. A woman who drinks alcohol (fetal alcohol syndrome) or gets an infection like rubella
during pregnancy may also have a baby _________(4) mental disability.
Problems at birth: If a baby has problems during labor and birth, _________(5) as not getting enough
oxygen, he or she may have developmental disability _________(6) to brain damage. The use of
forceps during birth can lead _________(7) mental retardation in an otherwise normal child. They can
fracture the skull and cause brain damage.
Health problems: Diseases like whooping cough, measles, or meningitis can cause mental disability.
It can also be caused by extreme malnutrition, not getting enough medical care, or by being exposed
_________(8) poisons like lead or mercury.
Iodine deficiency, affecting approximately 2 billion people worldwide, is the leading preventable
cause of mental disability in areas of the developing world where iodine deficiency is endemic. Iodine
deficiency also causes goiter, an enlargement of the thyroid gland. Among the nations affected
_________ (9) iodine deficiency, China and Vietnam have begun taking action.

MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.com 28


Institutionalisation at a young age can cause mental retardation in normal children. So can sensory
deprivation _________(10) the form of severe environmental restrictions (such as being locked in a
basement), prolonged isolation, or severe atypical parent-child interactions.
Psycho-social disadvantage: Contributing factors are lacks of reading material, use of language not
common in that community, poor diet, poor health practices, and poor housing.
atypical không điển hình lead chì
deprive, deprivation tước bỏ measles sởi
endemic bệnh dịch meningitis viêm màng não
error sai lạc, sai sót mercury thuỷ ngân
exposed to tiếp xúc với otherwise nếu khác đi
extreme malnutrition suy dưỡng trầm trọng phenylketonuria Axit phenylpyruvic-niệu
fetus thai poison chất độc
forceps phuốc-xép prolonged isolation cách ly lâu ngày
fracture làm gãy restriction hạn chế
fragile dễ vỡ, mong manh rubella bệnh sởi ru-be-on
goiter bướu severe nặng, trầm trọng
labor sinh đẻ whooping cough ho gà

II. READING PASSAGES Read the passages and answer the


questions below.

2.1. PASSAGE 1: DEMENTIA


Dementia is a medical term for mental deterioration (worsening), especially in thought and memory
processes. Such worsening of mental condition can be caused by infection, injury, toxins from
alcoholism and tumors, and cerebral arteriosclerosis (clogging of small arteries in the brain).
The presenile dementias (Alzheimer’s disease)
represent a group of degenerative diseases of the
brain in which the mental deterioration becomes
obvious in the middle age (around 45). Commonly,
the first symptom is the patient becomes unusually
unreasonable in his actions and judgements. He can
no longer fully understand a situation at hand; and
therefore, reacts inappropriately. Memory gradually
fades and recent events are no longer remembered.
However, events that occurred early in life can easily
be recalled. The patient may move around aimlessly
and get lost in his own house. There is a progressive
deterioration of personal care and cleanliness.
Eventually, the patient loses his command over
language and is unable to express himself clearly.
This process, unfortunately, continues weakening the
patient’s muscular system to the extent that he is
finally confined to bed, completely helpless and
dependent on others until he dies.
The mental deterioration in aged patients (above 60) is known as senile dementia. Whether it is
caused by the degenerative processes of the brain or cerebral arteriosclerosis is not clear yet.
However, it does appear that senile dementia is probably secondary to a degenerative process similar
to that of Alzheimer’s disease but occurring late in life.
Whether or not dementia can be halted depends very much on its cause. If, for example, the
dementia is the result of some brain infection or exposure to toxins from alcohol or any other drug,
killing the infectious agent or removing the toxins may be very useful in arresting it. There is no
specific cure for any of the degenerative diseases of the brain.

A. Circle the letter of the best answer.


1. The word ‘it’ refers to _______
A. presenile dementia B. brain
C. senile dementia D. the mental deterioration
2. Presenile dementia can be caused by _______
A. mental deterioration B. old age C. memory loss D. cerebral tumors
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3. The topic of the last paragraph is _______
A. Causes of Dementia B. Treatment of Dementia C. Presenile Dementia D. Senile Dementia
4. Senile dementia is similar to Alzheimer’s disease in that it _______.
A. is secondary to brain infection B. occurs late in life
C. is secondary to cerebral arteriosclerosis.
D. may be secondary to a degenerative process
5. One of the latest symptoms of dementia is _______
A. the patient’s inability to understand a given situation
B. the patient reacts unreasonably to a situation
C. the patient forgets recent events D. the patient’s inability to talk properly
6. Both presenile and senile dementias are alike in that they _______.
A. lead to cerebral arteriosclerosis B. cause mental deterioration
C. occur late in life D. result in brain injury

B. Match the following causes to their effects. Put the letter in the blanks.
1. CAUSE EFFECT
2. ____ removal of toxins from the patient A. confinement to bed and complete helplessness
3. ____ memory loss B. deterioration of thought and memory process
4. ____ physical weakness C. making wrong judgements
5. ____ inability to think clearly D. inability to remember recent events
6. ____ infection, injury, toxins, tumors etc. E. arrest of dementia due to poisoning

2.2. PASSAGE 2: Lead poisoning

Lead poisoning in children is a major health


concern. Both low and high doses of paint can
have serious effects. Children exposed to high
doses of lead often suffer permanent nerve
damage, mental retardation, blindness, and
even death. Low doses of lead can lead to mild
mental retardation, short attention spans,
distractibility, poor academic performance, and
behavioural problems.
This is not a new concern. As early as 1904,
lead poisoning in children was linked to lead-
based paint. Microscopic lead particles from
paint are absorbed into the bloodstream when
children ingest flakes of chipped paint, plaster,
or paint dust from sanding. Lead can also enter
the body through household dust, nail biting,
thumb sucking, or chewing on toys and other
objects painted with lead-based paint. Although
American paint companies today must comply
with strict regulations regarding the amount of lead used in their paint, this source of lead poisoning is
still the most common and most dangerous. Children living in older, dilapidated houses are particularly
at risk.

absorb hấp thu distractibility mất khả năng tập trung


attention span thời gian chú ý flake mảnh, mẩu
chipped paint sơn bong ingest ăn vào, nuốt vào
concern quan tâm microscopic particle hạt vi thể, cực nhỏ
dilapidated dột nát plaster vữa

1. What is the main topic of the passage?


A. problems with household paint B. major health concerns for children
C. lead poisoning in children D. lead paint in older homes
2. As used in paragraph 1, which of the following is closest in meaning to the word academic?
A. experience B. educational C. scholarship D. scientific
3. The word spans is closest in meaning to which of the following?
A. durations B. distances C. visions D. lengths
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4. According to the passage, what is the most common source of lead poisoning in children?
A. household dust B. lead-based paint C. painted toys D. dilapidated
houses
5. What does the author imply in the final sentence of the passage?
A. Lead-based paint chips off more easily than newer paints.
B. Poor people did not comply with the regulations.
C. Old homes were painted with lead-based paints.
D. Old homes need to be rebuilt in order to be safe for children.

III. STRUCTURE & VOCABULARY


Choose the best answer among A, B, C, and D.

1. This results in the previously described symptoms of dyspnea.


A. early B. earlier C. before D. prior
2. Some studies have attributed a protective effect of breastfeeding on the development of type 1
diabetes.
A. defensive B. offensive C. relative D. selective
3. It is an inappropriate antibody reaction _________ normal proteins found on beta cells
A. on B. with C. for D. to
4. Some physicians recommend a diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin C.
A. command B. demand C. suggest D. allow
5. Chlorampheramine relieves the symptoms of a hay fever.
A. increases B. lessens C. maintains D. expresses
6. When the pancreases of dogs were removed, the dogs developed all the signs and symptoms of
diabetes
A. treated B. operated on C. taken away D. transplanted
7. Accidents are responsible _________ 10,000 deaths a year across England.
A. to B. for C. of D. with
8. In some cases (particularly in children), people may outgrow an allergy as the immune system
becomes less sensitive _________ the allergen.
A. of B. at C. to D. with
9. Vitamin supplements are part of the solution to prevent nutrition deficiencies.
A. unavailability B. insufficiencies C. inconvenience D. decalcification
10 This occurs when the normally sterile lower urinary tract (urethra and bladder) is infected by
. bacteria.
A. bacteria-infected B. fertile C. bacteria-free D. anaerobic

IV. MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY


Put one term in each gap
A. antiseptics B. antiserum C. antiserum D. autoimmune
E. asthma F. basophils G. bronchoconstriction
H. coma I. conjunctiva J. chronic

1. The _______ also secretes oils and mucous that moisten and lubricate the eye.
2. A _______ tumor is basically a tumor that doesn't come back and doesn't spread to other parts of the
body.
3. _______ and disinfectants are extensively used in hospitals and other health care settings for a
variety of topical and hard-surface applications.
4. _______ is used to pass on passive immunity to many diseases.
5. _______ diseases, such as heart disease, stroke, cancer, respiratory diseases and diabetes, are by
far the leading cause of mortality in the world.
6. _______ can be caused by an underlying illness, or it can result from head trauma.
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7. his narrowing of the airways is known as _______ . Along with inflammation of the airways, it leads to
symptoms such as coughing, wheezing…
8. If you have an _______ disease, your immune system attacks itself by mistake, and you can get sick.
9. If you have _______, you are two to three times more likely to be allergic to a pet than someone who
doesn't have it.
10 Mast cells and _______ play a central role in inflammatory and immediate allergic reactions.
.

V. REWRITING
Rewrite the following sentences, beginning with the given initials.

1. Koch was one of the first scientists who focused on the isolation of bacteria.
 Koch was one of the first scientists _______
2. Pollens of insect-pollinated plants are too large to remain airborne and pose no risk.
 Pollens of insect-pollinated plants are so _______
3. It is important that people use new or properly sterilized needles for each injection.
 It is important that new or properly sterilized needles _______
4. IgG is present in the body, known to respond to foods.
 IgG is present in the body and _______
5. Allergies are caused by an oversensitive immune system, leading to a misdirected immune
response.
 Allergies are caused by an oversensitive immune system and _______

VI. LÍSTENING

LISTENING 5
6.1. Listen and complete the text with what you hear.

Body Scan
Sometimes it takes many _______(1) for diseases to be found. Now there is a way to look for them
before someone is feeling sick. Some illnesses can be found and _______(2) very early by having a
body scan.
Body scans allow doctors to look into a person’s body. They can see bones, _______(3), and blood
vessels. By looking into a person’s body like this doctors can sometimes see how _______(4) a
person is.
People that have a family _______(5) of illness might want to have a body scan. Others that are young
and healthy would _______(6) not need one. Some people have body scans because it makes them
feel more secure.
Many doctors do not think everyone should have body scans. Body scans are _______(7). They are
often not necessary. Sometimes body scans can be _______(8). When this happens it can cause a lot
of unnecessary worry.
Body scans can be very _______(9) to doctors and patients. They can help find diseases at early
stages. If diseases are found early they can be treated more _______(10). It would be a good idea to
talk to a doctor before spending money on one.

LISTENING 6
6.2. Listen and answer the questions.

1 Choking is the _______ leading cause of death in young children.


A. first B. second C. third D. fourth
2 Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a cause of choking?
A. toys B. jewelry C. coins D. chalk
3 What kind of food is mentioned as a cause of choking?
A. bread B. carrots C. cakes D. banana
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4 To ensure safety for your child you should _______.
A. not let him/her run with anything in his or her mouth.
B. not let your child lie down while eating
C. not leave him/her alone with a propped up bottle.
D. All of these

unit 6
heart

diseases

I. CLOZE TESTS
1.1. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box.

A. affect, B. caused, C. hereditary, D. include, E. hypertensive,


F. known, G. leading, H. suggests, I. supply, J. surrounding

Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which _________(1) the heart.
The most common heart diseases are:
Coronary heart disease, a disease of the heart itself _________(2) by the accumulation of
atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that _________(3) the myocardium
Ischaemic heart disease, another disease of the heart itself, characterized by reduced blood supply to
the organ.
Cardiovascular disease, a sub-umbrella term for a number of diseases that affect the heart itself
and/or the blood vessel system, especially the veins and arteries _________(4) to and from the heart.
Research on disease dimorphism _________(5) that women who suffer with cardiovascular disease
usually suffer from forms that affect the blood vessels while men usually suffer from forms that affect
the heart muscle itself. Well- _________(6) causes of cardiovascular disease _________(7)
diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia.
- Pulmonary heart disease, a failure of the right side of the heart.
- _________(8) heart disease, heart disease caused by unavoidable genetic factors
- _________(9) heart disease, heart disease caused by high blood pressure, especially localised high
blood pressure
- Inflammatory heart disease, heart disease that involves inflammation of the heart muscle and/or the
tissue _________(10) it.
- Valvular heart disease, heart disease that affects the valves of the heart.

accumulation tích luỹ ischaemia thiếu máu cục bộ


atheromatous plaque mảng vữa mạch localise khu trú
coronary heart disease bệnh mạch vành myocardium cơ tim
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dimorphism tính lưỡng hình pulmonary heart disease bệnh tâm phế
hereditary di truyền umbrella term thuật ngữ bao trùm,
chung
hypercholesterolemia tăng cholesterol máu unavoidable không tránh được
hypertensive cao huyết áp

1. 2. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box.

A. artery, B. buildup, C. decades, D. death, E.evidence,


F. flow, G. myocardium, H. period, I. reason, J. symptoms

Coronary heart disease and atherosclerotic heart disease

Coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary _________(1) disease (CAD) and
atherosclerotic heart disease, is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the
walls of the arteries that supply the _________(2) (the muscle of the heart). While the _________(3)
and signs of coronary heart disease are noted in the advanced state of disease, most individuals with
coronary heart disease show no evidence of disease for _________(4) as the disease progresses
before the first onset of symptoms, often a "sudden" heart attack, finally arise. After decades of
progression, some of these atheromatous plaques may rupture and (along with the activation of the
blood clotting system) start limiting blood _________(5) to the heart muscle. The disease is the most
common cause of sudden _________(6), and is also the most common _________(7) for death of
men and women over 65 years of age.
Atherosclerotic heart disease can be thought of as a
wide spectrum of disease of the heart. At one end of
the spectrum is the asymptomatic individual with
atheromatous streaks within the walls of the coronary
arteries (the arteries of the heart). These streaks
represent the early stage of atherosclerotic heart
disease and do not obstruct the flow of blood. A
coronary angiogram performed during this stage of
disease may not show any _________(8) of coronary
artery disease, because the lumen of the coronary
artery has not decreased in calibre.
Over a _________(9) of many years, these streaks
increase in thickness. While the atheromatous plaques
initially expand into the walls of the arteries, eventually they will expand into the lumen of the vessel,
affecting the flow of blood through the arteries. While it was originally believed that the growth of
atheromatous plaques was a slow, gradual process, some recent evidence suggests that the gradual
_________(10) of plaque may be complemented by small plaque ruptures which cause the sudden
increase in the plaque burden due to accumulation of thrombus material.

asymptomatic không triệu chứng gradual dần dần


atheromatous streak dải vữa mạch heart attack cơn đau tim đột ngột
atherosclerotic vữa xơ động mạch initially lúc đầu
blood clotting system hệ đông máu lumen of the vessel lòng mạch
burden gánh nặng progress tiến triển
complement bổ sung rupture rách, gãy, đứt, thoát vị
evidence bằng chứng spectrum phổ, phạm vi
expand mở rộng thrombus material huyết khối, cục máu đông

Intravascular ultrasound image


of a coronary artery (left), with
color coding on the right,
showing the lumen (yellow),
external elastic membrane

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(blue) and the atherosclerotic plaque burden (green). As the plaque burden increases, the lumen size
will decrease.

1.3. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box.

A. considerably, B. differently, C. especially, D. long-acting, E. orally,


F. regularly, G. severe, H. stable, I. usually, J. urgent

Angina
The pain associated with very advanced CHD is known as angina, and _________(1) presents as a
sensation of pressure in the chest, arm pain, jaw pain, and other forms of discomfort. The word
discomfort is preferred over the word pain for describing the sensation of angina, because it varies
_________(2) among individuals in
character and intensity and most
people do not perceive angina as
painful, unless it is _________(3).
There is evidence that angina and
CHD present _________(4) in
women and men.
Angina that occurs _________(5)
with activity, upon awakening, or at
other predictable times is termed
_________(6) angina and is
associated with high grade
narrowings of the heart arteries. The
symptoms of angina are often
treated with nitrate preparations such
as nitroglycerin, which come in short-
acting and _________(7) forms, and
may be administered transdermally,
sublingually or _________(8). Many
other more effective treatments,
_________(9) of the underlying
atheromatous disease, have been
developed.
Angina that changes in intensity, character or frequency is termed unstable. Unstable angina may
precede myocardial infarction, and requires _________(10) medical attention. It is treated with
morphine, oxygen, intravenous nitroglycerin, and aspirin. Interventional procedures such as
angioplasty may be done.

activity hoạt động myocardial infarction nhồi máu cơ tim


angina đau thắt ngực perceive cảm nhận
angioplasty tạo hình mạch máu precede xảy ra trước
awaken thức giấc predictable có thể đoán được
character đặc tính preparation chế phẩm
CHD chronical heart bệnh tim mạn procedures thủ thuật
disease
discomfort khó chịu stable ổn định
frequency tần số sublingually dưới lưỡi
high grade narrowing hẹp mức độ cao transdermally qua da
intensity cường độ urgent khẩn cấp
intervention can thiệp

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II. READING PASSAGES Read the passages and answer the
questions below.

2.1. PASSAGE 1: Heart disease and life style

As heart disease continues to be the number-one killer in the United States, researchers have become
increasingly interested in identifying the potential risk factors that trigger heart attacks. High-fat diets
and "life in the fast lane" have long been known to contribute to the high incidence of heart failure. But
according to new studies, the list of risk factors may be significantly longer and quite surprising.
Heart failure, for example, appears to have seasonal and temporal patterns. A higher percentage of
heart attacks occur in cold weather, and more people experience heart failure on Monday than on any
other day of the week.
In addition, people are
more susceptible to
heart attacks in the
first few hours after
waking. Cardiologists
first observed this
morning
phenomenon in the
mid-1980, and have
since discovered a
number of possible
causes. An early-
morning rise in blood
pressure, heart rate,
and concentration of
heart stimulating
hormones, plus a
reduction of blood flow
to the heart, may all
contribute to the higher
incidence of heart attacks between the hours of 8:00 a.m. and 10:00 a.m.
In other studies, both birthdays and bachelorhood have been implicated as risk factors. Statistics
reveal that heart attack rates increase significantly for both females and males in the few days
immediately preceding and following their birthdays. And unmarried men are more at risk for heart
attacks than their married counterparts. Though stress is thought to be linked in some way to all of the
aforementioned risk factors, intense research continues in the hope of further comprehending why and
how heart failure is triggered.

Questions

1. What does the passage mainly discuss?


A. Risk factors in heart attacks
B. Seasonal and temporal patterns of heart attacks
C. Cardiology in the 1980s D. Diet and stress as factors in heart attacks
2. The word potential in paragraph 1 could best be replaced by which of the following?
A. harmful B. unknown C. primary D. possible
3. The word trigger in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to which of the following?
A. involve B. cause C. affect D. encounter
4. According to the passage, which of the following is not possible cause of many heart attacks?
A. Decreased blood flow of the heart B. Increased blood pressure
C. Lower heart rate D. Increase in hormones
5. The word phenomenon in paragraph 2 refers to which of the following?
A. habit B. illness C. occurrence D. activity

2.2. PASSAGE 2: Arthritis


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Arthritis is a general term that refers to over a hundred different types of joint inflammation. This joint
inflammation causes swelling, pain and stiffness. The typical signs of arthritis are swelling of the joint
that is warm to the touch, pain, tenderness, stiffness, redness and loss of function. Arthritis is not
always limited to the joints of the body and can affect soft tissues and internal organs.
In the joint, inflammation causes damage to the cartilage and synovial lining. When the cartilage is
worn down, the bones may rub together. Damage to the synovial lining cause synovial fluid to leak and
produce fluid in the joint lining. This adds to the swelling. If the joint lining continues to grow, it can
permanently damage the bone. All of this causes pain,
swelling and distress for the patient.
The most common types of arthritis are:
Osteoarthritis. This is the most prevalent. In osteoarthritis,
the cartilage covering the bone slowly wears away with age
and the bones rub together.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA.) In rheumatoid arthritis the
body’s immune system begins to attack the joints of the body
causing the joint lining to swell.
Gout. Gout is a condition where the body cannot effectively
remove uric acid and the uric acid crystallizes in the joints
like needles, causing swelling and severe pain.
Questions
51 What type of disease is arthritis?
. A. Inflammation disease B. Muscle disease C. Acute disease D. All of these
52 How many common signs of arthritis are mentioned?
. A. 4 B. 5 C. 6 D. 7
53 What happens when the cartilage is worn down?
. A. the bones may be drier B. the bones may contact each other
C. the bones may be thinner D. All of these
54 How many common types of arthritis are mentioned?
. A. 2 B. 3 C. 4 D. 5
55 Which type of arthritis is an autoimmune disease?
. A. Osteoarthritis B. Rheumatoid C. Gout D. All of these

III. MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY


Put one term in each gap
A. conditions, B. dermatitis, C. dermatologist,
D. desensitize, E. diagnosis F. differentiate,
G. dyspnoea, H. eczema, I. edema, J. effector
1. A dermatologist’s examination must _______ this type of dermatitis from other skin from atopic
dermatitis and contact dermatitis…
2. A molecule that binds to an enzyme with an effect on its catalytic activity, i.e. either an activator
or inhibitor is a(n) _______.
3. An accurate _______ must be made in order to obtain important medical information necessary
to treat COPD.
4. Diagnosing _______ can be difficult because it may be confused with other skin conditions such
as contact dermatitis.
5. _______, or shortness of breath, is one of the earliest and most common symptoms of heart
disease.
6. _______ means swelling caused by fluid in your body's tissues
7. Immunotherapy comprises a series of shots given over time that can help _______ you to
allergens. Your allergist can help you choose the right plan for you.
8. Itching is a common symptom of eczema and other skin _______.
9. Skin and soft tissue infections such as abscesses and _______ should be treated for 5–7 days
10 Topical steroids may relieve itching, but their use should be prescribed by a(n) _______ to
. assure safe and effective use.

