Anda di halaman 1dari 76

M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD.

437, 438 & 439, ECPL Channel Road, Village: Karakhadi,


Tal.Padra, Dist: Vadodara, Gujarat, India

RISK ASSESSMENT STUDY

PREPARED BY

VAIBHU SAFETY CONSULTANTS


B-31, Citizen Society,
Atmajyoti Ashram Road,
Ellorapark, Vadodara-390 023
Phone: 9825756467/9427838021 (M)

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-1


EHS Department
M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD.

437, 438 & 439, ECPL Channel Road, Village: Karakhadi,


Tal.Padra, Dist: Vadodara, Gujarat, India

RISK ASSESSMENT STUDY

PREPARED BY: CHECKED & VERIFIED BY: APPROVED BY:

Mr. Shailesh A Deshmukh Mr. Shaju C. O.


Plant Manager Chief Operating Officer

Vaibhu Safety Consultants


D. M. Chanchad (B.sc., PDIS)
B-31, Citizen Soc.,
Atmajyoti Ashram road,
Ellorapark, Vadodara –23
Phone: 0265-2395798
9825756467 (M)

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-2


EHS Department
CERTIFICATE
We are pleased to certify that this Risk Assessment Report of Company has been
conducted by us.

This is the first Risk Assessment report of this company and it will be carried out
during the month of November- 2009.

Risk Assessment is a legal requirement u/r 12-c & 68-O of the Gujarat Factories
Rules.

The recommendations are based on information supplied to us by the company and


our plant visits.

The Executive Summary is given in the beginning to highlight the important


summary of our report and methodology of the risk assessment carried out.

We are thankful to the Mr. Shaju C. O. (Chief Operating Officer) and Mr. Shailesh
A Deshmukh (Plant Manager) for their all co-operation to prepared this report.

FOR VAIBHU SAFETY CONSULTANT

Authorized Signatory

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-3


EHS Department
Index

Section no. Contents Page No.

1 Executive Summary 6
2 Objectives, Philosophy and methodology of 8
Risk assessment
3 Introduction of the unit 9
3.1 Company Introduction
3.2 Details of Unit 10
3.3 Project setting 13
3.4 Organizational setup 16
3.5 List Of product
3.6 Details of storage of Hazardous Materials in 17
Bulk and control measures provided
3.7 Hazardous Properties Of The Chemicals, 18
Compatibilities And Special Hazard
3.8 List Of Raw Material Required 18
3.9 Facilities / System for process safety, 19
transportation, fire fighting system and
emergency capabilities to be adopted
3.10 Brief Description of Process. 26
3.11 Facilities / System for process safety, 58
transportation, fire fighting system and
emergency capabilities to be adopted
4 Hazard identification 62
4.0 Introduction
4.1 DOW’s Fire and Explosion Index
4.2 Failure Frequencies 65
4.3 Identification of Hazardous area 66
5 Risk Assessment 71
5.1 Effects of Release of Hazardous Substances
5.2 Identification of High Risk Areas 73
5.3 Modes of Failure
5.4 Damage Criteria for heat radiation 74
6 Consequence Analysis 77
6.1 Consequence Analysis
6.2 Risk Estimation 87
6.3 Comments
7 Risk Reduction Measures 88
7.1 Design

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-4


EHS Department
7.2 Safety Devices
7.3 Operation and Maintenance 89
7.4 Recommendations
8 Disaster Management plan 91
8.1 On site emergency Plan (OSEP)
8.2 Scope of OSEP 92
8.3 Elements of OSEP
8.4 Methodology
8.5 Emergencies Identified
8.6 Others
8.7 Emergency Organization 93
8.8 Emergency Facilities
8.9 Emergency Escapes 94
8.10 Assembly points
8.11 Wind sock
8.12 Emergency transportation
8.13 Emergency communication 95
8.14 Warning Alarm/ Communication of Emergency
8.15 Emergency responsibilities
8.16 Mutual Aids
8.17 Mock Drill
Appendix 96

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-5


EHS Department
SECTION I

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1.0 Executive Summary

1.1 M/s. Best Value Chem Pvt Ltd retained the services of Vaibhu Safety
Consultants for carrying out Risk Assessment Studies for their proposed site
located at Plot No. Best 439,438,437 ECPL Channel Road, Village:
Karakhadi, Tal. Padra, Dist:Vadodara, Gujarat, India

1.2 Experts from M/s Vaibhu Safety Consultants visited the site on 24th
November, 2009 for inspection of the existing facilities, the environs and
collection of relevant information about the installation and the operations
will be carried out in the plant. They also held detailed discussions and
observed various aspects including chemical handling; storage and process
control measures will be taken care of plant process safety and emergency
preparedness with the officers of the company.

1.3 Flammable and hazardous chemicals will be received through road tanker and
drums which will be stored in tank farm or godown as per petroleum Act and
Rules.

1.4 Based on the data furnished and the study of the installation, certain hazards
have been identified and their consequences are modeled mathematically
using HAMSGAP software.

1.5 The study indicates that possible hazards associated with the plant are
confined to (a) under ground B class storage tanks area and various
flammable nature raw materials in drum storage area. Various hazard
scenarios have been identified for Risk Assessment and the consequences
modeled. The results of the analysis have been summarized in the table
appended

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-6


EHS Department
1.6 It is observed from the summary that the consequences of hazards associated
with any possible spills / leaks release scenarios would be of a relatively
small in nature and confined up to factory premises, would be taken care of
with the emergency facilities and the manpower deployed at the plant.

1.7 The possibility of occurrence of such hazards and their effects could be
further reduced by implementing the suggestions made in this report.

1.8 However considering the potential for major hazards, however remote they
may be, associated with storage area, some suggestions are made in the
subsequent chapters for further improvement in the areas of safety,
environmental impact, Emergency facilities and emergency preparedness
plan.

1.9 Conclusion Based on the


1) Risk Analysis study and information regarding the layout plan and safety
systems.
2) Discussions with company officials.
3) Observation of Operations.

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-7


EHS Department
SECTION II
OBJECTIVE, PHILOSOPHY AND METHODOLOGY OF RISK ASSESSMENT

3.1 Objective :

The principle objective of this study was to identify major risks in the manufacture of
Chemicals & to evaluate on-site & off-site consequences of identified hazard scenarios.
Pointers are then given for effective mitigation of hazards in terms of suggestions for
effective disaster management, suggesting minimum preventive and protective measures &
change of practices to ensure safety.

3.2 PHILOSOPHY :

This report is limited to the following:

™ Identification of major risk areas.


™ Hazard identification/Identification of failure cases
™ Consequential analysis of probable risks / failure cases
o Evaluation of heat radiation & pressure wave profiles for identified failure
cases
o Risk assessment on the basic of the above evaluation & risk acceptability
o Minimum preventive & protective measures to be taken to minimize risks to
maximum possible extent.
™ Giving pointers for effective disaster management
™ Suggesting other measures to further lower the probability of risk

3.3 Methodology

Design data, built in safety systems are studied. Discussions are held with officials.
Safety related individual system is discussed.

Hazard identification exercise is conducted taking into consideration of materials, material


handling methods, operating procedures, built in safety in reactors, operating parameters
and safety measures to be taken in proposed plant. Few areas like process building,
storage of hazardous chemicals, to evaluate safety systems in the event of any
abnormalities occurring. Containment failure scenario related to storage area is considered
for hazard Analysis and consequences of such containment failures are considered in
detail. Thus, this study is mainly oriented towards actual risks rather than chronic risks.

Based on the data furnished and the study of the installation, certain hazards have been
identified and their consequences are modeled mathematically using HAMSGAP software.

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-8


EHS Department
SECTION III

INTRODUCTION OF THE UNIT

3.1 COMPANY INTRODUCTION

Introduction:

M/s Best Value Chem Pvt Ltd., situated at 439,438,437- ECPL Road, Village Karkhadi,
Taluka Padra, Dist Vadodara, Dist Vadodara, Gujarat. The unit was started in the year
2000 and is primarily involved in the manufacturing perfumery chemicals. The unit is
operational since April, 2000 and holds valid Consolidated Consent and Authorization
from Gujarat Pollution Control Board. The demand for the product has promise and hence,
the unit now intends to expand its manufacturing activities for the perfumery products
already manufactured along with addition of new products

Salient Features:

Some of the Salient Features of the project are highlighted in the subsequent sections.

The expansion activities will be carried out in the plots 437,438 & 439.
The total area of the plot available is 3.2 hectares with a built up area of only 0.375
hectares. For the expansion project, additional construction will be conducted. The existing
setup will also be utilized for the expansion activities.

With the increasing demand of its existing and related products, the company proposes to
expand production capacity for 11 of its existing product viz., Amyl Salicylate – 150
MT/Month; Benzyl Acetone – 100MT/Month; Benzyl Salicylate - 50MT/Month; Citra
Ether – 50 MT/Month, Citronellyl Acetate – 10MT/Month; Hycol (Hydroxy Citronellol) –
5 MT/Month ,Iso Amyl Salicylate – 25 MT/Month; Terpinyl Acetate – 75 MT/Month;
Undecavertol – 75 MT/Month; Verdyl Acetate – 650 MT/Month; Verdyl Propionate – 166
MT/Month, and introduce 5 new products viz. Caryophyllene Acetate – 5MT/Month,
Dimettol 100MT/Month, Melonal – 30MT/Month, Hexyl Salicylate 175MT/Month and
Verdyl Isobutyrate 150MT/Month.
The list of salable byproducts generated from different products are listed separately
The total investment on the expansion project is about Rs. 10 Crores.

The source of water will be existing borewell. The total water consumption will change
from existing CC& A consumption of 24.7m3/day to 37.7m3/day. The waste water
generation will also change from existing 14.2m3/day to 17.5m3/day basically due to
increase in industrial waste water 15m3/day and domestic effluent 2.5m3/day. The
domestic effluent 2.5 m3/day will be taken to the soak pit. The process effluent 15m3/day
will be treated in the tertiary effluent treatment plant and treated waste water will be
discharged in to the Effluent Channel Projects Ltd conveying system as per the inlet
norms. The Company is already a Member of the Effluent Channel Projects Ltd.

With the proposal for a new boiler of 5MT for steam generation and Thermic Fuid Heater.
The presently used Boiler and TF will be used as standby. There will be increase in fuel
consumption which is 19.7 MT/day- Agricultural Waste/8.2MT- Furnace Oil/10.5 N m3

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-9


EHS Department
Gas based on availability. The present fuel as per the present CC&A is furnace oil. There
are no other process emissions. The power maximum demand requirement will increase
from the existing maximum demand of 120 HP to 500HP, which is being supplied by
GEB. The existing DG set will be utilized during power failure and emergencies.
Hazardous waste will be generated in form of ETP Sludge, Distillation residue, used oil
and discarded containers. The distillation residue is expected to increase only by 870
kgs/Month. The waste will sent to the Common Incinerator of Nandesari Environmental
Control Ltd. ETP sludge (1MT) will be sent to the Common TSDF on NECL, Nandesari.
(Membership already available). Waste oil and grease will be sold to approve recycler.

Hazardous waste will be generated in form of ETP Sludge, Distillation residue, used oil
and discarded containers. The distillation residue is expected to increase only by
870kgs/Month. The waste will sent to the Common Incinerator of Nandesari
Environmental Control Ltd. ETP sludge (1MT) will be sent to the Common TSDF on
NECL, Nandesari. (Membership already available). Waste oil and grease will be sold to
approve recycler.
Though the raw materials like Methanol, Tetra Hydro Furan, and Toluene are very highly
flammable liquids and fall under MSIHC rules, the quantities are very low then the
threshold quantities specified and stored in drums. However, very high level of safety
precautions are taken in the plant viz. Flame Arrestor at the end of the vent pipe of the
tank, Flame Proof Pumps and Motors, individual double static earthing to reactors,
proposed location of tank farm is away from the process area and Boiler house, fencing of
the area, provision for flexible Earthing for tanker unloading purpose, provision of Spark
Arrestor/Muffler at the security gate to each vehicle is already in practice and the will be
implemented for tankers/Vehicles which comes in to the tank farm for unloading, use of
Non Sparking Tools in the tank farm area, provision of Copper Flange Jumpers to prevent
any accumulation of Static Electricity during pumping or draining, provision of Nitrogen
Blanketing with safety valves at both the storage Tanks. All the Plant Personnel are
provided with Personal Protection Equipments to protect against any adverse health effect
during operations, leakage, spillages or splash. PPE like Helmets, Safety Shoes, Safety
Glasses, Acid-Alkali Proof Gloves etc. are provided to the employees with periodic
training in safety. Periodic Process Safety and Fire Safety Audits are conducted by Third
Party on Annual Basis. The Unit holds a valid CC&A issued by Gujarat Pollution Control
Board.
Around 450 plus trees have been planted in the periphery area of the plot. Viz. mango,
chiku, lemon grass, ashoka, neem, bamboo, nagchampa, rubber, plantain & various
assorted flowering plants etc.

3.2 DETAILS OF UNITS


Sr.
Particulars
No.
2 Full Name & Address of Unit : M/s Best Value Chem Pvt Ltd.,
437, 438 & 439, ECPL Road, Village
Karakhadi, Taluka Padra, Dist Vadodara,
Dist Vadodara, Gujarat.

