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**CRITICAL**
Augustana Sam/Washington (Critical-Disarm) [DCH]

Current disarmament negotiations will maintain a hedge of weapons and leave open the possibility for new weapons
systems.
Frida Berrigan, senior program associate at The New America Foundation's Arms and Security Initiative, 5/14/2009
“Nuclear Options,” http://www.counterpunch.org/berrigan05142009.html
Congress gave a…and new facilities.

The very existence of nuclear weapons shreds the fabric of democracy by allowing decisions about their use to be
made by leaders without the input of the public. This willingness to privilege the interests of the rulers over the wishes
of the public is consistent and bipartisan throughout time and creates a permanent state of warfare where a small
circle of individuals are granted the authority to enact apocalyptic destruction.
Richard Falk, Milbank Professor of International Law and Practice at Princeton University, 1982 “Nuclear Weapons
and The End of Democracy,” PRAXIS International, Issue 1
In this essay…shape societal destiny.

Democracy is the ultimate impact – it is the equivalent of nuclear war, it sanctions all forms of violence and is
responsible for the vast majority of history’s death and destruction.
RJ Rummel, Professor Emeritus at University of Hawaii, 1994 “Death By Government”,
http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/DBG.CHAP1.HTM
Power kills, absolute…Book of the Dead.

PLAN
We demand that:

The United States Congress should abolish the United States Federal Government’s nuclear arsenal.

Individual demands for disarmament are critical to creating the conditions necessary for a world without weapons and
war. This round represents a unique opportunity to exchange ideas and plans that disarm the bombs in our lives. This
demand creates non-violence, democratic dialogue, awareness and tolerance capable of confronting the dichotomous
thinking that makes nuclear annihilation inevitable.
Dennis Kucinich, Democratic Congressional Representative from Ohio, 4/1/2002 “Peace and Nuclear Disarmament,”
http://www.counterpunch.org/kucinichdisarm.html
If you believe…world of tolerance.

Congressional action is key to ensuring constitutionally mandated oversight of nuclear policy.


Stanley Foundation, 2008
“Toward an Integrated US Nuclear Weapons Policy: Address US Security in an Interconnected World,” Final Report of
the US Nuclear Policy Review Project,
http://www.stanleyfoundation.org/publications/report/USNuclearPolicyReviewESc.pdf
The lack of…on strategic policy.

Disarmament fulfills the democratic promise to combine a sense of realism and idealism by moving from what ‘is’ in the
world to what ‘ought’ to be.
Max Kampelman, Headed of the U.S. delegation for Nuclear and Space Arms negotiations from 1985-9, 4/24/2006
“We Should, So We Can: Life Without the Bomb,” International Herald Tribune,
http://www.commondreams.org/views06/0424-21.htm
Washington -- In my…of mass destruction.

Individual demands are critical to building the political pressure to push American leaders to accept complete
disarmament. The alternative is to wait for leaders to emerge, delays and modifications to the arsenal that put us on a
collision course with annihilation.
David Kreiger, President of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, 8/5-6/2006 “A Global Hiroshima,”
http://www.counterpunch.org/krieger08052006.html
It has been…not be higher.

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Bard Jaffe-Goldstein/Luxemberg (Critical) [Ogi]

Aff- Westpoint
THOUGH SHALL NOT MAKE FALSE IMAGES OF SELF….The Atom Bomb Feigns The Power Of God to Destroy –
But is created Out of the spirit of Death destroying our ability to care as it demands our offerings sacrificing the poor
education leading us into empty lives which can only be fulfilled with the explosions of Nuclear Proportions
1996 Plowshares Trial Brief “ON obedience ot God and God’s Law: An excerpt from the griffis plowshares trial brief”
On trial in swords into plowshares nonviolent direct action for disarmeament..peace..social justice – Edited by Laffin,
Arthur and Montgomery, Anne, p. 116-117

And The State disobeys divine Law hence Nuclear weapons have become false idols for the state-sanction religion of
militarism, we no longer worship G-d, but instead the big cold metal rod of our false idols thus violating our freedom of
religion and the sanctity of Gods Laws creating our nation as sinners with blood on our hands
Laffin, Arthur, J> 1996. (Plowshare activist and author) in Idolaatry, Nuclearism and the national Security State in
“Swords into Plowshares” ed. Art laffin, Anne Montgomery. Pgs. 272-3
As We Shiver In Our Insecurity We develop Shelters to hide in and Bombs to project our dreams on – we pretend to be
powerless and close our eyes searching for a cure creating a deadly alliance between self and symbol –
Berrigan, Phillip 1996 (ex=priest, author, activist) On blindness and healing in “Swords into plowshares”, ed. Arthur J.
Laffin Anne MOntogomery pgs 19-20
Our national vulnerability and insecurity creates an assertion of US hegemonic power that emerges when we identify
as the US state, an insecure state boasting its powers but wimpering on the inside

Butler 06 [Judith, Precarious Life: The Powers of Mourning and Violence] 7


We thus externalize our fears into the US military complex creating the worst forms of hegemony reaffirming sexism,
racism and androcentrism
Campbell, Prof Afr Am Studies & Poly Sci @ Syracuse; 3; Radical History Review; Iss. 85; “Beyond Militarism and
Terrorism in the Biotech Century: Toward a Culture of Peace and Transformation”
Thus we offer a prayer in response to the hail of the resolutions call to the reduction of the nuclear realities of today:
Thus G-d will judge among the nations and arbitrate for the many peoples and they shall beat their swords into
plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks: nation shall not take up sword against nation, they shall never again
learn war. (Isiah 2:1-5)

NOW is the time to challenge the court of debate – we are sick of worshipping lies that become laws that propogate a
criminal state and its nuclear idols – The Judge will vote to assert the crimes of the institutional worship of the Bomb
and all its destructive sins
1996 Opening Statement of the Pax Christi=Spirit of Life Plowshares US Distric Court Elizabeth city n.c. February 15,
1994 – in plowshares nonviolent direct action ed. laffin and mongomery p. 135-136
Our commitment to the peaceful act of Love requires a reintroduction of moral and ethical concerns to the debate
round as a way to unlearn war – War has become inscribed into the very process of education and until we leave state
based debate to turn towards our development of our agency
Giroux 06 (Henry A. Giroux, American Cultural Critic, one of the founding theorists of critical pedagogy in the United
States, Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, Dirty Democracy and State Terrorism: The
Politics of the New Authoritarianism in the United States Vol. 26, No. 2, 2006)
This ponse is an act of divine obedience through nonviolence – it is an attitude and moving force that goes beyond
strategic political actions which reinforce a traditional relationship to the law
MOntogmery 1996 Anne divine obedience in swords into plowshars p. 1-2
We must speak with personal narratives to disrupt the nuclear authority
Elmer Mass 1996

