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What is Science?

1. Science is a systematic study of nature and how it affects our lives and the environment.
2. Natural phenomena are events that happen around us.
3. Example of natural phenomena :
- Growth of a baby into an adult
- An object falling to the ground
- Melting of ice
- Volcano eruptions, earthquakes and tsunami
- Thunderstorm, snow and lightning
4. Science is important to us because it
- Enables us to understand ourselves and our surrounding environment
- Solves mysteries of science through the systematic investigation
- Contributes to new discoveries inventions and knowledge gained
- Improve our standard of living and quality of our environment
- Creates science-based job opportunities

Hazard Warning Symbols

1. Flammable substances
 May become hot and finally ignite in contact with air
 White phosphorus, yellow phosphorus, petrol, kerosene, ethanol, methylated spirit
2. Explosive substances
 May explode under the effect of a flame or if subjected to shocks or friction
 Sodium, potassium, mixture of hydrogen and air, hydrazoic acid, hydrazine, diazo
3. Corrosive substances
 May destroy or burn living tissues on contact with them
 Hydrogen peroxide, concentrated hydrochloric acid, concentrated sodium hydroxide
4. Poisonous or toxic substances
 May cause immediate or long term health risks and even death if inhaled, ingested
or absorbed into the skin
 Mercury, bromine, lead, sodium cyanide, chlorine, hydrogen sulphide, benzene
5. Irritating or harmful substances
 May cause discomfort or inflammation to the body
 Ammonia, chloroform, bromine vapour, chlorine
6. Radioactive substances
 May cause cell mutation
 X-ray, uranium, plutonium, thorium, radium
The steps in a scientific investigation

Identifying the problem

Forming a hypothesis

Planning the experiment

 Identifying variables
 Determining apparatus and materials
 Determining the procedure to carry out the experiment
 Determining method to collect and analyses data

Controlling the variables

Collecting data

Analyzing and interpreting data

Drawing a conclusion

Writing a report
Physical quantities and their units

1. Five physical quantities which can be measured

- Length
- Mass
- Time
- Temperature
- Electric current
2. Physical quantities can be measured in systeme international d’unites (SI) units.

Physical quantity SI Unit Symbol

Length Metre m
Mass Kilogram Kg
Time Second s
Temperature Kelvin K
Electric current Ampere A

Prefix Symbol Numerical value

Mega M 1000000
Kilo K 1000
Centi C 0.01
Milli M 0.001
Micro µ 0.000001

Weight and Mass


1. Mass is the amount of matter in an object.

2. The more the matter in an object, the bigger is its mass.
3. SI Unit – kilogram (kg)
4. Mass can measured in gram (g) and milligram (mg).
5. Mass can be measured by beam balance and lever balance.

I kg = 1000 g
1g – 1000 mg

1. Weight is the gravitational force acting on an object.

2. The greater the force pulling the object towards centres of Earth, the heavier the object.
3. Weight is measured in Newton (N).
4. Compression balance and spring balance is used to measure weight.

1 N = 0.1 kg
1 kg = 10 N
Cell as a unit of life

1. A cell is the basic unit of living things which can function on its own.
2. Cells are microscopic and cannot be seen with naked eye.

General structures and functions of animal cells and plant cells

Most cells consist of protoplasm which is surrounded by cell membrane.

Structures Characteristics Function

Nucleus - Is dense and spherical It is the control centre of the
structure. cell because it controls all
- Is surrounded by a nuclear chemical reactions in the cell.
- Contain chromosomes which
carry genetic materials that
determine the characteristics
of organisms.
Cytoplasm - Is a flexible, colorless, jelly-like Acts as the medium for
substance. chemical reactions of the cell.
- Is surrounded by a cell
- Contains water and chemical
substances such as proteins,
stored food and minerals.
Cell membrane - Is a thin, elastic layer on the Controls the movement of
outer surface or animal cells. substance in and out the cell.
- Contains fats and proteins.
- Is partially permeable. This
means that it allows certain
substances to pass through.
Cell wall - Is a thick and rigid layer on the It gives the cell a definite
outer surface of plant cells. shape.
- Is mainly composed of tough
substance called cellulose.
Chloroplasts - Are tiny, oval structures found They enable green plants to
inside the cytoplasm of most manufacture their won food.
plant cells.
- Contain a green pigment called
- Absorbs light energy and uses
it to make food. This process is
called photosynthesis.
Vacuoles - Is a fluid-filled sac found in the The vacuole acts as a store of
cytoplasm. various substances such as
- Is surrounded by a membrane water, food, pigments,
and is filled with cell sap. enzymes, and waste products.
- Contains of a solution of
sugars, proteins, minerals.

