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SISTEM PENGKONDISIAN UDARA

SISTEM PENGKONDISIAN UDARA

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06/06/2013

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Sections

  • Prinsip pengkondisian udara
  • Termodinamika tubuh manusia
  • Sumber-sumber kalor
  • Kebutuhan udara suplai
  • Tabel Bypass Factor
  • Tipe pengkondisian udara
  • AC tipe Almari
  • Wall Mounted Indoor Unit
  • Window type air conditioner
  • AC tipe almari
  • AC tipe split (terpisah)
  • AC type atap (roof top)
  • AC tipe udara sentral
  • All Outdoor systems
  • Return Air systems
  • Variable Air Volume Systems
  • All Water Systems
  • Saluran dan distribusi udara
  • Distributor udara suplai
  • Penempatan lubang saluran balik
  • Aliran udara dalam saluran
  • Tekanan total fan
  • FTP (Fan Total Pressure)
  • FTP
  • Daya yang diperlukan oleh Fan
  • Penurunan tekanan dinamis
  • Perancangan sistem saluran udara
  • Tebal plat saluran udara
  • Kecepatan aliran udara (mpm)
  • Metode perancangan saluran udara
  • Metode gesekan sama
  • Metode reduksi kecepatan
  • Metode SPR
  • Grafik pskrometri
  • Psikrometri
  • Proses pengkodisian udara
  • Basic HVAC Equipment
  • Packaged Rooftop Units
  • Split System
  • Heat Pump
  • Geothermal Heat Pump Systems
  • Variable Air Volume
  • Terminal Units
  • Hydronic systems
  • Control Devices
  • Major Equipment
  • Economizers
  • Historical Minimum Ventilation Rates (cfm/person)
  • Pokok bahasan

12·Sep·11

TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 1
sistem
pengkondisian udara
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 2
U.S. DOE Electrical End-Use Estimates
'Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey"
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 3
Prinsip pengkondisian udara
Pengkondisian udara adalah pengaturan
udara meliputi :
Temperatur
Kelembaban
Kualitas
Sirkulasi
Kebisingan
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 4
Udara atmosfir
· Udara yang mengisi atmosfir bumi, umumnya
mengandung uap air (moisture),
· Kandungan uap air dalam udara atmosfir dapat berubah
sebagai akibat dari adanya proses kondensasi atau
evaporasi air laut, sungai, danau atau human body.
Udara kering (dry air)
Udara yang tidak mengandung uap air.
Komposisi udara kering relatif konstan, tersusun dari
(fraksi volume) : Oxygen 0.2095 (= 21 %), Nitrogen
0,7809 (= 78 %), gas lainnya 0,01(= 1 %).
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN S
Udara
Udara standar
atmosfer
C = 3,807 m/s
2
T = 1S º
P = 1 atm = 14,7 psi
= 101,32S kPa
P v = R T
o = 1,22S kg/m
3
R = 287 ]/kgK
UDARA KERÌNG :
O
2
= 20,95%
N
2
= 78,09%
CO
2
= 0,03%
Ar = 0,93%
BM =28,965
UAP AÌR
(H
2
O)
BM=18
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 6
Sifat·sifat udara
Udara dapat diperlakukan sebagai campuran antara uap air
(moisture) dan udara kering (dry air).
Tekanan udara totaI : P = P
a
+ P
v
P
a
, P
v
masing-masing tekanan parsial udara kering dan tekanan
parsial uap air
Massa uap air (m
v
) yang ada pada setiap satuan massa udara kering
(m
a
)
1. TEKANAN
2. KeIembaban absoIut (absoIute humidity / specific
humidity / humidity ratio)
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 7
v
a
m
m
æ =
kg.uap air/kg.udara kering
v
a
P
0 622
P
æ =
Bila pada udara yang humidity
ratio nya nol (æ=0), dimasukkan
uap air kedalamnya, maka æ akan
naik. Semakin ditambah uap air
maka æ akan terus naik sampai
mencapai harga maximum. Pada
keadaan ini udara disebut jenuh
(saturated air), uap air yang
ditambahkan akan mengalami
kondensasi.
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 8
Perbandingan massa uap air (m
v
) yang ada di udara dengan massa
uap air maximum (m
g
) yang dapat dikandung oleh udara (jenuh)
pada temperatur yang sama.
. KeIembaban reIatif (ReIatif humidity)
v
g
m
RH
m
=
g
P
RH
0 622 P
æ

