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Menulis Jurnal Refleksi

Dalam Penyelidikan Tindikan


19 April 2006
Cititel Hotel, Pulau Pinang
Isi Kandungan
• Apakah Jurnal Refleksi?
• 2 Jenis Refleksi
• Proses Refleksi
• Menulis Refleksi
• Aktiviti 1 – Menulis jurnal refleksi
• Berkongsi Refleksi dengan Rakan Sejawat
• Aktiviti II – Pair n Share, Stand n Share
Definisi
Shulman (1987) mendefinisikan refleksi sebagai satu
fasa di mana guru meninjau semula pengajarannya
di dalam bilik darjah dalam aspek:
• Pembelajaran daripada pengalaman
• Proses yang dipandukan oleh data yang ada

Refleksilah yang membenarkan anda belajar


daripada pengalaman anda: ianya suatu penilaian
dari tahap mana anda bermula sehingga ke tahap
mana anda akan capai
Definisi
Reflection is what allows us to learn from
our experiences: it is an assessment of
where we have been and where we
want to go next.
~ Kenneth Wolf
Refleksilah yang membenarkan anda belajar
daripada pengalaman anda: ianya suatu penilaian
dari tahap mana anda bermula sehingga ke tahap
mana anda akan capai
Jurnal Reflektif
Jurnal reflektif merupakan instrumen
mendokumentasikan
– amalan secara reflektif
– Pemikiran tindak susulan amalan
– Pemikiran menanyakan dan mencabar status
quo dan meneroka idea-idea
Kenapa Menulis Jurnal?
• Penulisan jurnal adalah dekat sekali ke “natural speech,
and writing can flow without self-consciousness or
inhibition”. (Schneider,1994)
• Ia mendedahkan proses-proses pemikiran dan tabiat mental
• Ia membantu ingatan
• Ia memberi satu konteks untuk “healing” dan
perkembangan
• Ia merupakan satu saluran untuk mengamalkan penulisan
harian tanpa sekatan bentuk, “audience” dan penilaian
(Sommer 1989)
Why keep journals?
• Journal writing is closest to natural speech, and
writing can flow without self-consciousness or
inhibition. (Schneider,1994)
• It reveals thought processes and mental habits, it
aids memory, and it provides a context for healing
and growth.
• Journals are a safe place to practice writing daily
without the restrictions of form, audience, and
evaluation (Sommer 1989)
Refleksi
Mengenal pasti aspek amalan

Perancangan
Refleksi
• Menganalisis dan menilai
• Membuat refleksi mengenai
keberkesanan tindakan berdasarkan
data yang dikumpul

Tindakan / Implementasi

Pengumpulan Data
REFLEKSI P&P Mengenal
YANG LALU pasti Tinjauan Awal
Masalah, Isu/ /
Situasi Mengutip dan
menganalisis
GELUNGAN 1) MENENTUKAN data tinjauan
KEDUA ISU awal
KEPERIHATINA
N/ FOKUS
KAJIAN (2)
MERANCANG
TINDAKAN /
(5) MEMBUAT REFLEKSI
INTERVENSI
TERHADAP
P&P
KEBERKESANAN
TINDAKAN

(3) BERTINDAK/
MELAKSANAKAN
TINDAKAN
(4) MENGUMPUL
DAN
MENGANALISIS PEMANTAUA
DATA N TINDAKAN
(2)
GELUNGAN MERANCANG
KETIGA TINDAKAN /
INTERVENSI
P & P BARU

(3) BERTINDAK /
MELAKSANAKA
N TINDAKAN
(5)
MEMBUAT
REFLEKSI
TERHADAP
KEBERKESANAN
TINDAKAN PEMANTAUA
N TINDAKAN

(4) MENGUMPUL
DAN
MENGANALISIS
DATA
Two sorts of Reflection
There are two sorts of reflection:
• Reflection-in-action
• Reflection-on-action (Schon 1987).