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Baylor Cook/McVey (Critical-Agamben) [Eli]

Gonzaga Aff

Gonz Rnd 1- aff v. NU GL- McBride

We begin our investigation with Marc LaFleur’s 2007 observation:


If you visited the Bradbury Museum, in Los Alamos, New Mexico, …mention of Hiroshima was ever made.
Lafleur 2007 “LAFLEUR-LITTLE BOY”
Marc Lafleur, Dept of Anthropology, York University Culture, Trauma, and Conflict: Cultural Studies Perspectives on
War, edited by Nico Carpentier 2007 pg (pg 212-214)
The Rebirth of Little Boy is a crucial site for analyzing the dual nature of sovereign power. The power to both protect
and kill whole populations is monumentalized as the essence of American political life.
Lafleur 2007 “LAFLEUR KILL TO SAVE”
Marc Lafleur, Dept of Anthropology, York University Culture, Trauma, and Conflict: Cultural Studies Perspectives on
War, edited by Nico Carpentier 2007 pg 215-217
A further complication. The characteristics of death …lived under the promises and threats embedded within?
The biopolitical system operates both in reference to and exclusion of bare life, or life reduced to mere biological
existence. When human survival becomes the essence of political subjectivity- a new political figure emerges - the
Muselmann.
The Muselmann were the prisoners in German concentration camps that were abandoned by the community of camp
prisoners, beyond any hope of recognition. Pushed to the brink of famine prisoners would shake and moan, hunched
over like Muslims at prayer. The Muselmann is the constant reminder that every human life carries within itself an
inhuman life, and that when the zero point of politics is survival, we all are potential muselmanner. Agamben 98
Giorgio, Remnants of Auschwitz, 84-86
Let us try to further develop Foucault’s analysis…. this point, is a simple epiphenomenon.
Because nuclear weapons are both a tool of destruction and a celebrated American achievement, they offer us a
unique site for interrogating the paradoxes of bare life.
Lafleur writes, “as the memorial … and traumas emerge” (209).
One such fault line emerged in July of 2005. The National Atomic Museum in Albuquerque New Mexico
commemorated the 60th anniversary of the opening of the Trinity test site, the site that would host the explosions that
were later replicated on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The celebration, called “The Blast from the Past”, was
meant to commemorate the shining history of U.S. nuclear achievement. Shigeko Sasamori, a survivor of the
Hiroshima bombing, was present at the ceremony. Her presence introduced a remnant that interrupted the self-serving
historical narrative of U.S. accomplishment.
Lafleur 2007 “Lafleur Blast From The Past”
Marc Lafleur, Dept of Anthropology, York University Culture, Trauma, and Conflict: Cultural Studies Perspectives on
War, edited by Nico Carpentier 2007pg, (218-220)
Blast from the Past was a …the topic no longer just intellectual but now sensual.

When faced with the traumatic figure of a Hiroshima survivor, the glorified image American life is confronted with
something impossible to recognize, a remnant which survives the unsurvivable.
Lafleur 2007 “Lafleur Denial”
Marc Lafleur, Dept of Anthropology, York University Culture, Trauma, and Conflict: Cultural Studies Perspectives on
War, edited by Nico Carpentier 2007220-221
Shigeko Sasamori was thirteen …olds don’t have skin that smooth.’’
Two responses emerge from the experience of Sasamori’s testimony.
The first response follows the path of the two women who denied Sasamori’s existence. This path leads a retreat into
the logic of sovereignty – rationality fills in and rebuilds a temporary grounding for subjectivity. Political action is
simulated in order to repress emotion and anxiety in the face of trauma, as life is again reduced to bare life.
Lafleur 2007 “Lafleur Anasthesia”
Marc Lafleur, Dept of Anthropology, York University Culture, Trauma, and Conflict: Cultural Studies Perspectives on
War, edited by Nico Carpentier 2007 222-224
It is only when a perceived or imagined … need or desire for human engagement null. …feedback loop, to encompass
them as well.
A second response to Sasamori’s testimony is to bear witness to bare life itself. Our 1ac embraces this model of
witnessing by refusing to follow sovereignty back into the realm of security. An affirmative ballot bears witness to an
ethics that refuses to abandon and isolate bare life.
Noys 2005

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Benjamin Noys, The Culture of Death, 96-97


Agamben is arguing that there is … and so does not forget our exposure to death.
The political struggle over U.S. nuclear weapons relies on a series of texts, discourses, and symbols through which
nuclear weapons are given cultural significance. Our 1AC interrupts the dominant narrative established at places like
the Bradbury Science Museum, challenging the discursive defense of deterrence theory and the symbolic role of U.S.
nuclear weapons.
Taylor 1997
Bryan C. Taylor, Ph. D., Communication, University of Utah Associate Professor, Department of Communication,
University of Colorado, Boulder, Revis(it)ing Nuclear History: Narrative Conflict at the Bradbury Science Museum*
Studies in Cults., Orgs. and Socs., 1997, Vol. 3, pp. 119-145
http://mps.uchicago.edu/docs/2006/readings/TaylorNuclearHistoryMuseums.pdf
Within the past decade, the U.S. nuclear weapons … forms of power and privilege justified and celebrated" (Lumley
1988: 2).
Sovereign power operates by concealing its involvement in the wars and genocides that create illusion of the state’s
necessity. We’re told that political events take place in an empty space of present time where political subjects are
shielded from historical trauma. Memory is a crucial site of resistance.
Edkins 2003 Jenny Edkins, Professor of International Politics .at Prifysgol Aberystwyth University, She has degrees
from Oxford , where she was a Nuffield Scholar, the City University , the Open University and the University of Wales,
Trauma and the memory of politics, pg., 2003, pg xiv-xv
“Of course, the distinction I have made…struggle of memory against forgetting.
The 1AC is a site of political potentiality. By bearing witness to the bare life that we all carry within ourselves, we open
ourselves to a new plane of political intensity that defies sovereign control.
Lafleur 2007 “Lafleur Potentiality”
Marc Lafleur, Dept of Anthropology, York University Culture, Trauma, and Conflict: Cultural Studies Perspectives on
War, edited by Nico Carpentier 2007, 224-225
Traumatic eruptions of sympathy,… of intensification that this potential may harnessed.