æ
=
+
atau
P
g
= P
sat@T
:/ara ien: :/ara ing
0 RH 1
07
A A

12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 3
%emperatur yang
diukur dengan
menggunakan
termometer dimana
bagian sensornya
dalam keadaan basah
(dibungkus dengan
kain/kapas basah)
dan ditempatkan
dalam aliran udara.
. Temperatur boIa kering (dry buIb temperature, T
db
)
5. Temperatur boIa basah (wet buIb temperature, T
wb
)
%emperatur yang diukur dengan menggunakan termometer
dimana bagian sensornya dalam keadaan kering.
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 10
%emperatur tertentu dimana proses kondensasi uap air yang ada
dalam udara mulai terjadi bila udara didinginkan pada tekanan konstan.
. Temperatur titik pengembunan (dew point temperature, T
dp
)
T
dp
= T
sat@Pv
'olume udara tiap satu satuan massa udara kering (m
3
/kg udara kering)
7. VoIume spesifik (4)
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 11
Entalpi udara total
H = H
a
+ H
v
atau H = m
a
h
a
+ m
v
h
v
. EntaIpi (h)
Menunjukkan energi (eat content) yang dikandung oleh udara tiap satu
satuan massa udara kering (kJ/kg udara kering).
v
a v
a a
m H

m m
= = + Entalpi spesifik
Karena h
v
= h
g
dan
v
a
m
m
æ =
a g
æ = +
1 005t 2501 3 1 8 t) 2 æ = + +
atau
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 12
Crafik Psikrometri
RH (%)
%
dp
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 13
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 14
Contoh : Udara pada temperatur %
db
= 35
0
C dan
RH = 40 %
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 1S
ACAACA PROSES
0
1 2
3
4 5
6
7
8
Proses :
0-1 = Sensible heating
0-2 = Sensible cooling
0-3 = Humidification
0-4 = Dehumidification
0-5 = Heating & Dehumidification
0-6 = Heating & Humidification
0-7 = Cooling & Humidification
0-8 = Cooling & Dehumidification
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 16
Sensible Heating

1
= 80 %

2
= 30 %
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 17
Sensible cooling
Cooling coils

12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 18
Simple Heating and cooling
Most air-conditioning processes can be modeled as steady-flow
processes, and thus the mass balance relation m
in
, m
out
can be
expressed for dry air and water as
Disregarding the kinetic and potential energy changes, the steady-flow
energy balance relation E
in
E
out
can be expressed in this case as
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 13
Heating with
humidification
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 20
Cooling with
humidification
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 21
Termodinamika tubuh manusia
H
m
= 100%
UDARA(0,5 m
3
/jam)
H
a
= 2%
H
L
= 80%
W = 20%
H
c
= 25%
H
R
= 43%
H
e
= 30%
SENSÌBEL
LA%EN
H
m
÷ W = H
e
+ H
c
+ H
R
Kalor yang dilepas tubuh manusia = 105 ÷ 117 Watt/orang
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 22
dengan :
H
m
= Kalor hasil metabolisme
W = Kerja yang berguna
H
e
= Kalor melalui penguapan
H
c
= Kalor melalui konveksi
H
r
= Kalor melalui radiasi
H
s
= Kalor yang tersimpan dalam tubuh
v = kecepatan udara m/min
T
b
= temperatur permukaan tbh
T = temperatur udara
T
a
= temperatur lingkungan
w
sb
= kelembaban spesifik pada temperatur tubuh
w = kelembaban spesifik udara
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 23
Sumber·sumber kalor
!nternal :
Penghuni
Lampu
Peralatan listrik
Eksternal :
!nfiltrasi
Radiasi surya
Konduksi, konveksi
ventilasi
Fan, ducting
Lampu
Peralatan
listrik
Penghuni
Ìnfiltrasi
Konduksi
1%R = 12 000 Btu/hr
= 3,5 kW
= 3000 kcal/hr
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 24
Pengelompokan beban pendinginan
%
R
, RH%
RSH,RLH,R%H
ERSH, ERLH, ER%H
AHU
SA DA
MA
OA
EA
RA
RA
BA
BF
OASH,OALH
OA%H
%SH,%LH,G%H
ERSH = RSH + BF.OASH
ERLH = RLH + BF. OALH
ER%H + ERSH + ERLH
%SH = RSH + OASH
%LH = RLH + OALH
G%H = %SH +%LH
G%H
%SH
GSHF
ER%H
ERSH
ERSHF
R%H
RSH
RSHF
=
=
=
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 2S
CARA ENGGAAR GARIS SHF
R(24
o
C,60%)
Misal RSHF = 0,75
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 26
R
M
S
%
adp
Proses pengkondisian udara
O
%
SA
%
R
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 27
Kebutuhan udara suplai
Satuan British
FN
sa
Satuan S!
NN
SA



