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OBJECT : To verify the principle of moments using Bell crank lever


THEORY: The algebraic sum of the moments of all the forces about a part in
a body is zero for equilibrium. In other wards, sum of the
clockwise moments about a part is equal to the sum of
anticlockwise moment about the same part for equilibrium.

APPARATUS: Bell crank lever is a lever bent of 90º angle forming a fulcrum
between its two arms. One arm is longer an other is shorter. This
works on the principle of moments longer arm is horizontal while
shorter arm is vertical. The lever arm is engrafted with a scale on
the free end of longer arm, load is applied and on the shorter arm
effort is measured from the spring balance. If the algebraic sum of
the sum of moment of load and effort about the axis is zero then
the principle of moment is proved.


Step 1: Put the hook at a distance x from fulcrum on horizontal long arm
of the Bell crank lever apparatus.
Step 2: Measure the distance X accurately.
Step 3: Take initial reading of spring balance. Let it be t1.
Step 4: Put the weight on the hanger. Let it be W.
Step 5: Now horizontal arm will bend down. Again adjust the adjustable
screw to bring horizontal arm in horizontal position.
Step 6: Take final reading of spring balance. Let it be t2.
Step 7: Measure distance Y on vertical short leg fulcrum to the part
platform application of effort P.
Step 8: Report the above steps by changing the position of weight.

Result: Check the Wx = Ty equal satisfies. If not then find % error.

Percentage error: mean % error =--------------------.

1. Reading of the spring balance for measurement of effort should be
taken accurately.
2. Distance x and y should be taken accurately.
3. Reading should be taken in horizontal position only.
4. Weight should be hanged freely and accurately.
Viva Questions

Q. No. 1: Write essential part of I.C. Engine ?

Ans Moving parts : Piston, Piston ring, Crankshaft.
Stationary part: Cylinder, Valves, Carburetor, Spark plug.
Q.No. 2: What is cycle of I. C. Engine. ?
Ans. 1. Intake or Suction stroke.
2 Compression Stroke.
3 Expansion or Power Stroke.
4 Exhaust Stroke.

Q.No. 3: What is the chemically correct fuel ratio?

Ans. 15 : 1
Q.No. 4: Define the carbonation ?
Ans. It is the process of mixing air and petrol mixture and vaporize and atomize
that mixture.
Q.No. 5: What is clearance volume ?
Ans. When piston moves from B.D.C. to T.D.C. the volume left above in the
cylinder is called clearance volume.
Q.No. 6: What is swept volume?
Ans. The volume covered by piston while moving from B.D.C. to T.D.C. is
known as swept volume.
Q.No. 7: What is the compression ratio?
Initial Volume Vt
Ans. Compression Ratio = ------------------------- = ----------
Final Volume Vs.

Total Volume
Clearance Volume
Q.No. 8: Name of Petrol Engine?
Ans. S.I. Engine, Otto cycle, Eve quality Governing Engine.
Q.No. 9: Name of Diesel Engine?
Ans. C.I. Engine, Diesel Cycle, Cp quantity governing engine.