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COMPUTER AIDED PART

PROGRAMMING
(APT LANGUAGE)
BY
S.R.CHAUHAN
MED NIT HAMIRPUR
COMPUTER AIDED PART
PROGRAMMING
 Computer aided part programming computer is
used to generate the part program to machine
the components.
 The process of generating part program is
partially done by the programmer and partially
by the computer
COMPUTER AIDED PART
PROGRAMMING
 Part programmer’s job in the computer aided part
programming is to first define part geometry of the
component from the component drawing.
 Geometry of shape is split into simple elements like
points, lines, arcs, full circles, distances, directions
and these elements are assigned specific numbers to
identify there positions.
 Programmer can see the geometric construction on
the VDU depending on the system capability
COMPUTER AIDED PART
PROGRAMMING
 Second function of the programmer is to give additional information
regarding the machining sequence, type of operation, tool sizes etc.
 From the geometry system generate the data for machining called
cutter location (CL). The data generated upto the point is independent
of the machine and can be used on any machine capable of doing the
required operations.Data does not contain G and M codes.
 CL data is post processed in the computer to translate into a form
which a particular machine control system can understand.
 Post processing involves addition of G codes and other machine
dependent information.
 Part programming at this stage is machine dependent and used by the
specific machine only.
Advantages of computer Aided Part
Program
 Part programming is simplified
 Part program generated are accurate and efficient
 All the arithmetic calculations are done by the
computer,resulting in saving time and elimination of error
 The part program for different machines can be done by a
single person which can then be post processed for specific
machines.Such system can deal with many axis for
simultaneous movement.
 If new machines are added, only a post processor may be
needed to integrate the new machines to the existing
systems.
Computer Aided part programming
languages
 Large no.of part programming languages have
been developed to meet particular needs.
 Most widely used languages are:
 APT
 COMPACT-II
Automatically Programmed
Tools(APT)
 Most widely used and comprehensive
language
 APT is 3-D system and can be used for
controlling five axis.
 In APT programming it is assumed that work
piece remain stationary and tool moves
APT Statements
 Geometry Statements:these are also called definition
statements and are used to define geomtric elements
like point,line,arc,circle and plane.
 Motion statements:The motion statements are used to
define the cutter path.
 Post Processor statements:These statements are
machine tool specific and are used todefining
machining parameters like feed,speed,coolant on/off
etc.
 Auxilliary statements:These are miscellaneous
statements
Geometry statements
 General form of APT Geometry statement is:
Symbol=geometry type/descriptive data
 p=POINT/x,y,z - a cartesian point
 p=POINT/l1,l2 - intersection of two lines
 p=POINT/c - the center of a circle
 p=POINT/YLARGE, INTOF,l,c - the largest y
intersection of a line and a circle
 *Note: we can use YSMALL,XLARGE,XSMALL in
place of YLARGE
Lines
 L1=LINE/x1,y1,z1,x2,y2,z2 - endpoint cartesian components
 L1=LINE/p1,p2 - endpoints
 L2=LINE/p,PARLEL,Ll - a line through a point and parallel to another line
 L3=LINE/p,PERPTO,Ll - a line through a point and perpendicular to a line
 L4=LINE/p,LEFT,TANTO,c - a line from a point, to a left tangency point on a
circle
 L5=LINE/p,RIGHT,TANTO,c - a line from a point, to a right tangency point on a
circle
 L6=LINE/LEFT,TANTO,c1,LEFT,TANTO,c2 - defined by tangents to two
circles
 L7=LINE/LEFT,TANTO,c1,RIGHT,TANTO,c2 - defined by tangents to two
circles
 L8=LINE/RIGHT,TANTO,c1,LEFT,TANTO,c2 - defined by tangents to two
circles
 L9=LINE/RIGHT,TANTO,c1,RIGHT,TANTO,c2 - defined by tangents to two
circles
Circle
 C1=CIRCLE/x,y,z,r - a center and radius
 C2=CIRCLE/CENTER,p,RADIUS,r - a center point
and a radius
 C3=CIRCLE/CENTER,p,TANTO,l - a center and a
tangency to an outside line
 C4=CIRCLE/p1,p2,p3 - defined by three points on the
circumference
 C5=CIRCLE/YLARGE,l1,YLARGE,l2,RADIUS,r -
tangency to two lines and radius
 *Note: we can use YSMALL,XLARGE,XSMALL in
place of YLARGE
More complex geometric
constructions are possible
 PLANE/ - defines a plane
 QUADRIC/a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j - define a polynomial using
values
 GCONIC/a,b,c,d,e,f - define a conic by equation
coefficients
 LCONIC/p1,p2,... - defines a conic by lofting (splining)
points
 RLDSRF/ - a ruled surface made of two splines
 POLCON/ - define a surface using cross sections
 PATERN/ - will repeat a motion in a linear or circular
array
Motion Statements
 FROM/p - specify a start point
 FROM/x,y,z - specify a start point
 GOTO/p - move to a final point
 GOTO/x,y,z - move to a final point
 GOTO/TO,p - move until the tool touches a point
 GOTO/TO,l - move until the tool touches a line
 GOTO/TO,c - move until the tool touches a circle
 GOLFT/l1,TO,l2 - go on the left of l1 until the tool
touches l2
Motion Statements
 GORGT/l1,TO,l2 - go on the right of l1 until the tool
touches l2
 GOBACK/l1,TO,l2 - reverses direction along l1 to l2
 GOBACK/l1,TO,c1 - reverses direction along l1 to c1
 GOUP/l1,TO,l2 - goes up along l1 to l2
 GODOWN/1l,TO,l2 - goes down along l1 to l2
 GODLTA/x,y,z - does a relative move
 Note: TO can be replaced with PAST, ON to change
whether the tool goes past the structure, or the center stops
on the structure.
Motion Statements
 The following commands will create complex
motion of the tool
 POCKET/ - will cut a pocket
 PSIS/ - will call for the part surface
POST PROCESS STATEMENTS
 CUTTER/n1,n2 - defines diameter n1 and radius n2
of cutter
 MACHIN/n, m - uses a post processor for machine
`n', and version `m'
 COOL/ANT/n - either MIST, FLOOD or OFF
 TURRET/n - sets tool turret to new position
 TOLER/n - sets a tolerance band for cutting
 FEDRAT/n - sets a feed rate n
 SPINDL/n, CW - specifies n rpm and direction of
spindle
AUXILIARY STATEMENT
 REMARK - starts a comment line that is not interpreted
 $$ - also allows comments, but after other statements
 NOPOST - turns off the post processor that would generate cutter
paths
 CLPRNT - prints a sequential history of the cutter center location
 SQRTF(n) - calculates the floating point square root
 FINI - stop program
 PARTNO/n - allows the user to specify the part name
 LOOPST and LOOPND - loop instructions
 RESERV/n,m - defines an array of size `n' by `m'
 JUMPTO/n - jump to line number
EXAMPLE