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(Image Restoration using Type-2 Fuzzy Logic)

Submitted by

Gaurav Maheshwari 0509113141

Kokil Sahai 0509113056

Kapil Kumar Gupta 0509113053

Department of Information Technology

JSS Academy Of Technical Education, Noida

INTRODUCTION:

during image acquisition and/or transmission due to a

number of imperfections encountered in image sensors and

communication channels. In most image processing

applications, it is very important to remove the impulse

noise from the image because the performances of

subsequent image processing tasks, such as edge detection,

image segmentation, object recognition,etc., are severely

degraded by noise.

In our project we will restore the image by removing the noise using type-2

fuzzy logic technique. In type-2 fuzzy logic technique, firstly we will fuzzify

the image using some rules based on sugeno based type-2 fuzzy ,then we

will defuzzify and using postprocessor we get the output which will be equal

to the restored value of center pixel.

Objective

Digital signals are often corrupted by noise during signal acquisition /or

transmission due to a number of imperfections caused by signal sensors /or

communication channels.In most signal processing operations it is of vital

importance to remove noise from the signal because the performances of

subsequent signal processing tasks are severely degraded by the noise.

A good noise filter is required to satisfy two conflicting criterions of

1) to suppressing the noise while at the same time

2) preserving the useful information

Unfortunately the great majority of currently available noise filters cannot

simultaneously satisy the both criterions.they either suppress the noise at the

cost of distorting the useful information in the signal or preserve useful

information at the cost of noise suppression performance.

Hardware and Software Requirements

• Software Tools:-MATLAB and SMART DRAW

Matlab

environment for algorithm development, data visualization, data analysis,

and numeric computation. Using the MATLAB product, you can solve

technical computing problems faster than with traditional programming

languages, such as C, C++, and Fortran.

signal and image processing, communications, control design, test and

measurement, financial modeling and analysis, and computational

biology. Add-on toolboxes (collections of special-purpose MATLAB

functions, available separately) extend the MATLAB environment to

solve particular classes of problems in these application areas.

sharing your work. You can integrate your MATLAB code with

other languages and applications, and distribute your MATLAB

algorithms and applications.

SmartDraw – It is a UML modeling tool. SmartDraw is used to

create business graphics such as flowcharts, organization charts,

Gantt charts, timelines, mind maps, floor plans, and other

diagrams.

Developed by SmartDraw.com

Latest release 2008 / September 2007

OS Windows 2000, XP and Vista

Type Business Graphics

License Proprietary

Website www.smartdraw.com

Scope of the Solution

proposed for detail-preserving restoration of digital images

corrupted by impulse noise. The

performance of the proposed filter is evaluated for different

test images corrupted at various noise densities and also

compared with representative conventional as well as state-

of-the-art impulse noise filters from the literature. The

proposed filter exhibits superior performance over the

competing operators and is capable of efficiently

suppressing the noise in the image while at the same time

effectively preserving thin lines, edges, texture, and other

useful information within the image.

conclude whether the noise is due to the individual pixel or

due to the edge. So to get the better result we will use the

adaptive method in which we will take 5*5 pixel instead of

using 3*3 pixel and we will get a better result .

OVERALL DESCRIPTION

Operator

Fig. 1(a) shows the general structure of the proposed

impulse noise removal operator. The operator is constructed

by combining a desired number of type-2 fuzzy filters,

defuzzifiers, and a postprocessor. The operator processes

the pixels contained in its filtering window, shown in Fig.

1(b),and outputs the restored value of the center pixel. Each

filter in the structure processes a different neighborhood

relationship between the center pixel of the filtering window

and two neighboring pixels. Possible neighbourhood

topologies are shown in Fig. 1(c). As is seen from this figure,

there is a maximum of 28 possible neighborhood topologies

corresponding to a filtering operator with 28 filters.

However, it should be emphasized that one does not have to

use all of these neighborhood topologies in practice. For

most filtering applications, a filtering operator with only a

few filters will yield satisfactory performance. In this case,

the neighborhood topologies fed to the filters included in

the structure of the operator should be chosen to be as

diverse as possible to obtain the best performance. The

filtering performance of the operator may further be

increased as desired by including more filter processing

different neighborhood relationships. However, this will also

increase the computational complexity. Hence, the choice of

the number of filters needed for a particular filtering

application is, in general, an application-dependent issue,

which should be determined heuristically and verified

experimentally.

All filters employed in the structure of the operator are

identical to each other and function as subfilters. However, it

should be observed that the values of the internal

parameters of each of the filters will be different from the

other filters even though all filters have the same internal

structure and the same number of internal parameters. This

is because each filter is trained for its particular

neighborhood individually and independently of the others

during training

WORKING

appropriate neighboring pixels as input and produces an

output, which is a type-1 interval fuzzy set representing the

uncertainty interval (i.e., lower and upper bounds) for the

restored value of the center pixel. The output fuzzy sets

coming from the filters are then fed to the corresponding

defuzzifier blocks. The defuzzifier defuzzifies the input fuzzy

set and converts it into a single scalar value. The scalar

values obtained at the outputs of the defuzzifiers represent

candidates for the restored value of the center pixel of the

filtering window.The candidate values are finally evaluated

by the postprocessor and converted into a single output

value. The output of the postprocessor is also the output of

the proposed filtering operator and represents the restored

value of the center pixel of the filtering window.

B. Type-2 fuzzy Filters

impulse noise removal operator is a Sugeno-type first-order

type-2 interval fuzzy inference system with three inputs and

one output (fuzzy set uncertainty interval). The internal

structures of the filters are identical to each other.

1. INPUTS:

CENTER PIXEL

TWO NEIGHBOURING PIXELS

LOWER AND UPPER BOUND OF THE MEMBERSHIP

FUNCTION.: (M)

5.WE CALCULATE WEIGHTED FACTOR(w)

8. WE CALCULATE D WHICH IS THE OUTPUT OF

DEFUZZIFIER BY TAKING Y AS INPUT.

Defuzzifier

obtained at the output of the corresponding NF filter as input

and converts it into a scalar value by performing centroid

defuzzification.Since the input set is a type-1 interval fuzzy

set.

Fig. 3. Setup for training the type-2 NF filters in the structure

of the proposed operator.

Yk = [Y k1 , Y k2 ]

Dk = (Y k1 + Y k2)/2

WILL BE THE RESTORED VALUE OF THE CENTER PIXEL.

Postprocessor

proposed operator. It processes the scalar values obtained at

the outputs of the defuzzifiers and produces a single scalar

output, which represents the output of the proposed filter.

The postprocessor actually calculates the average value of

the defuzzifier outputs and then suitably truncates this value

to an 8-bit integer number. The input–output relationship of

the postprocessor may be explained as follows.

The output of the postprocessor is calculated in two steps. In

the first step, the average value of the individual type-2 NF

filter

outputs is calculated:

In the second step, this value is suitably truncated to an 8-bit

integer value so that the luminance value obtained at the

output

of the postprocessor ranges between 0 and 255:

Overall Network Architecture

ACTIVITY DIAGRAM FOR DEFUZZIFIER

ACTIVITY DIAGRAM FOR POSTPROCESSOR

ACTIVITY DIAGRAM TO SHOW WORKING

de

Future Scope and Further enhancements

1. This project can be enhanced with following feature in future based on business

needs:

2. Ability to remove at different levels in the image, this can lead to more

revenue for a business.

3. This Project will be in future help for image recognition also.

Bibliography

1. www.mathworks.com

2. IEEE search papers

3. Stephen J chapman for Matlab

4. George J. klir/ Bo yuan for fuzzy logic

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