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Utilization of Aloe Vera Extract in Making Paper Glue

By: Olive Keithy Ascaño


Charlene Rose Tampos
John Trex Tendan
Cedrick Zausa
Kim Tumaob
Tim Bryan Teodosio
Rej Regatalio

To: Mrs. Claire Tioco

A Research Paper
January 7, 2010
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table of Contents
Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………1

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………..2
1.1 Aloe Vera as the Main Component of the Product………………………………..2
1.2 Research Objectives and Hypotheses……………………………………………..3

2.0 Literature Review……………………………………………………………………4


2.1 History of Aloe Vera Plant………………………………………………………..4
2.2 Uses of Aloe Vera………………………………………………………………...5
2.3 Composition of Aloe Vera Plant………………………………………………….6

3.0 Materials and Methods……………………………………………………………...8


3.1 Research Design…………………………………………………………………..9
3.2 Treatments for Experimental Study……………………………………………...10
3.3 Materials Used and General Procedures…………………………………………11

4.0 Results……………………………………………………………………………….12
4.1 Comparison of Treatments and Reaction of Substances…………………………12

5.0 Discussion…………………………………………………………………………...13
5.1 Treatments and Results Shown in Pie Chart……………………………………..13
5.2 Observations and Justification of Research Work……………………………….15

6.0 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………..16

7.0 References…………………………………………………………………………..17
Abstract

This research work is about creating a new invention out of Aloe Vera. There
are hundreds of products made from this plant but we have to think of a unique one that
can be useful in our everyday lives. We decided to make an “Aloe Vera Paper Glue” that
is combined with additives that have a sticky effect to come up with our desired product.

This discovery is eco-friendly because it doesn’t contain harmful chemicals that


will have negative results or side effects. Aloe Vera is extracted and blended with
unprocessed, natural substances unlike any other paper glues which contain chemicals
that can affect the sensitivity of a person using it.

Can we make paper glue out of Aloe Vera extract? It is a question than was given
an answer on this research. We successfully made this work valid by giving explanations
to queries and discussing the uses of Aloe Vera plant, methods used and many other
things that require thinking, experimenting and analysis.

Because of the substances found within the plant, we were able to make a fine
glue out of it. With the help of resources like internet, encyclopedia and old highschool
lectures, we searched for substances, mixtures and ingredients that can help improve the
stickiness of our product.

People should embrace the birth of this newly-discovered product because of its
effectiveness and cheapness. Aside from that, it has no effects in the environment, it is
different, and it helps support the use of Aloe Vera plant in the industry.

1
Introduction

Aloe Vera as the Main Component of the Product

Aloe Vera has been widely used today in the form of lotions, soaps, astringents,
ointments and other kinds of products. In this study, we will use Aloe Vera to create a
sticky and fine paper glue that can be used at home and school. This study leads to the
enrichment of Aloe Vera and discovery of a product that will replace the kinds of glue
currently available in the market.

Aloe Vera, the main component of the product holds the scientific name,
Aloe barbadensis miller liquid. It is an herb, which is known mainly for its cosmetic
functions. However, this plant is also rich in substances that aid in several illnesses and
ailments. The aloe Vera plant has been found to have great contributions to health, both
internally and externally. Research studies have shown that it has properties comprising
of inhibitory, anti-inflammatory, regenerative, and anti-bacterial functions.

Preparations made with Aloe Vera as the primary ingredient have been effective
in reducing pain and allergies. In the same way, some of its properties are responsible for
cell regeneration that causes close cuts and hemorrhages to heal easily and more rapidly.
Its purgative properties, brought about by the existence of six antiseptic agent substances
in the plant (that is, cinnamic acid, lupeol, sulphur, salicylic acid, phenol and urea
nitrogen), make it ideal in eradicating parasites, harmful bacteria, and fungi in the
intestinal tracts. Sabila can be used externally for the treatment of acne, pimple burns,
insect bites, and for moisturizing and hydrating the skin.

There’s a reason Aloe Vera is trusted in products you see every day and that
reason dates back thousands of years. Aloe Vera is being used by human being for more
than 5000 years now. The earliest civilizations revered this extraordinary botanical for its
astonishing properties. Aloe Vera uses are legendary and this information has been
passed down through time, enhanced by scientific innovation and centuries of experience.