GSU Aff Disclosure


SAME AS ABOVE
We begin our investigation with Marc LaFleur’s 2007 observation:
If you visited the Bradbury Museum, in Los Alamos, New Mexico, …mention of Hiroshima was ever made.
Lafleur 2007 “LAFLEUR-LITTLE BOY”
Marc Lafleur, Dept of Anthropology, York University Culture, Trauma, and Conflict: Cultural Studies Perspectives on
War, edited by Nico Carpentier 2007 pg (pg 212-214)
The Rebirth of Little Boy is a crucial site for analyzing the dual nature of sovereign power. The power to both protect
and kill whole populations is monumentalized as the essence of American political life.
Lafleur 2007 “LAFLEUR KILL TO SAVE”
Marc Lafleur, Dept of Anthropology, York University Culture, Trauma, and Conflict: Cultural Studies Perspectives on
War, edited by Nico Carpentier 2007 pg 215-217
A further complication. The characteristics of death …lived under the promises and threats embedded within?
The biopolitical system operates both in reference to and exclusion of bare life, or life reduced to mere biological
existence. When human survival becomes the essence of political subjectivity- a new political figure emerges - the
Muselmann.
The Muselmann were the prisoners in German concentration camps that were abandoned by the community of camp
prisoners, beyond any hope of recognition. Pushed to the brink of famine prisoners would shake and moan, hunched
over like Muslims at prayer. The Muselmann is the constant reminder that every human life carries within itself an
inhuman life, and that when the zero point of politics is survival, we all are potential muselmanner. Agamben 98
Giorgio, Remnants of Auschwitz, 84-86
Let us try to further develop Foucault’s analysis…. this point, is a simple epiphenomenon.
Because nuclear weapons are both a tool of destruction and a celebrated American achievement, they offer us a
unique site for interrogating the paradoxes of bare life.
Lafleur writes, “as the memorial … and traumas emerge” (209).
One such fault line emerged in July of 2005. The National Atomic Museum in Albuquerque New Mexico
commemorated the 60th anniversary of the opening of the Trinity test site, the site that would host the explosions that
were later replicated on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The celebration, called “The Blast from the Past”, was
meant to commemorate the shining history of U.S. nuclear achievement. Shigeko Sasamori, a survivor of the
Hiroshima bombing, was present at the ceremony. Her presence introduced a remnant that interrupted the self-serving
historical narrative of U.S. accomplishment.
Lafleur 2007 “Lafleur Blast From The Past”

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Marc Lafleur, Dept of Anthropology, York University Culture, Trauma, and Conflict: Cultural Studies Perspectives on
War, edited by Nico Carpentier 2007 pg, (218-220)
Blast from the Past was a …the topic no longer just intellectual but now sensual.

When faced with the traumatic figure of a Hiroshima survivor, the glorified image American life is confronted with
something impossible to recognize, a remnant which survives the unsurvivable.
Lafleur 2007 “Lafleur Denial”
Marc Lafleur, Dept of Anthropology, York University Culture, Trauma, and Conflict: Cultural Studies Perspectives on
War, edited by Nico Carpentier 2007 220-221
Shigeko Sasamori was thirteen …olds don’t have skin that smooth.’’
Two responses emerge from the experience of Sasamori’s testimony.
The first response follows the path of the two women who denied Sasamori’s existence. This path leads a retreat into
the logic of sovereignty – rationality fills in and rebuilds a temporary grounding for subjectivity. Political action is
simulated in order to repress emotion and anxiety in the face of trauma, as life is again reduced to bare life.
Lafleur 2007 “Lafleur Anasthesia”
Marc Lafleur, Dept of Anthropology, York University Culture, Trauma, and Conflict: Cultural Studies Perspectives on
War, edited by Nico Carpentier 2007 222-224
It is only when a perceived or imagined … need or desire for human engagement null. …feedback loop, to encompass
them as well.
A second response to Sasamori’s testimony is to bear witness to bare life itself. Our 1ac embraces this model of
witnessing by refusing to follow sovereignty back into the realm of security. An affirmative ballot bears witness to an
ethics that refuses to abandon and isolate bare life.
Noys 2005
Benjamin Noys, The Culture of Death, 96-97
Agamben is arguing that there is … and so does not forget our exposure to death.
The political struggle over U.S. nuclear weapons relies on a series of texts, discourses, and symbols through which
nuclear weapons are given cultural significance. Our 1AC interrupts the dominant narrative established at places like
the Bradbury Science Museum, challenging the discursive defense of deterrence theory and the symbolic role of U.S.
nuclear weapons.
Taylor 1997
Bryan C. Taylor, Ph. D., Communication, University of Utah Associate Professor, Department of Communication,
University of Colorado, Boulder, Revis(it)ing Nuclear History: Narrative Conflict at the Bradbury Science Museum*
Studies in Cults., Orgs. and Socs., 1997, Vol. 3, pp. 119-145
http://mps.uchicago.edu/docs/2006/readings/TaylorNuclearHistoryMuseums.pdf
Within the past decade, the U.S. nuclear weapons … forms of power and privilege justified and celebrated" (Lumley
1988: 2).
Sovereign power operates by concealing its involvement in the wars and genocides that create illusion of the state’s
necessity. We’re told that political events take place in an empty space of present time where political subjects are
shielded from historical trauma. Memory is a crucial site of resistance.
Edkins 2003 Jenny Edkins, Professor of International Politics .at Prifysgol Aberystwyth University, She has degrees
from Oxford , where she was a Nuffield Scholar, the City University , the Open University and the University of Wales,
Trauma and the memory of politics, pg., 2003, pg xiv-xv
“Of course, the distinction I have made…struggle of memory against forgetting.
The 1AC is a site of political potentiality. By bearing witness to the bare life that we all carry within ourselves, we open
ourselves to a new plane of political intensity that defies sovereign control.
Lafleur 2007 “Lafleur Potentiality”
Marc Lafleur, Dept of Anthropology, York University Culture, Trauma, and Conflict: Cultural Studies Perspectives on
War, edited by Nico Carpentier 2007, 224-225
Traumatic eruptions of sympathy,… of intensification that this potential may harnessed.We begin our investigation with
Marc LaFleur’s 2007 observation:
If you visited the Bradbury Museum, in Los Alamos, New Mexico, …mention of Hiroshima was ever made.
Lafleur 2007 “LAFLEUR-LITTLE BOY”
Marc Lafleur, Dept of Anthropology, York University Culture, Trauma, and Conflict: Cultural Studies Perspectives on
War, edited by Nico Carpentier 2007 pg (pg 212-214)
The Rebirth of Little Boy is a crucial site for analyzing the dual nature of sovereign power. The power to both protect
and kill whole populations is monumentalized as the essence of American political life.
Lafleur 2007 “LAFLEUR KILL TO SAVE”
Marc Lafleur, Dept of Anthropology, York University Culture, Trauma, and Conflict: Cultural Studies Perspectives on
War, edited by Nico Carpentier 2007 pg 215-217
A further complication. The characteristics of death …lived under the promises and threats embedded within?