SA R
SA R
sa R
h h
RTH
RLH
T T
RSH

=

=

=
02 0
68 0
1 1

æ æ



SA R
SA R
sa R
h h 02 , 0
R%H
50
RLH
% % 0204 , 0
RSH

=
æ æ
=

=
RSH,RLH, R%H (Btu/hr)
% (ºF), æ ( grain/lb)
CFM (ft
3
/min)
RSH,RLH, R%H (kW)
% (ºF), æ ( gram/kg)
CMM (m
3
/min) = 35 CFM
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 28

adp R
DA
% % BF 1 1 , 1
ERSH
CFM

=
BF Aplikasi ontoh
0.3 - 0.S Beban kecil Recidence
0.2 - 0.3 Beban besar
SHF kecil
Recidence, Retail
shop, factory
0.1 - 0.2 Kenyamanan Dept. Store, Bank,
factory
0.0S - 0.1 Beban besar
Beban laten besar
Dept. Store,
Restaurant
0.0 - 0.1 All Outdoor Systems Hospital, Operation
Room
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 23
SKALA SHF
%
db
=24
o
C
RH =50%
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 30
Tabel Bypass Factor
Pipe/row
3 Fin/cm 6 Fin/cm
Air velocity (m/min)
30 210 30 210
2 0.42 0.SS 0.22 0.38
3 0.27 0.40 0.10 0.23
4 0.13 0.30 0.0S 0.14
S 0.12 0.23 0.02 0.03
6 0.08 0.18 0.01 0.06
8 0.03 0.08
12·Sep·11
TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 31
Tipe pengkondisian udara
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 32
eiling Type !ndoor Unit
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 33
eiling Type !ndoor Unit
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 34
A tipe Almari
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 3S
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 36
Wall Nounted !ndoor Unit
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 37
Tipe pengkondisian udara
1. Tipe jendela (window)
2. Tipe almari (paket)
3. Tipe terpisah (split)
4. Tipe atap (roof top)
S. Tipe udara sentral
6. Tipe air sentral
7. Tipe induksi
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 38
Window type air conditioner
1. Evaporator
2. Kondenser
3. Kompresor
4. Katup ekspansi
S. Fan kondenser
6. Fan evaporator
7. Penampung
kondensat
1
2
3
4
5 6
7
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 33
A tipe almari
1. Evaporator
2. Kondenser
3. Kompresor
4. Katup ekspansi
S. Fan evaporator
6. Penampung
kondensat
1
2
3
4
5
6
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 40
A tipe split (terpisah)
1. Evaporator
2. Kondenser
3. Kompresor
4. Katup ekspansi
S. Fan kondenser
6. Fan evaporator
7. Penampung
kondensat
Ìndoor
Unit
Outdoor Unit
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 41
A type atap (roof top)
1. Evaporator
2. Kondenser
3. Kompresor
4. Katup ekspansi
S. Fan kondenser
6. Blower evaporator
7. Penampung
kondensat
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 42
A tipe udara sentral
All Outdoor Systems (Fresh Air Systems)
Return Air Systems
variable Air volume Systems
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 43
All Outdoor systems
1
2
3 4 5 6
7
8
SA
OA
1. OA DAMPER
2. BAG FÌL%ER
3. CA FÌL%ER
4. COOLÌNG COÌL
