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Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity is a Non-Destructive test of concrete PUNDIT

(Portable Ultrasonic Non – Destructive Digital Indicating Tester) is the instrument
that used in ultrasonic pulse velocity test. The method is based on the propagation of a
high frequency sound wave which passes through the material. The speed of the wave
varies in function of the density of the material, allowing the estimation of the porosity
and the detection of discontinuities. The idea is to project the sound inside a material and
measure the time necessary for the wave to propagate through it. Once the distance is
known, it is possible to determine the average pulse velocity, which will depend on
several factors such as the nature of the material and the presence of water in the pores,
among others.The test is performed by positioning the source and receiver on either side
of the area in question, then the source sends a compressional wave through the region,
and the receiver records the full waveform on the other side. After receiving the pulse,
the instrument can amplify the pulse and also can measure the time taken by the pulse to
travel through the concrete. This test often used to monitor the uniformity of concrete,
degree of compaction, the estimation of in-site strength, the quality and homogeneity of
concrete in relation to specified standard requirement. UPV methods can play an
important role in this area, since they allow us to monitor the density and homogeneity of
the material, providing information about the strength evolution and about the existence
of internal flaws and defects. The UPV methods have been used in inspection operations
and monitoring of concrete structures. This test allows to measure and to control a series
of basic parameters to determine the concrete quality. However, interpreting the result of
this type of test need to be made in a criteriously form and demand a specific knowledge
of the influential factors. In order to collaborate with the development of the models that
consider these factors, it was decided to carry a study aiming to analyze how the cure
process influences the ultrasonic readings. Using the UPV, it was possible to collect
results of concrete specimens, leading to an opportunity to analyze how the cure process

of concrete affects the readings. This analysis is important for concrete durability
prognostics and can be useful considering the economic aspect.


The principle that velocity of sound within a solid mass in the test . V is :

Where is a function,
E is the ratio of Modulus of Elasticity,
Ρ is the Density,
is the acceleration due to gravity.

For assessing the quality of materials from ultrasonic pulse velocity measurement, it is
necessary for this measurement to be of a high order of accuracy. This is done using an
apparatus that generates suitable pulses and accurately measures the time of their
transmission (i.e. transit time) through the material tested. The distance which the pulses
travel in the material (i.e. the path length) must also be measured to enable the velocity to
be determined

Pulse velocity = Path length / Transit time ; expressed in km/s

Path lengths and transit times should each be measured to an accuracy of about ±1%. The
instrument indicates the time taken for the earliest part of the pulse to reach the receiving
transducer measured from the time it leaves the transmitting transducer when these
transducers are placed at suitable points on the surface of the material. Figure 1 shows
how the transducers may be arranged on the surface of the specimen tested, the
transmission being either direct, indirect or semi-direct. The direct transmission

arrangement is the most satisfactory one since the longitudinal pulses leaving the
transmitter are propagated mainly in the direction normal to the transducer face. The
indirect arrangement is possible because the ultrasonic beam of energy is scattered by
discontinuities within the material tested but the strength of the pulse detected in this case
is only about 1 or 2% of that detected for the same path length when the direct
transmission arrangement is used. Pulses are not transmitted through large air voids in a
material and, if such a void lies directly in the pulse path, the instrument will indicate the
time taken by the pulse that circumvents the void by the quickest route. It is thus possible
to detect large voids when a grid of pulse velocity measurements is made over a region in
which these voids are located.

There are 3 types of ways to arrange the transducer.

1. Direct transmission

2. Semi-direct transmission

3. Indirection transmission


1. Determine the uniformity of concrete within structure

2. Detection of the presence of cracks, and
3. Estimates in-situ strength of existing concrete using the supplied Correlation


1. Reference bar

2. Main control unit (42.5µs)

3. Transducer

4. Receiver


1. The equipment is calibrated by placing the transducer and receiver at either end of
the reference bar.

2. Four suitable test locations is chosen for each transducer arrangement. The
surface of test location must be clean, smooth and dry. Preferably mould or
formed surface, but it trowelled surface are unavoidable, rub smooth the surface
using a suitable polish material.

3. The path length is measured using measuring tape or calipers.

4. Grease is applied to the surface of test location to ensure proper contact of the
transducers with the concrete surface.

5. The transducers is positioned at the chosen test location. They are ensured
properly in contact with the concrete surface.