Page 5 of 703
Minnesota CWRU Neg
Wayne 2009

The biopolitical system operates both in reference to and exclusion of bare life, or life reduced to mere biological
existence. When human survival becomes the essence of political subjectivity- a new political figure emerges - the
Muselmann.
The Muselmann were the prisoners in German concentration camps that were abandoned by the community of camp
prisoners, beyond any hope of recognition. Pushed to the brink of famine prisoners would shake and moan, hunched
over like Muslims at prayer. The Muselmann is the constant reminder that every human life carries within itself an
inhuman life, and that when the zero point of politics is survival, we all are potential muselmanner. Agamben 98
Giorgio, Remnants of Auschwitz, 84-86
Let us try to further develop Foucault’s analysis…. this point, is a simple epiphenomenon.
Because nuclear weapons are both a tool of destruction and a celebrated American achievement, they offer us a
unique site for interrogating the paradoxes of bare life.
Lafleur writes, “as the memorial … and traumas emerge” (209).
One such fault line emerged in July of 2005. The National Atomic Museum in Albuquerque New Mexico
commemorated the 60th anniversary of the opening of the Trinity test site, the site that would host the explosions that
were later replicated on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The celebration, called “The Blast from the Past”, was
meant to commemorate the shining history of U.S. nuclear achievement. Shigeko Sasamori, a survivor of the
Hiroshima bombing, was present at the ceremony. Her presence introduced a remnant that interrupted the self-serving
historical narrative of U.S. accomplishment.
Lafleur 2007 “Lafleur Blast From The Past”
Marc Lafleur, Dept of Anthropology, York University Culture, Trauma, and Conflict: Cultural Studies Perspectives on
War, edited by Nico Carpentier 2007 pg, (218-220)
Blast from the Past was a …the topic no longer just intellectual but now sensual.

When faced with the traumatic figure of a Hiroshima survivor, the glorified image American life is confronted with
something impossible to recognize, a remnant which survives the unsurvivable.
Lafleur 2007 “Lafleur Denial”
Marc Lafleur, Dept of Anthropology, York University Culture, Trauma, and Conflict: Cultural Studies Perspectives on
War, edited by Nico Carpentier 2007 220-221
Shigeko Sasamori was thirteen …olds don’t have skin that smooth.’’
Two responses emerge from the experience of Sasamori’s testimony.
The first response follows the path of the two women who denied Sasamori’s existence. This path leads a retreat into
the logic of sovereignty – rationality fills in and rebuilds a temporary grounding for subjectivity. Political action is
simulated in order to repress emotion and anxiety in the face of trauma, as life is again reduced to bare life.
Lafleur 2007 “Lafleur Anasthesia”
Marc Lafleur, Dept of Anthropology, York University Culture, Trauma, and Conflict: Cultural Studies Perspectives on
War, edited by Nico Carpentier 2007 222-224
It is only when a perceived or imagined … need or desire for human engagement null. …feedback loop, to encompass
them as well.
A second response to Sasamori’s testimony is to bear witness to bare life itself. Our 1ac embraces this model of
witnessing by refusing to follow sovereignty back into the realm of security. An affirmative ballot bears witness to an
ethics that refuses to abandon and isolate bare life.
Noys 2005
Benjamin Noys, The Culture of Death, 96-97
Agamben is arguing that there is … and so does not forget our exposure to death.
The political struggle over U.S. nuclear weapons relies on a series of texts, discourses, and symbols through which
nuclear weapons are given cultural significance. Our 1AC interrupts the dominant narrative established at places like
the Bradbury Science Museum, challenging the discursive defense of deterrence theory and the symbolic role of U.S.
nuclear weapons.
Taylor 1997
Bryan C. Taylor, Ph. D., Communication, University of Utah Associate Professor, Department of Communication,
University of Colorado, Boulder, Revis(it)ing Nuclear History: Narrative Conflict at the Bradbury Science Museum*
Studies in Cults., Orgs. and Socs., 1997, Vol. 3, pp. 119-145
http://mps.uchicago.edu/docs/2006/readings/TaylorNuclearHistoryMuseums.pdf
Within the past decade, the U.S. nuclear weapons … forms of power and privilege justified and celebrated" (Lumley
1988: 2).
Sovereign power operates by concealing its involvement in the wars and genocides that create illusion of the state’s
necessity. We’re told that political events take place in an empty space of present time where political subjects are
shielded from historical trauma. Memory is a crucial site of resistance.

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Edkins 2003 Jenny Edkins, Professor of International Politics .at Prifysgol Aberystwyth University, She has degrees
from Oxford , where she was a Nuffield Scholar, the City University , the Open University and the University of Wales,
Trauma and the memory of politics, pg., 2003, pg xiv-xv
“Of course, the distinction I have made…struggle of memory against forgetting.

Framework Answers

The 1AC is a site of political potentiality. By bearing witness to the bare life that we all carry within ourselves, we open
ourselves to a new plane of political intensity that defies sovereign control.
Lafleur 2007 “Lafleur Potentiality”
Marc Lafleur, Dept of Anthropology, York University Culture, Trauma, and Conflict: Cultural Studies Perspectives on
War, edited by Nico Carpentier 2007, 224-225
Traumatic eruptions of sympathy, relief, pleasure or …intensification that this potential may harnessed.