Unicellular organisms

- Are simple organisms that are made up of only one cell

- In animal kingdom: Amoeba and Paramecium
- In plant kingdom: Pleurococcus, Euglena, Chlamydomonas and yeast.

Multicellular organisms

- Are organisms which have more than one cell

- In animal kingdom: mammals, amphibians, reptiles, birds, dish, and Hydra
- In plant kingdom: mosses, algae (Chondrus, Spirogyra), ferns.

Life processes of unicellular and multicellular organisms

1. Unicellular organism
- Can grow
- Sensitive to light, chemical substances, and sharp objects
- Main food is bacteria
- Its excretory organ is the vacuole
- Moves by extending pseudopodium
- Breathes through cell membrane
- Reproduces asexually
2. Multicellular organism
- Main food is zooplankton
- Excretes through its excretory pores
- Moves by means of its tail and fins
- Can grow
- Sensitive to light and vibrations in water
- Reproduces sexually
- Breathes through gills

Cell organization in the human body

1. Types of cells found in human body :

a.) Nerve cells – conducts nerve impulses
b.) Red blood cells – transport oxygen from lungs to all cells
c.) White blood cells
d.) Skeletal muscle cells – controls movement of bones and organs of body
e.) Reproduction cells
f.) Epithelial cells– controls exchange of substances
g.) Bone cells – functions in the support system of the body

2. Types of tissue
a.) Epithelial tissue – protects the tissues beneath it
b.) Connective tissue – connects one tissue to another tissue , supports organs in the
c.) Muscle tissue – enables the movement of body parts
d.) Nerve tissue – enables body to respond to stimuli
e.) Carries nerve impulses from one part of the body to another

3. Types of systems
a.) Excretory system – discards toxic waste products produced by the body cells
b.) Reproductive system – produces offspring
c.) Respiratory system – inhales oxygen and exhales carbon dioxide
d.) Lymphatic system – defends the body against disease
e.) Skeletal system – provides support and protection to soft internal organs
f.) Blood circulatory system – transport food substances, oxygen, hormones, and
others to the entire body
g.) Endocrine system – produces hormones that control the body’s responses toward
h.) Nervous system – coordinates and controls all bodily activities related to impulses
and reactions
i.) Muscular system – helps in movement of the body
j.) Digestive system – breaks down complex food into simple substances for easy
absorption by body cells

4. Cells, tissues, organs and systems can be interconnected by the following chart :

Cells → Tissue → Organ → System → Organism

5. The importance of organization of cells :

a.) Enables body to perform life processes simultaneously
b.) Ensure life processes function efficiently and smoothly

What is matter?

Everything that has mass and occupies space is called matter.

The states of matter

1. Matter is made up of tiny particles which are separate.

2. These particles can be composed of atoms or molecules
3. An atom is the smallest particle of matter and cannot be further divided.
4. A molecule is made up of two or more atoms
5. Proofs that matter is made up of tiny and discrete particles
- Dissolving copper (II) sulphate crystals in water
- Diffusion of gas

Arrangement of particles in matter

Matter exists as solids, liquids and gases.

1. Arrangement of particles in solids :

a.) Are arranged close together and in a regular pattern
b.) Are very small spaces between particles of a solid
c.) Cannot be compressed
d.) Volume of a solid is definite

2. Arrangement of particles in liquids :

a.) Are arranged closer but not in a regular pattern
b.) Spaces between the particles of a liquid are bigger
c.) Cannot be compressed
d.) Shape is not definite
e.) Known as fluids because of its flowing property

3. Arrangement of particles in a gas :

a.) The particles of a gas are far apart and are not arranged in a regular pattern
b.) Does not have define shape or volume
c.) Large spaces
d.) Volumes of a gas increases when the particles move apart
e.) Can be compressed
f.) Known as fluids because of their flowing property

4. Free motion or Brownian motion is the movement of particles in all directions at high
The concept of density

Density and buoyancy

1. Density of a substance is the mass per unit volume

mass (g)
density g/cm ³=
volume( cm3)
2. The SI Unit for density is kg/m³ or kg m-³.
3. The density of a substance depends on two factors :
a.) Mass
- The bigger its mass, the bigger is its density.
b.) Volume
- The bigger its volume, the smaller is its density.
4. Buoyancy of a matter refers to whether the matter floats on or sinks in another matter.
5. A solid that has a lower density than the density of a liquid will float on the surface of
the liquid
6. A solid that has a higher density than the density of a liquid will sink in the liquid

The variety of resources on earth

Water, air, soil, mineral, fossil fuels and living things are the most important things.