6. Three (3) readings are taken per test location. Four (4) readings will be adequate
to plot the best fit straight line for in-direct transmission.

7. The average reading for each test location is calculated. Plot the best fit straight
line for the in-direct transmission. The average velocity is given by slope of the
best fit line.

8. The compressive strength of the test specimen is estimated by using the chart



Testing result

Part Reading Path Transit Pulse Average

Length, s Time, t Velocity, v
(km) (s) (V)
1 1st 2.04x10-4 6.61 x10-5 3.086
2nd 2.04x10-4 6.82 x10-5 2.991 3.008
3rd 2.04x10-4 6.92 x10-5 2.948
2 1st 2.04x10-4 7.28 x10-5 2.802
2nd 2.04x10-4 7.72 x10-5 2.647 2.751
3rd 2.04x10-4 7.26 x10-5 2.810
3 1st 2.04x10-4 7.24 x10-5 2.818
2nd 2.04x10-4 7.34 x10-5 2.779 2.823
3rd 2.04x10-4 7.10 x10-5 2.873

3.008 2.751 2.823

Average =

= 2.861 (Poor quality concrete)

Calculation :

V= ; expressed in km/s

PART 1 :
2.04x10 −4
1ST reading : V =
6.61x10 −5

= 3.086 km/s

nd 2.04x10 −4
2 reading : V =
6.82x10 −5

= 2.991 km/s

rd 2.04x10 −4
3 reading : V =
6.92x10 −5

= 2.948 km/s
3.086 2.991 2.948
Average =

= 3.008 km/s

PART 2 :

st 2.04x10 −4
1 reading : V =
7.28x10 −5

= 2.802 km/s

nd 2.04x10 −4
2 reading : V = −5

= 2.647 km/s
2.04x10 −4
3rd reading : V =
72.6x10 −5

= 2.810 km/s

2.802 2.647 2.810
Average : V=

= 2.751 km/s

PART 3 :

st 2.04x10 −4
1 reading : V =
7.24x10 −5

= 2.818km/s
2.04x10 −4
2nd reading : V =
7.34x10 −5

= 2.779 km/s
2.04x10 −4
3rd reading : V =
7.10x10 −5

= 2.873 km/s
2.818 2.779 2.873
Average : V= 3

= 2.823 km/s


i) From the test result, give your comments on the quality of the test specimen.

From our result, the average reading for the part 1 is 3.008 km/s, part 2 is 2.751 km/s and
part 3 is 2.823 km/s. The average strength for this concrete is 2.861 km/s. This mean that
our test result indicate the quality of the concrete is poor.
The quality result that we obtained by us may be differ from the actual quality as this is
the first time we used the instrument. During measurement , there are also possible
mishandling of instrument such as the transmitter and receiver are not tightly with contact
with the surface of concrete , thand grease is not apply properly on the surface of
transmitter and receiver or change of surface moisture . Besides that, it is also possible
that there’s reinforcement steel, void and crack between the transmitter and receiver , or
instrument failure when taking measurement.

To carried out this test and obtain accurate measurements, the following precautions
should followed:
1. The technique normally assumes that the only volatile component is water and
any significant contamination by other volatile compounds would invalidate the
2. The moisture content of all specimens must be identical and kept constant during
3. Avoid obstacle in between the transmitter and obstacle except the specimen.
4. Before the experiment is started, make sure the apparatus set base in the standard.
5. There’s no impurities on the surface of the specimen.
6. Calibrate the instrument and make sure the condition of instrument is good.

(i) What are advantages and disadvantages of the UPV Test?

I) Non-destructive strength testing i) Requires skills to provide accurate
determination and monitoring of concrete reading and measurements.
II) Check the uniformity of contrete and ii) Attenuation of signal in order or soft
deterioration. masonry restricts distance between
transducers for indirect and semi-direct use.
III) Can detect flaws,cracks,or voids. iii) Coupling material needed between
masonry and transducers, which may alter
the appearance of the masonry.
IV) Measurement of layer thickness and iv) Grinding may be required to prepare a
eleastic modulus. rough surface.
V) Equipment readily available and only v) No direct correlation with material
moderately expensive. properties.

