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Pengantar-Basis-Data

Pengantar-Basis-Data

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Dipublikasikan oleh Husain Athfal Hidayat

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Published by: Husain Athfal Hidayat on Mar 10, 2011
Hak Cipta:Attribution Non-commercial

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03/20/2013

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Sections

  • Pengantar Basis Data
  • Agenda
  • Pengertian Basis Data
  • Pengertian basis data
  • Contoh Basis Data
  • DBMS
  • Sejarah DBMS
  • View of Data
  • Contoh : Basis Data Universitas
  • Entity-Relationship Model
  • Entity-Relationship Model (lan.)
  • Contoh diagram ER
  • Relational Model
  • Contoh relational model
  • Database Language
  • DDL
  • DML
  • SQL
  • Arsitektur basis Data
  • User Basis Data
  • Administrator Basis Data
  • Struktur Sistem

I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O

C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
ÞenaanLar 8asls uaLa
kemas 8ahmaL Saleh Wlhar[a
lakulLas 1eknlk lnformaLlka l11elkom
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
Aaenda
W ÞenaerLlan uasar
W Se[arah u8MS
W komponen u8MS
W 1u[uan u8MS
W Model uaLa
W uesaln 8asls uaLa
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N 3 3
uaLa vs lnformasl
Ìnformasi
Data
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
uaLa vs lnformasl
Data Ìnformasi
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N 5
uaLa vs lnformasl
Data
Ìnformasi
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N 6
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
ÞenaerLlan 8asls uaLa
W 8asls daLa ada|ah sekumpu|an data yang sa||ng
berhubunganŦ
W karakLerlsLlk uLama basls daLa adalah ť
÷ MerepresenLaslkan aspek darl dunla nvaLaţ
÷ 1ersLrukLur denaan balkţ
÷ uapaL merepresenLaslkan kondlsl saaL lnl (cotteot stote)
÷ Ada penaaunanva dan ada apllkaslţ
÷ ulslmpan dalam memorl kompuLer secara permanenţ dan
÷ uapaL dlakses dan dlmanlpulasl menaaunakan u8MS
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
ÞenaerLlan basls daLa
Dunia
nyata
factsabout the worId in a database
factsabout the worId in a database
factsabout the worId in a database
factsabout the worId in a database
factsabout the worId in a database
factsabout the worId in a database
factsabout the worId in a database
factsabout the worId in a database
factsabout the worId in a database
factsabout the worId in a database
factsabout the worId in a database
factsabout the worId in a database
factsabout the worId in a database
factsabout the worId in a database
more facts
more facts
more facts
more facts
more facts
more facts
more facts
more facts
more facts
more facts
some moreratherIong facts about the worId in the databse
some moreratherIong facts about the worId in the databse
some moreratherIong facts about the worId in the databse
some moreratherIong facts about the worId in the databse
some moreratherIong facts about the worId in the databse
some moreratherIong facts about the worId in the databse
factsabout the worId in a database
factsabout the worId in a database
factsabout the worId in a database
factsabout the worId in a database
factsabout the worId in a database
factsabout the worId in a database
Basis data
akta tentang dunia nyata dan
behaviour-nya
Direpresentasikan daIam
contents dan operasi dari basis data
Pengguna
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
ConLoh 8asls uaLa