3 Telephone No. : 02622-273606,273328,


Fax : 02662-273607

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-10


EHS Department
4 Month & Year of Establishment : 2000

5 Full name & Address of the : Shaju C. O. ( Chief Operating Officer),


occupier M/s Best Value Chem Pvt Ltd.,
437, 438 & 439 ECPL Road, Village
Karakhadi, Taluka Padra, Dist Vadodara,
Dist Vadodara, Gujarat.
6 Full name & Address of the Plant : Shailesh A Deshmukh, Flat No Aabhushan
Manager Apt, Behind Narmada Guest House, Ellora
Park, Race Course Circle Road, Vadodara,
Gujarat, India.
7 Man Power : Present : 23
Proposed: 50
8 No. Of shift & Shift timing : General from 09.00 to 17.00
1st Shift from 08.00 to 16.00
2nd Shift from 16.00 to 23.00
3rd Shift from 23.00 to 08.00
9 Environs (Nearest Facilities)
1. Railway Station, Kural : 9 km
2. Police Station, Padra : 15 km
3. Fire Station- Ekalbara : 8 km
Vadodara : 32 km
IPCL, GSFC, Refinery(CCR) : 25 to 28 km
4. Hospitals : 22 km
Shree Pramukh Swami Hospital,
Atladra, Vadodara

5. Metrological Data

Latitude 220 11’44”N


Longitude 720 52’52” E

Temperature
Maximum 44º C
Minimum 12.0 º C

Near by factories

North- West side Transmetal Ltd,


North east Philoden Dye Chem Pvt
Ltd, Effluent Channel
Projects Ltd Canal.
South west Sterling Biotech Ltd,
Solaris Ltd, Alembic Ltd,
Sun Pharmaceuticals Ltd,
Ashai Songwan Ltd, Mayur
Dye Chem, Newton Engg
& Chemicals Ltd
South east ECPL Channel

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-11


EHS Department
10 Total Land at Plant 3.202 hectare
11 Power connection Presently 120 HP will increase to 200HP
12 DG Set 125 KVA DG Set Caterpillar Make &
Kirloskar alternator

13 Water 200 mm bore with 80m depth & submersible


pump.
14 Boiler 0.6 MT/hr Thermax’ make boiler at 10.0
Kgs/cm2, Small Industrial boiler with RO
Water plant, FO fired.
15 Chilled water plant 3 T.R. at 5 c with tank and with 7.5 H.P.
Pump.

16 Cooling Tower 305 m3/h- 32oC with 5o C fall, 200 m3 storage


capacity - 35 meter. 200 m3/hr at 320C with
50C fall.331 TR Capacity
17 Effluent treatment Plant Tertiary Treatment Plant.
18 Total Builtup area at the Factory 0.3752hectares.

BUILDING AND CIVIL CONSTRUCTION

Sr.No. Purpose TYPE OF BUILDING Area (M2)

Production Plant Gr +2 MS Structure Closed with walls and


19 225.0 M2
Floors covered by ACC Sheets
MS Structure with A.C.C.
20 All utilities block 49.47 M2
roof
Administrative building and Secured
21 R.C.C. 1461.53 M2
office, Laboratory & Canteen
Closed with walls and
22 Proposed Plant 30284.00M2
covered by ACC Sheets

License & Approval:---

23 Factory Inspectorate All plans are duly approved by F.I. and license is
valid. License No.002788 Valid 22.10.2011.
24 Electrical Inspector All plans are approved

25 GPCB Valid Consents & Authorization order No.33338

26 Solid waste Disposal Member of Solid Waste disposal site on


Nandesari Environment Control Ltd. (NECL)
Member of Incinerator of Nandesari Environment
Control Ltd. (NECL)

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-12


EHS Department
WATER
27 8” dia bore well with pump for 30m high, 1 lac lit ----- Nayan & Co.
OH tank on main plant building.
DG SET
28 125 kva dg Set with manual charge over for GEB ----- GMMCO Ltd
power Caterpillar Diesel tank & panel. Caterpillar
& Kirloskar Engine.

EFFLUENT TREATMENT
29 Tertiary Treatment Plant. 1 15.0m3 capacity per
day

3.3 PROJECT SETTING:

Produce company will be located at 720 54’46.42” East longitudes & 220 11’54.23” North
latitude in Village: Karakhadi, Ta: Padra, Vadodara district in Gujarat State. The area is
classified as an approved Industrial area.

Village: Karkhadi, Ta: Padra area is located at a distance of 35 km to the North East of
Vadodara District, about 6.80 km off State Highway SH-6. A located map showing various
features in 10 km radius form the proposal site is shown as figure 1.1.

Manufacturing site of the company is located on Village: Karkhadi, Padra, Plot plan is
shown in figure 1.2.

In general, the area is industrial zone and. The rainfall is low (@ 1000 mm per year)
occurring in the months of July – August. Summer temperatures are high; minimum
temperature in the region of 26 – 270C & maximum of about 40 – 420C. Relative
Humidity in summer season ranges form 30 – 80%.

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-13


EHS Department
Aerial View of 5km

Figure-3.1

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-14


EHS Department
Figure-3.2

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-15


EHS Department
3.4 ORGANISATIONAL SET UP

3.5 LIST OF PRODUCTS

Total List of Products Manufactured, Proposed, Increase in Quantities to Be Manufactured.

We would like to highlight the fact that all the products listed below will not be
manufactured all together at any given instant. At any moment, a maximum of 2 to 3
products will be manufactured.

No. Product Name Existing Qty Proposed Qty Remarks


(MT/Month) (MT/Month)
1. Alpha Ionone 0.50 0 To be Discontinued
2. Amyl Salicylate 8.33 150.00 Expansion
3. Benzyl Acetone (Jastone) 1.00 100.00 Expansion
4. Benzyl Salicylate 1.25 50.00 Expansion
5. Beta De Hydro Cyclo Central 2.08 0 To be Discontinued
6 C-11 Aldehyde 0.25 0 To be Discontinued
7 Citra Ether 1.00 50.00 Expansion
8 Citronellyl Acetate 1.66 10.00 Expansion
9 Eugenol 2.44 0 To be Discontinued
10 Fold Orange Oil 0.50 0 To be Discontinued
11 Geranyl Acetate 5.00 0 To be Discontinued
12 Geranyl Nitrile 2.08 0 To be Discontinued.
13 Hycol (Hydroxy Citronellol) 0.33 5.00 Expansion
14 Iso Amyl Salicylate 3.33 25.00 Expansion
15 Iso Eugenol 1.25 0 To be Discontinued
16 Rectified Clove Leaf Oil 2.00 0 To be Discontinued
17 Rhodinol Ex Geranium 0.17 0 To be Discontinued
18 Methyl Ionone 0.5 0 To be Discontinued
19 Terpinyl Acetate 25.00 75.00 Expansion
20 Undecavertol (Kakdinol) 0.25 75.00 Expansion
21 Verdyl Acetate 50.00 650.00 Expansion
22 Verdyl Propionate 20.83 166.00 Expansion
23 Melonal 00.00 30.00 New Product
24 Caryophyllene Acetate 00.00 5.00 New Product
25 Dimettol 00.00 100.00 New Product
26 Hexyl Salicylate 00.00 175.00 New Product
27 Verdyl Isobutyrate 00.00 150.00 New Product

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-16


EHS Department
3.6 PROPOSED CONSUMPTION OF RAW MATERIALS ON SINGLE PRODUCT
MANUFACTURING BASIS

We would like to highlight the fact that all the raw products listed below will not be
required at the same instance. Only a few materials will be required for manufacture of 2
to 3 Products at any given instance. List of raw materials required for proposed products
considering Single product manufacturing.

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-17


EHS Department
3.7 DETAILS OF STORAGE OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN BULK AND CONTROL MEASURES PROVIDED

Sr. Description KL MOC TYPE Width in Length Total Qty. CONTROL


no. meters in area in MEASURE PROVIDED
meters m
2

1 DCPD Storage Tanks 50 KL; 50 MS Under 8.0 5.5 44.00 2 ™ Flame-proof light fittings will
2 nos,Underground Ground be provided.
2 Pentanol Mixture Tanks 50 KL; 50 MS Under 8.0 5.5 44.00 2 ™ Nitrogen blanketing will be
2 nos.Underground Ground provided for all storage tanks.
3 Acetic Acid Storage Tank 10 SS Above 2.5 2.8 7.00 1 ™ Work permit system followed
1No,Above Ground 316 Ground ™ Lightening arrestor provided
4 Finished product Storage VA 20 SS304 Above 4.0 3.0 12.00 2 ™ Fire fighting equipment will be
20 KL, 3 nos Ground provided as per fire load
5 Finished product Storage AS 10 KL, 20 SS304 Above 3.0 2.0 6.00 2 calculation.(list is provided)
2 nos Ground ™ PPE will be used at the time of
6 Finished Products Storage VP 20KL, 20 SS304 Above 4.0 3.0 12.00 1 material handling.
1 nos Ground ™ 02 nos. Safety shower, eye
7 Finished Products Storage Spare 20 SS304 Above 4.0 3.0 12.00 2 wash provided and 02 nos. Will
20KL ; 2 nos Ground be provided in proposed plant.
™ Earthing-bonding provided for
static charge.
™ Drum handling trolley will be
used for drum handling.
™ Identification Labels and
symbols are provided on
drums.
™ NFPA labels will be provided
on tank farm.
™ Caution note provided.
™ Dyke wall provided for above
ground storage tank.
™ Level gauge provided.
™ Double drain valve provided
™ Scba sets available.
™ Tanker unloading procedure.

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-18


EHS Department
3.8 LIST OF PRODUCTS & RAW MATERIALS WITH STORAGE DETAILS: On Page
No 18
Sr. Raw Material Quantity in MT/Month Storage At a Physical Stored In MOC
No. time in form
MT/M
1. Acetic Acid 234 10 Liquid Tank SS304
2. Acetic Anhydride 70.46 8 Liquid Drums HDPE
3. Acid Catalyst 27.45 2 Liquid Carboy HDPE
4. Aldehyde 47.17 2.5 Liquid Drums HDPE
5. Caryophellene 4.00 1 Liquid Drums GI
6. Phase transfer Catalyst 1.10 0.1 Liquid Drum HDPE
7. Caustic lye 1.04 1 Liquid Carboy HDPE
8. Citronellol 17.03 2 Liquid Drums MS Epoxy
9. Benzylledene Acetone 80 6 Liquid Drums GI
10. D’limonene/Orange Terpenes 47.94 4 Liquid Drums MS Epoxy
11. Di Ethanol Amine 0.43 0.22 Liquid Drums MS Epoxy
12. Dicyclopentadiene (underground) 783.33 40 Liquid Tank SS304
13. Ethyl Chloro Acetate 22.05 1.5 Liquid Drums HDPE
14. Benzyl chloride 27.6 2.5 Liquid Drums HDPE
15. Halide (Pentyl Bromide/Chloride) 75.47 5 Liquid Drums HDPE
16. HCL 45% 0.16 0.5 Liquid Carboys HDPE
17. Iodine 0.18 0.09 Solid Can GI
18. Iso Amyl Alcohol 12.86 3 Liquid Drums HDPE
19. Isobutyric Acid 72.50 2 Liquid Drums HDPE
20. Methanol 47.94 KL 3 Liquid Drums MS
21. Methyl Heptanone 98.97 3.5 Liquid Drums HDPE
22. Methyl Magnesium Bromide / Chloride 31.61 2.5 Liquid Drums MS
23. Hexyl Alcohol 112 2.8 Liquid Drums MS Epoxy
24. Mg Turnings 12.74 1 Solid Bags PP
25. Pentanol mixture (Under Ground Storage) 77.14 20 Liquid Tanks MS
26. Propionic Acid 80.23 3 Liquid Drums HDPE
27. Salicylic Acid 265 8 Solid Bags PP
28. Soda Ash 12.24 1 Solid Bags PP
29. Sodium Acetate 21.30 1.2 Solid Bags PP
30. Sodium Methoxide 22.05 2 Solid Can GI
31. Sulphuric Acid 31.98 1.2 Liquid Carboys HDPE
32. Terpineol 68.18 5 Liquid Drums GI
33. Tetra hydro Furon 235.85 KL 6 Liquid Drums MS
34. Toluene 28.03 3 Liquid Drums MS
35. Sodium salicylate 35.7 3.5 Solid Containers HDPE
36. Zn Chloride 0.52 0.1 Solid Can GI

Sr. No. Products Quantity in MT/ Storage Physical Stored In MOC


Month At a form
time in MT/
Month
1. Amyl Salicylate 150 20.00 Liquid Storage Tank & Drums SS316
2. Benzyl Acetone (Jastone) 100 5.00 Liquid Drums HDPE / GI
3. Benzyl Salicylate 50 3.00 Liquid Drums HDPE / GI
4. Citra Ether 50 2.00 Liquid Drums HDPE / GI
5. Citronellyl Acetate 10 2.00 Liquid Drums HDPE / GI
6. Hycol (Hydroxy Citronellol) 5 1.00 Liquid Drums HDPE / GI
7. Iso Amyl Salicylate 25 2.00 Liquid Drums HDPE / GI
8. Terpinyl Acetate 75 5.00 Liquid Drums HDPE / GI
9. Undecavertol (Kakdinol) 75 5.00 Liquid Drums HDPE / GI
10. Verdyl Acetate 650 20.00 Liquid Tank & Drums SS316,HDPE & GI
11. Verdyl Propionate 166 20.00 Liquid Tank & Drums SS316,HDPE & GI
12. Melonal 30 2.00 Liquid Drums HDPE / GI
13. Caryophyllene Acetate 5 0.50 Liquid Drums HDPE / GI
14. Dimettol 100 2.00 Liquid Drums HDPE / GI
15. Hexyl Salicylate 175 10.00 Liquid Drums HDPE / GI
16. Verdyl Isobutyrate 150 10.00 Liquid Drums HDPE / GI

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-19


EHS Department
3.8 HAZARDOUS PROPERTIES OF THE CHEMICALS, COMPATIBILITIES AND SPECIAL HAZARD

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-20


EHS Department
F = FIRE T = TOXIC
E = EXPLOSIVE R = REACTIVE
BP = BOILING POINT LEL = LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT
UEL = UPPER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT SP.GR = SPECIFIC GRAVITY
VD = VAPOUR DENSITY ER = EVAPORATION RATE
H = HEALTH HAZARD CLASS F = FIRE HAZARD CLASS
R = REACTIVE HAZARD TLV = THRESHOLD LIMIT VALUE
PPM = PARTS PER MILLION STEL = SHORT TERM EXPOSURE LIMIT
NFPA =NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION-USA
ACGIH =AMERICAN CONFERENCE OF GOVERNMENTAL INDUSTRIAL HYGIENISTS
NA = NOT AVAILABLE
N.A. = NOT APPLICABLE
RM: RAW MATERIALS
P : PRODUCTS

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-21


EHS Department
3.9 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PROCESS.