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Research Objectives and Hypotheses

OBJECTIVES

This study aims to create a cheaper and more effective type of paper glue from the
leaves of Aloe Vera that is processed in a natural way and mixed with natural substances
that can contribute to the stickiness of the product.

It also aims to show the utilization of Aloe Vera not only in medicinal and
cosmetic purposes but for school use as well.

HYPOTHESES

Null Hypothesis:

Aloe Vera, when extracted, will not form a gel-like substance called “drug-aloe”
which gives the stickiness of the glue made out of Aloe Vera.

Alternative Hypothesis:

Aloe Vera, when extracted, will form a gel-like substance called “drug-aloe”
which gives the stickiness of the glue made out of Aloe Vera.

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Literature Review

History of Aloe Vera Plant

Aloe Vera is a species of Aloe, native to Northern Africa. It is a stem less or very
short-stemmed succulent plant growing to 80-100 cm-tall, spreading by offsets and root
sprouts. The leaves are lanceolate, thick and fleshy, green to grey-green, with a serrated
margin. The flowers are produced on a spike up to 90 cm tall, each flower pendulous,
with a yellow tubular corolla 2 to 3 cm long.

Many ancient works, including the Bible, refer to the use of aloe. One of the first
documented users of aloe vera was Cleopatra, who lived from 68 to 30 B.C. She is said to
have used the gel on her skin as protection from the sun, and to have thought the gel
helped to keep her skin young-looking. In fact, the Egyptians may have used aloe vera in
their embalming of bodies, among other uses.

For over 3,500 years, tales of "healing Aloe Vera" plants have been handed down
through centuries by word of mouth. From the Bible's mention of removing Christ from
the cross and wrapping his body in aloes and myrrh, (John 19:39), we find Aloe Vera
mysteriously appearing in every phase of history, with many testimonials to its great
medicinal values. The earliest documented use of Aloe Vera comes from the ancient
Egyptians, but it was also grown and used by King Solomon, who was said to have
valued it highly.

Alexander the Great conquered the island of Socotra in order to have the Aloe for
his army. During his fabled travels in the Orient, among the many marvels recorded by
Marco Polo were his descriptions of the many applications of the Aloe Vera plant. The
Spanish Conquistadors discovered various herbal medicines in use in Tenochtitlán.

At the heart of many of the Aztec cures, it is known that Aloe Vera was the
effective agent. These Aztec herbal medicines were transported back to Europe by the
Spanish, during the sixteenth century, where they became the foundation for modern
Western medicine. Aloe Vera has been found described in writings in many different
cultures and as far bask as the Greek, Egyptians, and Roman Eras. References have also
been found in writings from the Indian and Chinese Early cultures.

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Uses of Aloe Vera

Aloe Vera plants are readily available and some people keep a potted plant in the
kitchen. A leaf spike may be cut open and the gel applied directly to a cut or burn. For
other uses, particularly for internal use, commercial gels and juices, which are processed
under strict controls, can be found at most health food stores as well as many
supermarkets.

Animal studies and anecdotal reports claim that drinking Aloe Vera juice or
taking it as a tablet or capsule can reduce swelling and inflammation in arthritic joints.
Drinking Aloe vera juice may also help those asthmatic patients who are not dependent
on cortico-steroids. In 1997, University of San Antonio researcher Jeremiah Herlihy,
Ph.D., conducted a study to observe any negative effects of drinking Aloe daily. Rather
than exhibiting negative effects, however, test animals receiving daily Aloe showed a
remarkable reduction in leukemia, heart disease, and kidney disease.

Dr. Herlihy concluded, "We found no indication of harm done to the rats even at
high levels." In fact, the Aloe-drinking animals actually lived 25 percent longer than
those in the control group (IASC Conference, Texas, 1997) Adopting aloe products into
our daily nutrition habits is a great way to improve by a natural way, our health, our
body's regeneration and our beautiful appearance. At the same time we acquire balance of
the mind and body and overall wellness.

When we feel good, healthy, beautiful and overall regenerated --a healthy mind in
healthy body--, we avoid frequent visits to the doctor and acquire positive energy. Our
external appearance and image is improved. And all this is apparent in all looks. The
unique and beneficial for our health, components of aloe show that this natural dietary
supplement is essential in our nutrition.