,oboslswo
Nl, Nomo Alomot ,ojot
,
N_, lu_, om uept
u8 Svs C302 2+1 Comp
SofLna C301 2+0 Comp
ulsMaL M214 4+1 MaLh
Nllol
Nl, lu_, Nllol
007007 C302 A+
007007 C301 A
007007 M214 A+
131313 C301 8Ŵ
333333 C301 C
131313 C302 u
333333 C302 L
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
u8MS
W 8asls uaLa ť
Sekumpulan daLa vana sanaaL besar vana sallna
berhubunaanŦ
W Memodelkan realŴworld eotetptlseţ terd|r| dar| ť
÷ LnLlLl (conLoh mahaslswaţ maLakullahţ dosen)
÷ 8elaLlonshlps (conLoh dosen meooojot mahaslswa)
W uotobose ,ooooemeot 5vstem (u8,5)
adalah sebuah slsLem peranakaL lunak unLuk
menvlmpanţ menaaLur dan menaakses ke basls
daLaŦ
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
uaLabase ManaaemenL SvsLems
# co||ect|on of |nterre|ated data and a set of
programs to access those data"
(SllberschaLzţ korLh and SudarshanŦ uaLabase SvsLem ConcepLs)
# software package des|gned to store and
manage databases"
(8amakrlshnan and CehrkeŦ uaLabase ManaaemenL SvsLems)
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
u8MS
W Adalah sekumpulan proaram vana mampuť
÷ Mendeflnlslkan sLrukLurţ
÷ Membanaun sekumpulan daLaţ
÷ Memanlpulasl daLa (quervţ updaLe)ţ
÷ Men[amln konslsLenslţ
÷ Men[aaa darl mlsuseţ
÷ Memullhkan darl keaaaalan dan
÷ Men[amln konkurensl darl sebuah basls daLaŦ
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
Se[arah u8MS
W s Nav|gat|ona| D8M5
÷ karakLerlsLlk basls daLa ť fakLa darl suaLu ob[ek vana
Lerhubuna ke ob[ek laln
÷ 1eknlk navlaasl nva menaaunakan ƍpolnLersƍ dan
ƍpaLhsƍ unLuk menavlaasl record daLa (dlsebuL
denaan ƍnodesƍ)Ŧ
÷ 1empaL penvlmpanannva menaaunakan maaneLlc
Lapes
W 1apes hanva unLuk akses sekuenLlal
÷ lnpuLnva menaaunakan punched cards
13
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
Se[arah u8MS
W s ke|at|ona| D8M5
÷ Model relaslonal unLuk u8MS adalah
model basls daLa berbasls €ltstŴotJet
pteJlcote loolc
÷ 1u[uannva adalah sebaaal meLode dalam
menspeslflkaslkan daLa dan querl
÷ Pard dlsks unLuk menaakses daLa
÷ Menaaunakan model daLa neLwork dan
hlerarchlcal
÷ 1ransacLlon processlna performansl
Llnaal (unLuk era LersebuL)
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
Se[arah u8MS
W nd s 5CL D8M5
÷ l8M mulal proLoLvpe berbasls Coddƌs concepLs sebaaal SvsLem 8
dl awal 1970
÷ Menaaunakan SCL unLuk menaakses daLa
÷ SvsLem 8 SCL/uS (l8M) u82 (l8M 1978)
÷ lnC8LS Svbase ţ lnformlxţ ÞosLareSCL
÷ Svbase SCL Server
÷ SvsLem 8 racle (1978)
÷ ÞenellLlan proLoLvpe relaslonal dalam dunla commerclal
W SCL men[adl sLandard lndusLrl
÷ Þarallel dan dlsLrlbuLed daLabase svsLems
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
Se[arah u8MS
W now ť
÷ b[ecLŴorlenLed daLabase svsLems
÷ Larae declslon supporL dan daLaŴmlnlna appllcaLlons
÷ Larae mulLlŴLerabvLe daLa warehouses
÷ Lmeraence of Web commerce
÷ xML and xCuerv sLandards
÷ AuLomaLed daLabase admlnlsLraLlon
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
Cambaran slsLem basls daLa sederhana
Program ApIikasi/
Query Interaktif
CataIog
Basis Data
Query Processor
Akses
Data
DBMS
Sistem
Basis Data
Pengguna/
Programmer
Deskripsi
Basis Data
CompiIer
DDL
DBA
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
18
komponen SlsLem 8asls uaLa
W ÞeranakaL keras / Pardware
W SlsLem perasl
W uaLabase (uaLa llle)
W uaLabase ManaaemenL SvsLem / u8MS
W user
W Apllkasl laln
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
19
Menaapa 8asls uaLa ??
- 8edudansl uaLa dan keLldak konslsLenan daLa
W lormaL flle vana beraaamţ dupllkasl lnformasl pada