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IV. STRUCTURE & VOCABULARY
Choose the best answer among A, B, C, and D.

1. Which word is used to describe something not being done to the extreme?
A. unconscious B. natural C. embarrassed D. moderate
2. Which word is used in place of advise or insist?
A. urge B. spread C. call for D. waste
3. Which word is used in place of life-threatening?
A. warning B. short of breath C. fatal D. resuscitation
4. Which word means not absorbing food properly?
A. discomfort B. indigestion C. embarrassment D. sweating
5. When the pancreases of dogs were removed, the dogs developed all the signs and symptoms of
diabetes
A. treated B. operated on C. taken away D. transplanted
6. Waste is released in water from factories and processing plants.
A. dissolved B. disposed of C. transported D. treated
7. Type 2 diabetes is caused by a lack of insulin.
A. shortage B. lot C. part D. great deal
8. Tuberculosis sometimes causes mild fever in the afternoon.
A. high B. slight C. light D. wild
9. This results in the previously described symptoms of dyspnea.
A. early B. earlier C. after D. prior
10 The disease also causes decreased blood circulation in the limbs.
. A. hand B. foot C. hands and foots D. legs and arms

V. REWRITING
Rewrite the following sentences, beginning with the given initials.

1. The blood test may be helpful in determining specific allergen sensitivity.


 The blood test may help ……………………..
2. Someone allergic to birch pollen may also find that they have an allergic reaction to the skin of
apples or potatoes.
 Someone who …………..
3. This occurs because of similarities in the proteins of the pollen and the food.
 This occurs because there …………………..
4. The goal of the treatment is to reduce allergy symptoms caused by the inflammation of affected
tissues.
 the treatment is aimed ……………..
5. The goal of treatment is to reduce allergy symptoms caused by the inflammation of affected
tissues.
 The goal of treatment is to reduce allergy symptoms which ………………….

VI. LISTENING

LISTENING 7

6. 1. Listen and complete the text with what you hear.

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Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. Coronary heart disease is
when the arteries that carry blood to the heart become blocked with cells, _______(1), and fatty
deposits, called plaque. The purpose of the blood inside these vessels is to bring oxygen and nutrients
to the heart muscle. If an artery becomes narrowed or _______(2), oxygen and nutrients cannot be
_______(3) to areas of the heart tissue. This can cause temporary changes to these areas. If heart
tissue goes too long without oxygen or nutrients, heart tissue can die. This is called a heart
_______(4).
There are many tests available to look for coronary heart disease. The choice of which and how many
tests to perform depends on your history of heart problems and current _______(5).
If coronary heart disease is diagnosed there are many ways to
_______(6) it.
These can include lifestyle changes such as _______(7) exercise,
changes in diet, and quitting smoking. Or you may need
medication. However, medication can only help treat the
symptoms of blocked coronary arteries, it cannot fix them.
In more _______(8) cases of heart disease, surgery is needed to
make a new path for blood, going around a narrowed or blocked
vessel. This surgery is called coronary artery bypass graft.
During coronary artery bypass graft surgery a blood vessel is
taken from somewhere else in the body and is used to bypass a
_______(9) or blocked vessel in the heart. This improves the
blood _______(10) to the heart and in turn, improves the delivery
of oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle.
LÍSTENING 8
6.2. Listen and answer the questions.

1 The number of American people dying from smoking every year is _______.
A. 90,000 B. 300,000 C. 930,000 D. 390,000
2 1 out of _______ deaths is caused by smoking tobacco.
A. 4 B. 5. C. 6. D. 7
3 Which of the following is true?
A. More women die from lung cancer than breast cancer.
B. More women die from breast cancer than lung cancer.
C. Breast cancer and lung cancer cause the same deaths of women.
4 Children usually begin smoking _______.
A. When they go to primary school.
B. Before they go to high school.
C. When they go to college.
5 The most common diseases in both smoking men and women is _______.
A. breast cancer B. lung cancer C. heart attack D. pneumonia

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UNIT 7
INFECTIOUS DISEASES

I. CLOZE TESTS
1.1. Fill each gap with one of the words given in the box.

A. agents, B. damages, C. capable, D. contact, E. describes,


F. fluids, G. fungi, H. occur, I. results, J. synonymous

Infectious disease and contagious disease


An infectious disease is a clinically evident disease of humans or animals that _________(1) or
injures the host so as to impair host function, and _________(2) from the presence and activity of one
or more pathogenic microbial _________(3), including viruses, bacteria, _________(4), protozoa,
multicellular parasites, and aberrant proteins known as prions. Transmission of an infectious disease
may _________(5) through several pathways; including through _________(6) with infected
individuals, by water, food, airborne inhalation, or through vector-borne spread.
A contagious disease (also called a communicable disease) is an infectious disease that is
_________(7) of being transmitted from one person or species to another. Contagious diseases are
often spread through direct contact with an individual, contact with the bodily _________(8) of infected
individuals, or with objects that the infected individual has contaminated.
The term infectivity _________(9) the ability of an organism to enter, survive and multiply in the host,
while the infectiousness of a disease indicates the comparative ease with which the disease is
transmitted to other hosts. An infection however, is not _________(10) with an infectious disease; as
an infection may not cause clinical symptoms or impair host function.

aberrant protein bất thường, sai lạc infectivity khả năng gây nhiễm khuẩn
clinically trên lâm sàng pathway con đường, quá trình
contagious = communicable lây, truyền nhiễm species loài
contaminate làm nhiễm survive sống qua, sống sót
evident rõ rệt vector-borne spread lây truyền qua véc-tơ
impair gây suy yếu

prion /’pri:ən/ a protein particle that is believed to be the cause of brain diseases such as bovine
spongiform encephalophathy (bệnh bò điên), scrapie (bệnh thần kinh của dê cừu). Prions are not
visible microscopically, contain no nucleic acid, and are highly resistant to destruction.

1.2. Fill each gap with one of the words given in the box.

A. cause, B. contact, C. defenses, D. disease, E. exposure,


F. infect, G. microorganisms, H. occur, I. resist, J. tract

Bacterial pathogens
Among the almost infinite varieties of microorganisms, relatively few cause disease in healthy
individuals. Infectious disease results from the interplay between those few pathogens and the
_________(1) of the hosts they infect. The appearance and severity of disease resulting from any
pathogen depends upon the ability of that pathogen to damage the host as well as the ability of the
host to _________(2) the pathogen. Infectious _________(3), or microbes, are therefore classified as
either primary pathogens or as opportunistic pathogens according to the status of host defenses.
Primary pathogens _________(4) disease as a result of their presence or activity within the normal,
healthy host, and their intrinsic virulence (the severity of the disease they cause) is, in part, a
necessary consequence of their need to reproduce and spread. Many of the most common primary
pathogens of humans only _________(5) humans, however many serious diseases are caused by
organisms acquired from the environment or which infect non-human hosts.
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Organisms which cause an infectious _________(6) in a host with
depressed resistance are classified as opportunistic pathogens.
Opportunistic disease may be caused by microbes that are
ordinarily in _________(7) with the host, such as bacteria or fungi
in the gastrointestinal or the upper respiratory _________(8), and
they may also result from microbes acquired from other hosts or
from the environment as a result of traumatic introduction (as in
surgical wound infections). An opportunistic disease requires
impairment of host defenses, which may _________(9) as a result
of genetic defects, exposure to antimicrobial drugs or
immunosuppressive chemicals (as might occur following
poisoning or cancer chemotherapy), _________(10) to ionizing
radiation, or as a result of an infectious disease with immunosuppressive activity (such as with
measles, malaria or HIV disease). Primary pathogens may also cause more severe disease in a host
with depressed resistance than would normally occur in an immunosufficient host.
A. cause, B. contact, C. defenses, D. disease, E. exposure,
F. infect, G. microorganisms, H. occur, I. resist, J. tract

acquire mắc phải, tập nhiễm interplay tác động lẫn nhau
chemotherapy hoá trị liệu intrinsic nội tại
defense phòng thủ, bảo vệ opportunistic cơ hội
depressed suy nhược, chán nản pathogen tác nhân gây bệnh
immunosufficient đủ khả năng miễn dịch radiation bức xạ
immunosuppressive ức chế miễn dịch resist, resistance đề kháng, chống lại
impairment suy yếu status tình trạng, trạng thái
infect gây nhiễm trùng virulence độc lực

1.3. Fill each gap with one of the words given in the box.
A. encounters, B. introduce, C. manifested, D. mechanisms, E. parasitized,
F. pathogens, G. symptoms, H. transmitted, I. vaccination, J. vector
Agents and vectors
Infectious disease requires an agent and a mode of transmission (or vector). A good example is
malaria, which is caused by Plasmodial parasites, chiefly Plasmodium falciparum but does not affect
humans unless the _________(1), the Anopheles mosquito, is around to _________(2) the parasite
into the human bloodstream.
The vector does not have to be biological. Many infectious diseases are _________(3) by droplets
which enter the airway (e.g. common cold and tuberculosis).
Infection with most _________(4) does not result in death of the host and the offending organism is
ultimately cleared after the symptoms of the disease have waned. This process requires immune
_________(5) to kill or inactivate the inoculum of the pathogen. Specific acquired immunity against
infectious diseases may be mediated by antibodies and/or T lymphocytes. Immunity mediated by
these two factors may be _________(6) by:
- a direct effect upon a pathogen, such as antibody-initiated complement-dependent bacteriolysis,
phagocytosis and killing, as occurs for some bacteria,
- neutralization of viruses so that these organisms cannot enter cells,
- or by T lymphocytes which will kill a cell _________(7) by a microorganism.
The immune response to a microorganism often causes _________(8) such as a high fever and
inflammation, and has the potential to be more devastating than direct damage caused by a microbe.
Resistance to infection (immunity) may be acquired following a disease, by asymptomatic carriage of
the pathogen, by harboring an organism with a similar structure (crossreacting), or by _________(9).
Knowledge of the protective antigens and specific acquired host immune factors is more complete for
primary pathogens than for opportunistic pathogens.
Immune resistance to an infectious disease requires a critical level of either antigen-specific antibodies
and/or T cells when the host _________(10) the pathogen. Some individuals develop natural serum
antibodies to the surface polysaccharides of some agents although they have had little or no contact
with the agent, these natural antibodies confer specific protection to adults and are passively
transmitted to newborns.
antibody-initiated do kháng thể khởi đầu inoculum chất tiêm truyền, cấy
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antigen-specific đặc hiệukháng nguyên manifest biểu hiện
bacteriolysis tiêu vi khuẩn mediate gián tiếp, trung gian
complement- phụ thuộc bổ sung neutralization trung hoà
dependent
critical level mức độ tới hạn offending gây hại
crossreact phản ứng chéo phagocytosis sự thực bào
devastating tàn phá, tiêu huỷ tuberculosis lao
droplet giọt nhỏ ultimately cuối cùng
harbor cư trú vector trung gian truyền bệnh
immunity miễn dịch wane lui, bớt, thuyên giảm

1.4. Fill each gap with one of the words given in the box.

A. contract, B. criteria, C. cultured, D. determine, E. discovery,


F. identified, G. number, H. occurring, I. proving, J. used,

The classification of infectious disease


One way of _________(1) that a given disease is
"infectious", is to satisfy Koch's postulates (Robert
Koch), which demand that the infectious agent is
_________(2) in patients and not in controls, and
that patients who _________(3) the agent also
develop the disease. These postulates were tried
and tested in the _________(4) of Mycobacteria as
the cause for tuberculosis. Often, it is not possible
to meet some of the _________(5), even in
diseases that are quite clearly infectious. For
example, Treponema pallidum, the causative
spirochete of syphilis, cannot be _________(6) in
vitro - however the organism can be cultured in
rabbit testes.
Epidemiology is another important tool
_________(7) to study disease in a population. For
infectious diseases it helps to _________(8) if a
disease outbreak is sporadic (occasional
occurrence), endemic (regular cases often
_________(9) in a region), epidemic (an unusually high _________(10) of cases in a region), or
pandemic (a global epidemic).

agent tác nhân pandemic đại dịch


demand yêu cầu, đòi hỏi population quần xã
endemic dịch địa phương postulates nguyên lý, tiên đề
epidemic dịch rabbit testes tinh hoàn thỏ
epidemiology dịch tễ học sporadic đơn phát
in vitro trong ống nghiệm syphilis giang mai
outbreak bùng phát dịch tool công cụ

II. READING PASSAGES Read the passages and answer the


questions below.

2.1. PASSAGE 1: Treating Infectious diseases

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When a culture has proven to be positive, the sensitivity (or, conversely, the antibiotic resistance) of an
agent can be determined by exposing it to test doses of antibiotic. This way, the microbiologist
determines how sensitive the target bacterium is to a certain antibiotic. This is usually reported as
being: Sensitive, Intermediate or Resistant. The antibiogram can then be used to determine optimal
therapy for the patient. This can reduce the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and lead to a decrease
in antibiotic resistance.
Doctors who specialise in the medical treatment of infectious disease are called infectiologists or
infectious disease specialists. Generally, infections are initially diagnosed by primary care physicians
or internal medicine specialists. For example, an "uncomplicated" pneumonia will generally be treated
by the internist or the pulmonologist (lung physician).
The services of the infectious disease team are called for when:
- The disease has not been definitively diagnosed after an initial workup
- The patient is immunocompromised (for example, in AIDS or after chemotherapy);
- The infectious agent is of an uncommon nature (e.g. tropical diseases);
- The disease has not responded to first line antibiotics;
- The disease might be dangerous to other patients, and the patient might have to be isolated.
The work of the infectiologist therefore entails working with patients and doctors on one hand and
laboratory scientists and immunologists on the other hand.

antibiogram kháng sinh đồ initial workup thăm khám sơ bộ


broad-spectrum phổ rộng intermediate trung gian
culture cấy, nuôi cấy isolate phân lập, cách ly
diagnose chẩn đoán nature bản chất, tự nhiên
entail kéo theo optimal tối ưu
first line antibiotics kháng sinh hàng đầu pulmonologist bác sỹ tim phổi
immunocompromised thoả hiệp miễn dịch specialise in chuyên sâu về
immunologist nhà miễn dịch học tropical nhiệt đới

Questions

1. An antibiogram is done when _________.


A. after a positive culture B. before a positive culture
C. after a negative culture D. before a negative culture
2. An antibiogram is used so as to _________.
A. find the agent of the infection B. reduce the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics
C. determine the exposure to the target bacterium D. determine a positive culture
3. The sensitiveness of the bacterium to an antibiotic is defined by using _________.
A. broad-spectrum antibiotics B. an optimal therapy
C. an antibiogram D. primary care
4. In which case of the following are the services of the infectious disease team NOT sent for?
A. The cause of the disease is impossible to identify.
B. The cause of the disease is strange.
C. The disease is life-threatening. D. The disease has responded to antibiotics.
5. Which of the following is NOT an example of an infectious disease?
A. pneumonia B. malaria C. dysentery D. ricket

2.2. PASSAGE 2: Cholera


Cholera has been observed for centuries among human populations and has been responsible for
many epidemics, resulting in millions of deaths. It is an infectious disease, caused by the bacterium
Vibrio cholerae , first isolated by Robert Koch in 1884.
The organism enters the body through the digestive tract during the ingestion of contaminated food
and water. A common source in many countries is eating raw or poorly cooked seafood taken from
contaminated water. The disease is especially prevalent after a natural disaster or other destruction
MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.com 43
that results in a lack of fresh water. When sewer systems fail so that waste travels into the rivers or
streams and piped water is not available so that people must take their drinking and cooking water
from the rivers or streams, the disease will frequently strike. Since many populations establish along
waterways, the disease can be spread along waterways from one community to the next community
downstream.
51. Cholera is caused by _______.
A. a virus B. a bacterium C. kidney failure D. viruses
52. The word epidemics is closest in meaning to _______.
A. studies B. vaccines C. bacteria D. plagues
53. Which of the following is not a probable cause of infection?
A. Eating food cooked with contaminated water
B. Eating undercooked seafood
C. Eating overcooked pork D. Eating raw vegetables
54. Which of the following would be the most appropriate title for this passage?
A. Dysentery and Its Effects
B. Water Purification Systems and Their Importance
C. Results of War and Natural Disaster on Disease
D. The Cause and Effects of Cholera
55. It can be inferred from the reading that _______.
A. good cooking and hygiene practice can reduce the chance of getting disease
B. water mixed with other substances will not pass the disease
C. people are likely to get this disease when their intestines are not infected
D. Robert Kock developed the disease in a laboratory

III. STRUCTURE & VOCABULARY


Choose the best answer among A, B, C, and D.

1. _______ milk alone is the only food and drink an infant needs until the age of six months
A. Cow B. Breast C. Chest D. Bottle
2. _______ can protect children against six common infectious diseases during childhood.
A. vaccination B. radiology C. surgery D. dehydration
3. _______ diseases spread easily from one person to another directly or indirectly.
A. Chronic B. Acute C. Serious D. Contagious
4. _______ is a condition in which the body loses more liquid than it takes in.
A. Dehydration B. Rehydration C. Hydration D. Malaria
5. _______ is the inflammation of the lungs caused primarily by bacteria, viruses, dusts and allergy.
A. Hepatitis B. Cancer C. Pneumonia D. Meningitis
6. _______ is when the blood pressure is above 120/80.
A. Tension B. Hypertension C. Hypotension D. Tense
7. Before you buy any medicine, read the _______ to see what's in it.
A. box B. tablet C. label D. drug
8. But when too much histamine is released from the cells, it affects the blood vessels and causes the
tissues around them to swell.
A. become larger in size B. become odorless C. become smaller D. become transparent
9. Diabetes may cause _______ problems such as Diabetic Retinopathy, Cataracts, and Glaucoma.
A. eye B. heart C. sugar D. blood
10 Do not stop _______ the medicines just because you feel better.
. A. to take B. taking C. taken D. took

IV. MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY


Put one term in each gap

A. excrement B. exposure C. extract D. hive


E. homeopathy F. hygiene G. hypotension
H. fatigue I. immunoglobulin J. susceptibility

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1. A central thesis of _______ is that an ill person can be treated using a substance that can produce,
in a healthy person, symptoms similar to those of the illness.
2. A test is positive when a small _______ occurs, which may include itching and redness at the site
of the prick.
3. All pet _______ must be cleaned and disinfected immediately.
4. An _______ from grape seeds forces laboratory leukemia cells to commit cell suicide, according to
researchers from the University of Kentucky.
5. Health workers in the country are at serious risk of contracting the hepatitis B virus due to _______
to blood and body fluids.
6. _______ refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness
7. _______ A is an antibody playing a critical role in mucosal immunity. More IgA is produced in
mucosal linings than all other types of antibody combined.
8. Impaired immunity increases _______ to pathogens and can increase the likelihood of sickness or
death.
9. Physical _______ or muscle weakness is a direct term for the inability to exert force with one's
muscles to the degree that would be expected.
10 Postural _______ can occur in persons of all ages but is much more common among the elderly,
. especially in those on medications for high blood pressure

V. REWRITING
Rewrite the following sentences, beginning with the given initials.

1. Specific illnesses caused by allergies may require other treatments.


 Specific illnesses that are _______
2. The best thing to do is to avoid what causes your allergic symptoms in the first place.
 It is best _______
3. The proteins causing allergies are found not only in the animals' fur or hair but also in saliva, urine,
mucous, and hair roots
 The proteins which _______
4. A company called Allerca has recently announced to be able to produce a so called hypoallergenic
cat
 A company called Allerca has recently announced that _______
5. A human being has cat allergy if he shows an allergic reaction towards proteins produced by cats
 A human being has cat allergy if he shows an allergic reaction towards proteins which _______

VI. LISTENING
LISTENING 9

6.1. Listen and answer the questions.

1 The epidemic in September 2006 in the United States was caused by _______.
A. stomach flu B. E. Coli C. milk D. meat
2 _______ people in 25 states got sick from the bacteria in fresh spinach.
A. 600 B. 660 C. 166 D. 160
3 How many patients died?
A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4
4 What kinds of spinach were safe to eat?
A. bagged B. canned C. frozen D. B&C

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5 Since 1995 there have been _______ cases of spinach or lettuce contaminated with E.
coli.
A. 12 B. 20 C. 30 D. 22

LISTENING 10
6.2. Listen and complete the text with what you hear.

Wound handling

Even _______(1) cuts can become infected if they are left _______(2) . Any break in the skin can
let bacteria enter the body. An increasing number of bacterial skin infections are resistant to
_______(3) medicines.
These infections can spread
throughout the body. But
taking good care of any
_______(4) that breaks the
skin can help prevent an
infection.
Medical experts say the first
step in treating a wound is to
use clean water. Lake or
_______(5) water should not
be used. To clean the area
around the wound, experts
suggest using a clean cloth
and _______(6) . They say
there is no need to use
products like hydrogen
peroxide or _______(7) .
It is important to _______(8)
all dirt and other material from
the wound. After the wound is
clean, use a small amount of
antibiotic _______(9) or
cream. Studies have shown
that these medicated
products can aid in healing.
They also help to keep the surface of the wound from becoming dry. Finally, cover the cut with a
clean bandage while it heals. Change the bandage _______(10) and keep the wound clean.

UNIT 8
ANTIMICROBIAL
RESISTANCE

I. CLOZE TESTS
1.1. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box.

A. artificially, B. consequence, C. develop, D. exposed, E. generation,

MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.com 46


F. greatly, G. pass, H. patients, I. survive, J. withstand

Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a


microorganism to _________(1) the effects of an
antibiotic. It is a specific type of drug resistance.
Antibiotic resistance can _________(2) naturally
via natural selection through random mutation.
Antibiotic resistance can also be introduced
_________(3) into a microorganism through
transformation protocols. This can be a useful
way of implanting artificial genes into the
microorganism.
Antibiotic resistance is a _________(4) of
evolution via natural selection or programmed
evolution. The antibiotic action is an
environmental pressure; those bacteria which
have a mutation allowing them to _________(5) will live on to reproduce. They will then
_________(6) this trait to their offspring, which will be a fully resistant _________(7).
Several studies have demonstrated that patterns of antibiotic usage _________(8) affect the
number of resistant organisms which develop. Overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as
second- and third-generation cephalosporins, greatly hastens the development of methicillin
resistance, even in organisms that have never been _________(9) to the selective pressure of
methicillin per se (thus the resistance was already present). Other factors contributing towards
resistance include incorrect diagnosis, unnecessary prescriptions, improper use of antibiotics by
_________(10), and the use of antibiotics as livestock food additives for growth promotion.

artificially nhân tạo offspring con cháu


consequence hậu quả overuse sử dụng quá mức,
qua liều
demonstrate biểu thị, thể hiện per se về thực chất
evolution tiến hoá prescription đơn thuốc
food additives phụ gia thực phẩm random mutation đột biến ngẫu nhiên
generation thế hệ selection, selective chọn lọc
growth promotion kích thích tăng trưởng trait đặc tính
hasten thúc đẩy transformation cách thức biến đổi
protocol
implant cấy ghép withstand chịu đựng
livestock gia súc

1. 2. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box.