It is noteworthy, that so many different products in various categories now


contain aloe. And there is no wonder why food - health and wellness industries, consider
products from aloe as the key to their up growth in the decade 2010 to 2020. Daily
nutrition habits, which include aloe Vera juice, bee products and other natural nutritional
supplements, contribute greatly to how healthy we appear, feel and think.

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Composition of Aloe Vera Plant

The active substances of Aloe Vera are found in the leaves which
are composed of the rind, juice and a gel-like substance, the pulp. The active substances
are polysaccharides, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, enzymes, yellow sap (Aloin, or
anthraquinones) and Barbaloins (a glycoside), etc. The pulp of Aloe Vera is composed of
96% water and 4% polysaccharides and other substances.

The plant contains many vitamins, excluding vitamin D but including the
important antioxidant vitamins A, C and F. Vitamins B (thiamine), niacin, vitamin
B2 (riboflavin), choline and folic acid are also present. Some authorities suggest that there
is also a trace of vitamin B12 (Coats1979). Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium,
manganese, copper, zinc, chromium and iron are all found in the aloe plant. Magnesium
lactate inhibits histidine decarboxylase and prevents the formation of histamine from the
amino acid, histadine (Shelton 1991). Histamine is released in many allergic reactions
and causes intense itching and pain. The prevention of its formation may explain the
antipuritic effect of Aloe Vera.

Sugars are derived from the mucilage layer of the plant under the rind,
surrounding the inner parenchyma or gel. They form 25 per cent of the solid fraction and
comprise both mono- and polysaccharides. By far the most important are the long chain
polysaccharides, comprising glucose and mannose, known as the gluco-mannans (Beta -
(1, 4) - linked acetylated mannan). Unlike other sugars which are broken down prior to
absorption, the polysaccharides are absorbed complete and appear in the blood stream
unchanged. Here, they act as immuno-modulators — capable of enhancing and retarding
the immune response.

In large amounts these compounds exert a powerful purgative effect, but when
smaller they appear to aid absorption from the gut, are potent antimicrobial agents
(Lorenzetti et all 964, Sims eta/i 971 a), and possess powerful analgesic effects.
Topically, they can absorb ultra violet light, inhibit tyronase activity, and reduce the
formation of melanin and any tendency to hyper-pigmentation.

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Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. Aloe vera gel provides 20 of the
22 necessary amino acids required by the human body and seven of the eight essential
amino acids which the body cannot synthesise. These must be ingested in food. Sallycylic
acid is an aspirin-like compound possessing anti-inflammatory and antibacterial
properties. Topically, it has a kerolytic effect which helps to debride a wound of necrotic
tissue. Plants have sterols which include Campesterol, f3 Sitosterol and Lupeol (Coats
1979). Saponins are soapy substances form 3 per cent of the gel and are general
cleansers, having antiseptic properties (Hirat and Suga 1983). It could be said that it
works because the Aloe Vera plant produces at least 6 antiseptic agents: Lupeol, salicylic
acid, urea nitrogen, cinnamonic acid, phenols, and sulphur.

All of these substances are recognized as antiseptics because they kill or control
mold, bacteria, fungus, and viruses, explaining why the plant has the ability to eliminate
many internal and external infections. The Lupeol and salicylic acid in the juice explains
why it is a very effective pain-killer.

Next, it could be said that Aloe Vera contains at least three anti-inflammatory
fatty acids, cholesterol, campersterol and B-sitosterol (plant sterols) which explains why
it is a highly effective treatment for burns, cuts, scrapes, abrasions, allergic reactions,
rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatic fever, acid indigestion, ulcers, plus many inflammatory
conditions of the digestive system and other internal organs, including the stomach, small
intestine, colon, liver, kidney, and pancreas.

B-sitosterol is also a powerful anti-cholestromatic which helps to lower harmful


cholesterol levels, helping to explain its many benefits for heart patents.

If we add that Aloe contains at least 23 polypeptids (immune stimulators),


then we understand why Aloe juice helps control a broad spectrum of immune system
diseases and disorders, including HIV and AIDS. The polypeptids, plus the anti-tumor
agents Aloe emodin and Aloe lectins, explains its ability to control cancer.