flle vana berbeda
- kesullLan dalam menaakses daLa
W Speslflkasl baru proaram baru
- lsolasl uaLa Ÿ beraaam flle dan formaL
- Masalah lnLearlLas
W ConsLralnL lnLearlLas men[adl baalan darl kode
proaram
W SullL unLuk menambahkan consLralnL baru aLau
merubah vana sudah ada
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
20
Menaapa 8asls uaLa ??
- ALomlclLv of updaLes
W lallures dapaL menvebabkan baslsdaLa Lldak
konslsLen
W ConLoh ť proses Lransfer dl bank darl 1 rekenlna ke
rekenlna lalnţ harus Lerselesalkan aLau Lldak sama
sekall
- Akses konkuren darl beberapa user
W Akses konkuren performansl
W Akses konkuren vana Lldak LerkonLrol Lldak
konslsLen
÷ConLoh ť 2 orana mellhaL saldo dan merubah daLa
saldo dalam wakLu bersamaan
- Masalah keamanan
W Solusl SlsLem 8asls uaLa
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
keunLunaan Þenaaunaan u8MS
W uoto independence
u8MS memunaklnkan pemlsahan penaelolaan daLa darl
proaram apllkasl
W €€icient doto occess
u8MS menvedlakan varlasl Leknlk vana handal dalam
penvlmpanan dan penaambllan daLa
W uoto inteority ond security
u8MS memunaklnkan pen[aaaan loteotltv coottolot dan
occess coottol
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
keunLunaan Þenaaunaan u8MS (lanŦ)
W uoto odministrotion
W concurrent occess ond crosh recovery
u8MS dllenakapl denaan pen[adwalan operasl konkuren dan
mellndunal user darl efek keaaaalan slsLem
W educed opp/icotion deve/opment time
u8MS mendukuna funaslŴfunasl penLlna vana umum pada
apllkasl dalam penvlmpanan daLa
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
23
1u[uan 8asls uaLa
W Speed
÷ CepaL dalam menvlmpanţ memanlpulasl dan menaambll daLa
W Space
÷ Lflslensl LempaL penvlmpanan
W Accuracv
÷ 8ule (conLoh ť Llpe daLa)
W AvallablllLv
÷ MenalkuLl perkembanaan daLa dan menaaLur dlsLrlbusl daLa
(conLoh daLa nasabah 8ank)
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
24
1u[uan 8asls uaLa
W CompleLeness
÷ AnLlslpasl perubahan sLrukLur daLa
W SecurlLv
÷ Access 8lahL deLermlnaLlon
W SharablllLv
÷ uukunaan MulLl user unLuk kekonslsLenan daLa
dan penanaaulanaan deadlock
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
evels o€ Absttoctloo
W 9hysico/ /eve/ ť menun[ukkan baaalmana sebuah record
daLa dlslmpan
W ooico/ /eve/ ť menun[ukkan daLa vana Lerslmpan dalam
basls daLaţ dan relasl anLar daLaŦ
type customer = 7eco7/
name string;
street string;
city integer;
en/;
W Iiew /eve/ ť proaram apllkasl menvembunvlkan deLll Llpe
daLaŦ vlew [uaa dapaL menvembunvlkan lnformasl LerLenLu
(mlsť salarv) unLuk kepenLlnaan keamanan
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
vlew of uaLa
A(s|le|lu( s|sler oas|s dala
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
ConLoh ť 8asls uaLa unlverslLas
W Skema konsepLual ť
÷ ,bs (olm ť sttlooţ oomo ť sttlooţ lp ť teol)
÷ ollob (, ť sttlooţ oomo, ť sttlooţ sks ť
loteoet)
W Skema Þhvslcal ť
÷ 8elasl dlslmpan dalam flle Lldak LeruruLŦ
÷ lndex pada kolom perLama MhsŦ
W Skema LksLernal (vlew)ť
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
uaLa Models
W kumpulan Lools konsepLual dalam menaaambarkan
daLaţ daLa relaLlonshlpsţ daLa semanLlcsţ daLa
consLralnLs
W konsep daLa model ť
÷ ,oJel
÷ elotloool ,oJel
W Model laln ť
÷ Netwotk moJel
÷ nletotcblcol moJel
÷ ObjectŴotleoteJ moJel
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
LnLlLvŴ8elaLlonshlp Model
W otltv (enLlLas)ť ºsesuaLu" aLau ºob[ek" dl dunla nvaLa
vana dapaL dlbedakan darl ob[ek laln
÷ LnLlLas dlaambarkan dalam basls daLa sebaaal sekumpulan