5. MÌS%
ELÌMÌNA%OR
6. HEA%ÌNG COÌL
(OP%ÌONAL)
7. CEN%RÌFUGAL
BLOWER
8. CONDENSA%
PAN
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 44
Return Air systems
1. RA DAMPER
2. OA DAMPER
3. BAG FÌL%ER
4. CA FÌL%ER
5. COOLÌNG COÌL
6. MÌS%
ELÌMÌNA%OR
7. HEA%ÌNG COÌL
(OP%ÌONAL)
8. CEN%RÌFUGAL
BLOWER
9. CONDENSA%
PAN
1
2
3
4 5 6 7
8
9
SA
OA
RA
MA
BA
RA
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 4S
variable Air volume Systems
1
2
3
4 5 6 7
8
9
SA
OA
RA
MA
'A'
1. RA DAMPER
2. OA DAMPER
3. BAG FÌL%ER
4. CA FÌL%ER
5. COOLÌNG COÌL
6. MÌS% ELÌMÌNA%OR
7. HEA%ÌNG COÌL
(OP%ÌONAL)
8. CEN%RÌFUGAL
BLOWER
9. CONDENSA% PAN
10. 'ARÌABLE AÌR
'OLUME DAMPER
10
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 46
All Water Systems
CONDENSER
E'APORA%OR
COM
0 0 0 0
FCU
AHU
CHILLER
COOLING
TOWER
E'
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 47
!nduction Systems
Udara panas atau dingin dari unit terpusat
Air panas atau dingin
dari unit terpusat
Udara suplai
Ruang yang
dikondisikan
Udara disirkulasi
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 48
!nduction Systems
ROOM FCU &
RECÌRCULA%ÌNG
AÌR
ROOM FCU &
CONDÌ%ÌONED
OU%DOOR AÌR
ROOM FCU &
CONDÌ%ÌONED
OU%DOOR AÌR
ROOM FCU &
OU%DOOR AÌR
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 43
Saluran dan distribusi udara
1. Sistem distribusi udara suplai dan udara
balik
2. Sistem saluran udara suplai dan udara
balik
3. Blower/ Fan
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN S0
Kecepatan udara keluar dari lubang suplai
#makaian
K07atan
(m/mnit)
Studio pemancar
30 - 1S0
Rumah tinggal, kantor, teater
1S0 - 22S
Cedung bioskop
300
Kantor pelayanan umum
300 - 37S
Toko
4S0 - 600
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN S1
Penempatan wall mounted indoor unit
' =15 m/menit
L
3/4 L
1,8 m
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN S2
Penempatan floor mounted indoor unit
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN S3
Penempatan ceiling mounted indoor unit
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN S4
Distributor udara suplai
]enis distributor :
Crilles dan registers
eiling diffuser
Slot diffuser
Panel berlubang
Pertimbangan pemilihan :
]umlah udara
Tinggi ruangan
Penempatan
Pemakaian
Pola distribusi
]angkauan
Kebisingan
Penyebaran
Estetika
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN SS
Penempatan lubang saluran balik
Tidak terlalu dekat dengan lubang udara suplai
Tidak menimbulkan efek tarikan pada
penghuni
Tidak menimbulkan kebisingan
Kecepatan 180 - 240 m/menit atau
0,7S kecepatan udara suplai
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN S6
Aliran udara dalam saluran
tan kons gz '
p
2
2
1
= + +
o
tan kons gz ' p
2
2
1
= o + o +
tan kons p p p p
t z v s
= = + +
tan kons p p p
t v s
= = +
Persamaan Bernoulli
mmka
04 , 4
'
p
2
v
¦
'
+

'