A. bioactive, B. distinct, C. estimated, D. infectious, E. pathogenic,


F. possible, G. limitless, H. resistant, I. traditional, J. useful

Development of newer antibiotics


The resistance problem demands that a renewed effort be made to seek antibacterial agents
effective against pathogenic bacteria _________(1) to current antibiotics. One of the _________(2)
strategies towards this objective is the rational localization of _________(3) phytochemicals. Plants
have an almost _________(4) ability to synthesize aromatic substances, most of which are phenols
or their oxygen-substituted derivatives such as tannins. Most are secondary metabolites, of which at
least 12,000 have been isolated, a number _________(5) to be less than 10% of the total. In many
cases, these substances serve as plant defense mechanisms against predation by microorganisms,
insects, and herbivores. Many of the herbs and spices used by humans to season food yield
_________(6) medicinal compounds including those having antibacterial activity.
_________(7) healers have long used plants to prevent or cure _________(8) conditions. Many of
these plants have been investigated scientifically for antimicrobial activity and a large number of
MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.com 47
plant products have been shown to inhibit growth of _________(9) bacteria. A number of these
agents appear to have structures and modes of action that are _________(10) from those of the
antibiotics in current use, suggesting that cross-resistance with agents already in use may be
minimal.

1. 3. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box.
A. avoiding, B. induced, C. limited, D. produced, E. separately,
F. spreading, G. testing, H. theoretically, I. undercooked, J. washing

Alternatives to antibiotics
_________(1) hands properly reduces the chance of getting infected or _________(2) infection.
Thoroughly washing or _________(3) of raw foods such as fruits, vegetables, raw eggs, and
_________(4) meat can also reduce the chance of an infection.
Vaccines do not suffer the problem of resistance
because a vaccine enhances the body's natural
defenses, while an antibiotic operates _________(5)
from the body's normal defenses. Nevertheless, new
strains may evolve that escape immunity
_________(6) by vaccines.
While _________(7) promising, anti-staphylococcal
vaccines have shown _________(8) efficacy,
because of immunological variation between
Staphylococcus species, and the limited duration of
effectiveness of the antibodies _________(9).
Development and _________(10) of more effective
vaccines is under way.
Phage therapy is a more recent alternative that can
cope with the problem of resistance.

cope with đối phó với properly đúng cách, thích đáng
duration thời gian raw food thực phẩm tươi sống
enhance tăng cường separate tách ra
escape thoát khỏi staphylococcus tụ cầu
evolve tiến hoá strain chủng, giòng
immunological variation biến thể miễn dịch theoretical về lý thuyết
induce gây ra, kích thích thoroughly thận trọng, cẩn thận
nevertheless tuy nhiên under way được tiến hành, áp dụng
operate hoạt động undercook nấu không chín
phage therapy trị liệu bằng thể thực khuẩn

II. READING PASSAGES Read the passages and answer the


questions below.

2.1. PASSAGE 1: Tannins and Cancer


Botanists and biomedical scientists have been collecting evidence for decades that tannins,
compounds of plant origin that are found in tea and red wine, can cause cancer of the esophagus,
which is almost always fatal. In 1962, they began to investigate a fivefold increase in the rate of
cancer of the esophagus among the Bantu of Africa from 1943 to 1953
Soon after, they began to search for causes of the disease among the inhabitants of Curacao and
other Caribbean islands. Interviews with victims and surviving relatives led them to suspect that
something in the diet was causing the cancer. Three of the dietary plants that they had collected
produced tumours in 100 percent of their experimental animals. The suspect plants were all native
teas with medicinal application. Though the plants were not related botanically, the one thing they
had in common was condensed tannin.
Tannins, like caffeine and nicotine, serve plants as defenses against insects and other predators.
Tannins were found in the sorghum that serves both the Bantu and the people of Curacao as a
dietary staple. The botanists theorized that a drought had been indirectly responsible for the cancer
MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.com 48
epidemic among the Bantu, because it forced them to rely more on tannin-rich sorghum, which is
extremely drought resistant, after their other staple crops died out.
While studies have shown that tannins produce liver cancer in lab animals, human studies involving
tannins so far have been only field observations, under controlled conditions. Some scientists
believe other factors, such as smoking and drinking ethanol (beverage alcohol) also contribute to
esophageal cancer in humans.

beverage bia rượu native bản địa


biomedical y sinh predator côn trùng ăn mồi sống
botanist nhà thực vật học sorghum cây lúa miến
compound hợp chất staple thức ăn chính
condensed tannin ta-nanh cô đặc suspect nghi ngờ
drought resistant chống hạn theorize đưa ra giả thuyết
field observation quan sát thực địa tumour khối u
fivefold 5 lần

1. According to the passage, where are tannins found?


A. in some plants like tea and sorghum B. in animal tumours and liver cancers
C. in caffeine and nicotine D. in human studies and field observation
2. According to the passage, in what way are tannins beneficial? They _________.
A. give native teas medicinal applications B. serve as a dietary staple
C. are very drought resistant D. protect plants against insects
3. What do scientists think was the reason for the increase in esophageal cancer among the
Bantu?
A. They used too much caffeine and nicotine B. They drank too much tea and red wine
C. Sorghum became a larger part of their diet D. They began smoking and drinking
alcohol.
4. What did scientists observe about the native teas they collected in the Carribean?
A. They protected people from insects B. They caused tumours to grow in lab
animals
C. They were related botanically to sorghum D. They were also found among the Bantu
5. When did the scientists begin to look for causes of esophageal cancer in Curacao and the
Caribbean?
A. shortly after 1962 B. shortly after 1953
C. between 1943 and 1953 D. between 1953 and 1962

2.2. PASSAGE 2: Measles


Measles is an extremely contagious, febrile disease of high morbidity characterized by rash and
catarrhal inflammation of the eyes and respiratory tract. It is principally a benign disease of
childhood, but may afflict with equal frequency persons of any age not previously attacked by the
virus.
It is a disease of cosmopolitan distribution, endemic in all but isolated populations. It may occur at
any time of the year, but most outbreaks are in late winter and early spring, with a peak at the end
of April.

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Throughout most of the world measles is a disease of children; most adults possess acquired
immunity. Beyond the age of ten more than 90% of the population have specific antibody. Morbidity
and mortality rates do not appear to be influenced by sex or race. Case fatality rates are highest in
children less than five years
of age, and are also relatively
high in the aged. Congenital
infection has occurred.
There is no evidence that the
virus may vary in virulence in
nature. The oft-cited and
notorious (được biết đến
nhiều) virulence of the
disease in primitive, isolated
or crowded populations may
be explained by
(1) more prevalent (thịnh
hành, phổ biến) infection of
feeble and aged adults,
(2) poor environmental
conditions,
(3) inadequate medical care,
and
(4) secondary bacterial
infections.
Because measles rarely
induces fatal disease, it is
evident that fatalities
attributable to measles may
vary in incidence according to
the prevalence of bacterial pathogens and the resistance of the population to their presence.

1. Which of the following statements is TRUE?


A. Measles occurs in only a few countries. B. Adults do not usually have measles.
C. Measles rarely causes fever. D. Measles is not a contagious disease.
2. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
A. Measles is endemic in all populations except isolated ones.
B. Measles is principally a benign disease of childhood.
C. Measles never occurs in summer.
D. Rash, inflammation of the eyes, etc. are the usual symptoms of measles.
3. According to the text, measles is a disease of children because:
A. most adults possess acquired immunity. B. they often die from measles.
C. they aren’t brought up well. D. they often play together.
4. According to the text, 10% of the population over ten years of age
A. do not possess acquired immunity. B. die from measles.
C. never have measles. D. have specific antibody.
5. Fatalities caused by measles may vary in incidence
A. according to the ability of the population to develop acquired immunity.
B. according to the time of the year when measles occurs.
C. according to sex or race. D. according to every country.
IV. MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY
Put one term in each gap
A. immunosuppressants B. immunotherapy C. inflammation D.
intradermally E. intravenous F. mucosa G. monoclonal
H. pediatrics I. wheeze J. wheezing

1. BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guerin), the _______ used tuberculosis vaccine, has been used all
aroud the world for more than 40 years.
2. _______ is moist tissue that lines some organs and body cavities throughout the body,
MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.com 50
including your nose, mouth, lungs, and digestive tract.
3. _______ antibodies are widely used as diagnostic and research reagents.
4. _______ therapy or IV therapy is the giving of liquid substances directly into a vein.
5. _______ is a process by which the body’s white blood cells and chemicals protect us from
infection and foreign substances such as bacteria and viruses.
6. _______ refers to types of treatment that stimulate, enhance or suppress the body's own
defence system. It is used to treat certain types of cancer and inflammatory diseases, such as
rheumatoid arthritis…
7. _______ are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system.
8. _______ is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants and children.
9. _______ is an asthma symptom that results from narrowing of the airways. A _______ sounds
like a high-pitched whistle as you breathe through your mouth or nose.

V. REWRITING
Rewrite the following sentences, beginning with the given initials.

1. Opportunistic disease may be caused by microbes that are ordinarily in contact with the host.
 Opportunistic disease may _______
2. Infection with most pathogens does not result in death of the host.
 Infection with most pathogens does not cause _______
3. The immune response to a microorganism often causes symptoms such as a high fever and
inflammation
 The immune response to a microorganism often lead _______
4. Certain agents cannot be cultured, for example Treponema pallidum and most viruses.
 It is _______
5. Between 1518 and 1568 pandemics diseases are said to have caused the population of Mexico
to fall from 20 million to 3 million.
 It is _______

VI. LÍSTENING 11
Listen and complete the text with what you hear.
In order to have a healthy baby, it is _______(1) not to do certain things while
pregnant. The most common _______(2) that babies have problems when they are
born is because the mother took _______(3) or drank alcohol while pregnant.
Any food she eats, any liquid she drinks, and any drug she takes passes through the
mother's body and into the _______(4) baby. There is nothing that stops the baby
from getting whatever the mother has in her body.
There is no _______(5) amount of alcohol or drugs a pregnant woman can take. Doctors do not know
how any baby will _______(6) to the alcohol or drugs in the mother's body. The best advice it is to not
use any alcohol or drugs while pregnant.
There is no safe time to take any drugs or alcohol during pregnancy. If a woman _______(7) she is
pregnant, she should stop smoking or using drugs and alcohol immediately. The sooner the woman
stops taking them, the better _______(8) the baby has to be born healthy.
After the baby is born, it is important for the mother to not take drugs or alcohol if she is _______(9)
feeding her child. Any drug or alcohol can be _______(10) on to the baby through the mother's milk.
It is best if you eat healthy foods, get plenty of sleep, and see a doctor regularly if you are pregnant.

UNIT 9
HIV INFECTION
This is a symbol for solidarity with HIV-positive people and those living
with AIDS.

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I. CLOZE TESTS
1.1. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box.

A. access, B. contact, C. cure, D. deaths, E. infections,


F. morbidity, G. pandemic, H. pregnancy, I. stage, J. transfusion

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or


acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS
or Aids) is a collection of symptoms and
resulting from the specific damage to the
immune _________(1) system caused by the
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The late
_________(2) of the condition leaves individuals
prone to opportunistic infections and tumors.
Although treatments for AIDS and HIV exist to
slow the virus's progression, there is no known Most researchers believe that HIV originated in
_________(3). HIV is transmitted through direct sub-Saharan Africa during the twentieth century;
_________(4) of a mucous membrane or the it is now a _________(7), with an estimated 38.6
bloodstream with a bodily fluid containing HIV, million people now living with the disease
such as blood, semen, vaginal fluid, and breast worldwide. As of January 2006, the Joint United
milk. This transmission can come in the form of Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and
anal, vaginal or oral sex, blood _________(5), the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate
contaminated hypodermic needles, exchange that AIDS has killed more than 25 million people
between mother and baby during _________(6), since it was first recognized on June 5, 1981,
childbirth, or breastfeeding, or other exposure to making it one of the most destructive epidemics
one of the above bodily fluids. in recorded history.
In 2005 alone, AIDS claimed an estimated 2.4–
3.3 million lives, of which more than 570,000
were children. A third of these _________(8) are
occurring in sub-Saharan Africa, retarding
economic growth and destroying human capital.
Antiretroviral treatment reduces both the
mortality and the _________(9) of HIV infection,
but routine _________(10) to antiretroviral
Scanning electron micrograph of HIV-1 budding
medication is not available in all countries.
from cultured lymphocyte.

claim cho rằng prone to có khuynh hướng bị


extend beyond vượt ra ngoài record ghi nhận, ghi chép
hypodermic dưới da semen tinh trùng
opportunistic infections nhiễm trùng cơ hội transfusion truyền máu
originate xuất phát vaginal fluid dịch âm đạo

1.2. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box.

A. benefit B. intake C. maintain D. malabsorption E. prevents


F. progression G. recommended H. remains I. vulnerable J. weakened

Prevention and treatment for opportunistic infections


Opportunistic infections occur when HIV has _______(1) the body’s defence against disease.
Common examples are tuberculosis, pneumonia and candidiasis. Providing prevention and
treatment for these infections not only helps the sufferer, but also _______(2) the further spread of
disease.
Even in the best-resourced areas, treatment for opportunistic infections _______(3) essential,
especially for those who have yet to start, or have only recently started, antiretroviral therapy. For
MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.com 52
young children and people with weak immune systems, drugs such as cotrimoxazole may be
_______(4) to prevent opportunistic infections.
Managing nutritional effects
As the immune system weakens, people living with HIV become more _______(5) to weight loss
and malnutrition. There are likely to be three overlapping causes:
- Reductions in food _______(6), perhaps due to painful sores in the mouth, fatigue, psychological
factors or loss of income.
- Nutrient _______(7) due to HIV itself, gut infections or diarrhoea.
- Metabolic alterations caused by HIV or other infections, leading to increased energy expenditure.
As already mentioned, weight loss and malnutrition can worsen disease _______(8). In addition,
people are less likely to _______(9) from antiretroviral treatment if they are malnourished. It is
therefore important that people who receive the help _______(10) a healthy diet.

opportunistic nhiễm trùng cơ hội reduction giảm


infection
sufferer bệnh nhân, nạn nhân alteration thay đổi
recommend đề nghị, khuyến cáo malnourished suy dinh dưỡng
vulnerable dễ bị maintain duy trì
overlapping chồng chéo malnutrition suy dinh dưỡng

1.3. Fill each of the gaps with one word of your own
HIV test
Many people are unaware that they are infected _________(1) HIV. Less _________(2) 1% of the
sexually active urban population in Africa has been tested, and this proportion is even lower
_________(3) rural populations. Furthermore, only 0.5% of pregnant women attending urban health
facilities are counseled, tested or receive their test results. Again, this proportion is even lower in
rural health facilities. Therefore, donor blood and blood products used in medicine and medical
research are screened _________(4) HIV. Typical HIV tests, including the HIV enzyme
immunoassay, detect HIV antibodies in serum, plasma, oral fluid, dried blood spot or urine of
patients. However, the window period (the time _________(5) initial infection and the development
of detectable antibodies _________(6) the infection) can vary. This is why it can take 3-6 months to
seroconvert and test positive. Commercially available tests to detect other HIV antigens, HIV-RNA,
and HIV-DNA _________(7) order to detect HIV infection prior _________(8) the development of
detectable antibodies are available. For the diagnosis _________(9) HIV infection these assays are
not specifically approved, but are nonetheless routinely used _________(10) developed countries.

approve chấp nhận immunoassay xét nghiệm miễn dịch


commercially có trên thị trường nonetheless tuy nhiển
available
counsel tư vấn screen test sàng lọc
detectable có thể phát hiện seroconvert biến đổi huyết thanh
health facility cơ sở y tế unaware thiếu ý thức

II. READING PASSAGES Read the passages and answer the


questions below.

2.1. PASSAGE 1: DIAGNOSIS

A hundred years ago a doctor had to recall all his experience and use his judgment to diagnose
what was wrong with a patient. Quite often he would be right, but sometimes he would make
mistakes. A doctor’s mistake can be dangerous, even fatal, for a patient.

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Nowadays, a doctor usually follows certain procedures when he diagnoses a patient. First, he
looks at the patient for any visible symptoms such as skin, fingernails or eye discoloration, or to
observe his posture or the way he moves. Then he asks the patient to describe his own problems.
For example, if there is any pain, what kind
and where it is. The doctor can usually
make a good guess at this stage.
However, for further confirmation he might
physically examine the patient. This
includes checking the pulse, examining the
eyes and the tongue, the skin (to see if it is
dry), checking how the patient breathes,
measuring the temperature and the blood
pressure etc. If the physician is still not
quite sure of the patient’s problem, he then
sends the patient to the lab for some tests
like blood or urine test or for x-ray pictures
of certain parts of the body. This will
confirm his prognosis. He’ll then suggest
suitable line of treatment and prescribe
medicines.
Diagnosis is becoming better all the time because of new methods and machines. Computers
have made a big difference in diagnosis. They, now, can store a lot of information about the
patient, and can even suggest suitable lines of treatment. Many laboratory machines depend on
them—without them machines like CAT, MRI or Ultrasound could not have developed at all. We
also have new kinds of endoscopes (which enable us to look inside the body) and electronic
sensors; therefore, getting rid of a lot of guesswork.

1. A good title for this passage is _______


A. Medical Machines B. Computers and Diagnosis
C. Diagnosis D. Stages of Diagnosis
2. The letter ‘C’ in CAT probably stands for
A. confirmation. B. checking. C. chemical. D. computerized
3. The pronoun ‘them’ refers to _______
A. computers. B. new methods.
C. lines of treatment. D. many laboratory machines.
4. Which of the following statements is true, according to the passage?
A. Modern doctors do not make mistakes in diagnosis.
B. Modern doctors do not need to use their judgement because of many good machines.
C. Modern doctors are less likely to make mistakes in diagnosis than old-time physicians.
D. Old-time doctors were less likely to make mistakes in diagnosis because of their experience.
5. From the second paragraph you can infer that there are _________ stages of diagnosis.
A. four B. five C. three D. many
6. From the passage you can infer that an endoscope is a/an _______
A. instrument in use for a long time. B. tool to suggest suitable lines of treatment.
C. tool to examine the exterior of the body. D. instrument to examine the inside of the body.

2.2. PASSAGE 2: ASTHMA


Asthma is a disease of the lungs that causes wheezing, coughing, chest tightness and difficulty
breathing. It can be very scary for the patient. Luckily, asthma and its effects are reversible with
medication.
Asthma attacks are the periods when symptoms suddenly become worse. Some common triggers
for these attacks are exercise, infections, dust, tobacco smoke, allergens, cold air and nervousness.
Limiting exposure to these triggers may help
improve quality of life. When an asthma attack
occurs, take your medication according to your
asthma action plan, and wait 10 to 15 minutes if
symptoms worsen or don’t improve immediate
medical attention may be necessary. Some
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danger signs are severe wheezing or coughing, trouble walking, and blue lips or fingernails. If any
of these danger signs occur go to the emergency room or call 911.
Asthma is a lifelong disease. The effects of asthma attacks on the lungs can cause serious
problems later in life. Proper management of asthma is very important.
Questions
1. How many triggers for asthma attacks are mentioned?
A. 4 B. 5 C. 6 D. 7
2. What can be seen in an asthma patient during his/her asthma attack?
A. wheezing B. difficulty breathing. C. chest tightness D. All of these
3. Which of the following is NOT true?
A. Asthma is a respiratory disease B. It is a scary disease
C. It cannot be treated D. It has typical attacks
4. What are some danger signs associated with asthma attacks?
A. severe wheezing B. trouble speaking C. blue skin D. All of these
5. What should a patient do if any danger signs occur?
A. Wait 10 to 15 minutes B. Take medication C. Go to the hospital D. Send for a doctor

III. STRUCTURE & VOCABULARY


Choose the best answer among A, B, C, and D.

1. In order not to spread the disease, the patient should stay in a _______ room.
A. separate B. small C. big D. bright
2. In vitro fertilization (test-tube babies) is a widely used technique to aid infertile couples.
A. treat B. make C. help D. allow
3. Insulin is the natural ______ hormone.
A. antidiuretic B. antibiotic C. antidiabetic D. antidiarrheal
4. It is comparatively easy to avoid a particular kind of vegetable or fish.
A. relatively B. intensively C. constantly D. certainly
5. It is important for patients to consult their doctor to know the severity of their illness
A. cause B. seriousness C. sign D. symptom
6. It is necessary to assess the effectiveness of new drugs.
A. interfere with B. define C. evaluate D. attack
7. Modern vaccines are among our most effective strategies to _______ disease.
A. protect B. protest C. treat D. prevent
8. Most people are convinced that it is a good practice.
A. are firmly persuaded B. do not believe C. suspect D. are separated
9. Mumps also usually causes fever and headache.
A. high pressure B. high temperature C. sugar levels D. diarrhea
10 Overweight people have an increased risk of high blood pressure, heart disease, and other illnesses.
. A. Too thin B. Too fat C. Too tall D. Too short

IV. MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY


Put one term in each gap

A. parasites B. pneumonitis C. remedy D. saliva


E. salivary F. sublingual G. receptor H. rehabilitating
I. rhinitis J. serum K. susceptible

1. This medication is an excellent and wonderful _______ to get rid of acne scars.
2. There are three major pairs of _______ glands in the mouth. The largest pair are called the parotid
glands.
3. _______ drugs are administered by placing the medication under the tongue.
4. She stressed the hospital's main goal is _______ patients and moving them back into the
community.
5. _______ is the watery and usually frothy substance produced in the mouths of humans and most
other animals.
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6. _______, commonly known as a runny nose, is the medical term describing irritation and
inflammation of some internal areas of the nose.
7. _______ is a general term that refers to inflammation of lung tissue.
8. In biochemistry, a _______ is a protein molecule, embedded in either the plasma membrane or
cytoplasm of a cell, to which a mobile signaling molecule may attach.
9. Human intestinal _______, worms, infection, food, water cause constipation, stomach bloating, and
other health problems.
10 Blood _______ is blood plasma without fibrinogen or the other clotting factors.
.
11 As Chennai gets cleaner and as cattle are shifted out of the city, its residents might be getting more
. _______ to asthma attacks.