The framework tries to produce a closed predictable debate that models the consensus politics of modern democracy.
This repeats the depoliticizing and exclusionary move of sovereignty which requires us to forget the trauma at the
heart of our democratic social order.
Edkins 2003
Jenny Edkins, Professor of International Politics .at Prifysgol Aberystwyth University, She has degrees from Oxford ,
where she was a Nuffield Scholar, the City University , the Open University and the University of Wales, Trauma and
the memory of politics, pg. 11-12, 2003
The uncertainty and unpredictability that this involves…closed social order

A.Cost benefit Analysis is depoliticizing and methodologically bankrupt – it renders all life politically calculable.
WOLCHER 2K7
[louie e., professor of law @ university of washington – seattle, “senseless kindness: the politics of cost-benefit
analysis”, 25 law and inequality: j. of theory and practice, 147-202]

Taking Husserl's distinction between facts …advance what counts as a fact.


B. Calculative thought produces a logic of genocide.
Dillon 99
Dillon 99 (Michael, Professor of International Relations at the University of Lancaster, “Another Justices” Political
Theory, Vol 27, No. 2, 164-5)
Quite the reverse. The subject…. exceeds whatever exceeds measure.

A. The framework argument limits expressions of trauma into the linguistic boundaries of political community,
rendering the victims of sovereign power as bare, incommunicable life.
Edkins 2003 Jenny Edkins. Trauma and the memory of politics, pg. 7-9, 2003
In both cases what has happened is beyond the possibility … a reformulation of community.

B. Framework turns deliberative communal reflection into a criteria for excluding bare life- the community defines its
praxis through negation as it attempts to secure its ideal subject in the language of the resolution.
Norris 2000 Andrew Norris Giorgio Agamben and the Politics of the Living Dead diacritics 30.4: 38-58, Winter 2000
Agamben echoes such claims at times, and argues, …ungrounded ground of all praxis [Language and Death 58-62,
88, 105-06].

The demand for immediate action is politically disenabling and prevents an analysis of the self-fulfilling rhetorical
failures of normative legal thought.
Schlag ’90 (Pierre, November 1990, Prof. of Law @ Colorado U., Stanford Law Review “Normative and Nowhere to
Go” p. L/N)
In fact, even as you read and even ……variation on formalism n36 -- normative formalism. n37

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Binghamton Cameron/Groh (Critical) [Logan]

Joseph Ciricione, 2007 (Joseph Cirincione, "Bomb Scare: The History and Future of Nuclear Weapons" pg 1)
“Albert Einstein signed the letter. Years later he would regret it, calling it the one mistake he had made in his life. But in
August 1939, Adolf Hitler’s armies already occupied Czechoslovakia and Austria and his fascist thugs were arresting
Jews and political opponents throughout the Third Reich. Signing the letter seemed vital. His friends and fellow
physicists, Leo Szilard and Eugene Wigner, had drafted the note he would now send to President Franklin D.
Roosevelt. The scientists had seen their excitement over the recent breakthrough discoveries of the deepest secrets of
the atom turn to fear as they realized what unleashing atomic energies could mean. Now the danger could not be
denied. The Nazis might be working on a super-weapon; they had to be stopped."[[#_ftn1|[1]]]
This “Bomb Scare” frames the discursive space of nuclear weapons in a way that reveals the political black hole of this
year’s resolution: one that haunts all political subjects, whether in the halls of policymaking, the public square of
society, or the academia of the debate community. Characteristic of this gap in knowledge are the cultural axiomatics
such as American exceptionalism and free-market capitalism which brought into being the nuclear weapon’s
articulation. In this way, the American creation of the nuclear weapon ushered in a nasty trifecta: a juridical fascism’s
disciplinary power surrounding the control of nuclear weapons, the new benchmark of the biopolitical process in the
nuclear weapon’s destructive capabilities, both of which are puppeteered by the royal science of Capital. The
“Punishment from Heaven” described by the Japanese as being delivered by American bomb crews to Hiroshima on
August 6th was the U.S. capitalist response to the “radical fascism” of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Imperial
Japan. The radioactive halo over Hiroshima may have marked the dominant historical understanding’s “end” to the
Second World War, but failed to vanquish the fascism that was the object of its creation, instead only assisting in its
smoother function under a benevolent new appearance.
One result of this new form of totalitarianism Foucault argues has been the shift on the part of the state apparatus to
force the war machine to take war itself as an object --- that governments no longer go to war temporarily over territory
or material wealth but rather permanently in the name of stopping war itself.( You know, that Foucault 78 card.) We
also see this rhetoric in each conflict the U.S. has entered into since WWII, claiming to be intervening in the “interest of
peace, freedom, and justice” in Vietnam, Iraq, Bosnia, Somalia, Pakistan even as we bomb into oblivion the condition
of possibility for all three.
(Date of Eisenhower’s “Atoms for Peace” speech.
http://web.archive.org/web/20070524054513/http:www.eisenhower.archives.gov/atoms.htm)
Deleuze and Guattari argue that contained within the political forms we are familiar with today lies the ultimate
incarnation of the “double pincer, a double bind,” which functions with the aid of two strata: the scale of destruction
offered by the nuclear weapon and the axiomatic systems that find their moment of creation in the state’s total
regulation of that weapon. The scale of destruction offered by nuclear weapons can be understood as the biopolitical
implications of their destructive properties, and the juridical authority that the State comes to wield over the regulation,
even articulation of the nuclear weapon in the form of treaties such as the NPT, CTBT, and FMCT could be understood
as the disciplinary power of totalitarianism that re-creates the double pincer of God: no subject may be free, the State,
“god, as lobster” will always exert the power to discipline or destroy you. Caught between these pincers, we must ask,
“Is there no way to resist? Is politics even possible? How might we resist this totalitarianism? In response to the
conditions of the status quo, an affirmation of the 1AC is a reterritorializing act that participates in a Refrain whose
existence contributes to the radical possibilities of a new form of politics. Think as an example Rosa Parks: not the first
person ever to refuse to change seats on a bus, but her action had revolutionary aspects consistent with the context of
what could be called ‘the beginning’ of the Civil Rights Movement. An affirmation of the resolution is not a telos but
instead a necessary predicate to produce the conditions for new statements, a collective undertaking that would span
generations in the name of a people to come. The judge signing the ballot affirmative is an act of political irruption that
establishes itself as a resistance to fascism and the apparatus of capture that has justified the violent repression of the
present. ---Surin 2006 (Kenneth, Deleuze and the Contemporary World 70-72)