Elements, Compounds and Mixtures


1. An element is the simplest substance.

2. All elements made up of only one type of atom.
3. Examples of elements :
a.) Gold
b.) Zinc
c.) Iron
d.) Oxygen
e.) Carbon
f.) Nitrogen
g.) Hydrogen
h.) Aluminium
4. Elements can be grouped into metals and non-metals.


1. Examples of metals :
a.) Potassium
b.) Calcium
c.) Magnesium
d.) Mercury
e.) Lead
f.) Sodium
g.) Silver
h.) Copper
i.) Platinum
j.) Gold
2. The properties of metals :

Surface appearance – metals have shiny surfaces and can be polished

Heat conductivity – metals are good conductors

Electrical conductivity – metals are good conductors of electricity

Density – metals have high densities

Malleability – metals are elastic

Melting point – metal have high melting points

State of matter – metal is solid at room temperature except mercury


1. Example of non-metals :
a.) Hydrogen
b.) Fluorine
c.) Carbon
d.) Bromine
e.) Nitrogen
f.) Oxygen
g.) Chlorine
h.) Phosphorus
i.) Iodine
j.) Sulphur

Condition at room temperature Examples of non-metals

Solid Carbon, sulphur, iodine, selenium, phosphorus
Liquid Bromine, mercury
Gas Hydrogen, helium, oxygen, fluorine, neon, chlorine, argon,
krypton, xenon, radon
2. The properties of non-metals :

Surface appearance – non metals have dull surfaces

Heat conductivity – non metals are poor heat conductors
Electrical conductivity – non metals are poor electrical conductors
Density – non metals have low densities
Malleability – non metals cannot be beaten into other shapes and are brittle
Melting point – non metals have low melting points
State of matter – non metals can exist as solids, liquids or gases at room temperature


1. A compound is formed when two or more types of elements combine chemically.

2. The smallest particle in a compound is the molecule.
3. Several types of compounds and their components:
a.) Carbon dioxide – one carbon atom, two oxygen atoms
b.) Sodium chloride – one sodium atom, one chlorine atom
c.) Benzene – six carbon atoms, six hydrogen atoms
d.) Methane – one carbon atom, four hydrogen atoms
e.) Ammonia – one nitrogen atoms, three hydrogen atoms
f.) Water – one oxygen atom, two hydrogen atoms
4. The components of a compound cannot be separated physically
5. The components of a compound can only be separated chemically.
Example by using high heat or using electrolysis.


1. A mixture is made up of two or more substances combined physically for example, by

2. Mixtures are divided into two types of homogeneous mixture and heterogeneous
3. A homogeneous mixture is formed when its substances are mixed evenly and the
identity of each substance cannot be identified so easily. Example: common salt solution
and soft drinks.
4. A heterogeneous mixture is formed when its substances can be identified easily.
Example: air.

5. Substances in a mixture can be separated physically as follows:

a.) Mixture of sand and water – Filtration
b.) Mixture of flour and sand – Sifting
c.) Mixture of common salt and water – Evaporation
d.) Mixture of alcohol and water – Distillation
e.) Mixture of chlorophyll pigments – Chromatography
f.) Mixture of water and oil – Extraction
g.) Mixture of iron fillings and sulphur – Using a magnet
h.) Mixture of soil and water – Precipitation

6. A mixture can be converted to a compound by heating.

For example, iron filings and sulphur form a compound called iron (II) sulphide or ferrum
(II) sulphide when they are heated.

Iron + Sulphur →heat→ Iron (II) sulphide

The composition of air

1. Air is a mixture of various substances that is odourless, colourless, or tasteless.

2. Water vapour in the air depends on the humidity in the air. The more humid the air, the
more the water vapour in the air.

Nitrogen 78%

Carbon dioxide 0.03%

Inert gas and others 0.97% Oxygen 21%

3. Examples of inert gases are:

a.) Dust
b.) Water vapour
c.) Microorganisms
The properties of oxygen and carbon dioxide

1. Air is made up of three main gases: oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
2. Each gas has its own chemical properties.
3. The properties of the gases can be observed by :
a.) Solubility in the water
b.) Reaction with sodium hydroxide
c.) Effects on
- Glowing wooden splinter
- Burning wooden splinter
- Litmus paper
- Lime water
- Hydrogen carbonate indicator
4. Nitrogen is a gas that does not react chemically.