=
Pa ' 6 , 0 p
2
v
=
%ekanan dinamis
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN S7
Tekanan total fan
AHU
Saluran udara suplai Saluran udara balik
p
v
p
%
p
s
p
v1
p
%1
p
s1
p
E
p
v1
p
s2
p
%2
p
v2
p
v3
p
s2
p
%3
p
%4
p
s4
p
v4
p
O
p
O
+p
v4
F%P
FTP = p
T
p
T2
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN S8
FTP (Fan Total Pressure)
p
T1
= - p
E
p
s1
= p
T1
- p
v1
= -(p
E
+ p
v1
)
p
T2
= p
T1
- p
1·2
= -(p
E
+ p
1·2
)
p
s2
= p
T2
- p
v2
= - (p
E
+p
1·2
+ p
v2
)
p
T4
= p
O
+ p
v4
p
s4
= p
T4
-p
v4
= p
O
p
T3
= p
T4
+ p
3·4=
p
3·4
+ p
O
+ p
v4
p
s3
= p
T3
-p
s3
= p
3·4
+ p
O
+ p
v4
·p
s3
FTP= p
T3
-p
T2
= p
E
+ p
1·2
+ p
3·4
+ p
O
+ p
v4
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN S3
FTP
FTP merupakan jumlah dari :
1) Kerugian tekanan pada lubang masuk
2) Kerugian tekanan pada saluran balik
3) Kerugian tekanan pada AHU
4) Kerugian tekanan pada saluran suplai
S) Kerugian tekanan pada lubang keluar
6) Tekanan dinamis pada lubang keluar
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 60
Daya yang diperlukan oleh Fan
FSP (Fan Static Pressure) = FTP - p
v3
FvP (Fan velocity Pressure) = p
v3
Daya yang diperlukan oleh Fan :
F%P . Q Power
v
=
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 61
Penurunan tekanan pada saluran udara
Penurunan tekanan pada saluran lurus
1) Persamaan Darcy
v
2
p
D
L
f '
2
1
D
L
f p = o =
Saluran Keliling
Saluran Penampang Luas
P
A
D
h
= =
¦
'
+

'

+ =
f Re
255 , 1
D 7 , 3
k
log 4
f
1
k = 0,00015 m
u
o
=
'D
Re
mm.k.a
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 62
2) Persamaan Fritzsche
v(m/s)
L(m)
D(m)
O
v
(m
3
/s)
o(kg/m
3
)
269 , 1
852 , 1
D
L ' 01422 , 0
p =
atau
973 , 4
852 , 1
v
D
L Q 22243 , 0
p =
atau
6343 , 0
v
4865 , 2
Q
L ' 012199 , 0
p =
973 , 4
852 , 1
v
D
L Q 002268 , 0
p =
Pa
Pa
Pa
mmka
atau
p/L (Pa/m)
Q
v
(
m
3
/
s
)
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 63
3) Diameter ekivalen


6
3
b a
ab
265 , 1 D
+
=


25 , 0
625 , 0
b a
ab
3 , 1 D
+
= atau
a
b
Aspect Ratio = a/b < 4
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 64
Penurunan tekanan dinamis
!o. !tm F
1 Elbow 30
o
1.S
2 Ell 30
o
Rounded 0.S
3 Long Ell 30
o
0.1
4 Elbow 4S
o
0.S
S Ell 4S
o
Rounded 0.2
6 Long Ell 4S
o
0.0S
2
v
2
2
1
4
'
F Kp ' K p
¦
'
+

'

= = o =
mm.k.a
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 6S
!o. !tm F
7
Luas penampang
membesar
-A8
o
-8
o
8
Pembesaran mendadak
2
2
1
A
A
1 15 . 0

¦
¦
'
+

'

2
2
1
A
A
1

¦
¦
'
+

'

A
1
A
2
A
1
A
2
2
2
1
A
A
1

¦
¦
'
+

'