(One of Einstein’s last letters to FDR concerned that military and political imperatives had overshadowed the judgment
and research of science, coopting it in the mission to create a hegemonic nuclear state.
http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/library/correspondence/einstein-albert/corr_einstein_1945-03-25.htm)
We must make a distinction: we do not accept the existence of a State as given. We begin our understanding of the
State as nothing more than one political form. We find fault with the State because it has always posited its necessity
after the fact. (ATP, pg 352) Instead of engaging in some competition of political forms, we wish to ask whether politics
is even possible now. (Pause) A visitor to the Holocaust Museum in Washington, D.C., after experiencing all the
phenomenology of the holocaust, is confronted by a video of former president Bill Clinton, making the argument that to
prevent the recurrence of such evil, the strong sovereign state is our only defense. This is bullshit, because the Nazis

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were the state, and proved the State itself is the condition of possibility for such violence as the Holocaust, even as the
State posits its necessity to prevent the violent actions it relies upon for its sovereignty. This vicious cycle contributes
to a smoother function of a fascist system that is established prior to desire itself, making us desire the types of forces
which bring about the next Holocaust --- as the boys note,
“It is curious that from the very beginning the Nazis announced to Germany what they were bringing: at once wedding
bells and death, including their own death, and the death of the Germans. They thought they would perish but that their
undertaking would be resumed, all across Europe, all over the world, throughout the solar system. And the people
cheered, not because they did not understand, but because they wanted that death through the death of others.”
( Deleuze and Guattari ’87 pg. 291-292)

This statist fascism is the ultimate impact: pure destruction and abolition, leading to the suicide of the State and its
constituents. (Deleuze and Guattari ’87 pg. 230-231 ) It’s a world in which we’re not only incapable of recognizing the
totalitarian control that the State has come to exert over us as political subjects, but in which we come to desire that
control through the death of ourselves and others.
Modern discourse surrounding nuclear weapons focuses on several of the catastrophic fears associated with its
destructive powers. These fears circle around nuclear terrorism, so called ‘nuclear rogue-states’ and the possibility of
‘miscalculation’. The state posits itself as the best defense against all these threats by claiming to possess order with
the sovereign power to protect its citizens and discipline those who transgress its order. One must challenge why the
state posits itself as the best defense when the state has only contributed to the function of such violent events as the
Cold War, and bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It is even more pressing, dare we say it, necessary, to think the
question as William Haver and Deleuze do, and ask, “what of these threats, but what of others that the state has not
only refused to defend against, but instead has improved upon, producing a world where various holocausts become
actualized, normative, and accepted by us, “the masses.”
William Haver, “TBOTD” pg 7 – “the AIDS pandemic totalizes in an integrated viral relationality, at least possibly,
otherwise heterogeneous (or even heteronomous) “elements.” AIDS unites such “elements” in the totality of an
annihilation-in-common, in a technological mass death, in utter nihility. In effect, AIDS is a holocaust; in that this
holocaust bespeaks totality-as-utter-nihility, it belongs to the order of other holocaust, actualized or merely promised,
such as nuclear terror, ecological disaster, and previous (or concurrent) genocides. I do not think there is any
possibility for a consequent thinking with regard to the AIDS pandemic without this thought of totalization, any more
than there is with regard to nuclear terror, ecological disaster, or other genocides. But in each case, such a totality
must be thought of as a totality present only in its material effects. In other words, there is a totalization at work here,
but because the totality as such is only present in its effects, it is by that token absent for consciousness and knowing;
the “global” here, then, marks the thought of a material effectivity.”
It is important to remember, on the other hand, another alternate impact story. These harms are, in plainest terms, a
matter of ethics. The concepts of ethical action and decision calculus become radically different in the context of this
affirmation – one nowadays approaches a question of ethics with the question of whether they “should” do something.
The aff’s understanding of ethics would cease to ask the question ‘what does it mean’ in order to ask whether one
‘should’ do something, and instead ask the question ‘what does it do’ in order to ask whether one can do something.
As Ronald Bogue argues, if there is any ethical duty whatsoever it is to intercede on behalf of the capacity for
affectivity. We must construct along a plane of immanence to show that ‘I’ and ‘other’ are no longer fixed entities, but
points of emergence within becoming. We must call for a people to come—one that is eternally minor, taken up in a
becoming-revolutionary. Bogue 2007 (Ronald, Deleuze’s Way 12-14) In order to escape a representational logic that
precludes all other possibilities, our affirmation reads the resolution as an aphorism, a text that challenges one to find
the forces that contribute to its meaning as well as hook the text up to the force that gives it meaning, or create a new
one. Deleuze and Guattari cite Nietzsche, saying:
“if you want to know what I mean, find the force that gives what I say meaning, and a new meaning if need be. Hook
the text up to this force. In this way, there are no problems of interpretation for Nietzsche, there are only problems of
machining: to machine Nietzsche's text, to find out which actual external force will get something through, like a current
of energy.(Deleuze, Desert Islands, 256)

This historicization of the nuclear weapon establishes its contingency and attempts to account for its existence in
relation to the refrain that preceded and has since followed it into the current epoch --- participation in this refrain is in
preparation for a people to come that allow for a revolutionary understanding of the nuclear bomb as an idea: thus we
contend---
1: That the nuclear weapon’s existence was radically contingent upon the forces of capitalism and fascism that
contributed to its articulation as an object and as a weapon.

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2: The creative and destructive forces at work prior to the decision to harness the energies of the atom and tie them to
the State in nuclear weapons embody a radical deterritorialization of thought.
3: In each debate round, from jump street, in the interim between when the timer starts and the judge signs the ballot,
there is a deterritorialization of thought because of the radical possibilities of what can take place in that space.
The act of casting the ballot affirmative is a reterritorializing act insofar as it demarcates and draws out a ‘result’ from
deterritorialized space but this is only an ancillary effect of the refrain in which the affirmation participates. Our
contentions above all participate in and are aspects of a Refrain. (ATP 312)This refrain is the little rhythms of thought
that contribute to the coming revolution of thought, of knowledge, of politics and the possibility of all three. To think of it
one way, at the end of each round, the judge votes, in the same sense that the bird sings, the wolf shits, the human
being communicates and/or moves.(ATP 312) The bird’s song is essential// to its ‘birdiness’ just as the wolf’s shits to
mark its territory is essential to its ‘wolfiness’. Thus, voting is essential to ‘debatyness’ A refrain is aspects of an event
or experience that create a territory- the bird sings, the wolf shits, the human communicates. However, our affirmation
is of a particular type of refrain insofar as instead of only casting a territory or imagining a world, it recognizes the
contingency of the existence of the nuclear weapon the way WE envision it, which has all the attendant effects of
revealing the fascist system in an effort to produce ideas that disrupt its smooth function. This refrain is performed to
disrupt this smooth function and produce new ideas, practical ideas, new concepts and tools. This means we get to
say we affirm the resolution, but it's not a matter of signing a bill into law, but us talking about it in this context, at this
moment alters the way nuclear weapons function within debate. To think of it another way, an affirmation disrupts the
apparatus of the state by disrupting the way nuclear weapons function in discourse; this disruption reveals the fascism
that relies on nuclear weapons, and allows us to establish new praxis against that fascism by refusing to accept its
status as normative.