3.9.1 THE DETAILS OF MANUFACTURING PROCESS IS MENTIONED BELOW:


1) AMYL SALICYLATE:

Name Quantity (MT/Month)


Product AMYL SALICYLATE 150
Raw material consumption per month:

Material Quantity (MT/Month)


Salicylic Acid 107.14
Pentanol mixture 77.14
Acid Catalyst 5.36
Toluene Make Up & Recycled 23.57 KL
Soda Ash 0.71
Brief process:
Amyl Salicylate will be prepared by Azeotropic Esterification reaction, i.e. heating Pentanol and Salicylic acid in
presence of a solvent & catalyst. The reactant mass will be then cooled, washed and neutralized with soda ash. After
settling the aqueous layer will be taken to effluent treatment plant. The crude Amyl Salicylate will be taken for
distillation to separate Low boilers & fractions of Amyl Salicylate.
Chemical Reaction:

Flow Chart:
Salicylic Acid
Toluene Recovered
Pentanol Mixture Recycled to Reactions
Acid Catalyst Glass Lined Reactor
Toluene Water from Reaction
Soda Ash Used for Neutralization

Crude Amyl Salicylate

Aqueous
Layer to ETP
for Treatment

Reboiler Receiver

Low Fractions
Purity of Amyl
Fractions Salicylate

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-22


EHS Department
2) BENZYL ACETONE (JASTONE):

Name Quantity (MT/Month)


Product BENZYL ACETONE (JASTONE) 100
Raw material consumption per month:

Material Quantity (MT/Month)


Benzylledene Acetone 118.00

Brief process:
Benzyllendene Acetone will be taken for selective hydrogenation at job workers premises. The crude Benzyl Acetone
thus obtained will be taken for separation of low boilers & main product by distillation.

Chemical Reaction:

Flow Chart:

Crude BCA

Low purity
Reboiler fractions recycled

Fractions of
Jastone

3) BENZYL SALICYLATE:

Name Quantity (MT/Month)


Product BENZYL SALICYLATE 50.00

Raw material consumption per month:

Material Quantity (MT/Month)


Benzyl Chloride 27.6
Sodium Salicylate 35.7
Phase Transfer Catalyst 1.10

Brief process:
Benzyl Salicylate is prepared by reacting a mixture of Sodium Salicylate and Benzyl Chloride.
On completion of reaction the reaction mass is washed and the aqueous layer is sent to effluent treatment. Crude
Benzyl Salicylate is then taken for fractionation for separation of low purity and high purity fractions.

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-23


EHS Department
Chemical Reaction:

C6H5 CH2 CL + Na C7H O3 C14 H12O3 + NaCl


Benzyl Chloride Sodium Salicylate Benzyl Salicylate Sodium Chloride

Flow Chart:

Benzyl chloride
Sodium Salicylate
Glass Lined Reactor
Phase Transfer
Catalyst

Crude Benzyl
Salicylate

Aqueous
Layer to ETP
for Treatment

Reboiler Receiver

Low Fractions of
Purity Benzyl
Fractions Salicylate

4) CITRA ETHER (METHYL TERPENYL ETHER):

Name Quantity (MT/Month)


Product CITRA ETHER (METHYL TERPENYL ETHER) 50

Raw material consumption per month:

Material Quantity (MT/Month)


D’limonene/Orange Terpenes 47.94
Acid Catalyst 0.48
Methanol make up & Recycled 47.94 KL
Di Ethanol Amine 0.16

Brief process:

Citra Ether will be prepared by refluxing mixture of Methanol and D’limonene/Orange Terpenes in presence of a
strong acid. After the completion of reaction, the mass will be cooled, neutralized and excess Methanol will be
recovered. The reaction mass will be washed by water and aqueous layer will be sent to ETP. The organic layer will
be taken for distillation whereby Low purity fraction, mains and high purity fraction will be separated.

Chemical Reaction:

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-24


EHS Department
Flow Chart:
D'limonene/Orange Terpenes
Acid Catalyst Recovered Methanol
Methanol Glass Lined Reactor Recycled to reactions
Di Ethanol Amine
Water

Crude Citra Ether

Aqueous Layer to
ETP for Treatment

Reboiler

Receiver

Low Purity Fractions


Fractions of Citra
Recycled Ether

5) CITRONELLYL ACETATE:

Name Quantity (MT/Month)


Product CITRONELLYL ACETATE 10.00

Raw material consumption per month:

Material Quantity (MT/Month)


Citronellol 8.70
Acetic Anhydride 6.52
Sodium Acetate 0.43
Soda Ash 0.14

Brief process:

Citronellyl Acetate will be manufactured by hot esterification of Citronellol with Acetic anhydride in the presence of a
catalyst. The reaction mass will be cooled and washed with water. After settling, the spent acetic acid will be
separated and stored separately in drums as a salable by product. Further the mass will be neutralized with soda Ash
solution. After settling the aqueous layer will be taken to effluent treatment plant. The crude Citronellyl acetate will be
taken for distillation for separation of Low boilers and final product.

Chemical Reaction:

(CH3CO)2O
OH
OCOCH3

CITRONELLOL ACETIC ANHYDRIDE CITRONELLYL ACETATE ACETIC ACID

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-25


EHS Department
Flow Chart:

Citronellol
Spent Acetic Acid 30%
Acetic Anhydride Glass Lined Reactor By product for sale
Sodium Acetate
Soda ash solution

Crude Citronellyl
Acetate
Effluent to ETP for
Treatment

Reboiler

Receiver

Low Purity Fractions of


Fractions Citronellyl
Recycled Acetate

6) HYCOL (HYDROXY CITRONELLOL):

Name Quantity (MT/Month)


Product HYCOL (HYDROXY CITRONELLOL) 5
Raw material consumption per month:

Material Quantity (MT/Month)


Citronellol 8.33
Sulphuric Acid 8.33
Caustic Lye 10% 1.04
Di Ethanol Amine 0.10
Toluene 10.42 KL

Brief process:
Hycol (Hydroxy Citronellol) will be prepared by acid hydration of Citronellol with Sulphuric acid followed by
distillation. Citronellol will be hydrated under cold conditions using aqueous acid, neutralized and the fractionated to
obtain various fractions of low purity, mains and high impurity.

Chemical Reaction:

DIL H2SO 4

OH OH
OH

CITRONELLOL HYCOL

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-26


EHS Department
Flow Chart:
Citronellol
Acid catalyst
Toluene Glass Lined Reactor
Water
Caustic Lye 10%
Di Ethanol Amine

Crude Hycol

Effluent to ETP for


Treatment

Reboiler

Receiver

Toluene Low Purity Fractions of


Recovered Fractions Hycol
Recycled to
Reaction

7) ISO AMYL SALICYLATE:

Name Quantity (MT/Month)


Product ISO AMYL SALICYLATE 25.00

Raw material consumption per month:

Material Quantity (MT/Month)


Salicylic Acid 17.86
Iso Amyl Alcohol 12.86
Acid Catalyst 0.71
Toluene makeup & Recycled 4.46 KL/Month
Soda Ash 0.27

Brief process:

Iso Amyl salicylate will be prepared by Azeotropic Esterification reaction i.e. heating Iso Amyl Alcohol and Salicylic
Acid in presence of a solvent & catalyst. The reaction mass will be then cooled and washed. After settling the aqueous
layer will be taken for effluent treatment. The crude Iso Amyl salicylate will taken for distillation to separate Low
boilers & fractions of Iso Amyl Salicylate.

Chemical Reaction:

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-27


EHS Department
Flow Chart:
Water from
Salicylic Acid
reaction used for
Iso Amyl Alcohol neutralisation
Acid catalyst Glass Lined Reactor
Toluene
Recovered
Soda ash solution Toluene recycled

Crude Iso Amyl


Salicylate

Aqueous layer to
ETP for treatment

Reboiler

Receiver

Low Purity Fractions of


Fractions Iso Amyl
Salicylate

8) TERPINYL ACETATE:

Name Quantity (MT/Month)


Product TERPINYL ACETATE 75.00
Raw material consumption per month:

Material Quantity (MT/Month)


Terpineol 68.18
Acetic Anhydride 57.95
Acid Catalyst 0.03
Soda Ash 0.43
Brief process:

Terpinyl Acetate is manufactured by cold acetylation of Terpineol with Acetic Anhydride in the presence of a acid
catalyst. The reaction mass will be washed with water and spent acetic acid will be collected separately as saleable by
product. The mass will be further neutralized by soda ash solution and the aqueous layer will be taken for effluent
treatment. The organic layer will be taken for distillation for separation of low boilers and final product.

Chemical Reaction:

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-28


EHS Department
Flow Chart:

Terpineol
Acetic Anhydride Spent Acetic Acid
Acid Catalyst Glass Lined Reactor By product for sale
water
Soda ash solution

Crude Terpinyl Acetate

Effluent to ETP for


Treatment

Reboiler

Receiver

Fractions of
Low Purity
Terpinyl
Fractions
Acetate

Recycled to distillation

9) UNDERCAVERTOL:

Name Quantity (MT/Month)


Product UNDERCAVERTOL 75.00

Raw material consumption per month:

Material Quantity (MT/Month)


Mg Turnings 12.74
Halide (Pentyl Bromide/Chloride) 75.47
Aldehyde 47.17
Iodine 0.09
Tetra hydro Furon (Fresh & Recycled) 235.85 KL
Sulphuric Acid 98% 7.67
Soda Ash 0.24
Di Ethanol Amine 0.12

Brief process:

Undercavertol will be prepared by Grignard Reaction with THF, Methyl Pentenal & Pentyl Bromide/Chloride as main
raw materials. THF Solvent is recovered for recycling on completion of the reaction. The reactant mass will be
washed. The aqueous layer will be taken for further THF recovery and effluent treatment; the organic layer will be
taken for obtaining final product by fractional distillation.
Chemical Reaction:

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-29


EHS Department
Flow Chart
Mg Turnings
Halide
Aldehyde
Iodine
Sulphuric acid 98% Recovered Tetra hydro
Glass Lined Reactor furon Recycled to
Soda ash Reaction
Di Ethanol amine

Tetra Hydro Furon


recycled

Crude Undecavertol

Effluent to ETP for


Treatment

Reboiler

Receiver

Low Purity Fractions of


Fractions Undecavertol
Recycled to
Distillation

10) VERDYL ACETATE:

Name Quantity (MT/Month)


Product VERDYL ACETATE 650.00

Raw material consumption per month:

Material Quantity (MT/Month)


Dicylopentadiene 520
Acetic Acid 234
Acid Catalyst 15.6
Sodium Acetate 15.6
Acetic Anhydride 2.6

Brief process:

Verdyl Acetate is prepared by esterification by addition of organic acid Acetic acid across double bond
Dicylopentadiene in presence of acid catalyst. After completion of the reaction. Washing is conducted by removal of
Spent Acetic Acid. After settling the aqueous layer separated and stored as spent Acetic acid a byproduct and the
organic layer is taken for fractional distillation for separation low boilers and Verdyl Acetate fractions.

Chemical Reaction:

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-30


EHS Department
Flow Chart:
Dicylopentadiene
Acetic Acid Acetic Acid Recovery
Acid catalyst Glass Lined Reactor Recycled to Reaction
Sodium Acetate
Acetic Anhydride

Crude Verdyl Acetate

Aqueous Layer to
ETP for Treatment

Reboiler Receiver

Low Purity Fractions of


Fractions Verdyl
Non Distillable Recycled Acetate
Fraction

10) VERDYL PROPIONATE:

Name Quantity (MT/Month)


Product VERDYL PROPIONATE 166

Raw material consumption per month:

Material Quantity (MT/Month)


Dicyclopentadiene 138.33
Propionic Acid 80.23
Acid Catalyst 2.77
Sodium Acetate 2.77

Brief process:

Verdyl Propionate will be prepared by esterification, by addition of organic acid e-Propionic acid across double bond
and Dicyclopentadiene in presence of acid catalyst. After the reaction completes, reaction mass will be cooled. Water
is added for removal of spent proponic acid and stored as by product, and the organic layer will be taken for fractional
distillation for separation of low purity fractions and Verdyl Propionate fractions.

Chemical Reaction:

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-31


EHS Department
Flow Chart:

Dicylopentdiene
Propionic Acid
Glass Lined Reactor
Acid Catalyst
Sodium Acetate

Crude Verdyl
Propionate
Aqueous
Layer to ETP
for Treatment

Reboiler Receiver

Low Purity
Fractions
Fractions
of Verdyl
Recycled to
Non Distillable Propionate
Distillation
Fraction

11) MELONAL:

Name Quantity (MT/Month)


Product MELONAL 30.00
Raw material consumption per month:

Material Quantity (MT/Month)


Methyl Heptanone 46.28
Sodium Methoxide 22.05
Ethyl Chloro Acetate 22.05
Soda Ash 5.55
HCL 45% 0.16
Brief process:
Melonal will be prepared by Darzen’s Glysidic Ester Condensation between Methyl Heptanone and Ethyl Chloro.
Acetate in presence of strong base catalyst followed by alkaline hydrolysis will undergo Flash Distillation,
Decarboxylation and followed by Fractional Distillation.