12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 66
!o. !tm F
3 Dari ducting masuk
ruangan
1
10 Penyempitan
gradual
0
11 Penyempitan
mendadak
0 - 0.3S
12 Aliran dri ruang
masuk ducting
0 - 0.3S
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 67
!o. !tm
13
14 Crill
Free area divided by
total area
0.6 0.4 0.2
Wire gauze 2 S 17
Sheet metal 4 10 S0
A
0
A
1
A
a
A
0
= A
1
+ A
2
Lihat No. 7
Lihat No. 6
Lihat No. 10
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 68
Perancangan sistem saluran udara
Perhatikan aspek ekonomis :
1) Biaya awal berkaitan dengan ukuran
2) Biaya operasi berkaitan dengan daya Fan
Pertimbangan :
Saluran sependek mungkin
Perubahan arah mendadak dihindarkan
Kecepatan aliran mempertimbangkan kebisingan
Sudut pembesaran < 20
o
Aspec ratio < 4
Nenggunakan bahan yang halus
Pada percabangan dilengkapi damper
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 63
Bahan saluran udara
Aluminium
Baja digalvanis
Asbes/semen untuk bahan yang korosif
Fibre·glass
Klasifikasi saluran udara
Kecepatan Tekanan
Tekanan rendah < 600 mpm < S mm ka
Tekanan medium < 600 mpm < 1S mm ka
Tekanan tinggi > 600 mpm > 1S mm ka
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 70
Tebal plat saluran udara
&isi tr7anjang (0m)
BWC
Tk. rndah Tk. mdium Tk. tinggi
Sampai 30 · · 26
30 - 7S Sampai 4S · 24
7S - 13S 4S - 120 Sampai 120 22
13S - 210 120 - 180 120 - 180 20
> 210 > 180 180 - 240 18
> 240 16
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 71
Kecepatan aliran udara (mpm)
7likasi
#rtimbang·
an !ois
7ada &aluran
utama
#rtimbangan gskan
&aluran
utama
&aluran
0abang
&u7lai Balik &u7lai Balik
Rumah tinggal 180 300 240 180 180
Apartemen, Hotel, RS 300 4S0 300 360 300
Kantor, Perpustakaan 360 600 4S0 480 360
Teater 240 330 330 300 240
Toko, Bank, Restauran 4S0 600 4S0 480 360
Kafe S40 600 4S0 480 360
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 72
Netode perancangan saluran udara
1) Netode gesekan sama
2) Netode reduksi kecepatan
3) Netode SPR (Static Pressure Regain)
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 73
Netode gesekan sama
]umlah udara total telah diketahui
Pilih kecepatan yang diijinkan pada saluran utama
Ukuran saluran utama dan kerugian gesekan per
satuan panjang ditentukan menggunakan grafik
Ukuran saluran lain ditentukan berdasarkan kerugian
gesekan per satuan panjang yang sama dengan
kerugian gesekan per satuan panjang pada saluran
utama
]ika sistem jaringan ducting tidak simetris, gunakan
damper pada setiap percabangan
Daya Fan ditentukan berdasarkan kerugian tekanan
total terbesar
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 74
Netode reduksi kecepatan
Ukuran saluran utama ditentukan berdasar kan
kecepatan yang diijinkan seperti pada metode
gesekan sama
Saluran lain ditentukan berdasarkan kecepatan
yang diijinkan pada percabangan
Perlu pengalaman
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 7S
Netode SPR
Nempertahankan tekanan statik konstan
sebelum tiap terminal dan tiap percabangan
Kenaikan tekanan statik sesudah tiap cabang
atau terminal akibat pengurangan kecepatan
sama dengan kerugian tekanan pada seksi
saluran berikutnya
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 76
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 77
Crafik pskrometri
%
db
æ
RH
%
dp
v
%
wb
h
Garis jenuh
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 78
Psikrometri
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Proses :
0-1 = Sensible cooling
0-2 = Sensible heating
0-3 = Dehumidification
0-4 = Humidification
0-5 = Cooling & Humidification
0-6 = Heating & Dehumidification
0-7 = Heating & Humidification
0-8 = Cooling & Dehumidification
%
db
æ
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 73
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 80
Proses pengkodisian udara
%
db
æ
O
R
M
S
%
adp
%
R
%
SA
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 81
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 82
Basic HvA Equipment
Fans / Blowers
Furnace / Heating unit
Filters
ompressor
ondensing units
Evaporator (cooling coil)
ontrol System
Air Distribution System
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 83
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 84
System Types and ommon Terms
Packaged Rooftop
Unit
Split System
Heat Pump
Ceothermal
Air to Air
Hydronic (water)
PTA / PTHP
onstant volume
variable volume
!ndoor Air Ouality
Direct Expansion
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 8S
Packaged Rooftop Units
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 86
FURNACE
A/C UNÌ%
Ductwork
Heating
and Cooling
Equipment
%emperature &
Humidity Controls
Split System
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 87
Heat Pump
- Operate on simple
refrigeration cycle
- Reversing the cycle
provides heating
- Temperature limitations
- Air to air
- Water source
- Ceothermal
- Lake coupled
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 88
Ceothermal Heat Pump Systems
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 83
variable Air volume
%
%
VariabIe Speed
Return Fan
R
e
t
u
r
n