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Materials and Methods

This chapter shows the research design, materials and procedures used in making
paper glue.

Research Design

Research Design

This study used a single factor experiment in a completely randomized design


with three replication treatment were as follows:

Treatment A B C D E

Vinegar Aloe Vera gel Baking Soda Water Powdered


Milk
Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

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In trial 1, 20 % of vinegar, 20 % of Aloe Vera gel, 20 % of baking soda, 20 % of
water and 20 % of powdered milk were mixed to complete the 100 % concentration. In
trial 2, 60 % of vinegar, 10 % of Aloe Vera gel, 10 % of baking soda, 10 % of water and
10 % of powdered milk were mixed to complete the 100 % concentration. In trial 3, 10 %
of vinegar, 60 % of Aloe Vera gel, 10 % of baking soda, 10 % of water and 10 % of
powdered milk were mixed to complete the 100 % concentration.

Treatment A B C D E

Vinegar Aloe Vera gel Baking Soda Water Powdered


Milk
Trial 1 20 % 20 % 20 % 20 % 20 %

Trial 2 60 % 10 % 10 % 10 % 10 %

Trial 3 10 % 60 % 10 % 10 % 10 %

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Treatments for Experimental Study

Aloe Vera gel were squeezed to get the gel and then added to water, baking soda,
powdered milk and vinegar of different mixtures. The different concentration were as
follows:

Treatment Aloe Vera gel Water Baking soda Vinegar Powdered


Milk
A 20 % 20 % 20 % 20 % 20 %

B 10 % 10 % 10 % 60 % 10 %

C 60 % 10 % 10 % 10 % 10 %

In treatment A, 20 % of water, 20 % of baking soda, 20 % of powdered milk and


20 % of vinegar were mixed to 20 % Aloe Vera gel to complete the 100 % concentration.
In treatment B, 10 % of water, 10 % of baking soda, 10 % of powdered milk and 60 % of
vinegar were mixed to 10 % of Aloe Vera gel to complete the 100 % concentration. In
treatment C, 10 % of water, 10 % of baking soda, 10 % of powdered milk and 10 % of
vinegar were mixed to 60 % of Aloe Vera gel to complete the 100 % concentration.

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Materials Used and General Procedures

To perform our desired glue, we should prepare Aloe Vera gel, water, vinegar,
baking soda and powdered milk.

Some materials are also needed like paper towel, bowl/cup and rubber band.

To start, mix the Aloe Vera gel with powdered milk and some of hot tap water
(depending on the quantity of powdered milk used) and stir it well. Add vinegar to milk.
Milk will separate into solid curd and liquid whey. Stir till all of the milk has separate
completely. Strain away the whey. Secure a paper towel with rubber band over the mouth
of the large cup. Put the curd in it.

Place another pieces of paper towel on the curd and press it firmly and almost all
of whey drains out from the curd. Put the curd in a separate cup and break it into smaller
lumps.
Add 1 teaspoon of hot tap water and 1 teaspoon of baking soda. Some foaming
may occur because the reaction of the baking soda and vinegar releases carbon dioxide.
Stir the glue till it has even consistency.

Add water if it is too thick. If it is too lumpy add more baking soda. Refrigerate
the glue when not in use.

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Results

Comparison of Treatments and Reaction of Substances

Treatment Aloe Water Baking Vinegar Powdered Result


Vera gel soda milk
A 20 % 20 % 20 % 20 % 20 % Sticky, fine and
has even texture
B 10 % 10 % 10 % 60 % 10 % Not sticky, hard
and has coarse
texture
60 % 10 % 10 % 10 % 10 %
C Moderately sticky,
slippery type of
glue with moist
texture

Treatment A, which consists of 20 % Aloe Vera gel, 20 % of water, 20 % of


baking soda, 20 % vinegar and 20 % of powdered milk is sticky, fine and has even
texture. Treatment B which consists of 10 % of Aloe Vera gel, 10 % of water, 10 % of
baking soda, 60 % of vinegar and 10 % of powdered milk is not sticky, hard and has
coarse texture. Treatment C which consists of 60 % Aloe Vera gel, 10 % water, 10 %
baking soda, 10 % vinegar and 10 % powdered milk is moderately sticky, slippery and
has moist texture.