Chemical Reaction:

CH2COOC2H5
COOC2H5
NaCL
O
Ethyl Chloro Acetate O
Glycidic Ester Decarboxylation
6-Methyl-5-Hepten-2-One Hydrolysis

CHO
2,6 Dimethyl-5-Heptenal
(Melonal)

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-32


EHS Department
Flow Chart:
Methyl Heptanone
Alkaline Catalyst
Ethyl chloro Acetate Glass Lined Reactor
Soda ash
HCl 45%

Glycidic Ester

Effluent to
ETP

Reboiler

Receiver

Methyl Distilled
Heptatone Glysidic Ester
Recycled

SS 316 unit Recycled

Crude Melonal

Reboiler

Receiver

Low Purity
Fractions Fractions of
Recycled Melonal

12) CARYOPHYLLENE ACETATE:

Name Quantity (MT/Month)


Product CARYOPHYLLENE ACETATE 5.00

Raw material consumption per month:

Material Quantity (MT/Month)


Caryophyellene 4
Zn Chloride 0.52
Acetic Anhydride 3.39
Toluene Recovered & Recycled 1 KL
Soda Ash 0.10

Brief process:

Caryophellene Acetate will be manufactured by reacting Caryophellene with Acetic Anhydride in the presence of a
catalyst. The reaction mass will be washed with water and spent acetic acid collected will be separated as saleable by
product. The mass will be further neutralized and the aqueous layer will be taken to effluent treatment plant. The
organic layer will be taken for separation of low and pure fractions of final product.

Chemical Reaction:

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-33


EHS Department
Flow Chart:
Caryophellene
Zn Chloride
Acetic Anhydride Glass Lined Reactor
Toluene
Soda ash
Water

Crude Caryophyllene
Acetate
Aqueous Layer to
Spent Acetic Acid ETP for Treatment
saleable By
Product

Reboiler

Receiver

Toluene Fractions of
Low Purity
Caryophyllene
Fractions
Acetate

13) DIMETTOL:

Name Quantity (MT/Month)


Product DIMETTOL 100.00

Raw material consumption per month:

Material Quantity (MT/Month)


Methyl Magnesium Bromide/Chloride 31.61
Methyl Heptanone 52.69
Iodine 0.09
Tetra Hydro Furon (Make up & Recycled) 212.45KL
Sulphuric Acid 98% 13.88
Soda Ash 3.40
Di Ethanol Amine 0.05

Brief process:

Dimettol, a secondary alcohol, often finds application as fragrance ingredients in the formulation of industrial
perfumes. Due to its exceptional stability, it is used in enhanced concentration in detergent fragrances. Dimettol is
essentially prepared by prepared of Methyl Heptenone to Methyl Magnesium Chloride/ Bromide in inert conditions.
Further Dimethyl Heptenol thus obtained is selective hydrogenated (this is conducted at Job worker’s end) to obtain
crude Dimettol which is further purified by Fractional distillation.

Chemical Reaction:

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-34


EHS Department
Flow Chart:
Mg Turnings
Methyl Magnesium
Chloride/Bromide
Methyl Heptanone Recovered Tetra Hydro
Iodine Furon Recycled to
Tetra Hydro Furon Glass Lined Reactor Reaction
Sulphuric Acid
Soda Ash
Di Ethanol Amine

Effluent to ETP
Treatment
Crude Dimethyl
Heptenol

Reboiler

Receiver

Low Purity Fractions of


Fractions Dimethyl
Recycled to Heptenol
Distillation
From Job Approved Fractions of
Hydrogenated Crude worker Dimethyl Heptenol
Dimettol

Reboiler

Receiver

Low Purity Fractions of


Fractions Dimettol
Recycled to
Distillation

14) HEXYL SALICYLATE:

Name Quantity (MT/Month)


Product HEXYL SALICYLATE 175.00

Raw material consumption per month:

Material Quantity (MT/Month)


Salicylic Acid 140
Hexyl Alcohol 112
Sulphuric Acid 2.10
Toluene Make up & Recycled 35 KL
Soda Ash 1.40

Brief process:

Hexyl Salicylate is prepared by Azetropic Esterification reaction i.e. heating Hexyl Alcohol and Salicylic Acid in
presence of a solvent & acid catalyst. The reactant mass will then cooled and washed. After settling the aqueous layer

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-35


EHS Department
will taken for effluent treatment. The crude Hexyl Salicylate will be taken for distillation to separate Low Boilers &
fractions of Hexyl Salicylate.

Chemical Reaction:

Flow Chart:

Salicylic Acid
Hexyl Alcohol Recovered Toluene
Glass Lined Recycled
Acid Catalyst Reactor
Toluene
Soda Ash Solution
Water From Reaction
Used for Neutralisation

Crude Hexyl
Salicylate

Aqueous Layer to
ETP for Treatment

Reboiler

Receiver

Fractions of
Low Purity
Hexyl
Fractions
Salicylate

16) VERDYL ISOBUTYRATE:

Name Quantity (MT/Month)


Product VERDYL ISOBUTYRATE 150.00

Raw material consumption per month:

Material Quantity (MT/Month)


Dicyclopentadiene 125
Isobutyric Acid 72.50
Acid Catalyst 2.50
Sodium Acetate 2.50

Brief process:

Verdyl Isobutyrate is prepared by esterification by addition of organic acid Isobutyric Acid across double bond
Dicyclopentadiene in presence of acid catalyst. After completion of the reaction mass will be cooled. Washing will be

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-36


EHS Department
conducted. After settling the spent acid will be separated and stored as a byproduct for sale. The organic layer is taken
for distillation for separation low boilers and Verdyl Isobutyrate fractions.

Chemical Reaction:

Flow Chart:

Dicyclopentadiene
Isobutyric Acid
Glass Lined
Acid Catalyst Reactor
Sodium Acetate

Crude Verdyl
Isobutyrate

Spent Acid

Reboiler

Receiver
Non Distillable
Fraction

Low Purity Fractions of


Fractions Verdyl
Recycled to Isobutyrate
Distillation

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-37


EHS Department
3.10 Facilities / System for process safety, transportation, Fire Fighting System and
Emergency capabilities to be adopted

Following facilities and system that exist and that will be installed / implemented.

Process Safety:
Safety Precautions at Reaction Vessels and Distillation Units:

1. The reactions for the present & proposed products are at atmospheric pressure with
vents open to atmosphere through water cooled/ chilled water vapor condensers
hence the pressure development in the reaction vessels does not arise.
2. The reaction carried by heating, here the heat energy is conducted vide steam
through Jackets/Limpet Coils. Low Pressure Steam Line is connected to these
vessels with jackets /Limpet coils appropriately insulated. The vessels are also fitted
with safety valve to open at 3kg pressure and pressure indicator for visual periodic
checks. The safety valves are examined, tested and certified vide form no 11 for
relevant vessels.
3. Free Fall of any flammable material in the vessel is avoided.
4. Any reaction upsets will be confined to the reaction vessel itself as defined quantity
of charges of raw materials is issued to the reaction vessel/Day tank by metering
pumps.
5. All emergency valves and switches are easily assessable.
6. All Distillations carried out are high vacuum fractionation distillations. Hence the
pressure development within the unit will not occur. However since the distillations
are carried out well above the flash point of the mass, vacuum failure fail alarm are
provided and non return valves are incorporated on the main vacuum lines to curb
vacuum failure in the system.
7. Any carry over of low boiling components to the ejector systems is crubbed by the
Barometric Leg provided to each ejector system as well as water cooled vapor traps
incorporated between the equipment and the ejector system cooling towers. The
same are periodically drained after every batch and stored separately for further
recycle in to the process.
8. Further all the vessels are examined periodically by a recognized competent person
under the Gujarat Factory Rules 1963-Rule 61(1).
9. All the vessels and equipments are well earthed appropriately and well protected
against Static Electricity. Also for draining in drums proper earthing facilities have
been provided.
10. Materials are transferred by pumping through pipeline or by vacuum from drums.
11. All reaction vents are connected to vapor condensers system.
12. All solvents and flammable material storage tanks away from the process plant and
required quantity of material will be charge in reactor by pump.
13. Flammable material drum is also charged by vacuum.
14. Temperature indicators are provided near all reactor and distillation systems.
15. Jumpers are provided on and will be provided on all solvent handling pipeline
flanges.
16. Caution note, safety posters, stickers, periodic training & Updation in safety and
emergency preparedness plan are displayed and conducted.
17. Flame proof light fittings are installed in the plant.
18. All the Plant Personnel are provided with Personal Protection Equipments to protect
against any adverse health effect during operations, leakage, spillages or splash. PPE

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-38


EHS Department
like Helmets, Safety Shoes, Safety Glasses, Acid-Alkali Proof Gloves etc. are
provided to the employees. All employees are given and updated in Safety aspects
through periodic training in safety.
19. Material Safety Data Sheets of Raw Materials & Products are readily available that
the shop floor. The same practice should be continued
20. Third Party Process Safety Audits are carried out on annually, last audit carried out
in August 2009.

Transportation

1. Class B solvents is proposed to be received by road tankers and stored in storage


tanks.
2. Solvent unloading Standard procedure is in place and will be implemented for safe
unloading of road tanker.
3. Earthing provision has been made for tanker unloading.
4. Earthed Flexible Steel hose will be used for solvent unloading from the road tanker.
5. Fixed pipelines with pumps are and will be provided for solvent transfer up to
reactors.
6. Double mechanical seal type pumps installed for solvents.
7. NRV provision made on all pump discharge line.
8. Some solvents are received at plant in drums by road truck and stored in a separate
drum store.
9. Drum handling trolleys are used for transportation of drums up to plant.
10. Solvent charged in reactor from drum through SS day tank by vacuum or barrel
pump or by gravity.
11. Storage area Safety
12. For Proposed Tank Farm: (Underground MS Tank for 50kl – 2 Nos.)
13. The Tank farm will be is isolated from the process area. With expansion the new
products, the underground storage tanks shall be used for storage of Class B
Petroleum products namely Dicylcopentandiene. The license procurement
procedures with explosive department will be undertaken.
14. Safety Precautions at the tank farm:
15. Flame Proof Pumps and Motor will be provided in the tank farm.
16. Underground tank will have natural earthing.
17. Tank will be surrounded by RCC dyke wall and collection pit with valve will be
provided.
18. The gap between tank and RCC wall will be filled with sand.
19. Tank farm location will be away from the all hot areas, process area, Boiler house
and other movement area.
20. This tank farm area will be fenced area with restriction on entry of unauthorized
person.
21. Level of the liquid will be taken on daily basis by dip/magnetic indicators. Once the
clearance is obtained, level Indicators will be installed.
22. Provision for flexible Tanker Earthing will also be provided.
23. Spark Arrestor/Muffler will be provided at the security gate to each vehicle which
comes in to the tank farm for unloading.
24. Non Sparking Tools to be used the tank farm area.
25. Appropriate Copper Flange Jumpers will be provided to prevent any accumulation
of Static Electricity during pumping or draining. All electrical, Mechanical
equipments along with its accessories will be earthed.
26. Nitrogen Blanketing with safety valves is provided to both the storage Tanks.

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-39


EHS Department
27. Flame arrestor will be provided on solvent storage tanks.
28. Dyke wall will be provided to all above ground storage tanks,.
29. Level gauge and level measurement instruments will be installed on all hazardous
material storage tanks.
30. Lightening arrestor on all chimneys and building provided.
31. Storage tanks of hazardous material will be stored away from the plant and safe
distances will be maintained.
32. Fencing and caution notes and hazard identification boards will be displayed.
33. Only authorized person will be permitted in storage tank farm area.
34. Safety permit for hazardous material loading unloading will be prepared and
implemented.
35. Static earthing provision will be made at all unloading points of flammable
chemical storage tank farm area.
36. Loading unloading procedures will be displayed at loading unloading point.
37. TREM CARD will be provided to all transporters and will be trained for
transportation Emergency of Hazardous chemicals.
38. Fire hydrant system in tank farm area will be installed.
39. Safety Shower and eye wash will be installed at acid/ alkali handling and storage
area.

Fire fighting system

1. Cooling Tower of 301m3 with 200m3store capacity along with a stand by pump also
doubles up as emergency water supply in case of any eventuality.
2. Sufficient numbers of Fire extinguishers installed in all plants and storage area.
3. Fire hydrant system as per TAC norms will be installed in the plant.
4. It is proposed to have a provision for separate Water storage tank for fire water as
well as process water requirement.
5. D.G. Sets provided for emergency power.
6. Third Party Periodic Fire Hazard Analysis is carried out on annually.

Pipelines:

The various pipelines used to transfer i.e. charging, draining etc. in the plant are
periodically inspected for Support, Vibration, Corrosion conditions, Painting, and Colour
Code. Pipelines and Flexible pipeline (SS 316/MS) are appropriately earthed to avoid
accumulation of Static Electricity. Periodic Check ups of the pipelines are conducted to
curb any chances of mishap due to leakages. Preventive Maintenance Schedules are in
practice.

Emergency Planning:

7. Emergency siren and wind sock.


8. On Site emergency Plan has been prepared.
9. Tele Communication system and mobile phone are used in case of emergency
situations for communication.
10. First Aid Boxes and First Aid centre are made at site.

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-40


EHS Department
SECTION IV

HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

4.0 INTRODUCTION

Risk assessment process rests on identification of specific hazards, hazardous areas and
areas vulnerable to effects of hazardous situations in facilities involved in processing and
storage of chemicals.

In fact the very starting point of any such assessment is a detailed study of materials
handled & their physical / chemical / thermodynamic properties within the complex at
various stages of manufacturing activity. Such a detailed account of hazardous materials
provides valuable database for identifying most hazardous materials, their behaviour
under process conditions, and their inventory in process as well as storage and hence
helps in identifying vulnerable areas within the complex.