Terdapat dua jenis refleksi:


• refleksi sewaktu bertindak
• Refleksi mengenai tindakan
• Reflection-in-action is
when you are working,
and being aware of
what you are doing at
the same time.
• Refleksi sewaktu
bertindak berlaku
semasa anda
bertugas, dan anda
menyedari perlakuan
anda sewaktu itu
This is the way any
confident, experienced
practitioner works:
• Thinking one step
ahead (oh good, if
that's happened the
next thing is to... )
• Being critical (no,
not there, try just
here);
•Storing experience for the future (I could have
said that better - next time...)
•Analysing (she's saying that to test me out -
better respond cautiously here)
•and so on
“They were too nice to tell me to go away, I
think. Should I leave? I felt guilty about
leaving, so I hanged around – who knows, I
might be needed for some clarifications?…”
- Goh (2000)
There is a hawk in your mind,
hovering over your every action,
its sharp eyes missing nothing.
But that hawk can only :
• See things from one point of view: your
own.
• Offer split-second reflection - because
of necessity you move onto the next
action, and the next thought.

So - here comes the value of:


Reflection-on-action
is what we usually mean when
we refer to reflective practice.
This is the reflecting you do
after the event: thinking
through, and often discussing
the incident with a colleague
or supervisor. To an extent we
all do it - whether formally at
work, or informally over coffee
/ beer either with colleagues or
friends / family.
Menulis Refleksi mengenai tindakan
•Merujuk kepada amalan reflektif.
•Membuat refleksi selepas peristiwa dan
mendokumentasikannya: berfikir, menilai,
membincang dengan rakan sejawat atau staf
kanan
• Boleh berlaku secara
formal sewaktu kerja,
atau secara tidak formal
sewaktu makan/minum
dengan rakan atau
dengan keluarga.
“Selepas menjalankan kajian tindakan ini
saya dapati kaedah pengajaran
koperatif ini amat sesuai dan
memberikan kesan yang baik kepada
para pelajar…..saya sudah bersedia
dan tahu apa yang perlu saya buat
untuk menggalakkan mereka,
menggerakkan mereka agar mereka
berusaha dan tidak terus menerus
mengharapkan rakan-rakan untuk
meniru sahaja…
- Rosmah Onong, (2000).
Pre-requisites for Reflective Practitioners

∗ Respect and have faith in yourself.


∗ Trust the reflective process.
∗ Uncertainty is vital for learning and
change to take place.
So:
∗ Enjoy it. Give yourself the gift of some
reflective space.
∗ Don't expect answers; but questions
leading to yet more dynamic questions.
The Reflection
Process

• Becoming a reflective practitioner requires


time, practice, and an environment
supportive to the development and
organization of the reflection process. This
is a highly individualized process and the
candidate should find the structure and
method of reflection that best suits him or
her.
The Reflection
Process

When
∗During lesson/experience
* Immediately after the lesson/
experience
∗ At the end of the school day
∗ During my planning period
∗ First thing in the morning
∗ Wednesday during my lunch period
∗ Tuesday while my students are in
________________
The Reflection Process
Where
• In my room
• In my office
• In the library
• At home
• In the shower
• In the car as I commute to and from
work
The Reflection
Process