Pulse velocity tests can be carried out on both laboratory-sized specimens and completed
concrete structures, but some factors affect measurement

1. Path-lengths desired to be at least 12 in. (30 cm) in order to avoid any errors
introduced by heterogeneity.
2. There must be smooth contact with the surface under test; a coupling medium
such as a thin film of oil is mandatory.
3. The presence of reinforcing steel in concrete has an appreciable effect on pulse
velocity. It is therefore desirable and often mandatory to choose lse paths that
avoid the influence of reinforcing steel or to make corrections if steel is in the
pulse path

(ii) Can we use UPV to monitor the quality of concrete during construction

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We can use UPV to monitor the quality of the concrete during construction.
Ultrasonic pulse velocity is an ideal tool and suitable for establishing whether
concrete is uniform. It can be used on both existing structures and those under
construction. Usually, if large differences in pulse velocity are found within a
structure for no apparent reason, there is strong reason to assume that defective or
deteriorated concrete is present. High pulse velocity readings are generally shows sn
indicative of good quality concrete. A general guidelines between concrete quality
and pulse velocity based on UPV is given in Table I.

Longitudinal Pulse (km/s) Concrete Quality

>4.5 Excellent
3.5-4.5 Good
3.0-3.5 Doubtful
2.0-3.0 Poor
(Table 1)

Good correlation can be obtained between cube compressive strength and pulse velocity.
These relations enable the strength of structural concrete to be predicted within ±20 per
cent, provided the types of aggregate and mix proportions are constant. The accuracy of
Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Test does affected by various factor. Such as age of concrete
beam , surface area condition, skills of person who test it and the inside situation of
concrete. For example ,as concrete ages increases, the rate of increase of pulse velocity
slows down much more rapidly than the rate of development of strength, so that beyond a
strength of 2000 to 3000 psi ( 13.6 to 20.4 MPa ) accuracy in determining strength is less
than ±20 per cent. Accuracy depends on careful calibration and use of the same concrete
mix proportions and aggregates in the test samples used for calibration as in the structure.
In summary, ultrasonic pulse velocity tests have a great potential for concrete control
particularly for establishing uniformity and detecting cracks or defects. Its use for
predicting strength is much more limited, owing to the large number of variables
affecting the relation between strength and pulse velocity.

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Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity(UPV) test is one of the non destructive test. It detect cracks,
strength of concrete and other properties of concretes. It is portable and easy for testing.
Since UPV use velocity principle testing method, hence the frequency of the velocity
should be consider too when taking measurement on different material. Higher frequency
is used when the specimen is high density while for the less dense specimen , the lower
frequency is used.

Besides that, except for mishandling of apparatus that affect the actual reading and
environment condition. Composites of concrete also affect the concrete strength. Such as
the water aggregate ratio, size of aggregate and type of cement.

To minimise the error of measuring, transmitter and receiver must tightly in contact with
surface of concrete when taking the measurent. The surface area of concrete should be
smooth and grease should be apply on the surface of transmitter and receiver.

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Rebound hammers are used to determine the compressive strength of concrete.

Compressive strength test results are, among other things, used to determine that the
concrete mixture as delivered meets the requirements of the specification. Structural
failures due to weaker than defined concrete mixes can be catastrophic and may lead to
loss of life. Therefore, quality checks are of paramount importance to serious
construction companies. In addition, non-destructive testing is faster and far more
economical than destructive testing on samples.

Mechanical rebound hammer measure the mechanical travel of the hammer mass on the
rebound. It is affected by its friction on the guide rod, the friction of the drag pointer on
the scale, the influence of gravity during its travel and the relative velocity between unit
and mechanical parts.

Electronic rebound hammers, on the other hand, use the true rebound coefficient that
represents the physical rebound coefficient: Q = 100*((Energy Restored)/(Energy Input))

These rebound hammers measure the velocity of impact and of rebound, immediately
before and after the impact, computing the fraction of energy loss to the specimen under
test. The true rebound coefficient is virtually free of error sources inherent in traditional
concrete test hammers. It is measured optically making the use of a drag and drop pointer
redundant. Thus the true rebound coefficient is less dependent on friction on the guide
rod, the influence of gravity during the travel of the drag pointer and the relative velocity
between unit and specimen. Rebound hammers that measure with the true rebound
coefficient do not need correction for the impact direction. Consequently, impact
direction conversion curves as required with mechanical hammers, are also redundant.

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1. To check the uniformity of concrete, and

2. To estimate in-situ strength of existing concrete using the supplied Correlation

1. Rebound hammer

2. Reference bar

3. Testing Anvil

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1. The hammer’s reading was calibrated and verified using testing anvil.