Properties Observation and conclusion

Oxygen Carbon dioxide
Colour None None
Smell None None
Solubility in The level of water in the test tube The level of water in the test tube rise
water rises slightly. Oxygen is slightly a lot. Carbon dioxide is soluble in
soluble in water. water.
Reaction with The level of water does not rise. The level of water in the test tube
sodium Oxygen is not soluble in sodium rises a lot. Carbon dioxide is very
hydroxide hydroxide. soluble sodium hydroxide.
The effect on The glowing wooden splinter bursts The glowing wooden splinter
glowing wooden into flame. Oxygen supports extinguishes. Carbon dioxide does not
splinter combustion. support combustion.
The effect on The burning wooden splinter burns The burning wooden splinter
burning wooden even brighter. The gas is non- extinguishes. The gas is non-
splinter flammable. Oxygen supports flammable. Carbon dioxide does not
combustion but is not self- support combustion and is not self
combustible. combustible.
The effect on The litmus papers do not change The blue litmus paper turns red.
moist litmus colour. Oxygen is neutral. Carbon dioxide is slightly acidic.
The effect on The lime water does not change Carbon dioxide turns the lime water
lime water colour. cloudy.
The effect on The red indicator does not change The red indicator turns yellow.
hydrogen colour. Carbon dioxide is slightly acidic.
carbonate Oxygen is neutral.
Oxygen is needed for respiration

1. Air that is breathed into the body is called inhaled air.

2. Air that is breathed out of the body is called exhaled air.
3. Oxygen is needed for respiration:
- Inhaled oxygen will be dissolved at the surface of the moist alveolus.
- Oxygen will be absorbed into the blood capillary through the thin alveolus wall.
- Oxygen is then transported by red blood cells to the other blood cells for the
process of respiration.
- At the same time, carbon dioxide and water from blood capillaries will be absorbed
- Carbon dioxide and water will be expelled body when air is exhaled.

Oxygen is needed for combustion

1. Combustion is a process that takes place when a substance unites with oxygen
chemically and this produces energy and light.
2. Without oxygen. Combustion cannot occur because chemical process does not take
3. Carbon is a chemical compound that is made up of the carbon element only.
4. Combustion of carbon releases carbon dioxide, heat energy and light energy.
5. Examples of carbon are wood, cloth, charcoal, and paper.

Carbon + Oxygen → Carbon dioxide + Heat energy + Light energy

6. Hydrocarbon is a chemical compound which is formed from only hydrogen and carbon.
7. Combustion of hydrocarbon produces carbon dioxide, water, heat energy and light
8. Water is formed when hydrogen from hydrocarbon combines with oxygen during

Hydrocarbon + Carbon → Carbon Dioxide + Water + Heat energy + Light energy

9. Combustion produces light energy and heat energy.

10. Carbon dioxide produced is absorbed by green plants to conduct photosynthesis.
Source of energy

1. Energy is defined as the ability to do work.

2. Energy is measured in joules (J).
3. Energy can be found in many forms:
a.) Kinetic energy
b.) Potential energy
c.) Light energy
d.) Electrical energy
e.) Sound energy
f.) Nuclear energy
g.) Heat energy
h.) Chemical energy
4. Kinetic energy
- Is the energy possessed by a moving object
- Depends on mass and velocity
- Will increase if
a.) The mass of the object increases
b.) The velocity of the object increases
5. Potential energy
- Is the energy stored in a body due to its position or its physical condition
- Depends on
a.) The mass of the object
b.) The distance of the object from the Earth’s surface
c.) The power of the gravitational pull on the object
- Will increases
a.) The mass of the object increases
b.) The higher the object is raised from the ground
c.) The gravitational pull on the object increases.
- A falling object can gain kinetic energy but loses potential energy
- Elastic potential energy can only elastic substances such as a spring or a rubber.
6. Heat energy
- Is the energy that is stored in a hot object
- Depends on its temperature and volume
- Flows from a hot area to a cold area by conduction, convection and radiation.
7. Light energy
- Is the energy produced by an object that emits light
- Can be detected by the eye
- Can travel in a vacuum and in a straight line in the form of waves
- A luminous object is an object that gives out its own light energy. For example, sun
and stars.
- A non luminous object is an object that does not give out its own light energy but
can only reflect light. For example, mirror and metal.
8. Sound energy
- Is the energy produced by a vibrating object
- An object which vibrates produces a recurring movement.
- The vibrating air forms sound waves.
- Can be transferred through a medium but cannot travel in a vacuum.
9. Chemical energy
- Is the energy stored in a chemical substance
- Is found in fuels
10. Electrical energy
- Is the energy produced by the flow of electric charges.
11. Nuclear energy
- Is the energy stored in the nucleus of an atom.
- Known as atomic energy.
12. Mechanical energy
- Is produced when a machine or object changes its position.
- Known as energy of motion
- Is composed of kinetic energy and potential energy
13. Solar energy
- Is produced during the process of nuclear fusion in the sun’s core