How
∗ On the computer
∗ Sticky notes on the lesson/artifact
∗ Reflection sheets attached to the
evidence
∗ Reflective journaling
∗ Verbal reflection on the video
∗ Audio tapes
∗ On a Dictaphone
The process provided a focus with
my teaching; it made me
constantly question what I was
challenging my students with and
why I was doing it.
~ Novice Teacher
Writing a Reflection
Select (memileh):
What evidence/artifacts have
you included?
Eg. Student work (hasil kerja pelajar)
Writing a Reflection
Describe (menghuraikan):
This step involves a description of the
circumstances, situation or issues related to
the evidence or artifact. Four "W" questions
are usually addressed:
• Who was involved? (eg. Pelajar)
• What were the circumstances,
concerns, or issues? (penggunaan
suatu strategi yang baru)
• When did the event occur? (sewaktu
pelajaran)
• Where did the event occur? (kelas,
makmal, bilik teknologi, etc)
…cabaran mengajar mata pelajaran
matematik bagi tajuk-tajuk mudah
yang masih belum dikuasai oleh
murid, khasnya tajuk membundarkan
nombor bulat kepada ratus, ribu,dan
puluh ribu. Prestasi ujian mereka
masih rendah…
WHAT CONCERNS?
…cabaran mengajar mata
pelajaran matematik bagi
tajuk-tajuk mudah yang
masih belum dikuasai WHEN?
SIAPA? oleh murid, khasnya tajuk
membundarkan nombor
bulat kepada ratus,
ribu,dan puluh ribu.
Prestasi ujian mereka
BUKTI
masih rendah… WHERE?
WHAT CONCERNS?
…cabaran mengajar mata
pelajaran matematik bagi
SIAPA?
tajuk-tajuk mudah yang
masih belum dikuasai
oleh murid, khasnya tajuk WHEN?
membundarkan nombor
bulat kepada ratus,
ribu,dan puluh ribu.
Prestasi ujian mereka WHERE?
BUKTI
masih rendah…
Writing a Reflection
• Analyze (menganalisa):
This step involves "digging deeper."
The "Why" of the evidence or artifact
and the "How" of its relationship to
your teaching practice should be
addressed.
• Eg. Hasil projek yang melampau
ekspektasi kerana strategi yang
berkesan..)
“Apabila saya mendapati objektif pengajaran
masih belum tercapai sepenuhnya, saya merasa
sungguh bersalah kerana masih ada murid yang
belum boleh menguasai kemahiran tersebut.
Perkara ini seolah-olah menunjukkan bahawa
saya sendiri tidak melaksanakan tanggungjawab
saya sepenuhnya semasa berada di bilik darjah.”
Writing a Reflection
• Appraise (menilai kendiri):
In the previous three steps, you have
described and analyzed an experience, a
piece of evidence, or an activity. The actual
self-assessment occurs at this stage as you
interpret the activity or evidence and evaluate
its appropriateness and impact.
(eg. menilai tindakan strategi anda dan mendatang
kepada satu kesimpulan..)
“Perkara ini seolah-olah menunjukkan bahawa
saya sendiri tidak melaksanakan tanggungjawab
saya sepenuhnya semasa berada di bilik darjah.
Mungkin saya boleh mengaplikasikan kaedah atau
teknik yang baru untuk lebih memudahkan pengajaran
sub-topik tersebut. Saya juga mungkin boleh
mengambilkira teknik pengajaran guru-guru matematik
yang lain sekiranya boleh diaplikasikan di bilik darjah
secara berkesan. ”
Writing a Reflection