2. The abrasive stone (beam specimen) is divided into three span for reading.

3. Appropriate tools are used to clean the surface. Basically, rebound hammer would
prefer mould or formed surface.

4. About 12 readings are taken within the area on each span.

5. The plunger was pressed onto the impact point with horizontally direction to its
surface until the spring loaded mass is release from its locked position.

6. The lock button is used to retain the rebound hammer index readingwhile is still in
the test position.

7. The procedure above are repeated for the next two span.

8. The average readings are estimated.

9. The compressive strength of the beam specimen can be obtained by using the
correlation and compressive strength chart.

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Location : Part 1

Test Date : 20.01.2011 Estimated strength : 30 KN/mᶟ

Concrete Type: RC Beam Hammer Orientation : 90°
Rebound Numbers Reading
Reading 1 36
Reading 2 34
Reading 3 30
Reading 4 34
Reading 5 30
Reading 6 30
Reading 7 42
Reading 8 36
Reading 9 44
Reading 10 32
Reading 11 38
Reading 12 36
Average Rebound Reading 35

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Location : Part 2

Test Date : 20.01.2011 Estimated strength : 30 KN/mᶟ

Concrete Type: RC Beam Hammer Orientation : 90°
Rebound Numbers Reading
Reading 1 38
Reading 2 42
Reading 3 32
Reading 4 34
Reading 5 36
Reading 6 32
Reading 7 30
Reading 8 42
Reading 9 42
Reading 10 46
Reading 11 40
Reading 12 40
Average Rebound Reading 38

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Location : Part 3

Test Date : 20.01.2011 Estimated strength : 30 KN/mᶟ

Concrete Type: RC Beam Hammer Orientation : 90°
Rebound Numbers Reading
Reading 1 34
Reading 2 34
Reading 3 34
Reading 4 34
Reading 5 32
Reading 6 36
Reading 7 34
Reading 8 34
Reading 9 44
Reading 10 40
Reading 11 40
Reading 12 40
Average Rebound Reading 36

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Part 1

Average Rebound Reading:

= 36 + 34 + 30 + 34 + 30 + 30 + 42 + 36 + 44 + 32 + 38 + 36


= 35

Part 2

Average Rebound Reading:

= 38 + 42 + 32 + 34 + 36 + 32 + 30 + 42 + 42 + 46 + 40 + 40


= 38

Part 3

Average Rebound Reading:

= 34 + 34 + 34 + 34 + 32 + 36 + 34 + 34 + 44 + 40 + 40 + 40


= 36

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Average Value
= 35 + 38 + 36

= 36

Compressive Strength (Based On The Correlation Chart)

= 33 N/mm2

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(i) Why does non destructive test is carried out?

Nondestructive testing (NDT) is a wide group of analysis techniques used in

science and industry to evaluate the properties of a material, component or
system without causing damage. Because NDT does not permanently alter the
article being inspected, it is a highly-valuable technique that can save both
money and time in product evaluation, troubleshooting, and research.

(ii) State the factors that could be affect the value obtained from the Rebound
Hammer Test? Expain.


Can be used to determine the in-place compressive strength of concrete within

a range of 1500 – 8000 psi (10-55MPa)


The surface texture significantly affects the R-number obtained. Tests

performed on a rough-textured finish will typically result in crushing of the
surface paste,resulting in a lower number. Alternately, tests performed on the
same concrete that has a hard, smooth texture will typically result in a higher
R-number. Therefore, it is recommended that test areas with a rough surface
be ground to a uniform smoothness. This can be achieved easily with a

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Carborundum stone or similar abrasive stone. The FHWA Guide states that
research has shown that troweled surfaces and surfaces formed by metal forms
yield rebound numbers 5% - 25% higher than surfaces cast against wooden
forms. It also states that troweled surfaces give a higher scatter of results,
which lower confidence in the estimated strengths. ASTM C 805 states that
where formed surfaces were ground, increases in rebound number of 2.1 for
plywood formed surfaces and 0.4 for high-density plywood formed surfaces
have been noted. The majority of concrete surface hardness is developed in
the first 7 days. However, the concrete will typically continue to gain
significant strength with cement hydration. Testing of concrete less than 3
days old or concrete with expected strengths less than 1000 psi is not
recommended because the R-numbers will be too low for an accurate reading
and will be more destructive to the concrete surface. Concrete continuing to
develop strength with age is again reason for the development of data relating
rebound numbers and the compressive strength of the concrete mixture or
cores from the structure.