Hazardous posed by particular installation or a particular activity can be broadly


classified as fire, explosive and toxicity hazards. Whether a particular activity is fire and
explosive hazardous or toxicity hazardous primarily depends on the materials handled
and their properties.

It will be from the above discussion that study of various materials handled is a
prerequisite from any hazard identification process to be accurate. Based on this study
the hazard indices are calculated for subsequent categorization of units depending upon
the degree of hazard they pose.

In proposed plant main hazard is handling of Various types of chemicals, as per raw
material list, the primary concern has always been toxic release, fire and explosion
prevention and control as this is the main hazard posed by such units. This concern has
grown through the lose of life, property and materials experienced after experienced after
major disasters, which have occurred over the years.

Identification of hazards is the most important step to improve the safety of any plant.
The hazard study is designed to identify the hazards in terms of chemicals, inventories
and vulnerable practices /operations.

The hazard evaluation procedures use as a first step by chemical process industries and
petroleum refineries are checklists and safety reviews. Dow and Mond fire and explosion
indices, which make use of past experience to develop relative ranking of hazards, is also
extensively used. For predictive hazard analysis, Hazard and Operability studies
(HAZOP), Fault tree analysis, Event tree analysis, Maximum credible accident and
consequence analysis etc are employed.

4.1 Dow’s fire and Explosion Index (F & EI)

4.1.1 Dow’s fire and Explosion index is a step by step objective evaluation of the realistic fire,
explosion and reactivity potential of process equipment and its contents. The quantitative

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-41


EHS Department
measure employed is based on historical loss data, the energy potential of the material
under study and the extent to which loss prevention practices are currently applied. This
is helpful in identifying high risk process areas needing more detailed hazard analysis to
ensure that the facilities do not pose unacceptable risks.

4.1.2 The most widely relative ranking hazard indices are Dow chemical company’s Fire &
Explosion Index (F && EI) and Mond’s Toxicity Index (TI). They are commonly
referred together as Fire Explosion and Toxicity Index (F & EI).

4.1.3 Once the pertinent process unit is selected, the Material Factor (MF) for the material in
the unit is estimated. This depends on the flammability, reactivity and operating
temperature. Factor for general process hazards (F-1) takes into account, the nature of the
reaction, ventilation of the unit, accessibility of the unit, drainage facilities etc. Factors
for special process hazards (F-2) takes into account toxicity of the material, operating
pressure, operation near flammable range, quantity of material, joints and packing, use of
hot oil exchange system etc.

4.1.4 Identification of hazard prone areas can be done either by process parameter
considerations or by hazard potential of the materials being handled. For identification of
later methods Dow Chemical Company developed a systematic procedure and guidelines.
Using the Dow & Mond’s guidelines FEI for the facilities under study have been found
out.

4.1.5 Any operation where a flammable, combustible or reactive material is stored or handled
or processed can be evaluated using this method. This technique gives the radius of
exposure surrounding the process from the point of release that could cause injury to
individuals and damage to equipment.

4.1.6 The Dow’s FEI technique can be used to meet the following objectives

4.1.7 To identify high risk process areas needing more detailed hazard identification / risk
analysis to ensure that the facilities do not pose unacceptable risks.

4.1.8 To determine the degree of both on and off site emergency planning and response that
may be necessary in case of major accident.

4.1.9 The procedure followed in evaluating the FEI is described below briefly

a. Select major process units that the potential to damage significant portions of the
plant based on inventory, flammability, flash point and toxicity.
b. Determine the process unit material factor (MF) that is a function of chemical
flammability and reactivity.
c. Calculate the general process hazard (GPH) factor that is a measure of the relative
probability of and incident.
d. The product of GPH and SPH represents the Unit Hazard Factor (UHF) that
measures the degree of hazard exposure of the process unit. This is used with MF to
calculate the damage factor which represents the degree of loss exposure.
e. Product of UHF and MF represents the FEI that is directly correlated to the area of
exposure.
f. Degree of hazard due to fire and explosion is identified based on the FEI range as
per the criteria given below

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-42


EHS Department
FEI Range Degree of Hazard
1 to 60 Light
61 to 96 Moderate
97 to 127 Intermediate
128 to 158 Heavy
159 to above Severe

g. Obtain toxicity factor (TH) for the valid NFPA hazard factor (Nh) and penalty (Ts) fro
the MAC value application to the substance.

h. Degree of hazard due to toxicity is identified as per the criteria given below:

Toxicity Index (TI) Degree of hazard


<6 Light
6< T1 ≤10 Moderate
>10 Severe

4.1.10 FE & TI involves objective evaluation of the realistic fire, explosion, toxicity and reactivity
potential of process or storage units. The quantitative methodology relies on the analysis
based on historic loss data; the energy contents of the chemical under study and the extent
to which prevention measures are already incorporated. FE & TI are primarily designed
for operations involving storage, handling and processing of flammable, combustible and
toxic chemicals.

4.1.11 Steps in fire and explosion index calculation are given below:

Select Pertinent Process

Determine Material Factor

Calculate GHP (F1), Calculate SPH(F2), special


General Process Hazards process Hazards

Determine Hazard Factor


F1 X F2 =F3

F3XMaterial Factor
=F & E Index

Determine Exposure area

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-43


EHS Department
4.1.12 Results of fire explosion and toxicity indices.

Table No. 4.1

S Material Storage Qty. N N Nr M GP SPH FEI Degree of Radius Th Ts TI Degree


r stored (KL) h f F H Hazard of Exp. of
N (m) Hazard
o
1. Dicyclope 50 KL X 2 2 2 1 14 2.2 3.08 95 Intermediat 27.84 125 50 10.0 Modera
-ntadine Tanks= 100kl e te
2. Pentanol 50 KL X 2 2 2 0 14 2.2 3.08 95 Intermediat 27.84 125 50 10.0 Modera
Mixture Tanks= 100kl e te
3. Acetic 10 KL X 1 2 2 1 14 2.2 3.08 95 Intermediat 27.84 125 125 15.7 Severe
Acid Tank e

Nh = NFPA Health rating GPH = General Process Hazard


Nf = NFPA Fire rating SPH = Special Process Hazard
Nr = NFPA Reactive rating FEI = Fire Explosion Index
MF = Material Factor Th = Penalty Factor
Ts = Penalty for Toxicity TI = Toxicity Index

4.2 Failure Frequencies

4.2.1 Hazardous material release scenarios can be broadly divided into 2 categories
I) Catastrophic failures which are of low frequency and
II) Ruptures and leaks which are of relatively high frequency.

Releases from failure of gaskets, seal, rupture in pipelines and vessels fall in the second
category whereas catastrophic failure of vessels and full bore rupture of pipelines etc fall
into the first category.

4.2.2 Typical failure frequencies are given below:-

Item Mode of failure Failure frequencies


Atmospheric Catastrophic failure 10-9 /yr
storage Significant leak 10-5 /yr
Process Pipelines
< = 50 mm dia Full bore rupture 8.8 x 10-7 /m.yr
Significant leak 8.8 x 10-6 /m.yr
> 50 mm <=150mm dia Full bore rupture 2.6 x 10-7 /m.yr
Significant leak 5.3 x 10-6 /m.yr
< 150 mm dia Full bore rupture 8.8 x 10-8 /m.yr
Significant leak 2.6 x 10-6 /m.yr
Hoses Rupture 3.5 x 10-2 /m.yr

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-44


EHS Department
4.3 Identification of Hazardous Areas:

A study of process given in chapter 3 of the report indicates the following:

¾ Batch process plant.


¾ Raw materials are stored in godown and in tank farm area. Required batch charge
materials are only kept in process area at the time of batch charging.
¾ All liquids charged by pipeline from storage tank or by vacuum from drum. Powder
charged in reactor through manhole.
¾ Process parameters control is provided vide Standard Operating Procedures.
¾ Hazardous materials are transferred by pipelines and in control manners.
¾ Reaction carried out under atmospheric pressure, close condition and under control
manner. The vent is connected to water/chilled water cooled vapor condensers.
¾ High Vacuum Fractionation distillations carried out for products. Non Return Valves
provided on three different locations on vacuum main system to avoid vaccum failure
due to stoppage or failure of vacuum failures.
¾ Nitrogen Blanketing provided through cylinders for inert atmosphere.

Thus the raw material requirement for the Produce unit will be very low & variable
depending upon products being manufactured. Various raw materials used in the
manufacturing processes are listed in Section-3 along with mode / type of storage &
storage conditions. It can be readily seen that raw materials even though hazardous in
nature, will be used in small quantities & storage quantities are also very low at process
plant. However some chemicals such as Dicyclopentadine, Pentanol Mixture, Acetic Acid
and sulphuric acid used in process & therefore their requirement is slightly higher. Above
mentioned chemicals are stored in dedicated tanks in tank farms area and other small
quantity of chemicals stored in drum storage area. List of chemicals stored in larger
quantities is provided in Section-3 in raw material list.

4.3.1 Evaluation Of Hazards :

4.3.1.1 Storage in Tank Farm :

Major inventory of liquid organic chemicals within the factory premises is in Drum
storage godown. Based on the nature, the raw materials are stored in the same godown
but away from the flammable liquids.

Major inventory of Dicyclopentadine, Pentanol Mixture, Acetic Acid within the factory
premises are in under ground storage tank.

The materials were studied with respect to their flammability, reactivity and toxicity
based on the criteria given by the NFPA (NFPA ratings). Material factor values were
determined using these ratings. General process hazards and Special process hazards
for all the materials stored were determined as per the guidelines given by DOW
Chemicals Company in DOW Index. FEI values for all these materials were calculated
form the above data.

Value of material factor, General Process Hazard & Special Process Hazard as also FEI
/ TI values & degree of hazard are given in Table 4.1. As can be seen storage in tank
farms is mostly in the light-moderate category. Fire & Explosion Index, primarily due
to small tank sizes. The storage will be also seen to have light – moderate toxicity

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-45


EHS Department
hazards. The radius of exposure for various tanks considering FEI Values is also
calculated and presented in the Tables.
4.3.1.2 Evaluation of Process Areas :
Process Safety Review – What If Method
A. Materials

1. Have materials been defined as Yes


“hazardous” or “non-hazardous”? 1. Verdyl acetate 2. Amyl Salicylate 3. Verdyl Propionate
4. Iso Amyl Salicylate 5. Terpineol acetate 6. Terpineol
(Ingredients as well as final products and by- 7. Acetic Anhydride 8. Prop ionic acid. 9. Dicyclo-penta-
products) diene 10. Boron tri fluoride 11.Pentanol Mixture 12.
Toluene 13. Iso amyl alcohol 14. Methanol etc
2. What process materials are unstable or Reference to MSDS does not indicate such tendency.
spontaneously ignitable?
• What evaluation has been made of impact Reference to MSDS does not indicate such tendency.
sensitivity?
• What evaluation of possible uncontrolled Evaluated at Pilot Plant. Uncontrolled reaction or
reaction or decomposition has been made? decomposition unlikely
3. What precautions are necessary to meet Periodic monitoring of workplace emissions.
environmental requirements and maintain
personnel health
4. What data are available on amount and Before scale up all trials are Evaluated at Pilot Plant.
rate of heat evolution during decomposition Hence Uncontrolled reaction or decomposition unlikely
of any materials in the process?
5. What precautions are necessary for 1. Flameproof lighting & Drives. In place
flammable materials? 2. Precautions against generation of Static Electricity
In place
3. Inert Atmospheres. Like Nitrogen Blanketing in place
4. Flame arrestors on flammables vents in place
5. Spillage control in place
6. Fire Proofing of structural supports in place.
7. Fire fighting Facilities in place but required to be
updated.
6. What flammable dust hazards exist? None
7. What materials are highly toxic? None
8. What has been done to ensure that Materials selected based on corrosives data. Regular
materials of construction are compatible inspection schedules followed.
with the chemical process materials that are
involved?
9. What maintenance control is necessary to Specifications & Inspection
ensure replacement of proper materials, e.g.,
to avoid excessive Corrosion and to avoid
producing hazardous compounds and
reactants?
10. What changes have occurred in None
composition of raw materials? What
resulting changes have occurred in the
process?
11. What is done to ensure sufficient control QA tests before acceptance for all incoming materials.
of raw material identification and quality?
12. What hazards can occur as a result of Explosive mixtures.
loss of gas for purging, blanketing, or N2 Cylinders used. Ample spare cylinders are kept
inerting? How certain is gas supply quality? available at all times.
13. What precautions need to be considered Storage precautions specified in MSDS followed.
relative to stability of all materials in
storage?
14. What fire extinguishing agents are Dry Powder, Co2, water spray (for some products)
compatible with the process material?