• Transform:
This step holds the greatest opportunity for
growth as you use the insights gained from
reflection in improving and transforming your
practice.
(eg. Terangkan bagaimana pengalaman ini telah
memberi manfaat kepada anda, help you to grow
professionally in certain aspects, changed your
thinking, perceptions, etc)
The reflections helped me to see
that I actually was making a
difference, even though it didn’t
always seem like it.
~ Novice Teacher
Tips for Journal Writing
• Forget about grammar, syntax, spelling
- for now. They block the inspirational
flow. Correct them later.
• Jangan peduli nahu, sintaks, ejaan
dulu. Anda boleh membuat pembetulan
kemudian
Tips for Journal Writing
• Try not to censor reactions, emotional
responses, feelings.
• elakkan menyekat reaksi, balasan emosi dan
perasaan
• Refrain from judgements at this stage.
• Pada peringkat ini, elakkan dari membuat
penilaian
• Be as creative in your understanding of what
constituted vital in your choice of time
when..., and in your understanding of learned
- there are many many ways to learn.
Remember this writing is for you. You need
not share it with anyone....
Bersikap kreatif
Writing a Reflective Splurge
• When you have finished your first draft,
reread all (including the six minutes scribble)
you have written with attention: for content
rather than form. Be open to perceiving
divergent connections - things previously
perceived as separate, or inappropriate
together. Be open to such underlying links
and to fresh understandings and
awarenesses. Jot notes in the margins etc..
Tips For Journal Writing
• Selepas anda selesai menulis draf
pertama, baca semula dengan teliti
penulisan anda – fokus kepada
kandungan
• Bersikap terbuka kepada divergent
connections - things previously
perceived as separate, or inappropriate
together. Be open to such underlying
links and to fresh understandings and
awarenesses. Jot notes in the margins
etc..
Tips for Journal Writing
• Fill out the narrative. Check the
observation is sufficiently detailed -
remember you have five senses -
smells and sounds as well as what
things looked like can give vital clues.
You may want to tell about time of year,
discomforts, intuitions, exactly what
people said... . Everything that occurs to
you is significant.
Aktiviti I: Menulis refleksi anda
(15 minit)
• Rujuk kepada buku “Garis Panduan Kursus
Penyelidikan Tindakan” (BPG, 2001), ms. 91.
• Peserta diminta membuat refleksi terhadap proses
penyelidikan tindakan yang dilalui dalam kursus
ini.
• Refleksi dibuat berdasarkan aspek-aspek dalam
borang seperti yang terdapat pada ms. 91
Aktiviti I: Menulis refleksi awal (15
minit)
Anda sudah menentukan fokus kajian. Tulis jurnal
refleksi beberapa perkara penting yang perlu
difikirkan, seperti:
• cabaran atau permasalahan yang dihadapi dalam
bilik darjah,
• punca-punca terjadinya masalah tersebut,
• perasaan mereka terhadap masalah tersebut,
• cadangan untuk mengatasinya dan tindakan segera
yang patut diambil oleh mereka.
• Lain-lain isu yang relevan.
contoh
Refleksi awal
1. Masalah yang dihadapi Cabaran mengajar mata pelajaran
matematik bagi tajuk-tajuk mudah yang masih belum
dikuasai oleh murid, khasnya tajuk membundarkan
nombor bulat kepada ratus, ribu,dan puluh ribu. Prestasi
ujian mereka masih rendah
2. Punca terjadinya masalah: Puas juga saya mencari
kelemahan pengajaran saya, mungkin pengajaran saya
tidak berkesan, atau saya tidak berpandukan buku panduan
guru untuk mengajar sub-topik tersebut. Mungkin juga ini
disebabkan oleh kelemahan murid yang tidak memberikan
tumpuan semasa saya mengajar. Walau bagaimanapun
saya masih gagal untuk mencapai objektif saya agar semua
murid boleh menguasai kemahiran tersebut.
3. Perasaan terhadap masalah: Apabila saya mendapati
objektif pengajaran masih belum tercapai sepenuhnya,
saya merasa sungguh bersalah kerana masih ada murid
yang belum boleh menguasai kemahiran tersebut. Perkara
ini seolah-olah menunjukkan bahawa saya sendiri tidak
melaksanakan tanggungjawab saya sepenuhnya semasa
berada di bilik darjah.
4. Cadangan untuk mengatasi masalah: Mungkin saya
boleh mengaplikasikan kaedah atau teknik yang baru untuk
lebih memudahkan pengajaran sub-topik tersebut. Saya
juga mungkin boleh mengambilkira teknik pengajaran
guru-guru matematik yang lain sekiranya boleh
diaplikasikan di bilik darjah secara berkesan.
5. Tindakan segera yang boleh diambil:
Saya akan mencuba teknik permainan
matematik yang baru ini pada minggu
hadapan. Jika teknik ini berkesan, saya akan
mencadangkan kepada ketua panitia
matematik.
• (Sumber: Ronny Yunus, SK Kiawayan,
Tambunan, Sabah: Kursus Kajian Tindakan
Zon Sabah, Julai, 2001).
How to Start Writing
Begin by allowing the pen/cil to cover the pages on its own:
2. choose a comfortable uninterrupted place and time, and
writing material you like
3. make sure you have everything you need to hand - like coffee
4. write whatever is in your head, uncensored
5. don't think about what you are writing, it will probably be
disconnected and might seem to be rubbish - but don't stop to
think or be critical!
6. allow it to flow with no reference to spelling, grammar, proper
form.
7. give yourself permission to say anything, whatever it is.
8. You don't even have to reread it. Whatever you write it can't
be the wrong thing - because no-one will read your writing in
this form.
9. time yourself to write without stopping for about six minutes
• allow your writing to be purposeless. You may find a
subject emerges you wish to pursue for longer. If so -
follow the vein - whatever it is, and the same way of
writing, for about twenty minutes.
• Now you no longer have a blank sheet or screen in
front of you. You may have written quite a lot by
now, or only a little seeming rubbish.
• Don't worry: the six minutes writing sometimes turns
up gold, sometimes dross. It is always useful,
however, for beginning to scratch the surface.
• As you write in this next way, try and remind
yourself this is the first draft only, so it doesn't matter
what you say - because you can redraft it - no-one
else need read it. What matters is capturing those
ideas.
Tulislah refleksi anda!
Sharing your Writing with a Peer
Your writing has the power to influence
another, and them you.
Penulisan anda dapat mempengaruhi
orang-orang lain, dan mereka pula
boleh mempengaruhi anda
A peer's thoughts on your reflective
writing can open up fresh avenues of
thought. They will be able to help you
see aspects, which even the
illuminating process of writing hadn't
highlighted. They will also support
you towards deeper levels of
reflection, as well as to see your
account in a wider context.
Here are some guidelines to the reader
and the writer:

• Be kind and supportive! Not negative!


• Read and comment on the writing, rather
than the person who has written it.
• Any written or oral discussion should be
confidential to the parties involved, unless
they specifically decide otherwise.
• Don't apologise for your writing - you are
all in the same position - it can become
like a competition - who can apologise the
most convincingly!
Aktiviti II: Pair n Share,
Stand n Share (20 minit)
• Bekerja secara pasangan
• Berkongsi penulisan refleksi anda dengan
rakan (5 minit)
• Beberapa peserta secara sukarela akan
berkongsi penulisan refleksi anda (15 minit)
Some talking points for future writing
• Your feelings and attitude about your actions
: The reason(s) I took this road is (are)...
• Your plans to implement the actions ( in the
classroom)
• As you implement your actions, do you note
any change(s) you had to make in your
roles/behavior
• What about your students? What do you
notice about their attitudes and reactions to
your new role/behavior?
• Did you notice any difference in student roles
and attitudes while you were assuming your
new role/behavior?
Some talking points for future writing
• How did you feel while you were acting the
role /behavior?
• What do you think about your achievements
or non-achievement in assuming the new
role/behavior? : The best of what I have
achieved is...
• What has been particularly helpful to you in
this endeavor...
• What has hindered you, what you have
struggled with...
• What you would do for the future...
• Others…..
Reflection-in-action (Schon 1987).
• Reflection-in-action is when you are working, and being aware
of what you are doing at the same time. This is the way any
confident, experienced practitioner works:
• Thinking one step ahead (oh good, if that's happened the next
thing is to... )
• Being critical (no, not there, try just here);
• Storing experience for the future (I could have said that better
- next time...)
• Analysing (she's saying that to test me out - better respond
cautiously here)
• There is a hawk in your mind, hovering over your every
action, its sharp eyes missing nothing. But that hawk can only
see things from one point of view: your own.
• Offer split-second reflection - because of necessity you move
onto the next action, and the next thought.
Reflection-on-action
• usually referred to as reflective practice.
• This is the reflecting you do after the event:
thinking through, and often discussing the incident
with a colleague or supervisor.
• To an extent we all do it - whether formally at
work, or informally over coffee / beer either with
colleagues or friends / family.
• Our reflection, and its value to us, can be hugely
enhanced by a greater understanding of the
process. It will enable us to generate our own vital
questions - formulate and respond to our own
learning needs.
Sharing your Writing with a Peer
• Your writing has the power to influence another, and them you.
• A peer's thoughts on your reflective writing can open up fresh avenues of thought. They will be able to help you see
aspects, which even the illuminating process of writing hadn't highlighted. They will also support you towards deeper
levels of reflection, as well as to see your account in a wider context. (Your marriage partner might be the wrong
person.)
• You may like to share writings with a reader before you email them to all of us , thoughthe Wisdom group is your
primary audience, Here are some guidelines:
• I. Be kind and supportive! Not negative!
• II. Read and comment on the writing, rather than the person who has written it. You are not reading the work to offer
therapy or support for the writer, but to engage with their writing in order to suggest useful and developmental avenues
of thought. The safest way of containing the discussion to the writing is to consider the story to be a fiction. If the
characters and their actions are fictional, then the reader has as much right to suggest ways of thinking and of
developing the writing, as the writer.
• III. Any written or oral discussion should be confidential to the parties involved, unless they specifically decide
otherwise. This will offer sufficient safety for participants to say what they feel and think.
• IV. The writer should make it clear to the reader/commenter, any particular kind of parameters they have for the
discussion.
• V. Don't apologise for your writing - you are all in the same position - it can become like a competition - who can
apologise the most convincingly!
• Email us your writing, or share it with a friend/colleague first (with the above guidelines) - this process of exposure
does get easier. Enjoy deepening the reflective process - verbally or in writing.
Goh Lay Huah
gohlayhuah@yahoo.com
Menganalisis data refleksi
• Analisis kandungan (content analysis)
• Analisis pola (pattern analysis)
• Analisis dilema (Dilemma analysis)
Analisis Kandungan
• Meneliti data yang diperolehi
• Menggaruskan perkara-perkara yang
penting berhubung dengan persoalan
kajian
• Menentukan kategori yang sesuai
• Melabelkan bahagian-bahagian data
dengan nama kategori atau
singkatatn/kod
Analisis Pola