aLrlbuL (otttlbote)
ConLohť
customers (cust_name, address, dll)
accounts(account_number, balance, dll)
W elotloosblp (relasl)ť hubunaan anLar enLlLas
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
LnLlLvŴ8elaLlonshlp Model (lanŦ)
W Skema basls daLa dapaL dlmodelkan denaan
dlaaram L8
W ulaaram L8 dlbanaun darl komponen berlkuLť
÷ LnLlLas Ŵƽ seal empaL
÷ ALrlbuL Ŵƽ ellps
÷ 8elasl Ŵƽ belah keLupaL
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
ConLoh dlaaram L8
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
8elaLlonal Model
W Menaaunakan sekumpulan Label vana
menaaambarkan daLa dan relasl anLar daLa
W SeLlap Label memlllkl banvak kolomţ dan
seLlap kolom memlllkl nama vana unlk
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
ConLoh relaLlonal model
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
uaLabase Lanauaae
W SlsLem basls daLa menvedlakan doto
de€inition /onouooe %DDL) unLuk
menspeslflkasl skema basls daLaţ dan doto
monipu/otion /onouooe %DML) unLuk
menaekspreslkan querv basls daLa
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
uuL
ConLohť
c7eate table account (
account-numbercha7(10),
balance ntege7)
W kompller uuL menŴoeoetote LableŴLable vana Lerslmpan
dalam basls daLa pada Joto Jlctloootv
W uaLa dlcLlonarv berlsl meLadaLa (daLa LenLana daLa)
÷ uaLabase schema
÷ uaLa sLoraae and deflnlLlon lanauaae
W 8ahasa vana dlaunakan dalam menspeslflkasl sLrukLur penvlmpanan dan
meLode akses pada slsLem basls daLa
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
uML
W 8ahasa vana dlaunakan unLuk penaaksesan dan manlpulasl
daLa
÷ ulsebuL [uaa oetv looooooe
conLohť
8elect customer.customer-name f7om customer
whe7e customer.customer-id = #192-83-7465#
W 1erdapaL dua kelasť
÷ Þrocedural Ŷ user menenLukan daLa apa vana dlbuLuhkan dan
baaalmana mendapaLkan daLa LersebuL
÷ nonprocedural Ŷ user menenLukan daLa apa vana dlbuLuhkan namun
Lanpa menvebuLkan baaalmana cara mendapaLkan daLa LersebuL
W SCL adalah oetv looooooe vana pallna banvak dlaunakan
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
SCL
W 5CLť bahasa nonŴprocedural
÷ ConLoh ť Carl nama cusLomer denaan cusLomerŴld 192Ŵ83Ŵ7463
8elect customer.customer_name
f7om customer
whe7ecustomer.customer_id = `192-83-7465'
÷ ConLoh ť carl saldo darl cusLomerŴld 192Ŵ83Ŵ7463
select account.balance
from depositor, account
where depositor.customer_id = ´192-83-
7465´ and depositor.account_number =
account.account_number
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
ArslLekLur basls uaLa
W eottollzeJ
W lleotŴsetvet
W lotollel (moltlŴptocessot)
W ulsttlboteJ
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
user 8asls uaLa
Dsers dlbedakan berdasar cara berlnLeraksl
denaan slsLem
W 9rogrammer Ŷ berlnLeraksl denaan slsLem vla uML
W 5oph|st|cated users Ŷ berlnLeraksl dalam bahasa
querv
W 5pec|a||zed Dser Ŷ menulls apllkasl basls daLa khusus
vana Lldak sesual denaan framework pemrosesan
daLa Lradlslonal
W Naïve users
÷ Lxamplesţ people accesslna daLabase over Lhe webţ bank Lellersţ
clerlcal sLaff
I N F O R M A T I C S D E P A R T M E N T - I T T E L K O
C S 2 3 4 3 ÷ R E L A T Ì O N A L D A T A B A S E D E S Ì G N
AdmlnlsLraLor 8asls uaLa
W Menakoordlnasl semua akLlflLas slsLem basls daLaŦ
W 1uaas admlnlsLraLor basls daLa ť
÷ ueflnlsl skema basls daLa
÷ SLrukLur SLoraae dan deflnlsl meLode akses
÷ Modlflkasl skema dan flslk basls daLa
÷ Pak akses user dalam menaakses basls daLa
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