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-46


EHS Department
15. What fire emergency equipment and 50-kg/ 25kg trolley mounted DP, 5kg cylinders for DP &
procedures are being provided? CO2.
List attached at Annexure 2.
B. Reactions

1. How are potentially hazardous reactions Temperature controls. Inert atmospheres. Operator
isolated? vigilance.
2. What process variables could, or do, Operations well within limiting conditions
approach limiting conditions for hazard?
3. What unwanted hazardous reactions can Unlikely
be developed through unlikely flow or
process conditions or through
contamination?
4. What combustible mixtures can occur Many of the raw materials are used above flashpoint
within equipment? with vapour concentrations within explosive range.
Nitrogen blanketing proposed.
5. What are process margins of safety for all Less/ more addition of components does not create
reactants and intermediates? What are the hazardous side products. It is only commercial loss.
consequences of missing ingredients or
wrong proportion of reactants?
6. What reaction-rate data are available on Production plant reaction completion periods based on
the possible reactions, both normal and Pilot Plant information, and refined based on plant
abnormal? experience using QA back-up for Reaction monitoring.
7. How thorough is the operators’ Operators well trained. Good knowledge of Process
knowledge of the process chemistry? What Chemistry available at site. Side reactions may increase
undesired reactions can take place? impurity levels. Separated during distillation
No reactions with high exothermicity. Runaway
reactions improbable a batch process undertaken
8. What foreign materials can contaminate Moisture may retard reaction rate.
the process and create hazards? No other foreign materials are expected in the raw
material drums which are tested by QC before issue to
process.
9. What provision is made for rapid disposal No provision. Total inventory in process listed at
of reactants if required by plant emergency? Annexure 3.
10. What provisions are made for handling None of the reactions can lead to runaways.
impending runaways and for short-stopping
an existing runaway?
11. What hazardous reactions can develop as Temperature can rise on failure of cooling water pump,
a result of mechanical equipment (pump, Tripping of agitators may cause localized reaction but
agitator, etc.) failure? the bulk reaction will be inhibited
12. What hazardous process conditions can The only blockage that can occur is the distillation still
result from gradual or sudden blockage in outlet if the residue becomes dehydrated causing
equipment? thickening of the mass. This will not have any affect on
the process.
13. What raw materials or process materials Though Terpineol solidifies in winter. Products are not
can be adversely affected by extreme directly exposed to sunlight or heat medium.
weather conditions?
14. What process changes have been made This is the first study of its kind.
since the previous process safety review?

C. Equipment

1. In view of process changes since the last This is the first risk assessment study of its kind.
process safety review, how adequate is the
size of equipment?
2. Are any venting systems manifold and, if Distillation systems, vacuum systems get manifold but
so, what hazards can result? no hazards are foreseen.
3. What procedure exists for ensuring an Liquid seals at present.
adequate liquid level in the liquid seals?

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-47


EHS Department
4. What is the potential for external fire Flameproof equipments used.
(which may create. Hazardous internal
process conditions)?
5. Is explosion suppression equipment No.
needed to stop an explosion once started?
6. Where are flame arrestors and detonation None
arrestors needed?
7. In confined areas, how is open-fire Open fire equipment is isolated through perfect
equipment protected from spills? partition walls. No open fire allowed in process area.
8. What safety control is maintained over Flame proof lightings, Daily inspections, Fire
storage areas? extinguishers put up in the area.
9. In cases where glass or other fragile Fragile material of the equipment is adequately
material equipment is used, can durable protected.
materials be substituted? If not, is the fragile
material adequately protected to minimize
breakage? What is the hazard resulting from
breakage?
10. Are sight glasses provided only where Yes. All reactions are at atmospheric pressure.
positively needed? On pressure vessels, are
sight glasses provided which have a
capability to withstand the pressure?
11. What emergency valves and switches Valves are easily assessable. No emergency switches.
cannot be reached readily and safely?
12. When was the pressure rating for all As per statutory requirement.
pertinent equipment, especially process
vessels, last checked?
13. What hazards are introduced by failure Tripping of agitators may cause localized reaction but
of agitators? the bulk reaction will be inhibited
14. What plugging of lines can occur? What The only blockage that can occur is the distillation still
are the hazards of plug gage? outlet if the residue becomes dehydrated causing
thickening of the mass. This will not have any affect on
the distillation.
15. What provisions are needed for complete Draining, flushing and purging facilities available.
drainage of equipment for safety in Blanking of the feed pipelines.
maintenance?
16. How was adequacy of ventilation Adequate ventilation.
determined?
17. What provisions have been made for SS Flexible metallic hoses used for transfer of material.
dissipation of static electricity to avoid Proper Earthing provided to equipments. Free fall
sparking? avoided.
18. What requirements are there for concrete bulkheads or barricades to isolate highly sensitive
equipment and protect adjacent areas from disruption of operations?
19. What provisions have been made for Open Building Structure
relieving explosions in building or operating
areas?
20. Do all pressure vessels conform to state Yes.Statuory Test regularly carried out.
and local, requirements?
21. Are the vessels registered in compliance Yes.Statuory Test carried out.
with state or local code requirements?
22. When were pressure vessels inspected Visual tests are conducted every six months. Statutory
visually? When were they callipered, tests are undertaken.
radiographed, and hydrostatically tested?
23. Has the history of all vessels been Yes
completely reviewed?

As explained earlier, the unit is very small. Study of the process flow sheets indicates
that the reactions are mostly of similar type involving Solvents in most of reactions.

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-48


EHS Department
Some reactions are exothermic but can be readily controlled and reflux unit connected
under control process.

The process units do not warrant any detailed calculations as consequences due to any
worst case scenario will involve very quantity of material & damage is such a case is
expected to be limited to within the factory premises.

Considering this, the risk analysis studies ware concentrated on drum storage godown
and under ground storage tank area.

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-49


EHS Department
SECTION V

RISK ASSESSMENT

5.1 Effects Of Releases Of Hazardous Substances

Hazardous substances may be released as a result of failures / catastrophes, causing


possible damage to the surrounding area. In the following discussion, an account is taken
of various effects of release of hazardous substances and the parameters to be determined
for quantification of such damages.

In case of release of hazardous substances the damages will depend largely on source
strength. The strength of the source means the volume of the substance released. The
release may be instantaneous or semi-continuous. In the case of instantaneous release, the
strength of the source is given in kg and in semi-continuous release the strength of the
source depends on the outflow time (kg/s.).

In order to fire the source strength, it is first necessary to determine the state of a substance
in a vessel. The physical properties, viz. Pressure and temperature of the substance
determine the phase of release. This may be gas, gas condensed to liquid and liquid in
equilibrium with its vapor or solids.

Instantaneous release will occur, for example, if a storage tank fails. Depending on the
storage conditions the following situations may occur.

The source strength is equal to the contents of the capacity of the storage system.

In the event of the instantaneous release of a liquid a pool of liquid will form. The
evaporation can be calculated on the basis of this pool.

The heat load on object outside a burning pool of liquid can be calculated with the heat
radiation model. This model uses average radiation intensity, which is dependent on the
liquid. Account is also taken of the diameter-to-height ratio of the fire, which depends on
the burning liquid. In addition, the heat load is also influenced by the following factors:

™ Distance form the fire


™ The relative humidity of the air (water vapor has a relatively high heat-absorbing
capacity)
™ The orientation i.e. horizontal/vertical of the objective irradiated with respect to the
fire.

Tank On Fire / Pool Fire:

The liquid pool or tank material if ignited causes a “Pool fire / Tank on Fire”. In the pool/
Tank On fire material burn with a long flame throughout the pool/ Tank diameter radiating
intense heat, which creates severe damage to the adjourning building, structure, other
vessel and equipment causing secondary fire. The flame may tilt under influence of wind

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-50


EHS Department
and may get propagated / blown several pool diameter downwind. The damage incase of
such fire is restricted within the plant area and near the source of generation.

In order to fire or explosion the source strength, it is first necessary to determine the state
of a substance in a vessel. The physical properties viz. pressure and temperature of the
substance determine the phase of release. This may be gas, gas condensed to liquid, liquid
in equilibrium with its vapor or solids.

Instantaneous release will occur, for example, if a storage tank fails. Depending on the
storage conditions the following situations may occur.

The source strength is equal to the contents of the capacity of the storage system.

5.2 Identification of High Risk Areas :

It is observed that the storage areas pose fire/explosion hazards as it has a substantial
inventory of flammable liquid which may lead to major accident event.

In the process areas it is observed that inventories of chemicals are very low & so there are
not deemed to pose major off-site hazards. Thus the quantitative risk assessment studies
are limited to tank area.

5.3 Modes of Failure:

5.3.1 Following failure is considered for detailed analysis and safe distances computed:

Storages system can fail in different ways depending on the materials stored, storage
conditions & may involve systems in their vicinity. Event Tree Analysis (ETA) to define
outcome of release of hydrocarbons for atmospheric storages of liquids is presented in Fig.
5.1. Conditions such as over filling, over pressure & missile, lightening or bomb attack,
earthquake & resultant replier or release scenarios have been identified. Outcomes of such
incidents are determined by presence of ignition either immediate or delayed. As can be
seen depending upon modes of failure different scenarios are possible viz:

◊ Continuous release
◊ Instantaneous release

This may be of gas / liquid depending upon type of material stored/released & its
characteristics. More examples, a liquid boiling at ambient conditions, will immediately
be converted to gas upon exposure to atmosphere & will be have accordingly.

An instantaneous release is any release occurring for a period less than 15 seconds. Failure
mode responsible for instantaneous releases may be catastrophic failure of road tanker. For
an instantaneous gas release important parameters are release height & quantity released
whereas for instantaneous liquid release, important parameters are amount spilled, spill
area & pool temperature, evaporation rate, vapor mass etc.

Continuous release occurs when the material is released over a period greater than 15
seconds. For a continuous gas release, important parameters include height of leak above
ground, emission rate & total time of release. For continuous liquid release important

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-51


EHS Department
parameters are spill rates, duration, area & pool temperature, evaporation rate and vapor
mass or Gas mass.

Analysis of the above leads to reduction of total list of incidents into three representative
sets viz:

¾ Liquid release due to catastrophic failure of storage vessel or road tanker.


¾ Liquid release through a hole/crack developed at welded joints/flanges / nozzles /
valves etc.
¾ Vapour release due to exposure of liquid to atmosphere in the above scenarios.

Based on the above the following accident scenarios were conceived as most probable
failure cases:
TABLE-5.1

Event Causes

Solvent road tanker outlet Ignition availability Pool fire, Ball Fire, Flash
Valve failure Fire

Acetic Acid tank failure Ignition available Pool Fire


Catastrophic failure

Failure of drum of flammable liquid Ignition availability Un confined Pool fire

Considering the small quantity of storages following scenarios were taken up for detailed
analysis & safe distances computed:

¾ Catastrophic failure of road tank and presence of ignition source poses heat radiation
hazards to nearby areas.

¾ Catastrophic failure of solvent drum which on ignition poses heat radiation hazards to
nearby areas.
Failure cases considered for consequence analysis are representative of worst-case
scenarios. Probability of occurrence of such cases is negligible (less than 1 x 10-6 per
year) because of strict adherence to preventive maintenance procedures within the
complex. But consequences of such cases can be grave & far reaching in case such
systems fail during life history of the company. Hence such scenarios are considered
for detailed analysis. It is to be noted however that such situations are not foreseeable
or credible as long as sufficient measures are taken. Also, consequence analysis
studies help us evaluate emergency planning measures of the Company.

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-52


EHS Department
Table-5.2
Sr. Failure Type Failure Mode Consequence
No.
1. Road tanker catastrophic failure Road tanker Unconfined Pool fire
for Dicyclopentadine, Pentanol outlet valve 100
Mixture and Acetic Acid % bore failure
2. Acetic Acid storage tank Random failure Pool fire
catastrophic failure
3. Solvent drum failure Random failure Unconfined Pool fire
In storage godown

5.4 Damage Criteria For Heat Radiation:


Taking into consideration the published literature, on the subject, damage estimates due to
thermal radiation and overpressure has been arrived. The consequences can then be
visualized by superimposing the damage effects zone on the proposed site plan and
identifying the elements within the project site as will as in the neighboring environment,
which might be adversely affected, should one or more hazards materialize in real life.

Thermal Damage
The effect of thermal radiation on people is mainly a function of intensity of radiation
(Heat Flux) and exposure time. The effect is exposed in turn of the probability of death and
different degrees of burn. The following table gives the effect of various levels of heat
flux:
TABLE 5.3
Damage Criteria – Heat Radiation
Heat Radiation Damage to equipment Damage to people
(kW/m2)
1.2 Solar heat at noon
1.6 Minimum level of pain threshold
2.0 PVC insulation cable
4.0 --- Causes pain if duration is longer than20
seconds. Blistering is unlikely.
4.5 --- Blistering of skill
6.0 --- First Degree burn
9.5 --- Pain threshold reached after 8 seconds.
Second degree burns after 20 seconds.
12.0 --- Initiation of secondary fires.
12.5 Minimum energy to ignite First degree burns in 10 seconds.
wood with a flame; Melts 1 % fatality in 20 seconds.
plastic tubing. 30 % fatality in 30 seconds.
16.0 --- Severe burns after 5 seconds.
21.2 --- 1% fatality in 10 seconds, with protection
of clothing.
25.0 Minimum energy to ignite 100 % fatality in 1(one) minute.
wood at indefinitely long
exposure without a flame.
27.0 --- Third degree burns ( 30 Seconds)
30.0 Damage to plant & ---
machinery.
37.5 Severe damage to plant 100 % Fatality

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-53


EHS Department
TABLE 5.4 Practical significance of Overpressure

Over pressure Mechanical damage to Damage to people


bar/ psi equipment
0.3/4.41 Heavy damage o plant and Fatality probability = 1 for humans
structure indoor as well as outdoor
50 % eardrum damage
>50 serious wounds from flying
objects.
0.1/ 1.47 Repairable damage 1 % death
>1% eardrum damage
>1 serious wounds from flying
objects.
0.03/ 0.441 Major glass damage Slight injury from flying objects
0.01/0.147 10 % glass damage --

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-54


EHS Department
Figure – 5.4: Event Tree Analysis
Storage vessel failure

Over Pressure Over filling (Level control fails Missile/Bomb Earth quake
Expansion of liquid, temp. rise)
Spill with fire
Spill Spill
(Heating due to reaction) (Failure of vents, valves Pool Fire Flash fire UVCE
Clogging of pipe lines) Pool Evaporation
Toxic Dispersion
Pool Fire Toxic Dispersion Pool Evaporation
Rupture (failure of
Welded joints/ Rupture (failure of Toxic Dispersion
valve/nozzles Flanges) Welded joints/
valve/nozzles Flanges) Leak (Corrosion, cracks/ holes
Valve/ flange joints leaks Pool Fire Toxic disp.