Buat analisis berpandukan soalan-soalan tersebut:


• Apakah pola yang dilihat?
• Apakah kesignifikan pola ini
• Apakah kesan pola perlakuan tersebut?
• Sejauhmanakan pola serta kesan daripadanya
serasi/sepadan dengan hasrat guru
• Sekiranya kesan pola berkenaan memang sepadan
dengan hasrat guru, apakah teori yang dapat
dirumuskan?
Analisis Dilemma
• Meneliti data untuk mengenalpasti dilema
• Menulis satu pernyataan yang jelas tentan
dilema
• Menjelajah dilema tersebut untuk
memahami faktor-faktor yang
menimbulkannya, kesan
serta tahap seriusnya
• Mencari penyelesaian
Aktiviti III: Menganalisis Data
(15 minit)
• Bekerja dalam kumpulan
• Rujuk kepada sampel-sampel refleksi
ringkas yang telah diedarkan.
• Buat analisis data dan mengenalpasti pola-
pola yang sama daripada
refleksi-refleksi tersebut
Triangulasi Data
• Triangulasi Masa
Sumber yang sama untuk jangka masa yang panjang
• Triangulasi Metod
Kaedah mengumpul data yang berlainan ke atas
objek kajian yang sama
• Triangulasi Sumber
Mendapat maklumat /pandangan sumber informasi
yang berlainan
• Triangulasi Penyelidik
Menggunakan lebih daripada seorang penyelidik
untuk mengumpul data
- Altrichter et al, 1993: Cohen & Manion, 1994
Aktiviti IV: Mengenalpasti
triangulasi data (10 minit)
• Rujuk balik kepada
artikel-artikel 1, 2 & 3.
• Cuba kenalpasti jenis
triangulasi data yang
digunakan oleh ketiga-tiga
penyelidik
Artikel 1 – Rosmah Onong

•Pemerhatian

•Soal selidik

•Keputusan ujian
Artikel 2: Caroline Val Madin

Senarai semak

Soal selidik

Aktiviti rancangan pelajaran


Artikel 3: Goh LH

•Refleksi

•Jurnal

•Temu bual (sesi refleksi)


Acknowledgement
All college pictures courtesy of staff of
Jabatan Teknologi Pendidikan, Maktab
Perguruan Gaya
Thank you.
Goh Lay Huah
Jabatan Teknologi Pendidikan
Maktab Perguruan Gaya