This has a profound effect on the test results. Dry concrete surfaces result in
higher rebound numbers than wet surfaces. The FHWA Guide references a
study where saturated surface-dry (SSD) specimens were left in a room at
70ºF and air-dried. The specimens gained 3 points in 3 days and 5 points in 7
days. It is recommended that to achieve the most accurate results where the
actual moisture condition is unknown, the surface should be pre-saturated
with water several hours prior to testing and use the correlation developed for
SSD specimens

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With greater amounts of surface carbonation, higher rebound numbers will be

obtained. Rebound numbers on a carbonated surface can be as much as 50
higher than non-carbonated surfaces. Older concrete surfaces may have much
deeper amounts of surface carbonation than younger concrete. ASTM states
that the effects of moisture content and carbonation can be reduced by
thoroughly wetting the surface for 24 hours before testing, and that where a
thick layer of carbonation is present, it may be necessary to use a power
grinder to remove the carbonated concrete and obtain more accurate data.


The presence of materials in the immediate area where the plunger comes into
contact with the concrete will have an obviously profound effect as well. If the
test is performed over a hard aggregate particle or a section of steel
reinforcement, the result may be an unusually high rebound number. ASTM C
805 states that tests directly over reinforcing bars with cover less than 0.75
inches should not be conducted. The use of a pachometer or similar device is
recommended for determining the location and cover in structurally reinforced
concrete. Likewise, if the test is performed over a very soft aggregate particle
or an air void, an unusually low rebound number may result. The FHWA
guide reported that for equal compressive strengths, concrete made with
crushed limestone resulted in rebound numbers approximately 7 points higher
than concrete made with gravel, representing a difference of approximately
1000 psi compressive strength estimation. Because of the factors mentioned
above, ASTM C 805 requires that for each test area, ten readings be obtained
with no two tests being closer to one another than one inch. Readings differing
from the average of the ten readings by more than six units should be
discarded. Also, if two readings differ from the average by six units or more,

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the operator should discard the entire set of readings and take ten new
readings within the test area.


Tests should not be performed on frozen concrete surfaces. Wet concrete at

temperatures of 32ºF or less may result in higher rebound numbers. Also, the
temperature of the Swiss Hammer itself in extreme cold (0ºF) may result in
rebound numbers reduced by as much as two or three units.


The device itself should be serviced and verified annually or whenever there is
a reason to doubt proper performance. Verification of proper performance of
the device includes the use of a test anvil. The required dimensions and steel
hardness is listed in ASTM C 805. Impacting the proper test anvil with a
properly functioning device will typically result in rebound numbers of 80 ±
2. If the device is believed to not be functioning properly, it is recommended
to send it back to the manufacturer or experienced facility for repairs and re-

(iii) What does the Rebound Hammer indicate?

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This test method may be used to assess the in-place uniformity of concrete, to
delineate regions in a structure of poor quality or deteriorated concrete, and to
estimate in-place strength development. To use this method to estimate strength
development requires establishment of a relationship between strength and rebound
number for a given concrete mixture. This simple to use gauge consists of a spring
loaded plunger which, when released, strikes the surface with fixed and constant
impact energy. During the rebound stroke, the mass moves a pointer that indicates the
maximum point of return and at the same time indicates a reference value called
Rebound Number.

The strength of concrete is generally governed by the strength of the cement

paste. Measurement of the strength of the paste can therefore provide a reasonable
indication of the strength of the concrete and the strength can be determined by
inference from the elasticity of the concrete. A practical assessment of elasticity can
be made on site by measuring the rebound of a sprung hammer.

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From this experiment, we will know Rebound hammer test is a method may be used to
assess the in-place uniformity of concrete. From the results that we obtained, we could
not obtain the uniform data of the quality.

This test also can estimate the in-place strength development by estimating the strength
development which establishes a relationship between strength and rebound number for a
given concrete mixture.

The estimated strength for the RC beam is G30. By referring to the Compressive Strength
Estimation Chart, the compressive strength is 52N/mm². It proves the test specimen is
good in compressive strength

There are many factors other than concrete strength that influences rebound hammer test
results which includes surface smoothness and finish, moisture content, coarse aggregate
type, and the presence of carbonation.