Toxic Dispersion

Spill Jet

Spill Pool Evaporation

Pool Evaporation Pool Fire Toxic dispersion Jet fire Pool Fire

Toxic Dispersion Toxic Dispersion Pool Evaporation


Pool Fire Toxic Dispersion Pool Fire
Toxic Dispersion Toxic Dispersion Toxic Dispersion

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-55


EHS Department
CHAPTER VI

CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS

6.1 Consequence analysis.

In the risk analysis study, probable damages due to worst case scenarios were quantified
and consequences were analyzed with object of emergency planning. Various measures
taken by the company and findings of the study were considered for deciding acceptability
of risks.

6.1.1 Maximum Credible loss scenarios ( MCLS)

MSCL assume maximum inventory of hazardous chemicals and worst weather condition
prevailing at the time of failure. Further, no credit is given for the safety features provided
in the facility to determine maximum possible damage from the scenario selected. In
reality, leakage of hazardous chemical will be smaller in magnitude. Also the leakage will
be detected immediately by plant operating staff then initiate various mitigation measures
to prevent any disastrous situation.

The maximum credible loss Scenarios (MCLS) identified for pant base on above
criteria are listed below:

Table-6.1

Sr. Failure Type Failure Mode Consequence


No.
1. Road tanker catastrophic failure Catastrophic Unconfined Pool fire,
failure
2. Acetic Acid storage tank Catastrophic Pool Fire
Catastrophic failure failure
3. Solvent drum failure Random failure Unconfined Pool fire In
storage godown

6.1.2 Quantitative Risk Assessment Studies:

Weather Data:
Average wind speed : 3 m / sec.
Average Ambient Temperature : 35 deg. c.
Average Humidity : 55 %
Atmospheric Stability : 2F3D

6.1.3 Assumption :

6.1.3.1 Basic assumptions For road tanker release scenarios

Catastrophic failure is considered for 20 MT Dicyclopentadine and Pentanol Mixture road


tanker while unloading and due to vapour cloud of evaporated solvent vapor mass comes

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-56


EHS Department
in the contact with ignition source unconfined pool fire scenarios were considered for
various situations.

Basic assumptions For Acetic Acid tank catastrophic failure release scenarios

Tank on Fire if direct ignition on tank.


Pool Fire in storage tank due to catastrophic failure of tank.

Basic assumptions For Solvent Drum release scenarios

Worst to worst case Fire scenario for drum storage area.

Scenario-1 Unconfined Pool Fire Simulation for 20 MT Dicyclopentadine and


Pentanol Mixture Road Tanker.

TABLE –A
FOR 20 MT DICYCLOPENTADINE AND PENTANOL MIXTURE ROAD TANKER
Scenario : UNCONFINED POOL FIRE
In put Data Results of Computations
Stored quantity 20 MT Max. IHR at flame centre height 93 Kw/m2
Pool diameter 13.0(m) Flame centre height 17.34 meter
Pool liquid depth 0.001 (m) Maximum Flame width 17.34 meter
Wind speed 3 m/s Mass burning rate liquid 7.74 kg/ m2/min.
Liquid Density 980 kg/m3 Flame burnout time 1.0 Hrs.

Incident Intensity IHR- Effect if IHR at Height of Simulation


of Heat Radiation ( Isopleth
IHR) at ground Distance
level ( Meters )
KW /m 2
37.5 15.3 Damage to process equipment. 100 % Fatal in 1 Min. 1 %
fatal in 10 sec.
25.0 18.7 Min. to ignite wood (without flame contact). 100 % fatal
in 1 Min. Significant injury in 10 sec.
12.5 26.5 Min. to ignite wood (with flame contact). 1 % fatal in 1
min. 1st deg. burn in 10 sec.
4.0 46.8 Pain after 20 secs. Blistering unlikely.
1.6 73.9 No discomfiture even on long exposure.

♦ In the 15 meter radius area is considered as 100 % fatality in 1 min. and first degree burn in 10
sec.
♦ In the 46 meter radius area will give pain after 20 seconds. Blistering unlikely.
♦ In the 73 meter radius area is considered as safe area and no discomfiture even on long
exposure.

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-57


EHS Department
Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-58
EHS Department
Scenario-2 Spill pool Evaporation Simulation for catastrophic failure of Acetic Acid

TABLE –B FOR ACETIC ACID


Scenario : Spill pool Evaporation
In put Data Results of Computations
Stored quantity 10 MT. Max. ground level conc. 303 ppm
Rate of release 1000 g/s Dist. of maxi. ground level 44 meter
Molecular weight 102.1 conc.
Wind speed 3.0 m/s
Density ( Air) 3.5 kg/m3

Hazard Level Concentration Begin point End point


(PPM) (Meter) (Meter)
Lc50 Human 11920 - -
IDLH 50 25.72 198.32
TWA/ TLV 10 22.87 408.82

Results

♦ IDLH (Immediate danger to life and health) 50 PPM concentration area up to 198 meter and
TWA (10 PPM) area up to 408 meter.

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-59


EHS Department
Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-60
EHS Department
Scenario-3 Pool Fire Simulation For 10 KL Acetic Acid Storage tank

TABLE –C
FOR 10 KL ACETIC ACID STORAGE TANK
Scenario : POOL FIRE
In put Data Results of Computations
Stored quantity 10MT Max. IHR at flame centre height 24.43 Kw/m2
Pool diameter 5.0(m) Flame centre height 10.26 meter
Pool liquid depth 1 (m) Maximum Flame width 9.26 meter
Wind speed 3 m/s Mass burning rate liquid 8.3 kg/ m2/min.
Liquid Density 1051 kg/m3 Flame burnout time 2.1 Hrs.

Incident Intensity IHR- Effect if IHR at Height of Simulation


of Heat Radiation Isopleths
( IHR) at ground Distance
level ( Meters )
KW /m 2
37.5 7.9 Damage to process equipment. 100 % Fatal in 1 Min. 1 %
fatal in 10 sec.
25.0 7.9 Min. to ignite wood (without flame contact). 100 % fatal in 1
Min. Significant injury in 10 sec.
12.5 7.9 Min. to ignite wood (with flame contact). 1 % fatal in 1 min.
1st deg. burn in 10 sec.
4.0 14 Pain after 20 secs. Blistering unlikely.
1.6 22 No discomfiture even on long exposure.

Results

♦ In the 7.9 meter radius area is considered as 100 % fatality in 1 min. and first degree burn in 10
sec.
♦ In the 14 meter radius area will give pain after 20 seconds. Blistering unlikely.
♦ In the 22 meter radius area is considered as safe area and no discomfiture even on long
exposure.

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-61


EHS Department
Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-62
EHS Department
Scenario-4 Fire Simulation for Drum Storage Area.

TABLE –D
FOR CLASS A & B PETROLEUM DRUM STORE
Scenario : UNCONFINED POOL FIRE
In put Data Results of Computations
Stored quantity 10 KL Max. IHR at flame centre 32.75 Kw/m2
height
Pool diameter 5(m) Flame centre height 3.1 meter
Pool liquid depth 0.001 (m) Maximum Flame width 3.11 meter
Wind speed 3 m/s Mass burning rate liquid 1.3 kg/ m2/min.
Liquid Density 760 kg/m3 Flame burnout time 1.35 Hrs.

Incident Intensity IHR- Effect if IHR at Height of Simulation


of Heat Radiation ( Isopleth
IHR) at ground Distance
level ( Meters )
KW /m 2
37.5 - Damage to process equipment. 100 % Fatal in
1 Min. 1 % fatal in 10 sec.
25.0 3.5 Min. to ignite wood (without flame contact).
100 % fatal in 1 Min. Significant injury in 10
sec.
12.5 4.2 Min. to ignite wood (with flame contact). 1 %
fatal in 1 min. 1 st deg. burn in 10 sec.
4.0 7.4 Pain after 20 secs. Blistering unlikely.
1.6 11.6 No discomfiture even on long exposure.

Results

♦ In the 3.5 meter radius area is considered as 100 % fatality in 1 min. and first degree burn in 10
sec.
♦ In the 7.4 meter radius area will give pain after 20 seconds. Blistering unlikely.
♦ In the 11.6 meter radius area is considered as safe area and no discomfiture even on long
exposure.

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-63


EHS Department
Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-64
EHS Department
6.2 Risk Estimation
Table I : Risk Estimation

Sr. Scenarios Chemical Type of Risk Probability Severity Concentration & Persons and No Damage Risk control
No. Involved Fire/Explosion/ (Frequency) (Type of Damage Distance property likely to be distance/ No measures
Toxic release injury or from source affected within Injury distance provided
damage (Meters) damage distance
possible)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Catastrophic failure of road tanker
1 Unconfined 11 KL Fire 3E-6/ year Fatal 15.3 (37.5Kw/M2) Near by tanks, Road 73 (1.6 Kw/M2) Given Bellow
Pool fire tanker and unloading
pumps and pipelines
Catastrophic failure of Acetic Acid storage tank
2 Spill Pool 10 KL Toxic release 3E-6/ year Fatal - (11920 ppm Within factory 198 (50 ppm Do
LC50 ) premises IDLH )
3 Pool fire 10 KL Fire 3E-6/ year Fatal 7.9 (37.5Kw/M2) Do 22(1.6 Kw/M2) Do
Fire Simulation for Drum Storage Area
4 Unconfined 10 MT Fire/ Explosion 3E-6/ year Fatal 3.5 (37.5Kw/M2) Within Drum storage 11.6 (1.6 Kw/M2) Given Bellow
Pool fire area

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-65


EHS Department
6.2 Comments

The appended table summarizes the consequences of the various hazards analyzed under
this study.

It can be seen from the results of the summary of the Risk Analysis study, the 100 %
structural damage and fatality zone up to 15 meters and 73 meter to be considered as an
Evacuation zone for fire and explosion scenarios.

On site emergency preparedness plan

On site emergency preparedness plan is to be updated as per risk assessment findings and
emergency control facilities and resources to be updated, rehearsal and Mock- Drill
frequency of the same needs to be increased to combat emergency in minimum time.

Emergency handling facilities and training:

All employees are well aware about possible emergencies and its consequences,
emergency control equipments and practices to control such hazardous condition within
premises.

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-66


EHS Department
SECTION VII

RISK REDUCTION MEASURES

Some of the safeties and risk reduction measures adopted and recommended for the safety of the
plant are as follows:-

7.1 Design

7.1.1 Relevant and prevalent international and Indian standards will be followed for design,
fabrication, and inspection of the storage tanks.
7.1.2 Civil foundations are designed to take care of earthquakes, cyclones, landslides, flooding,
collapse of structures etc and statutory check are conducted every 5years.
7.1.3 Plant operator and staffs are selected on relevant experience and qualified for chemical
plant operation. New Inductees are appropriately trained on Handling and safe operation
through induction programs.
7.1.4 All key personals are trained and updated for emergency handling procedures and regular
Mock- Drills will be conducted on various scenarios.

7.2 Safety Devices

Following safety devices are and will be provided to protect from any malfunctioning of
plant equipments:

7.2.1 Storage tanks.

a) Level & Pressure gauges will be on storage tanks


b) Static bondings are and will be provided on pipeline flanges.
c) Dyke wall provided surround above ground storage tanks.
d) Flame arrestor will be installed on flammable material storage tanks.
e) Tank will be designed as per IS code and standers and as per petroleum Act and rules.
f) All pumps for flammable and toxic chemicals are and will be provided flameproof type
and double mechanical seal type.
g) All pipeline and tanks are and will be painted as per IS color code.
h) Jumpers and static earthing provision are be made on all flanges and will be provided
for tanks.
i) Caution note and Material identification, capacity will be displayed on all storage
tanks.

7.2.2 Pumps

a) Out let valve and NRV are provided on pump outlet.


b) Modular fire extinguishers provided near of most of the pumps.
c) FLP type and mechanical seal type pump are installed for flammable chemicals.

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-67


EHS Department
7.2.3 Pipelines

a) Jumper connections on flanges to prevent build up of static electricity charge.


b) Proper supports and clamping are provided
c) Double earthing provided to all electrical motors.
d) Color code as Per IS will be maintained.

7.3 Operation and Maintenance

Operations and maintenance of the plant will be in accordance with the well-established
safe practices. Some of the guidelines are as follows:-

a) Periodic testing of hoses for leakages and continuity are conducted.


b) Earthing of all plant equipment and earthing of vehicles under unloading operations.
c) Planned preventive maintenance is practiced for different equipment for their safety
and reliable operations.
d) Inspection of the storage tanks as per prefixed inspection schedule for thickness
measurement, joint and weld efficiency etc.
e) Comprehensive color code scheme to identify different medium pipes.
f) Strict compliance of safety work permits system.
g) Proper maintenance of earthing pits is followed with periodic checking inhouse, data
maintained by The Maintenance Manager.
h) Strict compliance of security procedures like issue of identify badges for outsides, gate
pass system for vehicles, checking of spark arrestors fitted to the tank lorries etc.
i) Strict enforcement of no smoking & Tobacco free regime.
j) Periodic training and refresher courses with updation to train the staff in safety, fire
fighting and first aid.

7.4 Recommendations

7.4.1 From the Risk Analysis studies conducted, it would be observed that by and large, the risks
will be confined within the boundary walls in case of fire & explosion, except in the event
of a catastrophic failure of storage tank, it will create OFF site emergency situations and
required more attention and emergency preparedness for combat such situations. To
minimize the consequential effects of the risk scenarios, following steps are recommended.