A
i
r
Return Ducts
Zone Thermostat
Reheat CoiI
VAV ox
SuppIy Ducts
VariabIe Speed
SuppIy Fan
F
i
I
t
e
r
s
C
o
o
I

C
o
i
I

w
/
T
e
m
p

R
e
s
e
t
H
e
a
t

C
o
i
I

w
/
T
e
m
p

R
e
s
e
t
'C-89
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 30
Terminal Units
variable volume:
Parallel
onstant volume:
Series
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 31
Hydronic systems
Pumps
Piping
valves
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 32
ontrol Devices
Thermostats
Nanual
Programmable
Optimum Start
DD Systems
variable Speed Drives
Automatic valves and Dampers
Outdoor Sensors
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 33
Najor Equipment
hillers
Boilers
ooling Towers
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 34
Economizers
Air Side
Water Side
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 3S
Economizers
Free cooling source: When available, use cool outdoor air
instead of mechanically cooled air.

o
F
80
o
F
Ninimum su77ly of
outsid air
!ormal O7ration
Outsid air dam7rs ar
7ositiond to 7rovid th
minimum outsid air
E0onomizr O7ration
Outsid air dam7rs ar fully
o7n. Naximum outsid air is
7rovidd
80
o
F

o
F and
u7
8
outsid
air
8
xhaust
'C-95
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 36
Air Distribution
Ductwork
Netal
Flexible
Ductboard
Crilles, Louvers,
S Registers
Dampers
Shut off
Fire
Smoke
Sealants
Supports
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 37
Return Plenum Problems
'C-97
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 38
Additional Equipment
Energy Recovery Units
Desiccant Systems
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 33
Additional Equipment
Heat Exchangers
Humidifiers
Silencers
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 100
Nechanical Dehumidification
Return air is mixed with ventilation air
old coil condenses moisture
Heat is added back (electric or gas) so that room
air is not over cooled· Reheat

9
0
7
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 101
Historical Ninimum ventilation Rates
(cfm/person)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
1
8
3
5
1
8
4
2
1
8
4
9
1
8
5
6
1
8
6
3
1
8
7
0
1
8
7
7
1
8
8
4
1
8
9
1
1
8
9
8
1
9
0
5
1
9
1
2
1
9
1
9
1
9
2
6
1
9
3
3
1
9
4
0
1
9
4
7
1
9
5
4
1
9
6
1
1
9
6
8
1
9
7
5
1
9
8
2
1
9
8
9
1
9
9
6
Tre/gol/
1836
Nigtengale
1865
Billings
1895
Fl:gge
1905
Yaglo:
1938
ASHRAE
62-73
ASHRAE 62-81
Smoking 62-81
ASH-
RAE
62-89
Smoking 62-89
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 102
!mproved ventilation Effectiveness
- Nechanically provide filtered and
dehumidified outdoor air to the
breathing space
- vary ventilation based on the number
of occupants and process loads ·
changes in occupancy can be
measured by O
2
sensors
- onsider designs that separate
ventilation and space conditioning
- Utilize heat recovery systems to reduce
system size and ventilation energy
costs
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 103
!mproved ventilation Effectiveness
Effective mixing of
ventilation air within space
Net positive pressure in the
southeast, exhaust from
appropriate spaces
Provide clean outdoor air,
avoid:
loading docks
exhaust vents
plumbing stacks
waste collection
stagnant water
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 104
Additional !nformation / Resources
ASHRAE - The American Society of Heating,
Refrigerating and Air·onditioning Engineers
www.ashrae.org
Southface Energy !nstitute www.southface.org
Ceothermal heat pump consortium
www.geoexchange.org
www.buildingscience.com
www.energycodes.gov
12·Sep·11 TEKN!K NES!N FT UCN 10S
Pokok bahasan
1. prinsip pengkondisian udara
2. termodinamika tubuh manusia
3. beban pendinginan
4. psikrometri
S. macam·macam sistem pengkondisian
udara
6. air handling unit
7. fan
8. trouble shooting

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