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Discussion

Treatments and Results Shown in Pie Chart

Aloe Vera
20% 20% gel
Water

Baking
Soda
20% 20%
Vinegar

20% Powdered
Milk

Here is a chart that shows Treatment A which is sticky, fine and has even texture.
20 % of Aloe Vera gel, 20 % of water, 20% of baking soda, 20% of vinegar and 20% of
powdered milk are combined in order to obtain the 100% concentration of the glue. The
mixtures are measured in same levels that resulted in an effective and exact type of paper
glue.

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10% 10%
10% Aloe Vera gel
Water
10% Baking Soda
Vinegar
Powdered Milk
60%

Another treatment, which is the second one, is not sticky, hard and has coarse
texture. 10% of Aloe Vera gel, 10 % of water, 10 % of baking soda, 60 % of vinegar and
10 % of powdered milk are combined in order to obtain the 100% concentration of the
glue. The substance with a high amount of percentage added to other substances is
vinegar. 10 % of other substances were mixed and as a result, the glue is not good to use
because of too much concentration of vinegar.

10%

10% Aloe Vera gel


Water
10% Baking Soda
60% Vinegar
10% Powdered milk

Lastly, treatment C resulted in a moderately sticky, slippery type of glue with


moist texture. 60% Aloe Vera gel, 10% water, 10% baking soda, 10% vinegar and 10%
powdered milk were combined in order to reach the 100% concentration of the glue. Aloe
Vera gel has the highest percentage among other substances which turned out in viscous
glue because of too much Aloe Vera gel used.

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Observations and Justification of Research Work

In our findings, Treatment A and C are much better than treatment B because it
resulted in a sticky glue. The concentration of vinegar affected the low effectiveness of
the glue used in Treatment B and the even distribution of substances used in Treatment A
affected the high effectiveness of glue. The concentration of Aloe Vera glue affected the
slight effectiveness of the glue used in Treatment C.

Can we make paper glue out of Aloe Vera extract? It is the research problem that
needs to be solved in this report. Based on the methods performed, the amount of Aloe
Vera gel used should be measured and tested in different trials and treatments in order to
make the research work valid.

The research design supports the alternative hypothesis presented in a table


because of testing the amount of Aloe Vera gel used to achieve the usefulness of the
desired paper glue. It was tested in an accurate and precise manner because of careful
analysis and experimenting.

The findings were successful and evidence was stated in the previous pages so we
don’t have to test again. The experiment was created in a step-by-step manner and tested
in different levels of concentration and mixtures.

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Conclusion

Based on the experiments performed and results obtained, Aloe Vera, when
extracted will form a gel-like substance called “drug-aloe” that is used in order to achieve
the effectiveness and stickiness of the paper glue. During the research experiment, three
treatments were tested with different levels of substances used including the main
component, the Aloe Vera gel. Among the treatments (A, B, C), Treatment A, was the
stickiest and most effective. Treatment A contains 20 % of Aloe Vera gel, 20 % of water,
20% of baking soda, 20% of vinegar and 20% of powdered milk combined to form the
100% concentration of the glue.

The factors which affected the efficiency of the paper glue are the even
distribution of substances and the careful use of materials and methods involved in the
glue making. During the process, we gathered information and listed every essential data
to have good findings and results.

Aloe Vera, the main component of the product was proven to be a useful kind of
plant not only in terms of medicinal and beauty products but in making a paper glue as
well.

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References

David R. Caprette (caprette@rice.edu), Rice University 25 Aug

Boudreau MD, Beland FA (April 2006). "An evaluation of the biological and
toxicological properties of Aloe barbadensis (miller), Aloe Vera". Journal of
environmental science and health. Part C, Environmental carcinogenesis & ecotoxicology
reviews 24(1): 103–54.

Vogler BK, Ernst E (October 1999). "Aloe Vera: a systematic review of its clinical
effectiveness". The British journal of general practice: The Journal of the Royal College
of General Practitioners 49

Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 6(13). Retrieved February 6, 2011 from
http://PAREonline.net/getvn.asp?v=6&n=13

Basic Steps in the Research Process, Retrieved from http://www.crlsresearchguide.org/

How to Write an A+ Research Paper, Retrieved from


http://www.aresearchguide.com/1steps.html

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