V. REWRITING
Rewrite the following sentences, beginning with the given initials.

1. People infected with a new disease can carry the disease to the far side of the world before their
first symptoms appear.
 People who _______
2. The relationship between virulence and transmission is complex, and has important
consequences for the long term evolution of a pathogen.
 The relationship between virulence and transmission is complex,
3. Edward Jenner, Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin were successful in developing vaccines for
Smallpox and polio, reducing the threat of these debilitating diseases.
 Edward Jenner, Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin succeeded _______
4. They successfully developed vaccines for Smallpox and polio, reducing the threat of these
debilitating diseases.
 They successfully developed vaccines for Smallpox and polio, and _______
5. Organisms which are normally non-pathogenic can become pathogenic under the right
conditions.
 Normally non-pathogenic _______

VI. LÍSTENING

6.1. Listen and complete the text with what you hear.

Diseases caused by sex


When people have sex together, they can _______(1) things. The fluids from the body can pass
from one person to the other. These fluids can _______(2) different things.
Some things that can be shared are germs. Some germs can cause disease and make people
_______(3). These germs can turn into an _______(4). They can cause a lot of problems for men
and women for a long time.
A government person says that a certain kind of germ is being _______(5) very quickly. It is an
infection that can _______(6) a person to have health problems later in their life. The government
wants to warn people about it.
A lot of young people are _______(7) to have this infection. Many of these people are young
women. The government wants to tell these women about the disease.
The government will _______(8) people for this disease. They will do it so no one else finds out.
They will tell people how to get _______(9) of the disease. They will also tell them how to
_______(10) getting it.

6.2. Listen to a UNICEF’s report and answer the questions.


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1 What is the main topic of the report?
A. Mother-to-child STD transmission B. Mother-to-child HIV transmission
C. Man-to-woman STD transmission D. Man-to-woman HIV transmission
2 Between 2004 and 2005 there was an increase from _______ to _______ of women
receiving antiretroviral drugs in Namibia.
A. 16%-20% B. 6%-29% C. 26%-39% D. 29%-36%
3 Between 2004 and 2005 there was an increase from _______ to _______ of women
receiving antiretroviral drugs in South Africa.
A. 34%-40% B. 42%-50% C. 24%-30% D. 42%-60%
4 Only _______ of women infected with HIV in poor countries were getting the medicines in
two thousand five.
A. 5% B. 7% C. 9% D. 12%

UNIT 10
URINARY TRACT INFECTION
I. CLOZE TESTS
1.1. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box.

A. accompanied, B. although, C. bacterial, D. called, E. known,


F. lasting, G. multiply, H. promptly, I. since, J. urine

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a _________(1) infection that effects any part of the urinary tract.
Although _________(2) urine contains a variety of fluids, salts, and waste products, it usually does
not have bacteria in it. When bacteria gets into the bladder or kidney and _________(3) in the urine,
it causes a UTI. The most common type of UTI is a bladder infection which is also often
_________(4) cystitis. Another kind of UTI is a kidney infection, _________(5) as pyelonephritis,
and is much more serious. Although they cause discomfort, urinary track infections are usually
quickly and easily treated by seeing a doctor _________(6).
Symptoms and signs

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Symptoms of urethritis include discomfort or pain
at the urethral meatus or a burning sensation
throughout the urethra with dysuria. For cystitis
there may be pain in the midline suprapubic
region and/or frequent urination and hematuria
with pus or blood in _________(7), which may be
cloudy and foul-smelling.
High temperature _________(8) for more than 3
days should be a trigger to get the urine culture
done to ascertain whether the fever is due to UTI
or not. UTI is very harmful especially in infants
_________(9) it can cause permanent renal damage. Nausea and vomiting, _________(10) by high
fever may indicate a more complicated UTI in which the kidney is infected.
Some urinary tract infections are asymptomatic.

1.2. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box.

A. antibodies, B. build, C. from, D. in, E. indicate,


F. levels, G. likely, H. oral, I. tend, J. vagina

Is there a vaccine to prevent recurrent UTIs?

In the future, scientists may develop a vaccine that can prevent UTIs _________(1) coming back.
Researchers _________(2) different studies have found that children and women who
_________(3) to get UTIs repeatedly are _________(4) to lack proteins called immunoglobulins,
which fight infection. Children and women who do not get UTIs are more likely to have normal
_________(5) of immunoglobulins in their genital and urinary tracts.
Early tests _________(6) that a vaccine helps patients _________(7) up their own natural infection-
fighting powers. The dead bacteria in the vaccine do not spread like an infection; instead, they
prompt the body to produce _________(8) that can later fight against live organisms. Researchers
are testing injected and _________(9) vaccines to see which works best. Another method being
considered for women is to apply the vaccine directly as a suppository in the _________(10).

1.3. Fill each of the gaps with one word from the box.

A. based, B. blood, C. chills, D. diagnose, E. discharge,


F. emergency, G. fever, H. inflammation, I. period, J. treated

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Prostatitis is any form of _________(1) of the prostate gland. Because
women do not have a prostate gland, it is a condition only found in men.
Signs and symptoms
Men with this disease often have _________(2), fever, pain in the lower back
and genital area, urinary frequency and urgency often at night, burning or
painful urination, body aches, and an infection of the urinary tract, as
evidenced by white _________(3) cells and bacteria in the urine. There may
be _________(4) from the penis.
Diagnosis Acute prostatitis is relatively easy to _________(5) due to its
symptoms that suggest infection. Common bacteria are E. Coli, Klebsiella,
Proteus, Pseudomonas… This can be a medical _________(6) in some
patients and hospitalization with intravenous antibiotics may be required. A
full blood count reveals increased white blood cells. High _________(7) and
malaise generally prompt blood cultures, which are often positive in sepsis.
Treatment Antibiotics are the first line of treatment in acute prostatitis.
Antibiotics usually resolve acute prostatitis infections in a very short
_________(8) of time. Appropriate antibiotics should be used, _________(9)
on the microbe causing the infection. Some antibiotics have very poor
penetration of the prostatic capsule, others, such as Ciprofloxacin, penetrate
well. Severely ill patients may need hospitalization, while nontoxic patients
can be _________(10) at home with bed rest, analgesics, stool softeners,
and hydration.

II. READING PASSAGE Read the passage and answer the


questions below.

Joseph Lister

Joseph Lister (1827-1912), British surgeon, whose discovery of antiseptics in 1865 greatly reduced
the number of deaths due to operating-room infections. Born in Upton, Essex, and educated at the
universities of London and Edinburgh, Lister began to study the
coagulation of blood and the inflammation that resulted from
injuries and surgical wounds. In 1861 he was appointed surgeon of
the Glasgow Royal Infirmary in a new surgery unit designed to
reduce gangrene and other infections, then thought to be caused
by bad air. Despite his efforts to keep surgical instruments and
rooms clean, the death rate remained close to 50 percent.
Believing infections to be caused by airborne dust particles, Lister
sprayed the air with carbolic acid, a chemical that was then being
used to treat foul-smelling sewers. In 1865 he came upon the germ
theory of the French bacteriologist Louis Pasteur, whose
experiments revealed that fermentation and putrefaction were
caused by micro-organisms brought in contact with organic
material. By applying carbolic acid to instruments and directly to
wounds and dressings, Lister reduced surgical mortality to 15 percent by 1869.
Lister's discoveries in antisepsis met initial resistance, but by the 1880s they had become widely
accepted. In 1897 he was made baron by Queen Victoria, who had been his patient for sometime.

A. Number the following events in the correct time order. Write numbers from 1 to 8 in the
blanks.
_____ The death rate was reduced to about 15 percent with the use of carbolic acid.
_____ By the 1880’s Lister’s discoveries in antisepsis had become widely accepted.
_____ In 1861, Lister was made the surgeon of the Glasgow Royal Infirmary.
_____ Lister was made baron by the Queen, who had been his patient for some years.
_____ Lister came to know about Louis Pasteur’s theory of micro-organisms.
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_____ Lister was born in Upton, Essex in the year 1827.
_____ Lister died in the year 1912, at the age of 85.
_____ Lister began to study the coagulation of blood and the infections in the operating room.
B. Say whether the following statements are true or false.
1. _______ Initially, Lister believed that infections were caused by airborne dust particles.
2. _______ Lister discovered antiseptics in the year 1861.
3. _______ By 1869, the surgical mortality was brought down to around 15%.
4. _______ Carbolic acid was the first antiseptic used by Lister to kill micro-organisms.
5. _______ Lister studied Pasteur after he was made baron by Queen Victoria.
C. Write the opposites of the following words from the passage. Keep the same part of
speech.
1. rejected (v) _______ 2. final (adj) _______
3. birth rate (n) _______ 4. narrowly (adv) _______
5. increased (v) _______

D. Choose the word or phrase in the brackets by underling it.


1. The number of deaths due to operating-room infections were greatly reduced (before, after,
during) Lister’s discoveries of antiseptics in 1865.
2. (After, Before, While) Lister was appointed surgeon of the Glasgow Royal Infirmary, he
began to study the coagulation of blood and the inflammation.
3. (While, Prior to, Before) Lister was the surgeon of the Glasgow Royal Infirmary, gangrene
and other infections were thought to be caused by bad air.
4. Lister studied Pasteur (after, before, during) he was made baron by Queen Victoria.
5. Carbolic acid was the first antiseptic used to kill micro-organisms (during, after, later)
Lister’s time

III. STRUCTURE & VOCABULARY


Choose the best answer among A, B, C, and D.

1. Overweight people should avoid _______ fatty food.


A. eat B. to eat C. eaten D. eating
2. People can get anemia for not eating foods that are rich in _______.
A. iron B. fat C. fruit D. salt
3. Progress has been made in eradication or control of many infectious diseases.
A. eliminating B. maintaining C. replicating D. suggesting
4. Scientists think that antibodies also play a part in the release of histamine.
A. secretion B. absorption C. stimulation D. extraction
5. She has elevated cholesterol.
A. high B. low C. quick D. slow
6. She is obese. She should do more exercise.
A. too weak B. overweight C. thirsty D. thin
7. The amounts of vitamins made in the human body are too small to meet its needs.
A. slow down B. speed up C. satisfy D. define
8. The death rate from breast cancer in women fell during the 90s.
A. rose B. dropped C. increase D. raised
9. The digesting food _______ hours to pass through the intestine.
A. makes B. spends C. takes D. gets
10 The doctor gives the patient injections of a sterile solution of the substance in small doses.
. A. free from germs B. effective C. transparent D. colorless

IV. REWRITING
Rewrite the following sentences, beginning with the given initials.

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1. Cat allergy will usually result in sneezing.
 Sneezing will _______
2. These chemicals are not yet recognized to cause allergic reactions.
 Researchers do not _______
3. Enclosed, air-conditioned buildings are generally considered particularly bad environments for the
chemically-sensitive people.
 Enclosed, air-conditioned buildings are generally considered particularly bad environments for
the people _______
4. Many soy-allergic individuals are sensitive to soy protein.
 Many individuals _______
5. Transmission of an infectious disease may occur through several pathways
 An infectious disease may be _______

V. LÍSTENING
Listen and complete the text with what you hear.

AIDS
AIDS is a disease that kills people. It is caused by a germ. It is spread by sharing drug _______(1)
or having sex. All people are at _______(2) . A person with AIDS can get sick in different ways. Half
of the people who have gotten AIDS have died. There is no _______(3), but you can protect
yourself from getting the disease.
You can _______(4) AIDS by knowing your sex partner well. Talk to them about it and ask them
_______(5) questions about themselves. Do not have sex with a person who has had the virus or
used needles for drugs. Sex is safest if you and your partner are AIDS-_______(6) and only have
sex with each other. Always use _______(7) protection during sex.
Another _______(8) to avoid AIDS is to never share needles. If you must share, always clean the
needle and the _______(9) to kill the AIDS virus. Doing without drugs will lower your risk of getting
AIDS.
AIDS is not spread by everyday contact. You do not get AIDS from food, sneezing, telephones,
social kissing, toilets, hugging, swimming pools or giving _______(10) .

6.2. Listen to the story and answer the questions.

1 What did the man had in his ribcage?


A. a knife B. a snail C. a nail D. a pin
2 When did the man have the incident?
A. In 1967 B. in 1970 C. In 1980 D. In 1987
3 What did the doctor do with the foreign object?
A. They did not see it. B. They saw it but left it there
C. They operated to take it away D. They sent the man to another hospital
4 Where was the foreign object when it was examined 35 years later?
A. In the stomach B. In the lung C. In the liver D. In the heart
5 What did the doctor do with the foreign object in 2005?
A. They operated and remove it B. They got it out without an operation
C. They operated but could not take it out D. They did nothing

V. TERMINOLOGY
CROSSWORD 1: Find the vertical word by doing the crossword, using the
definitions given below it and given letters as prompts.

THE VERTICAL WORD: The name of a famous Dutch scientist

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1 U E
2 S C
3 A R
4 R S
5 H M
6 A X
7 X
8 A A
9 A B L
1 R
0
1 R T S
1

HORIZONTAL WORDS
1 each of the two upper cavities of the heart from which blood is passed to the ventricles.
2 substances that prevent the growth of disease-causing micro-organisms
3 a blood serum containing antibodies against specific antigens, injected to treat or protect
against specific diseases
4 any of the major air passages of the lungs which arise from the windpipe
5 a parasitic animal which inhabits the intestines of humans and other animals.
6 a tube-shaped sac attached to and opening into the lower end of the large intestine
7 the long thread-like part of a nerve cell along which impulses are conducted from the cell
body to other cells
8 a respiratory condition marked by attacks of spasm in the bronchi of the lungs
9 the synthesis of complex molecules in living organisms from simpler ones together with the
storage of energy; constructive metabolism
10 any tube by which blood is conveyed from the heart to all parts of the body.
11 a disease of children caused by vitamin D deficiency

CROSSWORD 2: Find the vertical word by doing the crossword, using the
definitions given below it and given letters as prompts.

THE VERTICAL WORD The name of the German neurologist who first identified a progressive
mental deterioration caused by degeneration of the brain.

1 R S
2
3 Y E
4 T E
5
6 A A
7 A M
8 S C
9

HORIZONTAL WORDS

1 a disease causing painful inflammation and stiffness of the joints


2 a damaging immune response by the body to a substance, especially a particular food, pollen, fur, or
dust, to which it has become hypersensitive.
3 a fertilized ovum
4 an instrument through which the interior of a joint may be inspected or operated on.
5 any of the many tiny air sacs of the lungs which allow for rapid gaseous exchange.
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6 a condition in which there is a deficiency of red blood cells or of haemoglobin in the blood, resulting in
pallor and weariness.
7 disease caused by antibodies or lymphocytes produced against substances naturally present in the
body
8 a substance that induces insensitivity to pain
9 the main artery of the body, supplying oxygenated blood to the circulatory system.

CROSSWORD 3: Find the vertical word by doing the crossword, using the
definitions given below it and given letters as prompts.

THE VERTICAL WORD A disease in young children with an unknown cause, giving rise to a rash,
glandular swelling and sometimes damage to the heart.

HORIZONTAL WORDS
1 German bacteriologist who identified the organisms causing anthrax, tuberculosis, and cholera.
2 a rod-shaped bacterium.
3 involuntary urination during the night
4 a white blood cell readily stained with basic dyes
5 the science of the application of the laws of physics to biological phenomena.
6 any of the fine branching blood vessels that form a network between the arterioles and venules.
7 the joint between the thigh and the lower leg in humans
8 not harmful in effect, not malignant

PAST PAPERS FOR REVIEW

TEST 1: TIME 60 minutes

SECTION I: VOCABULARY

A. Choose one word or phrase that best defines the underlined words.

1. A smoker with high blood pressure can increase her incidence of heart disease.
A. birth rate B. mortality C. number of cases D. obesity
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2. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
A. a number of tests B. a set of disease conditions
C. chronic disease D. prevention
3. An individual will often have different forms of allergy at different stages in his life.
A. germs B. troubles C. periods of time D. types
4. Any side effects on the patients must be noticed.
A. desirable effects B. undesirable effects C. beneficial effects D. lateral effects
5. Desensitization should be recommended in this case.
A. making less sensitive to an allergen. B. malnutrition
C. multiplication D. weight control
6. Diabetes also causes its own unique complications.
A. happening very often B. lasting for a long time
C. belonging and connected with a particular disease. D. being rich
7. Diabetes insipidus results from injury of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
A. serious B. behind C. beneath D. main
8. Different viruses are attracted to different types of cells
A. caused to come near B. altered C. immune D. enough
9. Drinking lots of water helps the bladder flush itself.
A. clean with water B. enlarge C. infect D. invade
10. Good anti-microbial stewardship is required to limit the impact of drug resistance.
A. risk B. result C. managing D. increase
11. He should avoid such allergens when possible.
A. poisons B. substances that can combat allergy
C. fish D. substances that can cause allergy.
12. His illness resulted from an improper diet.
A. came from B. was responsible for C. led to D. equired
13. Hormone replacement therapy is sometimes given to combat the effects of menopause.
A. continue B. fight against C. increase D. raise
14. It is necessary to assess the effectiveness of new drugs.
A. interfere with B. define C. evaluate D. attack
15. Mortality for some non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in many developing countries are
particularly high.
A. infectious B. contagious
C. not contagious D. most noticeable
16. A blood serum analysis can help the ID specialist detect antibodies that indicate what type of
infection you have.
A. express B. show C. administer D. manifest
17. Most urinary tract infections are caused by bacteria from the bowel that invade the urinary tract.
A. stomach B. esophagus C. kidney D. intestine
18. Most babies are born with their brains and bodies intact.
A. complete and not damaged B. malnourished
C. impaired D. free from germs
19. Scientists have uncovered several causes of mental retardation.
A. discovered B. altered C. developed D. advised
20. She has elevated cholesterol.
A. high B. low C. quick D. slow
21. The best way to obtain vitamins is to eat fruit.
A. avoid B. discover C. make up D. receive
22. The infected person will become more susceptible to infections.
A. dangerous B. vulnerable C. normal D. protected
23. The outcome of any infection depends on the number and virulence of infectious agents.
A. ingestion B. sites
C. weakness D. ability to harm or to kill
24. The practice of infection control has been inadequate.
A. enough B. not enough C. important D. achieved
25. They are now considered predominant health problems in several countries in Asia.
A. contagious B. most noticeable C. chronic D. preventable
26. This drug interfered with the development of the embryo.
A. increased B. hindered C. aided in D. killed
27. Vitamin A also helps the eyes to function normally in light that varies in intensity.
A. causes B. assists C. differentiates D. differs
28. We are convinced that chemotherapy will help in this case.
A. worry B. believe C. suggest D. don't
believe
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29. It is very important to stop the spread of the disease immediately.
A. transmission B. outbreak C. consequence D. outcome
30. The new findings help explain why HIV – infected people with active TB have a poorer prognosis
than HIV – infected people without TB.
A. tuberculosis B. thoracic bleeding C. thoracic bacilli D. treated bronchitis

B. TERMINOLOGY – Match each medical term on the left with its meaning listed on the right

31 ANTISERUM a painful urination


. .
32 DYSURIA b an abnormal structure in the body
. .
33 ENCEPHALOPATHY c an inflammation of the brain
. .
34 HYPERCALCEMIA d examination after death
. .
35 HYPOALIMENTATION e it contains antibodies against a certain disease
. .
36 MALFORMATION f. nourishment insufficiency
.
37 MENOSTASIS g objects that may appear in more than one shape
. .
38 MULTIFORM h products of menstruation cannot escape
. .
39 POSTMORTEM i. the muscle at the neck of the bladder
.
40 URETHRAL SPHINCTER j. too much calcium in the blood
.

SECTION II: READING COMPREHENSION

A. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words.


A. promote / B. ingestion / C. antibodies / D. appropriate/
E. prevent / F. devastating / G. control / H. fight / I. prescribe / J. resistant
41. One common way in which infectious agents enter the body is through ___________ of
contaminated food or water.
42. Modern vaccines are among our most effective strategies to __________ disease.
43. Many ___________ diseases can now be prevented through aggressive immunization programs.
44. It is very important to ________ the spread of infectious disease.
45. The development of antibiotics has played an important role in the _________ against
infectious disease.
46. Modern physicians should __________ antibiotics carefully.
47. Many of pathogenic microorganisms may be ____________ to available antibiotics.
48. A blood serum analysis can help the ID specialist detect ___________ that indicate what type
of infection you have.
49. __________use of antimicrobials will slow the development of drug resistance.
50. It is important to _____________ strategies to prevent antimicrobial resistance.

B. CLOZE TEST Fill each gap with ONE word from those given in the box
condition / tuberculosis / bent / suspect /
serious / signs / possible / upward / complication / too

Meningitis is a very (51)_________ infection of the brain which is more common in children than in
adults. It may begin as a (52)_________ of another illness such as measles, mumps, whooping
cough or an ear infection. Children of mothers who have (53)_________sometimes get tubercular
meningitis in the first few months of life. Fever, severe headaches and stiff neck are
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(54)_________ of meningitis. The child is very sick and lies with his head (55)_________ back.
Usually, the back is (56)_________ stiff to put the head between the knees. In babies under one
year old, the fontanel, the soft spot on the head, bulges (57)___________. The child is very sleepy
and his (58)__________ gets worse and worse until he loses consciousness.
If you (59)_________that a child has meningitis , get medical help fast. If it is (60) ____________,
take the person to hospital.