Source of energy

Types of energy sources on Earth

a.) Fossil fuels

b.) Biomass fuels
c.) Radioactive substances
d.) Mechanical sources
e.) Geothermal sources
f.) Solar energy

Energy sources Details

Fossil fuel  Formed from remains of plant and
animals buried in the ground and
which had decomposed million of
years ago
 Examples:
- Coals
- Petroleum
- Natural gas
Formation of petroleum and natural gas  Formed from remains of animals and
plants that had sank to the bottom of
the sea and was buried there for
millions of years. The decomposed
animals and plants combine with sand
and earth in the sea bed form shale
while the remains turn into petroleum
and natural gas. Normally petroleum is
found below the layer of natural gas
because petroleum is denser than
natural gas.
Biomass fuels  Are obtained from decomposed
organisms such as plants and animals.
Decomposed plants and animals
produce methane gas and alcohol
which then become fuel sources.
Radioactive substances  Uranium is a common energy source
used in nuclear power stations.
Uranium is split into two lighter
elements in the process of nuclear
Mechanical sources  Are natural sources of energy such as
wind, water, and wave.
 Are renewable energy source
Geothermal sources  Comes from heat in the inside of the
Sun (solar energy)  Is the primary source of energy on
 Can be harnessed and used to
generate electrical energy

1. Heat is a form of energy which flows from a region of high temperature to another
region of lower temperature.
2. Heat can travel through solids, liquids, gas, and even vacuum.
3. SI Unit for heat is joule (J)
4. Temperature is a physical quantity which refers to the degree of hotness or coldness of
a matter.
5. SI Unit for temperature is Kelvin (K)
6. The hotter a body, the higher is its temperature. The colder a body, the lower is its
7. The more the energy contained in an object, the higher the temperature of the object.
8. Heat capacity is the quantity of heat energy contained in a matter. Is properties are:
- Dependent on the type of volume, mass of volume, and the temperature of matter
- At the same temperature, a larger matter has more heat content
- With the same volume, a hotter matter has higher heat content

Expansion and contraction of matter

1. Matter absorbs heat when heated and expels heat when cooled.
2. When heated:
a.) Particles of matter absorb heat energy and change it into kinetic energy. Kinetic
energy causes particles to vibrate faster
b.) This vibration causes the particles to move further apart. Therefore, the size and
volume of matter will increase.
3. When cooled:
a.) Particles of matter vibrate less and their speed also decreases
b.) Distance between the particles reduces. This means that the size and volume of
matter also decreases.

Heat flow and conduction

1. Heat is a form of energy possessed by a matter

2. Heat flow in three ways :
a.) Conduction
- Is the flow of heat through a solid due to a difference in temperature throughout
the solid
b.) Convection
- Is the process of flow of heat in a fluid
c.) Radiation
- Is known as radiant heat-
- Is a process of energy flow through infrared waves which move in straight line
Effect of heat on matter


1. Melting is a process by which a solid changes into a liquid

2. A solid melts into a liquid when heated
3. When a solid is heated, the particles absorb heat energy
4. At the melting point, particles vibrate most forcefully until they break away from their
fixed positions.


1. Freezing is a process by which a liquid changes into a solid

2. At freezing point, the particles no longer move freely


1. Boiling is a process of a liquid changes into a gas

2. At the boiling point, the liquid move speedily and freely.


1. Condensation is the process of a gas changing into a liquid

2. As gas particles move slower and closer together, the liquid will be formed.


1. Evaporation is a process of changes of a liquid into gas at any temperature.

2. Factors which influence the rate of evaporation:
a.) Temperature of liquid :
- The higher the temperature of the liquid, the faster the liquid evaporates
b.) Air moisture in the surrounding of the liquid:
- The lower the humidity, the faster the liquid evaporates
c.) Exposed area of the liquid surface:
- The wider the liquid surface area, the faster the liquid evaporates


1. Sublimation is the conversion process of a solid directly to gas without melting.

2. In this process, the particles of a solid absorb heat energy. When enough energy is
absorbed, the particles separate to form gas.

Absorbing and giving out heat

1. The ability of an object to absorb or radiate heat depends on the surface nature and the
surrounding temperature of the object.
2. Objects with opaque (black) and rough surface are good heat absorbers and radiators.
3. Objects with burnished (shiny) and smooth surfaces are poor heat absorbers and
4. Hotter objects are better heat radiators than cold objects.

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