Although rebound hammers can be used to estimate concrete strength, the rebound
numbers must be correlated with the compressive strength of molded specimens or cores
taken from the structure.

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It maybe necessary to locate the exact position of reinforcement in concrete

members such as beams, columns and slabs during the course of detailed investigation,
especially when core sample is to be extracted from members. Rebar locator or
covermeter can be used to detect the presence of steel in concrete. This test is non-
destructive in nature as it relies on the magnetic field for detecting embedded steel. The
covermeter can also be used to measure the thickness of concrete cover to the reinforcing

To allow certain constructions and to strengthen the concrete rebars are cast into it.
Drilling through those reinforcing bars is a costly business that can be dangerous: Hitting
a rebar while boring into the reinforced concrete can destroy the drilling instrument and
can severely weaken the concrete structure. An instrument for rebar detection that
quickly and accurately determines the location of the reinforcing bars in the concrete will
significantly decrease construction time and costs.


An electromagnetic field is generated by a search head. When reinforcing bar or other

metal object lies within the field, the lines of force become distorted. The disturbance
caused by the presence of the metal object in turn produces a local change in the field
strength as detected by the search head and indicated by the meter.

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I. Determine the location of reinforcement bars in reinforced concrete members.

II. Determine the thickness of concrete cover .


I. Covermeter

II. Calibration block

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I. Locating reinforcement bars.

a. The measuring head was connected to covermeter.

b. On ‘‘DIAM’’knob, required bar diameter was selected.

c. ‘‘ZERO’’ knob is switched to ON position.

d. “MODE’’ knob is switched to LOCATE position .

e. The sensing head is held away from any metallic object and turn “ZERO”
knob until the red line on the analogue meter is in the center of the two red
arrows and the sound output is at low frequency (at this point the LCD
should be at 0.000v)

f. The sensing head is placed in direct contact with concrete surface and
move over surface until peak signal is obtained.

g. Position on concrete surface is marked.

II. Depth of concrete cover measurement.

a. The measuring head is connected to the covermeter.

b. The “DIAM” knob is turned to known bar diameter (or estimated)

c. The “ZERO” knob is switched to ON position.

d. “MODE” is turned to “CAL”

e. The sensing head is held away from any metallic object and turn “ZERO”
knob until the red line on the analogue meter is in the center of the two red
arrows and the sound output is at low frequency(at this point the LCD should
be at 0.000v)

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f. The “MODE” knob is turned to “DEPTH”.

g. Black face of head is placed against concrete surface centrally over bar
position and orientate it parallel to the direction of reinforcement bars to
obtain minimum indication.

h. The depth is read off directly in mm.


i. The first test specimen is done to obtain the depth of the reinforcement bar (Y20)
and to identify the location of the reinforcement bar (Y20) in the concrete. The
second test specimen is done to determine the depth of the concrete cover
measurement and the number of (R10) bar in the concrete.

ii. Advantages of Covermeter test

• The sensor design allows the end user to quickly and accurately locate and
determine concrete cover in corners or hard to reach areas.

• The exact position and orientation of rebar can be measured quickly and
accurately. Rebar-free areas can be identified forcoring, grinding,
resurfacing, or insertion of new machinery mountings.

Disadvantages of Covermeter test

• It can easily affected by surrounding metallic particularly ferrous


• It cannot detect the second layer of rebar without drill.

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iii. No, covermeter cannot be used to monitor the quality of concrete during
construction because it can only be used to detect the location of reinforcement
bars in the concrete and the thickness of concrete cover.

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Location of reinforcement bars in the concrete is obtained and the thickness of concrete
cover is determined.

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• Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity test/ Pundit Test

1.)J. Hola and K. Schabowicz, New technique of nondestructive assessment of concrete

strength using artificial intelligence, NDT&E International 38 (2005), pp. 251–259
4.)ultrasonic pulse velocity test

• Rebound Hammer Test

1. Bray, D.E. and R.K. Stanley, 1997, Nondestructive Evaluation: A Tool for
Design, Manufacturing and Service; CRC Press, 1996.
2. Chuck Hellier, Handbook of Nondestructive Evaluation, McGraw-Hill
Professional; 2001
3. Peter J. Shull, Nondestructive Evaluation: Theory, Techniques, and Applications,
Marcel Dekker Inc., 2002.
4. Concrete Impact Test, Rebound Hammer.mht

•Rebar Locator Test



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