C. TRUE – FALSE TEST. Read the passage and answer the True/False questions below.
Hysteroscopy has recently been performed either for diagnostic or operative purposes.
Many reports confirm that operative hysteroscopy is safe and effective, but as more gynecologists
perform an increasing number of procedures, we must be aware of potential complications and do
our best to minimize the risk for our patients.
When the AAGL surveyed its members in 1993, it found a complication rate of 2% for operative
hysteroscopy. The rate of major complications such as perforation, hemorrhage, and bowel or
urinary tract injury was less than 1%.
Complications of operative hysteroscopy cannot be completely avoided, and may occur even when
a procedure is done correctly by experienced doctors. They are far more likely if techniques or
equipment are used improperly.
One of the most common complications of operative hysteroscopy is uterine perforation, which is
illustrated by this case. It could have been avoided if the obstetrician had stopped the procedure
when bleeding first occurred, removed the instrument and allowed the uterus to contract.
This is just one of the strategies that can reduce the risks of hysteroscopic surgery. We can reduce
the risk of complications if attention is paid to contradictions, equipment is thoroughly checked and
the surgeon goes through a mental checklist and plans each procedures.
Hysteroscopy: soi tử cung
Uterus: tư cung
Perforation: thủng, khoan thủng

1. Hysteroscopy is always done to diagnose, not for any other purposes of treatment.
2. Operative hysteroscopy is not always safe and effective as many reports confirm.
3. It is essential for surgeons to be aware of the possibility of complications and try to reduce the
risk.
4. It is possible to avoid uterine perforation, one of the major complications of operative
hysteroscopy.
5. There are several ways to reduce the risks of hysteroscopic surgery.

SECTION III WRITING & TRANSLATION

A. Writing with prompts


66 Most people /be / familiar / Down’s Syndrome /which / occur / more often / babies / mothers /
. over / 35 years old.
67 Newborn babies / mothers/ tuberculosis / should / vaccinate / B.C.G. / birth.
.
68 Antimicrobials /should / use / appropriately.
.

B. English- Vietnamese Translation


69 AIDS is a disease characterized by progressive damage to the body’s immune system which
. results in the development of opportunistic infections.
70 Babies born with Down’s syndrome have 47 chromosomes instead of 46, which is the normal
. number.

TEST 2: TIME 60 minutes

PART 1: STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY


Choose the best answer among A, B, C, and D.

1. His face turned blue _______ cold.


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A. for B. with C. from D. to
2. The pupil of the bad eye is bigger than _______ of the good eye.
A. which B. what C. that D. this
3. The examiner should notice _______ both sides of the chest move equally when the patient
breathes.
A. if B. unless C. weather D. that if
4. A diet lacking meat, vegetable and other foods rich _______ iron can cause anemia.
A. at B. on C. about D. in
5. Blood loss from large wounds, bleeding ulcer or dysentery can cause anemia. _______ can the
monthly bleeding of women if they do not eat the foods the body needs.
A. Such B. So C. Too D. Also
6. _______ the patient to cover one eye and with the other to look at an object straight ahead of him.
A. Ask B. Let C. Make D. Have
7. Also examine the mouth _______ sores, inflamed gums, sore tongue.
A. for B. by C. from D. with
8. Cough can keep us _______ sleeping.
A. of B. from C. off D. out of
9. Symptoms include things the sick person feels or _______ .
A. sends B. thinks C. reports D. hands
10. Great pain, large burn, severe illness, dehydration, etc. can _______ in shock.
A. cause B. result C. make D. be caused
11. If a person with shock feels cold, cover him with a _______
A. bandage B. blanket C. blank D. gap
12. Tilt the patient’s head back and to one side so that he does not breathe the vomit into his _______ .
A. heart B. ears C. lungs D. stomach
13. Diseases can be transmitted by giving injections with needles that are _______ .
A. sharp B. dull C. not sterilized D. well-boiled
14. _______ is a condition in which loss of vision occurs because of abnormally high pressure in the eye.
A. Anemia B. Cancer C. Hepatitis D. Glaucoma
15. In malaria the patient _______ for 15 minutes to an hour at each attack.
A. sleeps B. shivers C. lies D. faints
16. The patient’s temperature is not _______ as it was last night.
A. higher B. high C. as high D. much higher
17. The person _______ care should wash his hands well each time he goes to the sick person.
A. provided B. provides C. providing D. provide
18. Bacteria are _______ small to be seen without a microscope.
A. so B. such C. too D. very
19. _______ the patient slowly move his eyes up and down.
A. Get B. Have C. Ask D. Tell
20. In children anemia can come from not_______ food rich in iron.
A. eat B. to eat C. eating D. eaten
21. A baby _______ cries a lot or pulls at his ears may have infection.
A. who B. whose C. whom D. he
22. Continue with other questions _______ learn the details of the illness.
A. in to B. as to C. in order to D. so to
23. He bothers me too much and I cannot do my work properly.
A. helps B. troubles C. doubles D. rubs
24. I see her off and on about three times a week
A. now and again B. all the time C. always D. rarely
25. - Is Dr. Smith in his office now? – I’m not sure. He _______ be in his office.
A. will B. must C. may D. should
26. The talented surgeon _______ the open heart operation successfully.
A. performed B. formed C. informed D. deformed
27. The baby is having difficulty _______ .
A. breath B. breathe C. to breathe D. breathing
28. The victim is badly injured and has lost much blood. He must be _______ to hospital.
A. taken B. took C. taking D. to take
29. Those people _______ are overweight should be on a diet under the supervision of the doctor.

MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.com 67


A. who B. whose C. whom D. which
30. You should have your lungs _______ if your cough lasts for over a month.
A. X-rayed B. X-ray C. X-raying D. to X-ray

PART 2: Fill the gaps with appropriate words given in the box
attack, care, cardiovascular, chest, contains,
disease, rest, signs, specific, swelling

Heart _______ (31) is a commonly used term for any disease that affects the heart. A more
appropriate term is _______ (32) disease, which include both heart and blood vessel disorders.
Different heart diseases may require different _______ (33) medicines, which must be used with
great _______(34). If you think a person has heart trouble, seek medical help. It is important that he
has the right medicine when he needs it. People with heart diseases should not work so hard that
they get _______(35) pain or have trouble breathing.
However, regular exercise helps prevent a heart _______(36). If an old person begins having
attacks or difficult breathing or _______(37) of the feet, he should not use salt or eat food that
_______(38) salt. For the rest of his life he should eat little or no salt. If a person has angina
pectoris or a heart attack, he should _______(39) quietly in a cool place until the pain goes away. If
the chest pain is very strong and does not show _______(40) of shock, the heart has probably been
damaged.

PART 3: Read the passage and answer the TRUE/FALSE questions below
Some infections, such as measles, malaria, typhus and yellow fever, affect the entire body. Other
infections, however, affect only one organ or system of the body. The most frequent local infections,
including the common cold, occur in the upper respiratory tract. Other common sites of infection
include the digestive tract, the lungs, the reproductive and urinary tracts, and the eyes and ears.
Local infections can cause serious illnesses if they affect vital organs such as the heart, brain or
liver. They also can spread through the blood stream to cause widespread symptoms. The outcome
(kết thúc bệnh) of any infection depends on the number and virulence of infectious agents, and the
response of the immune system. A compromised (thỏa hiệp) immune system, which can result from
diseases such as AIDS or treatment of diseases such as cancer, may allow organisms that are
ordinarily harmless to proliferate (sinh sản) and cause life-threatening illness.

41 Typhus can cause only local infection.


.
42. Local infections occur the most often in the upper respiratory tract.
43. The heart is never affected by local infections.
44. The outcome of an infection depends on the toxins of the infectious agents.
45. A compromised immune system helps fight against such diseases as AIDS or cancer

PART 4:
Rewrite the following sentences, beginning with the given words so that the meaning keeps
unchanged.
46 They didn’t take the boy to hospital and his life was not saved.
. - If ……………………………………………………………
47 New equipment enables us to detect more diseases.
. - New equipment makes it ……………………………………………………………
48 You need to have your blood pressure checked regularly.
. - It is ……………………………………………………………
49 St Louis Hospital, the biggest hospital in the City, has just received a lot of modern
. equipment.
- St Louis Hospital, which …………………………………
50 The child will die if nobody sends for a doctor.
. - Unless ……………………………………………………………………

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TEST 3: TIME 60 minutes

I. GRAMMAR & GENERAL VOCABULARY Choose the best answer among A, B, C and D.

1. These organisms may proliferate and cause life-threatening illness.


A. multiply B. die C. become harmless D. become weak
2. This disorder relates to what she ingests.
A. breaths in B. eats, drinks or swallows C. believes D. says
3. Only sterile needles are used for injection.
A. dirty B. small in size C. free from germs D. modern
4. Progress has been made in eradication or control of many infectious diseases.
A. eliminating B. maintaining C. replicating D. suggesting
5. She is obese. She should do more exercise.
A. too weak B. overweight C. thirsty D. thin
6. Microscopic organisms can penetrate the body’s natural barriers.
A. destroy B. go through C. inhibit D. enlarge
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7. His improper diet has resulted in his illness at present.
A. led to B. resulted from C. investigated D. prepared
8. Humankind remains vulnerable to many new and resurgent diseases.
A. resistant to B. allergic to
C. liable to be damaged or harmed by D. free from
9. Antimicrobials must be used responsibly to preserve their utility and value.
A. destroy B. reduce C. maintain D. eliminate
10. Appropriate use of antimicrobial agents will slow the resistance.
A. suitable B. extensive C. expensive D. invasive
11. A smoker with high blood pressure can increase her incidence of heart disease.
A. birth rate B. mortality C. number of cases D. obesity
12. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
A. a number of tests B. a set of disease conditions
C. chronic disease D. prevention
13. Any side effects on the patients must be noticed.
A. desirable effects B. undesirable effects C. beneficial effects D. lateral effects
14. Desensitization should be recommended in this case.
A. making less sensitive to an allergen B. malnutrition
C. multiplication D. weight control
15. Drinking lots of water helps the bladder flush itself.
A. clean with water B. enlarge C. infect D. invade
16. Other symptoms include fatigue, blurred vision, increased hunger, and sores that do not heal.
A. extreme cold B. extreme heat C. excitement D. extreme
tiredness
17. The best way to prevent allergic rhinitis is to avoid the things to which you are allergic.
A. keep on B. keep away from C. get used to D. prevent
18. Ultrasound investigation of the renal tract is often used to distinguish between various sources
of bleeding.
A. differ B. differentiate C. extinguish D. distinct
19. Some studies have attributed a protective effect of breastfeeding on the development of type 1
diabetes.
A. defensive B. offensive C. relative D. selective
20. Chlorampheramine relieves the symptoms of a hay fever.
A. increases B. lessens C. maintains D. expresses
21. Patients should take medications as prescribed by your doctor.
A. desceribed B. commented C. remarked D. recommended
22. Measles and malaria, are more frequent causes of death in Sub-Saharan Africa than elsewhere.
A. severe B. habitual C. unusual D. special
23. Vitamin supplements are part of the solution to prevent nutrition deficiencies.
A. unavailability B. insufficiencies C. inconvenience D. decalcification
24. This occurs when the normally sterile lower urinary tract (urethra and bladder) is infected by
bacteria.
A. bacteria-infected B. fertile C. bacteria-free D. anaerobic
25. When the pancreases of dogs were removed, the dogs developed all the signs and symptoms of
diabetes
A. treated B. operated on C. taken away D. transplanted
26. A deficiency may result in changes in the conjunctiva (corner of the eye) _______ Bitot's spots.
A. known as B. called as C. told as D. spoken as
27. Women of all ages should be _______ about heart disease. All women should take steps to
prevent heart disease.
A. related B. concerned C. associated D. linked
28. Nonsmokers who are exposed _______ constant smoke also have an increased risk.
A. with B. for C. to D. of
29. _______ average, the intake of this vitamin from food in the U.S. is approximately 9 mg daily for
men and 6 mg daily for women
A. In B. On C. At D. For
30. In vitamin deficiency, normal body functions can break down and make a person susceptible
_______ disease.
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A. to B. with C. of D. for

II. MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY Match a term on the right with its corresponding definition on
the left.
31. rhinitis a a disease causing painful inflammation and stiffness of the joints.
32. precursor b spread from one person or organism to another by direct or indirect
contact
33. hypotension c substance required in trace amounts for the normal growth and
development of living organisms
34. immunity d being grossly fat or overweight
35. intradermally e a substance from which another is formed, especially by metabolic
reaction
36. micronutrient f persisting for a long time or constantly recurring; not acute
37. obesity g abnormally low blood pressure
38. contagious h the ability of an organism to resist a particular infection or toxin by the
action of specific antibodies or sensitized white blood cells
39. chronic i existing or taking place within the skin
40. arthritis j inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose

III. READING COMPREHENSION


3.1. CLOZE TEST 1: Choose the best word or phrase to fill in each gap.

The most prevalent cause of heart diseases is high blood pressure, also called hypertension. High
blood pressure cannot be cured. However, it can be brought (41)______, so that it may not cause
(42)______ to the heart and other body system. (43)______ the person who has high blood
pressure often must continue treatment for the disease for the (44)______ of his life.
The usual treatment for cases of high blood pressure is a change of diet to reduce the amount of
sodium (45)______ into the body. Because table salt is the commonest source of sodium in food,
the diet usually calls for eating salt- (46)______ foods. For severe cases of high blood pressure a
doctor usually (47)______ antihypertensile drugs. Although doctors do not know all the cause of
high blood pressure, they (48)______ know that overweight people and cigarette smokers have a
tendency to high blood pressure. Since emotions and worry also can cause blood pressure to rise,
regular (49)______ and adequate sleep and rest are desirable for (50)______ persons.
41 A. out of control B. off control C. under control D. from control
.
42 A. damages B. damage C. infection D. injection
.
43 A. Moreover B. Otherwise C. However D. Therefore
.
44 A. all B. whole C. rest D. some
.
45 A. taken B. take C. taking D. disastrous
.
46 A. free B. freedom C. freely D. freed
.
47 A. describes B. prescribes C. provides D. supplies
.
48 A. do B. will C. must D. would
.
49 A. digestion B. respiration C. relaxation D. contraction
.
50 A. all B. every C. all of D. each
.

3.2. CLOZE TEST 2 Choose the best word or phrase to fill in each gap.

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Vitamins are organic compounds necessary in small amounts in the diet for the normal growth and
maintenance of life of animals, including man. They do not provide energy, (51)______ do they
construct or build any part of the body. They are needed for transforming foods (52)______ energy
and body maintenance. There are thirteen or more of them, and if (53)______ is missing a
(54)______ disease becomes apparent.
Vitamins are similar because they are made of the same elements - usually carbon, hydrogen,
oxygen, and (55)______ nitrogen. They are different (56)______ their elements are arranged
differently, and each vitamin (57)______ one or more specific functions in the body. (58)______
enough vitamins is essential to life. Scientists say the body has no nutritional use for (59)______
vitamins. Many people, (60)______, believe in being on the "safe side" and thus take extra vitamins.
However, a well-balanced diet will usually meet all the body's vitamin needs.
51 A. either B. so C. nor D. no
.
52 A. from B. out of C. of D. into
.
53 A. any B. some C. anything D. something
.
54 A. deficiency B. sufficiency C. efficiency D. defective
.
55 A. mostly B. rare C. never D. rarely
.
56 A. in that B. so that C. such that D. from
.
57 A. takes B. makes C. informs D. performs
.
58 A. Supplying B. Buying C. Selling D. There’s
.
59 A. except B. exceed C. excess D. external
.
60 A. nevertheless B. therefore C. moreover D. although
.

3.3. READING WITH MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS Read the passage and answer the
question given below it.
People with disabilities comprise a large part of the population. It is estimated that over 35 million
Americans have physical, mental, or other disabilities. About half of these disabilities are
"developmental", i.e., they occur prior to the individual's twenty-second birthday, often from genetic
conditions, and are severe enough to affect three or more areas of development, such as mobility,
communication, employment, etc. Most other disabilities are considered "adventitious", i.e.,
accidental or caused by outside forces.
Prior to the 20th century, only a small percentage of people with disabilities survived for long.
Medical treatment for these disabilities was unavailable. Advancements in medicine and social
services have created a climate in which people with disabilities can expect to have such basic
needs as food, shelter, and medical treatment. Unfortunately, these basics are often not available.
Civil liberties such as the right to vote, marry, get an education, and gain employment have been
denied on the basis of disability.
In recent decades, the disability rights movement has been organized to fight against these
infringements of civil rights. Congress responded by passing laws recognizing people with
disabilities as a protected class under civil rights statutes.
Still today, people with disabilities must fight to live their lives independently. It is estimated that
more than half of Americans with disabilities are unemployed, and a majority of those who do work
are underemployed. About two-thirds live at or below the official poverty level.
Significant barriers, especially in transportation and public awareness, prevent disabled people
from taking part in society. For example, while no longer prohibited by law from marrying, a person
with no access to transportation is excluded from community and social activities which might lead

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to the development of long-term relationships.
It will only be when public attitudes advance as far as laws have that disabled people will be fully
able to take their rightful place in society.
infringements (vi phạm), Congress (Quốc hội), statutes (quy chế), attitude (thái độ)

61. A "developmental" disability _____.


A. develops very slowly over time B. is caused by outside forces
C. occurs in youth and affects development D. is getting more and more severe
62. Most disabled people used to die early because _____.
A. disabilities destroyed major bodily functions B. they were not very well looked after
C. medical techniques were not available D. they were too poor to get proper treatment
63. In the author's opinion, to enable the disabled people to take their rightful place in society _____.
A. more laws should be passed B. public attitudes should be changed
C. government should provide more aids D. more public facilities should be set up
64. _______ Americans with disabilities are unemployed.
A. Over a quarter of B. Over 50% C. About 1/3 D. About 2/3
65. The word significant is closest in meaning to _______.
A. considerable B. favourable
C. disable D. preventable

IV. WRITING. Rewrite the following question so that the new sentence is similar in meaning
to the original one.
66. The pain results from a narrowing of the blood vessels feeding the muscle.
 The pain is caused ……………..
67. Organisms causing an infectious disease in a host with depressed resistance are classified as
opportunistic pathogens.
 Organisms that ……………….
68. Although there are many claims of nutritional cures, there is no reliable proof of their
effectiveness.
 Despite ……………………
69. These chemicals are not yet recognized to cause allergic reactions.
 Researchers do not ……………………
70. Many soy-allergic individuals are sensitive to soy protein.
 Many individuals ……………….

TEST 4: TIME 60 minutes

I. GRAMMAR & GENERAL VOCABULARY Choose the best answer among A, B, C and D.
1. A blood serum analysis can help the ID specialist detect antibodies that indicate what type of
infection you have.
A. express B. show C. administer D. manifest
2. Other symptoms include fatigue, blurred vision, increased hunger, and sores that do not heal.
A. extreme cold B. extreme heat C. excitement D. extreme
tiredness
3. A diet low in fat will reduce your chances of getting certain diseases and help you maintain a
healthy weight.
A. increase B. decrease C. rise D. vary
4. A possible source for the misconception holds that AIDS infects only homosexual men
A. misuse B. incorrect use C. incorrect view D. abuse
5. Antimicrobials must be used responsibly to preserve their utility and value.
A. destroy B. reduce C. maintain D. eliminate
6. Blood test can detect this defect at birth.
A. discover B. destroy C. end up D. contract
7. Chlorampheramine relieves the symptoms of a hay fever.
A. increases B. lessens C. maintains D. expresses
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8. Desensitization should be recommended in this case.
A. making less sensitive to an allergen B. malnutrition
C. multiplication D. weight control
9. Diabetes insipidus results from injury of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
A. serious B. behind C. beneath D. main
10. Drinking lots of water helps the bladder flush itself.
A. clean with water B. enlarge C. infect D. invade
11. Excess sugar accumulates in the blood.
A. presents B. accommodates C. appears D. builds up
12. Good anti-microbial stewardship is required to limit the impact of drug resistance.
A. risk B. result C. management D. increase
13. He is suffering from chronic dysentery.
A. acute B. lasting C. mild D. severe
14. Headache is the most frequent human discomfort.
A. feeling uneasy B. feeling easy C. feeling hot D. feeling cold
15. In early childhood mild disability (IQ 60–70) may not be obvious, and may not be diagnosed until
they begin school.
A. clean B. clear C. bright D. light
16. It is necessary to assess the effectiveness of new drugs.
A. interfere with B. define C. evaluate D. attack
17. Malaria begins suddenly with rising temperature and chills.
A. coldness B. fever C. sweating D. pains
18. Microscopic organisms can penetrate the body’s natural barriers.
A. destroy B. go through C. inhibit D. enlarge
19. Most urinary tract infections are caused by bacteria from the bowel that invade the urinary tract.
A. stomach B. esophagus C. kidney D. intestine
20. NCDS are often referred to as diseases of affluence.
A. being poor B. malnutrition C. sudden onset D. being rich
21. You should have your lungs _______ if your cough lasts for over a month.
A. X-rayed B. X-ray C. X-raying D. to X-ray
22. Women of all ages should be _______ about heart disease. All women should take steps to
prevent heart disease.
A. related B. concerned C. associated D. linked
23. When food is _______ it passes down the esophagus.
A. produced B. swallowed C. digested D. cooked
24. When a person is _______ with HIV, there is an initial period when the virus multiplies rapidly.
A. contaminated B. infected C. reproduced D. replicated
25. We say a disease is ________ when it does not last for a long time.
A. chronic B. acute C. severe D. preventable
26. Vitamins have such _______uses that one cannot replace or act for the other.
A. dangerous B. general C. allergic D. specific
27. Urinary tract infection is an _______ treated disease.
A. ease B. easily C. easy D. eased
28. Type 2 diabetes is caused by a lack of insulin.
A. shortage B. lot C. part D. great deal
29. This layer is _______ as the subcutaneous.
A. known B. called C. knew D. calling
30. These bacteria may be associated with symptoms and thus require treatment with _______.
A. antibiotics B. antibodies C. antigens D. antihistamine

II. MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY Match a term on the right with its corresponding definition on
the left.
31 antiseptics A. a group of symptoms which consistently occur together or a condition
. characterized by a set of associated symptoms.
32 anus B. a headache that typically affects one side of the head and is often
. accompanied by nausea and disturbed vision
33 gastritis C. the opening at the end of the alimentary canal through which solid
. waste matter leaves the body
34 hyperalimentation D. inflammation of the lining of the stomach
.

MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.com 74


35 migraine E. relating to the period after childbirth
.
36 obesity F. artificial supply of nutrients, typically intravenously.
.
37 osteoporosis G. being grossly fat or overweight
.
38 post-natal H. a medical condition in which the bones become brittle and fragile from
. loss of tissue
39 rickets I. a disease of children caused by vitamin D deficiency
.
40 syndrome J. substances that prevent the growth of disease-causing micro-
. organisms

III. READING COMPREHENSION


3.1. CLOZE TEST 1: Choose the best word or phrase to fill in each gap.

A. cause B. exposure C. help D. intake E. keep


F. lead G. preventive H. remedy I. symptoms J. vegetables

Diabetes and numb feet


Question: MY mother has been suffering from diabetes for more than five years. Lately she has
been experiencing numbness and occasional tingling in the feet. Is there any alternative treatment?
Will her condition lead to amputation?
Answer: She may be suffering from diabetic neuropathy. Prolonged _______(41) to high glucose
levels can _______(42) nerve damage due to glucose oxidation. The common _______(43) of
diabetic neuropathy include pain, numbness, tingling and burning sensation. The key prevention is
to _______(44) her blood sugar levels at near normal levels.
She may consider taking alpha lipoic acid, which protects microcirculation to nerves, making it
especially effective for diabetic neuropathy. It is a recognised _______(45) for diabetic neuropathy.
Increasing her _______(46) of B-vitamins may also be beneficial. B-vitamins are necessary for
normal nerve function and supplementing is a good _______(47) measure.
Her diet should be high in fibre and complex carbohydrates but low in simple sugars and fats. A
high fibre intake may _______(48) control sugar levels as well as reduce oral anti-diabetic
medication. Grains, fresh fruits and _______(49) are highly recommended.
Start off with gentle exercises such as walking and cycling three times a week. Physical activity can
enhance insulin sensitivity and improve glucose tolerance in those with diabetes.
You should check on her feet everyday for cuts and break of the skin, injury, and toenail infection.
This is because untreated injuries may _______(50) to amputation.

numbness: tê; tingling: cảm giác kiến bò, kim châm; alternative: thay thế; amputation: cắt
cụt chi

3.2. READING WITH MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS Read the passage and answer the
question given below it.
Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver due to five hepatitis viruses - A, B, C, D or E. In its early
stages, the disease may be mistaken for flu, with fever, fatigue, nausea, diarrhoea, loss of appetite,
muscle and joint aches. These are followed by the characteristic jaundice or yellowing of the eyes
and skin due to a build-up of bile in the blood. Excessive bile can also cause severe itchiness and a
darkening of urine.
Hepatitis A is transmitted through contaminated food. Hepatitis B is transmitted through blood,
semen, saliva and other body fluids. It is spread by blood transfusion, sharing of needles, sexual
contact and other exposure to bodily fluids. Hepatitis C is mostly transmitted through blood
transfusion. For unknown reasons, people with alcoholic liver disease often have hepatitis C as
well. Hepatitis D & E occur only in people who already have infection with hepatitis B virus and it
makes the hepatitis B infection more severe.
Follow a diet that is low in animal fats, oily fried foods and carbohydrates but high in dietary fibre
like fruits and vegetables. All water should be boiled before drinking, and if you are traveling use
bottled water.
Eat home-cooked food, where you can be assured of hygiene. Alcohol and medications that are
potentially toxic to the liver must be avoided. You may check with your doctor before taking any
medications. Lecithin, being exceptionally rich in a compound called phosphatidylcholine, is
MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.com 75
excellent for optimum liver function. Regular intake of high phosphatidylcholine (35 per cent) has
been shown to accelerate liver regeneration in the treatment of chronic liver disease resulting from
viral infection, drug poisoning or excessive alcohol consumption.
Nutritional anti-free radicals such as beta-carotene, vitamins C and E, and minerals zinc are
essential in protecting the liver from free radical damage.

Jaundice: vàng da; itchiness: ngứa; accelerate: gia tăng; optimum: tối ưu; free radical: gốc
tự do

51. Which of the following is the characteristic symptom of hepatitis?


A. fatigue B. nausea C. jaundice D. loss of appetite
52. Hepatitis A is transmitted through _______.
A. digestive tract B. semen C. bodily fluids D. blood
53. Which of the following statement is NOT true?
A. There are five type of hepatitis viruses B. Drinking people are vulnerable to hepatitis
C
C. Blood transfusion may be a risk of hepatitis C.
D. Hepatitis D & E are never seen in people with hepatitis B
54. Lecithin is good for the liver because _______.
A. it prevents liver viral infection B. it increases liver regeneration
C. it prevents liver drug poisoning D. It contains beta-carotene
55. Which of the following cannot protect the liver from the damage of free radicals?
A. Vitamin A B. Vitamins C C. Vitamins E D. Vitamin D

IV. WRITING. Rewrite the following question so that the new sentence is similar in meaning
to the original one.
56. Certain agents cannot be cultured, for example Treponema palladium and most viruses.
 It is _______
57. Infection with most pathogens does not result in death of the host.
 Infection with most pathogens does not cause _______
58. Transmission of an infectious disease may occur through several pathways
 An infectious disease may be _______
59. You should check on her feet everyday for cuts and break of the skin, injury, blisters and toenail
infection.
 Her feet _______
60. Regular intake of high phosphatidylcholine has been shown to accelerate liver regeneration.
 They _______

GOOD SUCCESS IN YOUR ENGLISH STUDY!

GLOSSARY
1. a wide variety of (det)
2. aberrant protein
3. abnormal (adj)
4. abnormality
5. abruptly (adv)
6. abundance (n)
7. abundant (adj)
MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.com 76
8. academic
performance
9. access (vt), (n)
10. accessory
11. accompanied by
12. accompany (vt)
13. account for
14. accumulate (vt)
15. accumulation
16. achieve (vt)
17. acquire
18. Acquired Immune
eficiency Syndrome
(AIDS)
19. activation (n)
20. active TB (n)
21. activity (n)
22. acute (adj)
23. additional (adj)
24. address (vt)
25. adolescent
26. adopt (vt)
27. adult (n)
28. advanced (adj)
29. adversely (adv)
30. affect (vt)
31. affluence (n)
32. affordable
33. age (vi)
34. agent (n)
35. age-specific (adj)
36. aggressive (adj)
37. aid (vi), (n)
38. ailment (n)
39. aim to do st (v)
40. airborne (adj)
41. alcohol (n)
42. alert for (v)
43. allergen (n)
44. allergic (adj)
45. allergist (n)
46. allergy (n)
47. allot (vt)
48. allow (vt)
49. alter (vi), (vt)
50. ambient
51. amount (n)
52. amputation
53. anaemic (adj)
54. anaphylactic shock
55. ancient times
56. anesthesia (n)
57. angina
58. angioplasty
59. annually
60. antibacterial (n), (adj)
61. antibiogram
62. antibiotic-resistant
(adj)
63. antibody (n)
64. antibody-initiated
65. antidiuretic (adj), (n)
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66. antifungal (n), (adj)
67. antigen-specific
68. antihistamine (n)
69. antimicrobial (n),
(adj)
70. antineoplastic (adj)
71. antiparasitic (n), (adj)
72. antiretroviral drugs
73. antiseptic (n), (adj)
74. antiserum (n)
75. antivirals (n), (adj)
76. anxiety (n)
77. apart from prep
78. appear (v)
79. appetite (n)
80. application (n)
81. apply (v)
82. approach to (n)
83. appropriate(adj)
84. approve (v)
85. approximately
(adv)
86. aquarium (n)
87. array (n)
88. arthritis (n)
89. artificially (adv)
90. as a result of (prep)
91. as long as (conj)
92. ascertain (vt)
93. aside from (prep)
94. aspect (n)
95. assess = value (vt)
96. assessment (n)
97. assist (vt)
98. associated with (adj)
99. assure (vt)
10 asthma (n)
0.
10 asymptomatic (adj)
1.
10 at birth
2.
10 at present
3.
10 at random
4.
10 atheromatous plaque
5.
10 atheromatous streak
6.
10 atherosclerosis (n)
7.
10 atherosclerotic
8.
109 attack (n), (vt)
.
11 attention to (n)
0.
11 attract (vt)
1.
11 attribute (vt)
2.
11 atypical (adj)
3.
11 autoimmune (adj)
4.
11 available (adj)
5.
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11 average (n), (adj)
6.
11 avoid (vt)
7.
11 avoidance (n)
8.
11 awaken (v)
9.
12 award (n)
0.
12 aware of (adj)
1.
12 awareness (n)
2.
12 bacteriolysis
3.
12 balance (n)
4.
12 barrier (n)
5.
12 basis (n)
6.
12 basophils
7.
12 bear a child (vt)
8.
12 behavior (n)
9.
13 benefit (n), (v)
0.
13 benign (adj)
1.
13 best off (adj)
2.
13 beverage
3.
13 biliary tract (n)
4.
13 bioactivity (n)
5.
13 bioavailable (adj)
6.
13 biomedical (adj)
7.
13 biomolecule (n)
8.
13 blindness
9.
14 block (vt)
0.
14 blockage (n)
1.
14 blood clotting system
2.
14 blood serum analysis
3.
14 blood work (n)
4.
14 blueprint (n)
5.
14 boil (n)
6.
14 boost (vt)
7.
14 botanist (n)
8.
14 bowel (n)
9.
15 break sth down (vt)
0.
15 breast (n)
1.
15 breathlessness (n)
2.
15 broader array of
3.

MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.com 79


15 broad-spectrum
4.
15 bronchoconstriction
5.
15 bubble bath(n)
6.
15 bulge (vi)
7.
15 burden
8.
15 burning on urination
9.
16 burst of (n)
0.
161 calcitonin (n)
.
16 campaign
2.
16 canal (n)
3.
16 cancel (vt)
4.
16 cancer (n)
5.
16 capacity (n)
6.
16 carbuncle (n)
7.
16 cardiologist (n)
8.
16 cardiovascular (adj)
9.
17 carrot (n)
0.
17 carry out (vt)
1.
17 catalyst (n)
2.
17 catch (vt)
3.
17 catheter (n)
4.
17 catheterization (n)
5.
17 caution (n)
6.
17 cautious (adj)
7.
17 cervix (n)
8.
17 challenge (n)
9.
18 character
0.
18 characterize
1.
18 characterized by
2.
18 CHD chronical heart
3.
disease
18 chemotherapy
4.
18 chickenpox(n)
5.
18 chief (n)
6.
18 chill (n)
7.
18 chlorination
8.
18 cholera (n)
9.
19 cholestatic
0.
19 chromosome (n)
1.

MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.com 80


19 chronic (adj)
2.
19 chronic immune
3.
activation
19 citrus (n)
4.
19 claim (n), (v)
5.
19 clean water supplies
6.
(n)
19 cleanliness (n)
7.
19 climacteric (n), (adj)
8.
19 clinic trial (n)
9.
20 clinically
0.
20 clotting (n)
1.
20 co-evolution
2.
20 coexisting
3.
20 cofactor (n)
4.
20 coin
5.
20 coincide with
6.
20 co-infected with
7.
20 colleague (n)
8.
20 colon (n)
9.
21 colorectal
0.
21 colormetric
1.
21 coma
2.
21 combat (n), (vt)
3.
21 combination (n)
4.
21 command a
5.
fraction
21 commercially
6.
available
21 commission (n)
7.
21 communicable (adj)
8.
21 community
9.
22 companionship (n)
0.
22 comparatively (adv)
1.
22 complaint (n)
2.
22 complement
3.
22 complement-
4.
dependent
22 complication (n)
5.
22 component (n)
6.
22 compound
7.
22 compromised (adj)
8.
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22 concentration (n)
9.
23 conception
0.
23 concern
1.
232 concerned with (adj)
.
23 condensed tannin
3.
23 condition (n)
4.
23 confirm (v)
5.
23 conjunctiva (n)
6.
23 conjunctivitis (n)
7.
23 conscious (adj)
8.
23 consequence (n)
9.
24 consistent (adj)
0.
24 constituent (n)
1.
24 consumption (n)
2.
24 contagious =
3.
communicable (adj)
24 contaminate (vt)
4.
24 context
5.
24 contract (vt)
6.
24 contrast (n), (vt)
7.
24 contribute to (vt)
8.
24 contributor (n)
9.
25 convert (vt)
0.
25 convince (vt)
1.
25 cooperate with (vi)
2.
25 coordinate a plan (vt)
3.
25 cope with
4.
25 coronary heart
5.
disease
256 correct (vt)
.
25 correlate with (vi)
7.
25 counsel (vt), (vi)
8.
25 counterpart (n)
9.
26 couple (n)
0.
26 crawl
1.
26 create (vt)
2.
26 crew (n)
3.
26 critical bacterial
4.
species
26 critical level
5.
26 crossreact
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26 culture (vt), (n)
7.
26 cure for (n)
8.
26 current (adj)
9.
27 currently (adv)
0.
27 cystic fibrosis
1.
27 cystitis (n)
2.
27 cystoscopy (n)
3.
27 damage (n), (vt)
4.
27 damage (v,n)
5.
27 dander (n)
6.
27 data, datum (n)
7.
27 deal with (v)
8.
27 death rate (n)
9.
28 deemphasize
0.
28 defect (n)
1.
282 defend (vt)
.
28 defense
3.
28 deficiency (n)
4.
28 define (vt)
5.
28 degenerative joint
6.
disease (n)
28 delay (v), (n)
7.
28 delivery (n)
8.
28 demand (n), (vt)
9.
29 demographic (adj)
0.
29 demonstrate (vt)
1.
29 dendritic cell
2.
29 deposit (n, v)
3.
29 depressed
4.
29 deprive, deprivation
5.
29 derive from
6.
29 descriptive (adj)
7.
29 desensitization (n)
8.
29 design (vt), (n)
9.
300 destruction (n)
.
30 detect (vt)
1.
30 detectable (adj)
2.
30 detection (n)
3.
30 determinant (adj), (n)
4.
MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.com 83
30 determine (vt)
5.
30 devastate (vt)
6.
30 devastating
7.
30 development (n)
8.
30 diabetes (n)
9.
31 diabetes insipidus
0.
(n)
31 diabetes mellitus (n)
1.
31 diabetic (n), (adj)
2.
31 diagnose (vt)
3.
31 diagnosis (n)
4.
31 diagnostic tools (n)
5.
31 dialysis (n)
6.
31 diet (n)
7.
31 dietary (adj)
8.
31 dimension (n)
9.
32 dimorphism (n)
0.
32 diphtheria (n)
1.
32 disability (n)
2.
32 disadvantaged
3.
(adj)
32 discern (v)
4.
32 discharge (n), (vt)
5.
32 discomfort (n, v)
6.
32 disease-fighting
7.
drugs (n)
328 disorder (n)
.
32 dispose (vt)
9.
33 dissolve (vi), (vt)
0.
33 distention (n)
1.
33 distinguish (vt)
2.
33 distribution (n)
3.
33 disturbance (n)
4.
33 diverse (adj)
5.
33 do harm to st (v)
6.
33 dosage (n)
7.
33 drainage
8.
33 dribble (vi)
9.
34 drive
0.
34 droplet
1.
34 drought resistant
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34 drown
3.
34 due to (prep)
4.
34 duration
5.
34 duration of therapy
6.
34 dust (n)
7.
34 dyspnea (n)
8.
34 dyspnoea
9.
35 dystonia (n)
0.
35 dysuria (n)
1.
35 eczema
2.
35 effectiveness (n)
3.
35 effector
4.
35 effort (n)
5.
35 egg yolk (n)
6.
35 elevate
7.
35 elevated (adj)
8.
35 elicit (vt)
9.
36 eliminate (vt)
0.
36 elsewhere
1.
36 elsewhere (adv)
2.
36 embryo (n)
3.
36 emerge (vi)
4.
36 emergence (n)
5.
36 emotionally powerful
6.
36 enable (vt)
7.
36 encephalocele (n)
8.
36 encephalomyocarditis
9.
(n)
37 encephalopathy(n)
0.
37 encounter (v)
1.
37 encourage (vt)
2.
37 end up with (v)
3.
37 endemic
4.
37 enhance (vt)
5.
37 entail (v)
6.
37 entry (n)
7.
37 environment (n)
8.
37 epidemic (n)
9.
38 epidemiology
MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.com 85
38 equator
1.
38 eradication (n)
2.
38 error
3.
38 escape (vt), (n)
4.
38 essential (adj)
5.
38 establish (vt)
6.
38 estimate (vt)
7.
38 eustachian tube
8.
38 evaluate (vt)
9.
39 evaluation (n)
0.
39 evidence (n)
1.
39 evident (adj)
2.
39 evolution (n)
3.
39 evolve (v)
4.
39 examine (vt)
5.
39 excessive (adj)
6.
39 exclusively (adv)
7.
39 excrement (n)
8.
39 excretory and
9.
intravenous
urography
40 exemplify (vt)
0.
40 exist (vi)
1.
40 existence (n)
2.
40 existing (adj)
3.
40 expand (v)
4.
40 expectation (n)
5.
40 expedition (n)
6.
40 expert assessment
7.
40 exposed to
8.
40 exposure (n)
9.
41 extend beyond
0.
41 extent (n)
1.
41 extract (n), (vt)
2.
41 extraordinary (adj)
3.
41 extreme malnutrition
4.
41 face with (v)
5.
41 facial expression (n)
6.
41 facilitate (v)
7.
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41 factor (n)
8.
41 fail to do st (vi)
9.
42 failure (n)
0.
42 fall behind (v)
1.
42 familiar with (adj)
2.
42 fatal (adj)
3.
42 fatigue (n)
4.
42 fat-soluble (adj)
5.
42 fault (n)
6.
42 FDA = Food and drug
7.
administration
42 fecal matter (n)
8.
42 fermentation (n)
9.
43 fetus
0.
43 field observation
1.
43 finding (n)
2.
43 firmly (adv)
3.
43 first line antibiotics
4.
43 fit (adj)
5.
43 fivefold
6.
43 flour (n)
7.
43 fluid (n)
8.
43 flush (vt)
9.
44 foetus, fetus (n)
0.
44 food additives
1.
44 forceps
2.
44 fortify
3.
44 fortunately (adv)
4.
44 foul-smelling (adj)
5.
44 foundation (n)
6.
44 fracture
7.
44 fragile
8.
44 free from (adj)
9.
45 frequency (n)
0.
45 frequent (adj)
1.
45 frontal lobe (n)
2.
45 fuel (n)
3.
45 full-blown
4.
45 function (vi), (n)
5.

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45 fungi, fungus (n)
6.
45 fur (n)
7.
45 gallstones (n)
8.
45 gangrene (n)
9.
46 gather (vi), (vt)
0.
46 general public (n)
1.
46 generation (n)
2.
46 genetic inheritance
3.
46 genetic makeup (n)
4.
46 germ (n)
5.
46 gestational (adj)
6.
46 gestational diabetes
7.
46 gestures (n)
8.
46 give sth off (vt)
9.
47 give sth up (vt)
0.
47 global extent
1.
47 globalisation (n)
2.
47 goiter
3.
47 gradual (adj)
4.
47 gradually (adv)
5.
47 growth (n)
6.
47 growth promotion
7.
47 guideline (n)
8.
47 gum (n)
9.
48 gut flora
0.
48 gut wall
1.
48 habit (n)
2.
48 Haemophilus
3.
influenzae (n)
48 harbor
4.
48 harm (vt)
5.
48 harmful food
6.
additives
48 harmless (adj)
7.
48 hasten
8.
48 hay fever (n)
9.
49 health facility
0.
49 health officials (n)
1.
49 health resource
2.
49 healthcare (n)
3.
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49 heart attack (n)
4.
49 hence
5.
49 hepatitis (n)
6.
49 hereditary
7.
49 hernia (n)
8.
49 high grade narrowing
9.
50 highlight (vt), (n)
0.
50 hinder (vt)
1.
50 hip (n)
2.
50 history (n)
3.
50 hitherto
4.
50 hive, urticaria
5.
50 hives (n)
6.
50 hold sth back (vt)
7.
508 homeostasis (n)
.
50 homicide
9.
51 hookworm
0.
51 Hormone
1.
replacement therapy
51 household (n)
2.
51 human being (n)
3.
51 Human
4.
Immunodeficiency
Virus (HIV)
51 humidity (n)
5.
51 hygiene
6.
51 hygiene (n)
7.
51 hygiene (n)
8.
51 hyperalimentation (n)
9.
52 hypercalcemia (n)
0.
52 hypercalciuria (n)
1.
52 hypercholesterolemia
2.
52 hyperlipidemia (n)
3.
52 hyperparathyroidism
4.
(n)
52 hypersensitivity
5.
52 hypertension (n)
6.
52 hypertensive
7.
52 hypoalimentation (n)
8.
52 hypocalcemia (n)
9.
53 hypochromic (n)
0.

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53 hypodermic
1.
53 hypodermic (adj)
2.
53 hypoparathyroidism
3.
(n)
53 hypothesis
4.
53 immune system (n)
5.
53 immunity (n)
6.
53 immunization (n)
7.
53 immunoassay
8.
53 immunocompromised
9.
54 immunological
0.
variation
54 immunologist
1.
54 immunosufficient
2.
54 immunosuppressa
3.
nt
54 immunosuppressive
4.
54 impact (n), (vt)
5.
546 impair, impaired (vt),
.
(adj)
54 impairment(n)
7.
54 imperative (adj)
8.
54 implant
9.
55 implementation (n)
0.
55 imply
1.
55 improper
2.
55 improve
3.
55 in a rational manner
4.
55 in addition
5.
55 in proportion to
6.
55 in the belief that
7.
55 in the normal range
8.
55 in vitro
9.
56 inactivity (n)
0.
56 inadequate (adj)
1.
56 inception
2.
56 incidence (n)
3.
56 include (vt)
4.
56 income(n)
5.
56 incomplete voiding
6.
(n)
56 incontinence (n)
7.

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56 inconvenient (adj)
8.
56 indefinitely (adv)
9.
57 indicate (vt)
0.
57 indication (n)
1.
57 individual (n), (adj)
2.
57 induce (v)
3.
57 industrial wastes (n)
4.
57 infant (n)
5.
57 infect (v)
6.
57 infected with
7.
57 infectious (adj)
8.
57 infectious agent (n)
9.
58 infectivity
0.
58 inflammation (n)
1.
58 ingest (vt)
2.
58 ingestion (n)
3.
58 ingredient (n)
4.
58 inhalation (n)
5.
58 inherit (v)
6.
58 inherit (vt)
7.
58 initial period (n)
8.
58 initial workup (n)
9.
59 initially (adv)
0.
59 inject (vt)
1.
59 injection(n)
2.
59 inoculum (n)
3.
59 insect bite (n)
4.
59 insert (vt)
5.
59 institutionalized
6.
59 intact (adj)
7.
59 intake (n)
8.
59 intellectual (adj)
9.
60 intelligence quotient
0.
(IQ)
60 intend (vt)
1.
60 intensity (n)
2.
60 intensive support
3.
60 interaction (n)
4.
60 interfere with (vi)
5.