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Binghamton Fountain/Torsiello (Aliens) [Ogi]

Observation One: We’ve Had Contact

Obama’s administration has laid the groundwork and is committed to the disclosure of UFO files presently kept hidden

Michael Salla 5/28/2009 [former Assistant Professor in International Peace and Conflict Resolution at American
University] “Obama review of classified files linked to UFOs,” d/l; http://www.examiner.com/x-2383-Honolulu-
Exopolitics-Examiner~y2009m5d28-Obama-review-of-classified-files-linked-to-UFOs

President Obama is attempting … efforts to learn about UFOs.

Even if Obama fails to disclose classified knowledge, open contact with ETs is inevitable.

Webre, Alfred 2/20/2009 [Yale-trained environmental lawyer and former General Counsel to New York's Environmental
Protection Administration, MEd, ternational director of the Institute for Cooperation in Space] “Barack Obama’s
inaugural speech predicts “extraterrestrial event” on scale of Iraq war says expert,” d/l: http://www.examiner.com/x-
2912-Seattle-Exopolitics-Examiner~y2009m2d20-Barack-Obamas-inaugural-speech-predicts-extraterrestrial-event-on-
scale-of-Iraq-war-says-expert

On objective analysis, Barack Obama’s … military and spiritual impact as the war in Iraq.”

Unfortunately, disclosure within the present political climate will only create xenophobia and increased tensions

Burkes d/l 7/30/2007 (Joseph [MD & Independent Researcher for the Center for the Study of Extraterrestrial
Intelligence] “Cosmic Peace,”http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/esp_galacticdiplomacy_05.htm)

As a former peace movement activist, I find … arms race against an unlikely adversary.

Sadly, America’s posturing in such a climate risks sparking an intergalactic war

Canadian Exopolitics Initiative 2005 “Former Canadian Minister Of Defense Asks Canadian Parliament To Hold
Hearings On Relations With Alien "ET" Civilizations,” d/l;
http://exopolitics.blogs.com/star_dreams_initiative/2005/08/star_dreams_ini.html

A former Canadian Minister of … high level military intelligence witnesses of a possible ET presence, is also one of the
organizations seeking Canadian Parliament hearings.

Plan: The President of the United States Federal Government should issue an executive order to immediately
dismantle the entire United States nuclear weapons arsenal.

Observation Two: Out of This World

Obama’s willingness to follow through with his promise to create a nuclear free world is essential to establishing peace
with ETs

Salla 4/4/2009 (Michael [former Assistant Professor in International Peace and Conflict Resolution at American
University] “Obama’s zero nuclear weapons speech & extraterrestrial UFOs,” d/l: http://www.examiner.com/x-2383-
Honolulu-Exopolitics-Examiner~y2009m4d4-Obamas-nuclear-weapons-free-world--extraterrestrial-UFOs

Tomorrow morning President Obama … monitoring our world and destructive stockpiles of nuclear weapons.

Failure to take action and eliminate nuclear weapons will further an era of power politics that disregards ethics and
universal peace in the name of national interest, secrecy, xenophobic hatred, resulting in the development of new-
wave high-tech weaponry, and ultimately preventing the creation of a balanced global defense

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Salla 1/1/2004 (Michael [former Assistant Professor in International Peace and Conflict Resolution at American
University] “The Failure of Power Politics as a Strategic Response to the Extraterrestrial
Presence,”http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/exopolitica/esp_exopolitics_P_1.htm)

‘Power politics’ refers to the Realpolitik … underway and a coordinated response to the extraterrestrial presence.

Thankfully, Obama has opened the right astrological pathways to enable Earth to rejoin the Universe Society if he can
move American beyond its war path, which will be able to successfully spark the needed positive energy to change the
world

Barbara Hand-Clow 1/26/2009 [renowned astrologer and International Mayan Elder] “Sun in Gemini Moon in Aquaris,”
d/l;http://www.docstoc.com/docs/5951937/sun-in-gemini-moon-in-aquarius

It is the New Moon in Aquarius, the time … George W. Bush's presidential tombstone. 6

However, we must remain vigilant since even one nuclear weapon will undermine our ability to establish a culture of
peace

Elaine Meinel Supkis 2007 “Tear Down All Those Walls,” d/l;
http://elainemeinelsupkis.typepad.com/war_and_peace/2007/04/index.html

At a Headquarters press conference this … peace are seen as enemies of the State.

Fortunately, the reward for abolishing nuclear weapons is worth the price because entry into the Universe Society will
prevent numerous scenarios of planetary extinction and omnicide

Webre, Alfred 2008 [Yale-trained environmental lawyer and former General Counsel to New York’s Environmental
Protection Administration, MEd, ternational director of the Institute for Cooperation in Space] “Politics, Government,
and Law in the Universe,” Journal of World Affairs, Vol. 12 No. 2, Summer 2008, d/l:
http://exopolitics.blogs.com/exopolitics/2008/11/world-affairs-the-journal-of-international-issues-exopolitics-and-a-
positive-human-future-by-alfred-lambremont-webre-jd-m.html

Advanced ethical extraterrestrial society … planetary, human and biosphere survival.

Even if none of our intergalactic scenarios are true, working to abolishing nuclear weapons within the framework of
exopolitics can usher in a new era of terrestrial peace and avert the proliferating wars and extinctions ongoing in the
status-quo

Burkes d/l 7/30/2007 (Joseph [MD & Independent Researcher for the Center for the Study of Extraterrestrial
Intelligence] “Cosmic Peace,”http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/esp_galacticdiplomacy_05.htm)

To help prevent war and hopefully usher in … is much work to be done!