™ Plant should meet provisions of the Manufacture, storage & Import of Hazardous
Chemicals Rules, 1986 & the factories Act, 1948.
™ Emergency handling facilities to be maintained in tip top condition at all time.
™ Safe operating procedure to be prepared for hazardous process and material handling
process.
™ Safety devices and control instruments to be calibrated once in a year.
™ Fire hydrant system needs to be installed as per TAC/NFPA Norms in each plant and
buildings.
™ Proper color work as per IS 2379 to plant pipeline and tank, equipments to be done
once in a six month to protect from corrosion.
™ Preventive maintenance schedule and record is and should be maintained for all
equipments.
™ Permit to work system is and should be maintained for hazardous work in the plant.

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-68


EHS Department
™ Periodic On Site Emergency Mock Drills and occasional Off Site Emergency Mock
Drills to be conducted, so those staffs are trained and are in a state of preparedness to
tackle any emergency.
™ Safety manual as per Rule-68 K & P and Public awareness manual as per 41 B & C
has been prepared and the same is distributed to all employees and nearby public.
™ Emergency siren to be provided in the plant to declare emergency.
™ As per spill pool release Scenario for Catastrophic Failure of tank, it has been
observed that IDLH distance cover surrounding 197 meter distance it is up to company
premises Hence, onsite evacuation plan needs to be prepared for factories employees
in wind direction in case of extreme accident scenario.
™ Manual call points for fire location identification to be installed in plant premises.
™ Fire & Safety organization setup to be planned and implement for better plant process
safety.
™ Induction safety course to be prepared and trained all new employees before starting
duties in plant.

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-69


EHS Department
SECTION VIII

DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLAN

An onsite emergency in the industries involving hazardous processes or in hazardous installations


is one situation that has potential to cause serious injury or loss of life. It may cause extensive
damage to property and serious disruption in the work area and usually, the effects are confined to
factory or in several departments of factory, premise. An emergency begins when operator at the
plant or in charge of storage cannot cope up with a potentially hazardous incident, which may turn
into an emergency.

8.1 ONSITE EMERGENCY PLAN

8.1.1 OBJECTIVES OF ONSITE EMERGENCY PLAN

A quick and effective response at during an emergency can have tremendous significance
on whether the situation is controlled with little loss or it turns into a major emergency.
Therefore, purpose an emergency plan is to provide basic guidance to the personnel for
effectively combating such situations to minimize loss of life, damage to property and loss
of property.

An objective of Emergency Planning is to maximize the resource utilization and combined


efforts towards emergency operations are as follows. :

8.1.2 DURING AN EMERGENCY.

™ To increase thinking accuracy and to reduce thinking time.


™ To localize the emergency and if possible eliminates it.
™ To minimize the effects of accident on people and property.
™ To take correct remedial measures in the quickest time possible to contain the incident
and control it with minimum damage.
™ To prevent spreading of the damage in the other sections.
™ To mobilize the internal resources and utilize them in the most effective way
™ To arrange rescue and treatment of causalities.

8.1.3 DURING NORMAL TIME.

• To keep the required emergency equipment in stock at right places and ensure the
working condition.
• To keep the concerned personnel fully trained in the use of emergency equipment.
• To give immediate warning tooth surrounding localities in case of an emergency
situation arising.
• To mobilize transport and medical treatment of the injured.
• To get help from the local community and government officials to supplement
manpower and resources.
• To provide information to media & Government agencies, Preserving records,
evidence of situation for subsequent emergency etc.

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-70


EHS Department
8.2 SCOPE OF OSEP

This OSEP is prepared for industrial emergencies like fires, explosions, toxic releases, and
asphyxia and does not cover natural calamities and societal disturbances related
emergencies (like strikes, bomb threats, civil commission’s etc.)

8.3 ELEMENTS OF ONSITE EMERGENCY PLAN

The important elements to be considered in plan are

™ Emergency organization
™ Emergency Facilities.
™ Roles and Responsibilities of Key Personnel and Essential Employee.
™ Communications during Emergency
™ Emergency Shutdown of Plant & Control of situation.
™ Rescue Transport & Rehabilitation.
™ Developing Important Information.

8.4 METHODOLOGY.

The consideration in preparing Emergency Plan will be included the following steps:

• Identification and assessment of hazards and risks.


• Identifying, appointment of personnel & Assignment of Responsibilities.
• Identification and equipping Emergency Control Centre.
• Identifying Assembly, Rescue points Medical Facilities.
• Formulation of plan and of emergency sources.
• Training, Rehearsal & Evaluation.
• Action on Site.

Earlier, a detailed Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment was carried out on hazards and
their likely locations and consequences are estimated following the standard procedure.

However the causing factors for above discussed end results may be different and causing
factors are not discussed in this plan.

8.5 EMERGENCIES IDENTIFIED

Emergencies that may be likely at bulk fuel storage area, process plant, cylinder storage
area, and drum storage shed, and autoclave reactor area. There are chances of fire and
explosive only.

8.6 OTHERS

Other risks are earthquake, lightning, sabotage, bombing etc., which are usually, not in the
purview of management control.

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-71


EHS Department
8.7 EMERGENCY ORGANIZATION.

Plant organization is enclosed. Based on the plant organization, which includes shift
organization, an Emergency Organization is constituted towards achieving objectives of
this emergency plan.

Plant Manager is designated as Overall in Charge and is the Site Controller.

The following are designated as Incident Controllers for respective areas under their
control. Shift in charges (Plant Operations) is designated at Incident Controller for all areas
of plant.

8.8 EMERGENCY FACILITIES

8.8.1 EMERGENCY CONTROL CENTRE (ECC)

It is a location, where all key personnel like Site Controller; Incident Controller etc. can
assemble in the event of onset of emergency and carry on various duties assigned to them.

Security Office is designated as Emergency Control Centre. It has P&T telephone as well
as internal telephones as also mobile phone, ECC is accessible from plant located
considerably away from process plant, Storage’s and on evaluation of other locations,
Security Office find merit from the distance point of view, communication etc.

8.8.2 FACILITIES PROPOSED TO BE MAINTAINED AT EMERGENCY CONTROL


CENTRE (ECC)

The following facilities and information are and would be made available at the ECC

• Latest copy of Onsite Emergency Plan and off sites Emergency Plan (as provided by
District Emergency Authority).
• Intercom Telephone.
• P&T Telephone.
• Mobile Phone
• Telephone directories (Internal, P&T)
• Factory Layout, Site Plan
• Plans indicating locations of hazardous inventories, sources of safety equipment,
hydrant layout, location of pump house, road plan, assembly points, vulnerable zones,
escape routes.
• Hazard chart.
• Emergency shut-down procedures.
• Nominal roll of employees.
• List and address of key personnel
• List and address of Emergency coordinators.
• List and address of first aides,
• List and address of first aid fire fighting employees,
• List and address of qualified trained persons.

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-72


EHS Department
8.8.3 FIRE FIGHTING FACILITIES.

• Internal hydrant system


• Portable extinguishers

8.8.4 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS

These systems are proposed to protect the plant by means of different fire protection
facilities and consist of

• Hydrant system for exterior as well as internal protection of various buildings/areas of


the plant.
• Portable extinguishers and hand appliances for extinguishing small fires in different
areas of the plant.
• Water cum foam monitor to be provided in bulk fuel storage area.
• Fire water pumps.
• Two (2) independent motor driven pumps each of sufficient capacity and head are
proposed for the hydrant system which is capable to extinguish Fire or cooling
purpose.

8.8.5 HYDRANT SYSTEM.

Adequate number of fire hydrants and monitors will be provided at various locations in
and around the buildings and other plant areas. The hydrants will be provided on a
network of hydrant mains drawing water from the hydrant pump, which starts
automatically due to drop of pressure in the event of operating the hydrant valves. We are
suggesting you to go for TAC approved hydrant system for foolproof safety and benefit
from fire policy premium.

8.9 EMERGENCY ESCAPES

The objective of the emergency escape is to escape from the hazardous locations, to the
nearest assembly point or the other safe zone, for rescue and evacuation.

8.10 ASSEMBLY POINT.

Assembly point is location, where, persons unconnected with emergency operations would
proceed and await for rescue operation.

8.11 WIND SOCK.

Wind socks for knowing wind direction indication would be provided at a suitable location
to visible from many locations.

8.12 EMERGENCY TRANSPORT.

A Vehicle would be stationed at the Site at all times. However, the other vehicles of the
company also would be available for emergency services.

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-73


EHS Department
8.13 EMERGENCY COMMUNICATION.

There are two kinds of communication system are provided.

(a) Regular P&T phones with intercom facility.


(b) Mobile phone

8.14 WARNING/ALARM/COMMUNICATION OF EMERGENCY

The emergency would be communicated by operating electrical siren for continuously for
five minutes with high and low pitch mode.

8.15 EMERGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES:

Priority of Emergency Protection.

• Life safety
• Preservation of property
• Restoration of the normalcy

8.16 MUTUAL AID

While necessary facilities are available and are updated from time to time, sometimes, it
may be necessary to seek external assistance; it may be from the neighboring factories or
from the State Government as the case may be.

8.17 MOCK DRILL

Inspite of detailed training, it may be necessary to try out whether, the OSEP works out
and will there be any difficulties in execution of such plan. In order to evaluate the plan
and see whether the plan meets the objectives of the OSEP, occasional mock drills are
contemplated. Before undertaking the drill, it would be very much necessary to give
adequate training to all staff members and also information about possible mock drill.
After few pre-informed mock drills, few UN-informed mock drills would be taken. All
this is to familiarize the employees with the concept and procedures and to see their
response. These scheduled and unscheduled mock drills would be conducted during shift
change, public holidays, in night shift etc. To improve preparedness once in 6 months and
performance is evaluated and Site Controller maintains the record. Incident Controller
coordinates this activity.

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-74


EHS Department
APPENDIX

DESCRIPTION OF RECOMMENDED MINIMUM PREVENTIVE

AND

PROTECTIVE MEASURES BASED ON


FETI (Fire Explosion and Toxic Index)

A detailed description of recommended preventive and protection measures for fire and
explosion hazards is outlined as follows:

Fire Protection of Structural Supports


Fire protection of structural support is carried out by the application of concrete cement or
Hydite Blocks, Thermolag, Pyrocrete, Albi-clad and similar fire-resistant materials to the
steel supports for vessels, pipe racks, equipment and structures. The fireproof rating
required is based on the depth of flammable liquid, which is expected to be impounded in
the area. To compute the rating the depth of the anticipated spill is first determined form
its volume. The duration of the fire is then determined, assuming a one minute burning
time for each 0.25 cm. Of depth. Whenever possible, drainage is preferable to fireproofing
as a means of protecting against the hazards of spills. A minimum slope of 2% is required
to carry soil away from the process structure or dyke. The number of support members of
support members requiring fireproofing increases with increasing fire and Explosion
Index.

Where the Fire and Explosion Index is in the moderate range, only principal vessel
supports need be fireproofed. However, for areas with a severe Fire an Explosion index all
structural steel must be protected. Directional water spray may replace fireproofing in
some cases, but it is not satisfactory because of the vulnerability of the sprinkler piping to
blast damage.

Dump Blow down or Spill Control


Dump blow down or spill control system are basically designed to facilitate hazardous
materials to be removed quickly and effectively from areas where their unwanted presence
poses a danger. For example:

Where moderate to large amount of flammable materials are used, appropriate


devices such as fixed water deluge equipment should be installed to remove spilled
material from the vicinity of equipment and vessel as quickly as possible. This
may include pump out equipment or slope drainage directed to a sump or skimmer
pond. These devices minimize the need for fireproofing and release the water-
spray coverage required.

Internal Explosion Control Devices


The techniques for controlling internal explosion ensure that explosive mixtures do not
form inside process equipment , to contain or suppress the explosion or eliminate sources
of ignition. This is possible with:

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-75


EHS Department
Employing inert lines on flammable liquid tanks so that material is discharged into
the tank near the bottoms, thereby eliminating the free fall or static electricity.

Building Ventilation

Smoke and heat ventilation involves the removal of the hot fire gases and smoke during a
fire. The NFPA standard No. 204 should be used for guide, however the vent ratio will
range form 1:30 of floor area in high-heat-release area and it is 1:150 of floor area in low-
heat-release areas.

Air change for each area where flammable liquid is handled should range from six air
changes per hour for inside enclosed flammable liquid, liquid storage areas to 0.3 cu.m. of
air per each square meter of floor space. NFPA standards Nos. 30, 33 and 91 should may
be required for this purpose.

Building Explosive Relief

Explosion damage can be minimized by segregating hazardous operations in small


detached building or locating them I adequately vented units separated form the main
portion of the operating building. The necessary area of the explosion vents depends
primarily upon the expected intensity of the explosion. NFPA standards 68 and 654
recommended explosion relief in the range of 1 m2 per 6.5 to 32m3 of volume.

Dyking

When the dyking system is designed to carry a spill away from the lank or facility, a slope
of not less than 2% away from the area is required and the stops must terminate in an
impounding basin with a capacity no less than the largest spill which might occur. The
ratio of drainage and the location of the basin must be such that if the liquid is ignited, the
fire will not seriously expose tanks or adjoining property. When protection of the property
is to be accomplished by confining the spill to the area around the tanks, the volume of the
dyked area must not be less than the capacity of the largest tank in the dike plus at least
10% freeboard. Dyke walls must be of concrete or solid masonry design and restricted to
average height of not more than 1.5 m. protection for draining water from the no
flammable spill be allowed to escape form the dike area. Dyke should be equipped with
normally closed post indicator valves accessible under fire conditions.

Blast or Barrier Walls

Installation of blast or barrier walls for separating high-hazards processes from areas of
lesser hazard will be an effective measured for mitigating explosion consequences while
keeping a minimum separation distance.

Prepared By M/s. BEST VALUE CHEM PVT. LTD. Page-76


EHS Department