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60 intermediate (adj,n)
6.
60 interplay (n)
7.
60 interupt (vt)
8.
60 intervention (n)
9.
61 interviewee (n)
0.
61 interviewer (n)
1.
61 intestinal tract (n)
2.
613 intestine (n)
.
61 intracellular (adj)
4.
61 intradermally
5.
61 intrinsic (adj)
6.
61 invade (vt)
7.
61 invader (n)
8.
61 invasive medical
9.
technology
62 investigate (vi), (vt)
0.
62 investigator (n)
1.
62 involve (vt)
2.
623 irradiation (n)
.
62 irritant (n), (adj)
4.
62 ischaemia
5.
62 isolate
6.
62 itch (n), (vi)
7.
62 jelly (n)
8.
62 Journal of
9.
Immunology
63 juvenile
0.
63 keen to do sth (adj)
1.
63 keep a record of
2.
63 keep pace with; keep
3.
up with (v)
63 key words
4.
63 kidney transplant (n)
5.
63 labor (n)
6.
63 Laboratory of
7.
Immunoregulation
63 lack (n), (vt)
8.
63 lag (behind) (v)
9.
64 lancet (n)
0.
64 latent (adj)
1.
64 lead (n)
2.

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64 leading cause
3.
64 lest (conj)
4.
64 level(n)
5.
64 liable to do (adj)
6.
64 life – threatening (adj)
7.
64 likely to (adj)
8.
64 lime, lemon (n)
9.
65 limit (vt), (n)
0.
65 linked to (adj)
1.
65 literally (adv)
2.
65 livestock (n)
3.
65 lobe (n)
4.
65 localise (v)
5.
65 long-term (adj)
6.
65 look forward to (v)
7.
65 loss (n)
8.
65 lumen of the vessel
9.
66 macrophage (n)
0.
661 maintain (vt)
.
66 maintenance (n)
2.
66 major (adj)
3.
66 malabsorption (n)
4.
665 mal-absorption (n)
.
66 malaria (n)
6.
66 malnourished (adj)
7.
66 manage finance
8.
66 manageable(n)
9.
67 mandatory (adj)
0.
67 manifest
1.
672 manifestation (n)
.
67 manner (n)
3.
67 manufacture (n), (vt)
4.
67 mast cells
5.
67 measles (n)
6.
67 measure (n)
7.
67 measurement (n)
8.
67 median time
9.
68 mediate
0.

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68 mediation
1.
68 medication (n)
2.
68 Medieval
3.
68 member countries
4.
68 meningitis (n)
5.
68 menopause (n)
6.
68 menorrhagia (n)
7.
68 menostasis (n)
8.
68 menstruation (n)
9.
69 mental disability
0.
69 mental disorder
1.
69 mental illness (n)
2.
69 mental retardation (n)
3.
69 mercury (n)
4.
69 metabolic
5.
696 metabolism (n)
.
697 metabolite (n)
.
69 micronutrient
8.
69 mild (adj)
9.
70 minimize(vt)
0.
70 misconception (n)
1.
70 misuse (n) (v)
2.
70 mite (n)
3.
704 mobilize (vt)
.
70 mode (n)
5.
70 mold (n)
6.
70 molecular biology
7.
70 monitor
8.
70 morale (n)
9.
71 morbidity (n)
0.
71 mortality rate (n)
1.
71 mosquito (n)
2.
71 multinational (adj)
3.
71 multiplication (n)
4.
71 multiply(vi)
5.
71 mumps (n)
6.
71 muscle tone (n)
7.
71 muscle wasting (n)
8.

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71 mutate, mutation (vi),
9.
(n)
72 myocardial infarction
0.
72 myocardium (n)
1.
72 myriad (n)
2.
72 native (ad)
3.
72 nature (n)
4.
72 nausea (n)
5.
72 neck of the bladder
6.
(n)
72 need (n)
7.
72 nephrogenic (adj)
8.
72 neutralization (n)
9.
73 nevertheless (adv)
0.
73 newborn (n), (adj)
1.
73 NHS
2.
73 night blindness (n)
3.
73 no longer
4.
73 nocturia (n)
5.
73 non-communicable
6.
(adj)
73 nonetheless (adv)
7.
73 nonverbal clues (n)
8.
73 notable (adj)
9.
74 notice (vt)
0.
74 nourishment (n)
1.
74 nutrient (n)
2.
74 nutrition (n)
3.
74 obese (adj)
4.
74 obesity (n)
5.
74 objective (n)
6.
74 observe (v)
7.
74 obstetric (adj)
8.
74 obtain (vt)
9.
75 obvious (adj)
0.
75 occupational
1.
75 occur (vi)
2.
75 occurrence (n)
3.
75 offend (vt)
4.
75 offending (adj)
5.

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75 offspring (n)
6.
75 on a regular basis
7.
75 onset (n)
8.
75 operate (v)
9.
76 operation (n)
0.
76 opportunistic (adj)
1.
76 optimal (adj)
2.
76 optimistic (adj)
3.
76 oral contraceptive
4.
76 order laboratory tests
5.
76 originate (v)
6.
76 osteoporosis (n)
7.
76 otherwise (adv)
8.
76 outbreak (n)
9.
77 outcome (n)
0.
77 ovary (n)
1.
77 overall problem (n)
2.
77 overfeed (vt)
3.
77 overstretching (n)
4.
77 overuse (n, v)
5.
77 overweight (n), (adj)
6.
77 owner (n)
7.
77 painful subject
8.
77 pancreas (n)
9.
78 pandemic (n, adj)
0.
78 paralysis (n)
1.
78 parasite (n)
2.
783 parathyroid (adj)
.
78 participant
4.
78 particular (adj)
5.
78 pathogen (n)
6.
78 pathway (n)
7.
78 patient (n)
8.
78 pattern (n)
9.
79 peanut (n)
0.
79 pellagra (n)
1.
79 pelvic region (n)
2.
79 penetrate (vt)
3.

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79 per se
4.
79 perceive (v)
5.
79 perform (vt), (vi)
6.
79 perfumed feminine
7.
hygiene products
79 periodic (adj)
8.
79 peripheral
9.
neuropathy
80 permanent (adj)
0.
80 persistent (adj)
1.
80 persistently (adv)
2.
80 pertussis (n)
3.
80 pet (n)
4.
80 phage therapy
5.
80 phagocytosis (n)
6.
80 phenylketonuria (n)
7.
80 phrase (n)
8.
80 physical exam (n)
9.
81 physique (n)
0.
81 pinpoint (v)
1.
81 pituitary gland (n)
2.
81 placenta (n)
3.
81 plague (n)
4.
81 pneumonia (n)
5.
81 pneumonitis (n)
6.
81 poison (n, vt)
7.
81 policy (n)
8.
81 poliovirus (n)
9.
82 pollen (n)
0.
82 pollutant (n)
1.
82 polycystic kidney
2.
disease
82 poor prognosis (n)
3.
82 population (n)
4.
82 pose (vt)
5.
82 posterior (adj)
6.
82 postmenopausal (adj)
7.
82 postoperative (adj)
8.
82 postpartum (adj)
9.
83 postulate
0.

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83 postulates
1.
83 potent (adj)
2.
83 potential ( (n),
3.
(adj))
83 powerful
4.
83 practice good
5.
hygiene
83 practitioner (n)
6.
83 precede
7.
83 precursors
8.
83 predator
9.
84 predictable
0.
84 predictable
1.
84 predispose smb to
2.
84 predominant (adj)
3.
84 prefer
4.
84 pregnancy (n)
5.
84 pregnancy-related
6.
(adj)
84 pregnant (adj)
7.
84 preparation (n)
8.
84 prescribe (vt)
9.
85 prescription
0.
85 preserve (vt)
1.
85 prevailing (adj)
2.
85 prevalent (adj)
3.
85 prevent (vt)
4.
85 preventable (adj)
5.
85 preventive measures
6.
85 previously (adv)
7.
85 prick (v)
8.
85 principal (adj)
9.
86 principle (n)
0.
86 priority (n)
1.
86 procedure (n)
2.
86 professional (n), (adj)
3.
86 profound (adj)
4.
86 prognosis (n)
5.
86 progress (v)
6.
86 progression (n)
7.

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86 progressive (adj)
8.
86 proliferate (vt), (vi)
9.
87 prolong (v)
0.
87 prolonged isolation
1.
87 promote (vt)
2.
87 prone to (adj)
3.
87 properly (adv)
4.
87 propose (v)
5.
87 prostate (n)
6.
87 prostatectomy (n)
7.
87 protease (n)
8.
87 protect (vt)
9.
88 protective (adj)
0.
88 proteinuria (n)
1.
88 provitamin (n)
2.
88 psychiatric
3.
assessment (n)
88 psychiatrict patient
4.
(n)
88 psychosocial (adj)
5.
88 puberty (n)
6.
88 public health (n)
7.
88 pulmonary heart
8.
disease
88 pulmonologist
9.
89 pure (adj)
0.
89 purification (n)
1.
89 pyelonephritis (n)
2.
89 qualify (v)
3.
89 rabbit testes
4.
89 radiation (n)
5.
89 radioallergosorben
6.
t
89 radiometric (n)
7.
89 raise (vt)
8.
89 random mutation
9.
90 range from … to (v)
0.
90 rank (n), (vi)
1.
90 rapid (adj)
2.
90 rash (n)
3.
90 ratio (n)
4.

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90 rational = reasonable
5.
(adj)
90 raw food
6.
90 reabsorb (vt)
7.
90 reaction (n)
8.
90 realistic (adj)
9.
91 recessive-gene (n)
0.
91 recommend (vt)
1.
91 record (n), (vt)
2.
91 rectum (n)
3.
91 reduce (vt)
4.
91 refer smb to (vt)
5.
91 refer to (v)
6.
91 reference (n)
7.
91 reflect (vt)
8.
91 reflux esophagitis
9.
92 regional (adj)
0.
92 regular (adj)
1.
92 reject (v)
2.
92 related to (adj)
3.
92 release (v), (n)
4.
92 relevant to (adj)
5.
92 reliable (adj)
6.
92 relieve (vt)
7.
92 remove (vt)
8.
92 renal angiography (n)
9.
93 renal surgery (n)
0.
93 replace (vt)
1.
93 replicate (v)
2.
93 represent (v)
3.
93 reproductive phase
4.
93 research
5.
93 resection (n)
6.
93 resist, resistance
7.
(v,n)
93 resolve (v)
8.
93 respectively (adv)
9.
94 responsibility (n)
0.
94 responsively (adv)
1.
942 responsiveness (n)
.
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94 restriction (n)
3.
94 result (vi), (n)
4.
94 result from (vi)
5.
94 result in (vi)
6.
94 resurgent (adj)
7.
94 retardation (n)
8.
94 retinal damage
9.
95 reverse (vt)
0.
95 rickets (n)
1.
95 rid sth of (vt)
2.
95 rigorous (adj)
3.
95 risk factor (n)
4.
95 RNA = ribonucleic
5.
acid
95 rubella
6.
95 run
7.
95 rupture
8.
95 saliva (n)
9.
96 sample of blood (n)
0.
96 sandlike (adj)
1.
96 sanitary handling of
2.
food
96 sanitary napkins (n)
3.
96 sarcoid (adj)
4.
96 SARS
5.
96 saturated (adj)
6.
96 scar (n)
7.
96 scheme (n)
8.
96 science-based (adj)
9.
97 score (n)
0.
97 scratching (n)
1.
97 screen (v)
2.
97 screening (n)
3.
97 scurvy (n)
4.
97 security (n)
5.
97 sedentary (adj)
6.
97 sediment (n)
7.
97 selection, selective
8.
(n, adj)
97 semen (n)
9.

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98 sensation (n)
0.
98 sense of comfort
1.
98 sensitive (adj)
2.
983 sensitivity (n)
.
98 separate ( (adj),
4.
(v))
98 separate (v)
5.
98 seroconversion (n)
6.
98 seroconvert (v)
7.
988 seropositive (adj)
.
98 serum (n)
9.
99 serum creatinine (n)
0.
99 setting (n)
1.
99 severe (adj)
2.
99 severity (n)
3.
99 sewage treatment (n)
4.
99 sexual contact (n)
5.
99 shed (v)
6.
99 shift (v), (n)
7.
99 shy away from (v)
8.
99 side effect (n)
9.
10 sigmoid flexure (n)
00.
10 sign (n)
01.
10 significant
02.
10 significant (adj)
03.
10 similar (adj)
04.
10 single (adj)
05.
10 skin flakes (n)
06.
10 skin scales (n)
07.
10 skull (n)
08.
10 slant
09.
10 slow down (v)
10.
10 sneeze (vi)
11.
10 so far (adv)
12.
10 soap (n)
13.
10 society (n)
14.
10 sodium (n)
15.
10 soluble (adj)
16.
10 solution (n)
17.

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10 sorghum (n)
18.
10 spasm (n)
19.
10 specialise in (v)
20.
10 species (n)
21.
10 specific to (adj)
22.
102 spectrum (n)
3.
10 spermicidal foams
24.
10 sporadic (adj)
25.
10 spread (n), (vi)
26.
10 stable (adj)
27.
10 stage (n)
28.
10 stand for (v)
29.
10 stand in the way of
30.
10 standard (n)
31.
10 staphylococcus (n)
32.
10 staple food
33.
10 status (n)
34.
10 steadily (adv)
35.
10 stenosis (n)
36.
10 step (n)
37.
10 sterile (adj)
38.
10 stewardship (n)
39.
10 store (vt)
40.
10 strains of
41.
microorganisms
10 strategy (n)
42.
10 strengthen (vt)
43.
10 strenuous exercise
44.
(n)
10 stroke (n)
45.
10 sublingually
46.
10 substance (n)
47.
10 substantially (adv)
48.
10 substrate (n)
49.
10 succeed (vi)
50.
10 suffer from (v)
51.
10 sufficient (adj)
52.
10 suggestive of (adj)
53.
10 suicide (n)
54.
10 suitable (adj)
55.
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10 sunscreen (n)
56.
10 supervision (n)
57.
10 supplementation (n)
58.
10 support (n), (vt)
59.
10 supportive group
60.
10 surgical procedure
61.
10 surveillance (n)
62
.
10 survival time
63.
10 survive (vt)
64.
10 susceptible (adj)
65.
10 suspect (v)
66.
10 sweet potato (n)
67.
10 swell (vi)
68.
10 symbiosis (n)
69.
107 synthesize, synthesis
0.
(vt), (n)
10 syphilis (n)
71.
10 tainted (adj)
72.
10 take by mouth (vt)
73.
10 take care of (v)
74.
107 take hold of (vt)
5.
10 target (n)
76.
10 TB (tuberculosis) (n)
77.
10 tend (v)
78.
10 tendency (n)
79.
10 theme (n)
80.
10 theoretical (adj)
81.
10 theorize (v)
82.
108 therapeutic (adj)
3.
108 there is no need to do
4.
10 thigh (n)
85.
10 thirst (n)
86.
10 thirsty (adj)
87.
10 thoroughly (adv)
88.
10 thromboembolic,
89.
-lism (adj), (n)
10 thrombus material
90.
10 thus (adv)
91.
10 tingling sensation
92.
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10 to a certain extent
93.
10 tobacco (n)
94.
10 toddler
95.
10 toll, take toll on
96.
10 tones of voice (n)
97.
10 tool (n)
98.
10 toxic (adj)
99.
11 trait (n)
00.
11 transdermally (adv)
01.
11 transfer (vt)
02.
11 transformation
03.
protocol
11 transfusion (n)
04.
11 transmission (n)
05.
11 transmittal (n)
06.
110 transport (vt), (n)
7.
11 trauma (n)
08.
11 traumatic
09.
11 treatise (n)
10.
11 treatment (n)
11.
11 tropical (adj)
12.
11 tuberculosis (n)
13.
11 tumor (n)
14.
11 typhoid fever (n)
15.
11 typhus (n)
16.
11 typical (adj)
17.
11 typically (adv)
18.
11 ubiquitous (adj)
19.
11 ulcer (n)
20.
11 ultimately (adv)
21.
11 ultraviolet (n)
22.
11 umbrella term
23.
11 unavoidable (adj)
24.
11 unaware (adj)
25.
11 unborn (adj)
26.
11 unconscious (adj)
27.
11 uncovere (vt)
28.
11 undamaged (adj)
29.
11 under way
30.
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11 undercook (v)
31.
11 underscore(vt)
32.
11 understanding of (n)
33.
113 undesirable =
4.
unwanted (adj)
11 unencountered
35.
113 uniform (adj)
6.
11 unique (adj)
37.
11 universally (adv)
38.
11 unpolished rice (n)
39.
11 unsuspected
40.
11 uptake
41.
11 urbanisation
42.
11 ureter (n)
43.
11 ureterosigmoidostom
44.
y (n)
11 urethra (n)
45.
11 urethral opening (n)
46.
11 urethral sphincter (n)
47.
11 urethroplasty (n)
48.
11 urgent need (n)
49.
11 urinary tract infection
50.
(n)
11 urinate
51.
11 urination (n)
52.
11 urine bladder (n)
53.
11 urine retention (n)
54.
11 urine, urinary (n),
55.
(adj)
11 uterus (n)
56.
11 utility (n)
57.
11 utilize
58.
11 vaccination (n)
59.
11 vaccine (n)
60.
11 vagina
61.
11 vaginal fluid
62.
11 vaginal, urethral
63.
drainage
11 value (n), (vt)
64.
11 variable
65.
11 varicella (n)
66.
11 variety (n)
67.

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11 vary (vi)
68.
11 vector (n)
69.
11 vector-borne spread
70.
11 venereal disease (n)
71.
11 via (prep)
72.
11 viewpoint (n)
73.
11 violence (n)
74.
11 virulence (n)
75.
117 viscera (n)
6.
11 vital signs (n)
77.
11 void (vi)
78.
11 vulnerable to
79.
11 vulnerable to (adj)
80.
11 wane
81.
11 ward (n)
82.
11 water - soluble (adj)
83.
11 wealthy (adj)
84.
11 wean (v)
85.
11 wheat (n)
86.
11 wheeze (vi)
87.
11 whereas (conj)
88.
11 whooping cough
89.
11 wipe (vt)
90.
11 wipe sth out (vt)
91.
11 withstand
92.
11 work on (v)
93.
11 worldwide (adj), (adv)
94.
11 worst off
95.
11 wound (n)
96.
11 yellow fever (n)
97.

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ENGLISH FOR MEDICAL
STUDENTS 2
SUGGESTED KEYS TO EXERCISES (WORKBOOK)

Second Edition 2009

The following answers are suggested by the author in order to make the teaching
somewhat uniform. However, in many cases they are not considered to be the unique
ones. The teachers who use the book are expected to add any possible answers that
they think appropriate to certain questions.
UNIT 1:
I. CLOZE TESTS
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 amoun catal call involved clotti acid intak ingeste store deca
. ts ysts ed ng e d d des
2 eating feedi kno healing using accept practi maintai plag cause
. ng wn ed cing ning ued d
3 classifi occur limit consumpt interfe deficie result avoid liver coupl
. ed s s ion re ncy e
4 as into for from at in by with from for
.
II. READING PASSAGES
1.CDADC 2. BDCCD
III. STRUCTURES & VOCABULARY 1. C 2. A 3. A 4. B 5. C 6. B 7. A 8. C 9. D
10. A
IV. TERMINOLOGY
1. Hypercalciuria 2. Hypercalcemia 3. Hyperalimentation 4. homeostasis 5.
gut flora
6. fermentation 7. Contagious 8. Coenzymes 9. catalyst 10. Arthritis
V REWRITING
1.The currently available antibiotics are known to inhibit or kill some of these microorganisms
 People know that the currently available antibiotics inhibit or kill some of these microorganisms.
2.This hormone that is believed to control how the beta cells make and release insulin
MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.com 108
 They believed this hormone controls how the beta cells make and release insulin
3. Daily multivitamin supplements have been found to reduce HIV disease progression among men
and women.
 It has been found that daily multivitamin supplements reduce HIV disease progression among men
and women.
4.The disease has been reported to be reduced significantly with 4000 IU of Vitamin D3 daily over 6
months.
 It has been reported that the disease is reduced significantly with 4000 IU of Vitamin D3 daily over
6 months.
The pain results from a narrowing of the blood vessels feeding the muscle.
5.  The pain is caused by a narrowing of the blood vessels feeding the muscle.
VI. LISTENING 1: CDBA
SCRIPT1:In recent years, research has suggested more health value from vitamin D than had once
been thought.
Vitamin D is produced naturally in the blood. Sunlight is a major source. It is also found in some
foods. These include eggs, liver and some fish. Vitamin D is also found in pills. Vitamin D helps to
increase levels of calcium in the blood. It helps build strong bones and teeth. It also helps in muscle
development.
It also appears to do more than just protect against rickets. That serious bone disease was the
reason vitamin D was added to milk. Rickets is now rare in the western world. But it is still a
common childhood disease in developing countries. Rickets can cause bone pain and weakness,
teeth problems and muscle loss.

UNIT 2:
I. CLOZE TEST
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1. refer which antibo charac life- suffer leadin name respo stem
dies terize threat g d nse
d ening
2. by to as on or/and from in to from by
3. known suspe marke injecte testin allergi within sensiti perfor reduce
cted d d g c ve ming
4. while withou which to additi sensiti if react throug by
t onally ze h
II. READING PASSAGES
1. 1. F 2. T 3. T 4. T 5. F
2. A: 1. D 2. A 3. B 4. D 5. C 6. B
2. B: 1. F 2. T 3. T 4. F 5. T
III. STRUCTURES & VOCABULARY 1. B 2. D 3. C 4. B 5. C 6. A 7. D 8. B 9. A 10.
A
IV. TERMINOLOGY
1. micronutrient, 2. irradiation 3. Hyperparathyroidism 4. night blindness 5. Nausea 6.
Nutrients 7. Obesity 8. Osteomalacia 9. metabolism 10. metabolites
V. REWRITING
6. Thickening of the skin of the palm results in loss of ability to hold hand straight.
 Loss of ability to hold hand straight results from thickening of the skin of the palm.
7. Long-term chemical exposure is capable of causing many systemic disturbances.
 Long-term chemical exposure can cause many systemic disturbances.
8. It is thought that the use of purified insulin helps avoid or reduce some of the problems of
people with diabetes such as allergic reactions.
 The use of purified insulin is though to help avoid or reduce some of the problems of
people with diabetes such as allergic reactions.
9. Patients find that it is hard to remember things  Patients find it hard to remember things
10. You may find it useful to breathe through a wet towel or tissue when you feel the symptoms
are acute.
 You may find that it is useful to breathe through a wet towel or tissue when you feel the
symptoms are acute.
VI. LISTENING 2: Poisonous, nerves, proved, develop, carried, premature, lining, cilia,
coughing, damaged
UNIT 3:
I. CLOZE TEST
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 accou diabet consid urban develo factors estima vulner level preven
MEDICAL ENGLISH 2 – WORKBOOK – tonquyenn@yahoo.com 109
. nting es ered ped ted able table
2 of which for to in on from for to 10. of
. 11,
with
12
with
3 circula death gap factors develo lifestyl pressu intake target reducti
. tory ping e re ons
II. READING PASSAGE
1 1. B 2. D 3. A 4. B 5. B
2.A. 1. C 2. B 3. A 4. C 5. D 6. B 7. B
2.B. 1.carcinomas, 2. sarcomas, 3. leukemias 4. prostate gland 5. pancreas 6. blood cells 7.
lung cancer 8. myelomas
2.C. 1.originate 2. categorized 3. epithelial 4. respectively 5. invading 6. fatal
III. STRUCTURES & VOCABULARY 1. A 2. B 3. B 4. B 5. B 6. A 7. B 8.
C 9. D 10. B
IV. TERMINOLOGY 1 overdose 2. substrate 3. Osteoporosis 4. Parathyroid 5.
tuberculosis 6. Plague7. Rickets8. Scurvy 9. Sunscreen10 precursors
V. REWRITING
1. Organisms causing an infectious disease in a host with depressed resistance are classified
as opportunistic pathogens.
 Organisms that cause an infectious disease in a host with depressed resistance are
classified as opportunistic pathogens.
2. Malaria is caused by Plasmodial parasites.  Plasmodial parasites are the cause of
malaria.
3. You should take care of yourself so that a disease has less of an effect on your body.
 You should take care of yourself in order that a disease has less of an effect on your
body.
4. An area near the center of the retina of the eye is responsible for fine or reading vision.
 An area near the center of the retina of the eye is involved in fine or reading vision.
5. Although there are many claims of nutritional cures, there is no reliable proof of their
effectiveness.
 Despite the fact that there are many claims of nutritional cures, there is no reliable proof
of their effectiveness.
VI. LISTENING 3&4
6.1. 1) thinking 2) 3) 1907. 4) rare 5) common. 6) brain. 7) memory. 8) talk. 9) family. 10)
special
6.2. CBACC- Script
In California about 9,000 people will die this year because of skin cancer.
There are two types of skin cancer. One type is caused by the sun. The second type of skin cancer
happens when the skin cells are turned into cancer cells. Your risk for getting skin cancer depends
on a number of things. Your chances are higher if you have light-colored skin, have blue eyes, are
getting older, or are in the sun a lot. The survival rate for skin cancer is 80% when found and
treated early. Depending on how deep the skin tumors are, different therapies can be tried. They
are surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Skin cancer can be prevented by staying out of the sun
during the hottest part of the day. Using sun block with a protective factor of at least 15 will also
help. Other ways of protecting yourself would be to wear hats and long-sleeve shirts. It is also good
to look at your skin each month to find any skin cancers early. Watching for any changes in your
skin and staying out of the sun during peak hours are the two best ways to prevent skin cancer.

UNIT 4:
I. CLOZE TEST
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1. hypergl pregna single interact incurab glucos renal blindne develo leading
ycemia ncy ion le e ss ped
2. excessi sweet urine attracte mean tasting named kidney related depend
ve d ent
3. prevent protecti prevent reliable additio elevate levels associ accum consu
ive ve ed n d ated ulated mption
II. READING PASSAGE
1. 1. C 2. C 3. A 4. D 5. A 6. C 7. C 8. D 9. D
2. 1. D 2. A 3. A 4. A 5. A

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III. STRUCTURES & VOCABULARY 1.A 2. B 3. D 4. B 5. B 6. A 7. C 8. B9.
C 10. D
IV. TERMINOLOGY 1. antihistamine 2. alternative 3. viscera 4. ultraviolet 5. allergic 6.
antibodies 7. vomit 8. threshold 9. allergy 10 adrenalin
V. REWRITING
1. Despite the fact that over three hundred years have passed since the discovery of microbes, the
field of microbiology is clearly in its infancy relative to other biological disciplines  Although over
three hundred years have passed since the discovery of microbes, the field of microbiology is
clearly in its infancy relative to other biological disciplines
2. Bacteria were first observed by Leeuwenhoek in 1676 using a single-lens microscope.
 Leeuwenhoek first observed bacteria in 1676, using a single-lens microscope.
3. The first microbiological observation was made by Robert Hooke.  Robert hook was the first
person to observe microbes / bacteria.
4. Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) and Robert Koch (1843-1910) are often considered to be the
founders of medical microbiology.
Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) and Robert Koch (1843-1910) are regarded as the founders of
medical microbiology.
5. Robert Koch is famous for his contributions to the germ theory of disease. Robert Koch is best-
know for his contributions to the germ theory of disease.
VI. LISTENING 5
1) energy 2) chemical 3) surface. 4) molecules 5) repair 6) build up 7) kidneys, 8) teenagers
9) regular 10) sensitive 11) remains 12) smoking

UNIT 5:
I. CLOZE TEST
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 low trouble/diffic with on with/havi care abl from at durin
. er ulty ng e g
2 adult speaking solvi diagnos distinguis consider life encount joi servic
. s ng ed h ed er n es
3 by from for with such due to to by in
.
II. READING PASSAGE
1.A 1. C 2. D 3. B 4. D 5. D 6. B
1.B. 1E 2D 3A 4C 5B
2. 1. C 2. B 3. A 4. B 5. A
III. STRUCTURES & VOCABULARY
1. B 2. A 3. D 4. C 5. B 6. C 7. B 8. C 9. B 10. C
IV. TERMINOLOGY
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
conjun benign Antise Antiser Chroni Coma bronch autoim asthma basoph
ctiva ptics um c oconst mune ils
riction
V. REWRITING
1. Koch was one of the first scientists who focused on the isolation of bacteria.  Koch was
one of the first scientists to focus on the isolation of bacteria.
2. Pollens of insect-pollinated plants are too large to remain airborne and pose no risk.
 Pollens of insect-pollinated plants are so large that they cannot to remain airborne to pose
any risk.
3. It is important that people use new or properly sterilized needles for each injection.  It is
important that new or properly sterilized needles be used.
4. IgG is present in the body, known to respond to foods.  IgG is present in the body and is
known to respond to foods.
5. Allergies are caused by an oversensitive immune system, leading to a misdirected immune
response.
 Allergies are caused by an oversensitive immune system and lead to a misdirected
immune response.
VI. LISTENING 6&7
6.1. 1) years 2) treated 3) tissue 4) healthy 5) history 6) probably 7) expensive. 8) wrong. 9)
useful 10) easily.
6.2. DDBD script Choking is the fourth leading cause of death in young children.
Children will put anything in their mouths. Small toys, jewelry, tacks, and coins are just a few.
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Protect them by keeping small items out of their reach.
Some foods can cause young children to choke. Round, hard foods are especially dangerous to
young children. Ask your doctor if your child is old enough to have foods like hot dogs, nuts, carrots,
and grapes. These foods can lodge in a child's throat and be very hard to get out. There are other
safety tips you should keep in mind. Do not let your child run with anything in his or her mouth. Do
not let your child lie down while eating. Never leave your baby alone with a propped up bottle. Being
aware of what your child puts in his or her mouth may save his or her life.

UNIT 6:
I. CLOZE TEST
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1. affect caused supply leading sugges known include heredi hypert surrou
ts tary ensive nding
2. artery myocar sympto decade flow
death reason eviden period buildup
dium ms s ce
3. usually consid severe differe regular stable long- orally especi urgent
erably ntly ly acting ally
II. READING PASSAGE
1.
1. A 2. D 3. B 4. C 5. C
2.
1. D 2. C 3. B 4. B 5. B
III.TERMINOLOGY
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
Differe effector diagno eczema Dyspno Edema desensi conditi dermati dermat
ntiate sis ea tize ons tis ologist

IV. STRUCTURES & VOCABULARY


1. D 2. A 3. C 4. B 5. C 6. B 7. A 8. B 9. B 10. D
V. REWRITING
1. The blood test may be helpful in determining specific allergen sensitivity. 
The blood test may help to determine specific allergen sensitivity.
2. Someone allergic to birch pollen may also find that they have an allergic
reaction to the skin of apples or potatoes.
 Someone who are allergic to birch pollen may also find that they have an
allergic reaction to the skin of apples or potatoes.
3. This occurs because of similarities in the proteins of the pollen and the food.
 This occurs because there are similarities in the proteins of the pollen and
the food.
4. The goal of the treatment is to reduce allergy symptoms caused by the
inflammation of affected tissues.
 The treatment is aimed to reduce / at reducing allergy symptoms caused
by the inflammation of affected tissues.
5. The goal of treatment is to reduce allergy symptoms caused by the
inflammation of affected tissues.
 The goal of treatment is to reduce allergy symptoms which are caused by
the inflammation of affected tissues.
VI. LISTENING 8&(
6.1. 1) cholesterol, 2) blocked 3) delivered 4) attack. 5) symptoms.6) treat 7) daily 8) severe
9) damaged 10) supply
6. 2. DCABB script Smoking kills more Americans than AIDS, drug abuse, car accidents and
crime.
Did you know that 390,000 Americans die each year from cigarette smoking? Smoking tobacco
causes 1 out of 6 deaths. Smoking can also cause some very serious diseases. Some people
become addicted to smoking.
Lung cancer has caused more deaths in women than breast cancer. If a pregnant woman smokes,
she has a greater chance of medical problems with her baby. Cigarette smoking is the number one
cause of cancer death in men. Male smokers over the age of 35 are more likely to die from
smoking-related diseases like lung cancer. Many children start smoking before they reach high
school. They run the risk of smoking most of their lives. They could die of smoking-related diseases.

UNIT 7:
I. CLOZE TEST
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 dama result agents fungi occur contact capabl fluids describ synony
. ges s e es mous
2 defen resist microorga cause infect diseas contac tract occur exposur
. ses nisms e t e
3 vector introd transmitte pathog mecha manife parasit sympt vaccin encount
. uce d ens nisms sted ized oms ation ers
4 provin identif contract discov criteria culture used deter occurri number
. g ied ery d mine ng
II. READING PASSAGE
1.
1. A 2. B 3. C 4. D 5. D
2.
1. B 2. D 3. C 4. D 5. A
III. STRUCTURES & VOCABULARY
1. B 2. A 3. D 4. A 5. C 6. B 7. C 8. A 9. A 10. B
IV. TERMINOLOGY
1. 2. hive 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
homeo excre extract expos Hygien Immun susce fatigue hypote
pathy ment ure e oglobu ptibilit nsion
lin y
V. REWRITING
1. The best thing to do is to avoid what causes your allergic symptoms in the first place.
 It is best to avoid what causes your allergic symptoms in the first place.
2. Specific illnesses caused by allergies may require other treatments.  Specific illnesses that
are caused by allergies may require other treatments.
3. The proteins causing allergies are found not only in the animals' fur or hair but also in saliva,
urine, mucous, and hair roots.
 The proteins which cause allergies are found not only in the animals' fur or hair but also in
saliva, urine, mucous, and hair roots.
4. A company called Allerca has recently announced to be able to produce a so called
hypoallergenic cat.
 A company called Allerca has recently announced that they are able to produce a so
called hypoallergenic cat.
5. A human being has cat allergy if he shows an allergic reaction towards proteins produced by
cats.
 A human being has cat allergy if he shows an allergic reaction towards proteins which are
produced by cats.
VI. LISTENING 10&11
6.1. BCADB. Scrip In September 2006 many people became sick all around the United States.
Doctors were very puzzled. The doctors thought that the people had all gotten stomach flu. Then
they discovered it was something worse. The doctors and health officials discovered that all of the
people ate fresh spinach around the same time. The spinach that was eaten was not good. It had
bacteria on it or in it called "E. coli".
The E. coli bacteria cause lots of health problems. If a plant is near contaminated water it can
become infected with E. coli. There are other ways E. coli can get on or into fruits and vegetables.
When someone gets E. coli their symptoms are very similar to the flu. Most healthy adults can
recover from it. Some people can get very sick and die from it.
About 166 people in 25 states got sick from the bacteria that was in fresh spinach. Many of them
had to go to the hospital because they were so sick. One person did not recover and died.
The Food and Drug Administration investigated the problem. They wanted to make sure that no
one was tampering with food and making people sick on purpose. They found that there was
probably a problem with the way growers handled the food. They did not think there was any
tampering.
People were told not to eat fresh or bagged spinach while the FDA was investigating. Washing the
produce will not solve the problem. They told grocery stores to throw the spinach away and not sell
it. Many companies who process spinach had to throw what they had away so that no more people
would get sick. Frozen and canned spinach were safe. The bacteria can not live if it is frozen or
cooked at a very high heat in a can.
It is not known where exactly the outbreak started. Other outbreaks were caused by water that was
contaminated by cow waste and other things. The state of California is trying to figure out where the
problem started. Knowing where the spinach came from helps investigators figure out how it
became contaminated.
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The Food and Drug Administration said that it warned California farmers to do more to make
_______(18) sure their spinach and lettuce was safe to eat. Since 1995 there have been 20 cases
of spinach or lettuce contaminated with E. coli.
Food growers in California and other states wanted to _______(19) prevent this from happening
again. They put together new guidelines for produce growers. The guidelines are like rules that
produce growers should follow when planting, _______(20) picking, and packaging food. The plan
is designed to protect food from E. coli so that people do not get sick again.
6.2. 1minor 2 untreated. 3 antibiotic 4injury 5 ocean 6 soap. 7 iodine.8 remove 9ointment 10
daily

UNIT 8:
I. CLOZE TEST
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 withsta develo artifici conseque survive pass generati greatly expose patie
. nd p ally nce on d nts
2 resista possibl bioacti limitless estimat usefu tradition infecti pathoge distin
. nt e ve ed l al ous nic ct
3 washi spread avoidi undercoo separat induc theoretic limited produce testin
. ng ing ng ked ely ed ally d g
II. READING PASSAGE
1.
1. A 2. D 3. C 4. B 5. A
2.
1. B 2. C 3. A 4. A 5. A
III. STRUCTURES & VOCABULARY
1. A 2. A 3. A 4. D 5. B 6. C 7. C 8. A 9. A 10. C
IV. TERMINOLOGY
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
intrade Mucos Monoc Intrave Inflam Immun Immun Pediatr Wheezi wheez
rmally a lonal nous mation othera osuppr ics ng e
py essant
s
V. REWRITING
6. Opportunistic disease may be caused by microbes that are ordinarily in contact with the host.
 Opportunistic disease may result from microbes that are ordinarily in contact with the host.
7. Infection with most pathogens does not result in death of the host.
 Infection with most pathogens does not cause death to the host.
8. The immune response to a microorganism often causes symptoms such as a high fever and
inflammation.
 The immune response to a microorganism often lead to symptoms such as a high fever and
inflammation.
9. Certain agents cannot be cultured, for example Treponema pallidum and most viruses.
 It is impossible to culture certain agents, for example Treponema pallidum and most
viruses.
10 Between 1518 and 1568 pandemics diseases are said to have caused the population of
. Mexico to fall from 20 million to 3 million.
 It is said that between 1518 and 1568 pandemics diseases caused the population of Mexico
to fall from 20 million to 3 million.
VI. LISTENING 12 1)best 2) reason 3) drugs 4) unborn 5) safe 6) react 7) discovers 8)
chance 9) breast 10) passed

UNIT 9:
I. CLOZE TEST
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1 immu stage cure contact transf pregn pandemic deaths morbi acces
. ne usion ancy dity s
2 weake preve rema recomme vulner intake malabsor progres benef maint
. ned nts ins nded able ption sion it ain
3 with than in for betwee agains in to of in
. n t
II. READING PASSAGES
1. CDCAD
2. DDCDC
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III. STRUCTURES & VOCABULARY
1. A 2. C 3. C 4. A 5. B 6. C 7. D 8. A 9. B 10. B
IV. TERMINOLOGY
Remedy salivary Sublingual rehabilitating Saliva Rhinitis Pneumonitis receptor parasites
serum susceptible
V. REWRITING
1. People infected with a new disease can carry the disease to the far side of the world before their
first symptoms appear.
 People who are infected with a new disease can carry the disease to the far side of the world
before their first symptoms appear.
2. The relationship between virulence and transmission is complex, and has important consequences
for the long term evolution of a pathogen.
 The relationship between virulence and transmission is complex, having important
consequences for the long term evolution of a pathogen.
3. Edward Jenner, Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin were successful in developing vaccines for Smallpox
and polio, reducing the threat of these debilitating diseases.
 Edward Jenner, Jonas Salk and Albert Sabin succeeded in developing vaccines for Smallpox
and polio, reducing the threat of these debilitating diseases.
4. They successfully developed vaccines for Smallpox and polio, reducing the threat of these
debilitating diseases.
 They successfully developed vaccines for Smallpox and polio, and reduced the threat of these
debilitating diseases.
5. Organisms which are normally non-pathogenic can become pathogenic under the right conditions.
 Normally non-pathogenic organisms can become pathogenic under the right conditions.
VI. LISTENING 13&14
6.1. 1) share 2) contain 3) sick. 4) infection. 5) spread 6) cause 7) found 8) test 9) rid 10)
avoid.
6.2. 1. B 2. B 3. C 4.C Script
The United Nations Children's Fund, UNICEF, has just released a report on a campaign launched in
October of two thousand five. UNICEF, the U.N. AIDS program and other groups wanted to bring
greater attention to the needs of children affected by AIDS.
The report on the "Unite for Children, Unite Against AIDS" campaign says there are signs of
progress.
One of the biggest problems is the spread of HIV from mothers to children. Mother-to-child
transmission was the main cause of the estimated half-million new infections last year in children
under the age of fifteen.
UNICEF reports that several countries in eastern and southern Africa have made what it calls
breakthroughs. It says they greatly increased the number of mothers who receive antiretroviral
drugs. These medicines can prevent mother-to-child transmission.
For example, the report says Namibia increased coverage from six percent of mothers to twenty-
nine percent. That was between two thousand four and two thousand five. And in South Africa, it
says, the number rose during that same period from twenty-two percent of mothers to thirty percent.
However, the report says there are still far too many pregnant women infected with HIV who do not
get antiretroviral treatment. Only nine percent of them in poor countries were getting the medicines
in two thousand five.
UNIT 10:
I. CLOZE TEST
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1. bacteri althou multip called known promptly urin lasting sinc accompan
al gh ly e e ied
2. from in tend likely levels indicate buil antibodi oral vagina
d es
3. inflamm chills blood dischar diagno emerge fev period bas treated
ation ge se ncy er ed
II. READING PASSAGE
A. 56374182 B. 1T 2F 3T 4T 5F
C. 1 accepted 2 Initial 3 mortality 4 widely 5 reduced D. 1 after 2 Before 3. While 4.
before 5. During
III. STRUCTURES & VOCABULARY
1. D 2. A 3. A 4. A 5. A 6. B 7. C 8. B 9. C 10. A
IV. REWRITING
1. Cat allergy will usually result in sneezing.  Sneezing will usually result from cat allergy.
2. These chemicals are not yet recognized to cause allergic reactions.  Researchers do not
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recognize that these chemicals cause allergic reactions.
3. Enclosed, air-conditioned buildings are generally considered particularly bad environments
for the chemically-sensitive people.
 Enclosed, air-conditioned buildings are generally considered particularly bad
environments for the people who are chemically-sensitive / sensitive to chemicals
4. Many soy-allergic individuals are sensitive to soy protein.
 Many individuals who are allergic to soy are sensitive to soy protein.
5. Transmission of an infectious disease may occur through several pathways.
 An infectious disease may be transmitted through several pathways.
V. LISTENING 15&16
1) needles 2) risk. 3) cure4) avoid 5) personal 6) free 7) proper 8) way 9) syringe 10) blood.
6.2. CBBBD Script In 1970, a man was mowing his lawn. He felt a pain in his throat. He saw a
little bit of blood. The man said that he was not too worried, but a few hours later it really started to
hurt.
The next day, the man said that it felt like he had a hot knife cutting him when he coughed. He also
had a high fever. His family rushed him to the hospital. The doctors found a small nail that had
embedded itself in the man’s rib cage.
Doctors gave the man some medicine to help fight an infection. They said that he should be okay.
They thought that the nail would seal itself off in his body. They did not think that he needed surgery
to remove the nail.
More than 35 years after the incident, doctors saw the nail again in the man’s body. The nail was no
longer in his rib cage. It was now in his lung. Doctors decided that the nail needed to be removed.
They made the 84- year old man an appointment to have it taken out.
Before the day of the appointment, the man was brushing his teeth in the bathroom. He said that he
felt a tickle in his throat. He started coughing. The nail popped right out.
Doctors said that the man is doing fine. They do not think that the nail caused any damage to his
health.

VI. TERMINOLOGY
1. KEYS 2. KEYS

1 A U R I C L E 1 A R T H R I T I S
2 A N T I S E P T I C 2 A L L E R G Y
3 A N T I S E R U M
3 Z Y G O T E
4 B R O N C H U S
5 H O O K W O R M 4 A R T H R O S C O P E
6 A P P E N D I X 5 A L V E O L U S
7 A X O N 6 A N E M I A
8 A S T H M A 7 A U T O I M M U N E
9 A N A B O L I S M 8 A N E S T H E T I C
1 A R T E R Y 9 A O R T A
0
1 R I C K E T S
1

3. KEYS

1 R O B E R T K O C H
2 B A C I L L U S
3 B E D W E T T I N G
4 B A S O P H I L
5 B I O P H Y S I C S
6 C A P I L L A R Y
7 K N E E
8 B E N I G N

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