As a result we must understand politics as more than just an academic exercise since our universal rights are up for
grabs, and whether it ends in violent repression or freedom is up to us

Webre 11-1-2000 (Alfred Lambremont [JD; international director of the Institute for Cooperation in Space] “The end of
terrestrial politics?” Econews Service, http://www.ecologynews.com/cuenews5.html)

What matters now is that we … is in some sense up to us.

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California Brockaway/Patel (Critical-Ethics) [Arif]

Contention 1: The Atomic Body Politic

The Sacred and The Holy are two distinct ways of orienting ourselves towards Others. While the Sacred embodies a
view of innate superiority that perceives others with mistrust and disdain, the Holy strives to nonviolently actualize
human dignity and respect in place of inhospitable relationships. Politics then, is merely a universe of relationships,
and choices and decisions, a way of organizing our position in that universe.
Fasching and deChant 2001
Darell and Dell, professor and director of undergraduate studies in the department of religious studies at the University
of South Florida, Comparative Religious Ethics: A Narrative Approach, p. 10

These ideologies manifest in explicitly different ways. The Sacred takes the form of an apologetic theology, which acts
out of mistrust and precipitates escalation and violence. The Holy is an alienated theology, which acts out of hope and
compassion, and in so doing, de-centers the self. Questioning subjectivity lays hope for stable relationships built out of
hospitality.
Fasching 1993
Darrell, professor of religious studies at the University of South Florida, The Ethical Challenge of Auschwitz and
Hiroshima, p. 2-6

Nuclear deterrence embodies the Sacred. The mere possession of nuclear weapons is deeply violent; it denotes a
conditional willingness to slaughter masses of innocent civilians. The ultimate paradox is that in attempting to assert
control, nuclear politics deprives us of control over all the beautiful features of principled living. It is preferable to take a
moral stance than to subscribe to violent axioms.
Dummett 1986
Michael, professor of Logic at Oxford University, Nuclear Weapons, Deterrence, and Disarmament, ed. Copp,
Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Supplementary Volume 12

More important than physical deployment of weapons, nuclear posturing is deeply wrapped up in a genocidal,
institutional ideology which treats life as disposable.
Lifton and Markuson 1990
Robert, professor of psychiatry and psychology at the Graduate School University Center, Erik, Professor at South
State University, p. 3

This is a form of hostage holding. Willingness to exchange innocent life en masse for compliance with our political
goals is deeply immoral. Any decision calculus which treats individuals as a means to an end must be rejected.
Lee 1993
Steven, Philosophy at Hobart and William Smith College, Morality, Prudence, and Nuclear Weapons, p. 45

Strategizing around the necessity of instruments of genocide in this way infinitely sidelines morality for fear mongering
and killing to heal. Psychic numbing, the idea that we repress anxiety in relation to the bomb, is a dangerous tool that
allows us to engage in deeply violent acts without reservation.
Fasching 1993
Darrell, professor of religious studies at the University of South Florida, The Ethical Challenge of Auschwitz and
Hiroshima, p. 115-120

This debate is not about determining whether or not nuclear weapons are useful. Rather, it is about activating
ourselves in a struggle for something true and sincere. Rejecting the false choices of technocratic thinking is the
essential leap of faith for resisting psychological devastation.
Kovel 1984
Joel, psychotherapist and activist, Against the State of Nuclear Terror, p. 155-156

THE PLAN –
THE UNITED STATES FEDERAL GOVERNMENT SHOULD ABOLISH THE UNITED STATES FEDERAL
GOVERNMENT'S NUCLEAR ARSENAL.

Contention 2: The Blueprint

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Voting aff is more than a call to quantitatively reduce warheads. It embodies a refusal to submit ourselves to the
violence of nuclear reasoning, and a willingness to take a nonviolent leap of faith in the face of recurring paranoia.
Disarmament rejects the violence of the Sacred and inscribes ethics in the violent space of international politics.
Kovel 1984
Joel, Psychotherapist and Activist, Against the State of Nuclear Terror, p. 201-208

Finally, personal responsibility is central to the debate over nuclear deterrence. As a strategy, deterrence is
underwritten by public opinion, and as citizens in a representative democracy, we have rendered ourselves either
politically impotent or acquiescent. Refusing the precept that murder of millions can ever be justified is the essential
criteria for ethical decision making.
Patten 1986
Steven, professor of philosophy at the University of Lethbridge, Nuclear Weapons, Deterrence, and Disarmament, ed.
Copp, Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Supplementary Volume 12

AFF as of KY

Contention 1 is Hostage Holding.

The mere possession of nuclear weapons is violent because it holds masses of innocent civilians hostage to a
conditional threat of nuclear annihilation. As a decision maker, you must reject policies which subordinate ethics to risk
aversion, or else moral living ceases to be an option. Appeal to consequences cannot excuse unethical choices
because that expresses an unconditional acceptance of a world of violence, in which we must take risks with the lives
of innocents.
Dummett 1986
Michael, professor of Logic at Oxford University, Nuclear Weapons, Deterrence, and Disarmament, ed. Copp,
Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Supplementary Volume 12
As we have seen, … do with nuclear weapons.

Nuclear speculation is ultimately enlightened guessing which serves to nihilistically reinforce the status quo. The idea
that a disadvantage has absolute probability if it is not answered directly is preposterous because our contention is that
the entire enterprise of guessing should not be used to undermine ethical decision making.
Cohen, Professor Philosophy at U Maryland, 1987
Avner, Review: Lackey on Nuclear Deterrence: A Public Policy Critique or Applied Ethics Analysis?, Vol. 97, No. 2
(Jan., 1987), pp. 457-472
To give risk a more concrete appearance, …of nuclear deterrence?

This value proposition extends across all decision making. Any calculus which treats individuals as a means to an end
must be rejected because it imposes harm on innocents.
Lee 1993
Steven, Philosophy at Hobart and William Smith College, Morality, Prudence, and Nuclear Weapons, p. 45
Hostage holding is morally …be morally acceptable.

Nuclear possession implicates all life. Even if outside the direct thinking of everyday life, our way of being is inherently
structured by belief in the necessity of withholding nuclear violence as legitimate recourse. Striving to reclaim ethical
orientation must always be a prior consideration to the evaluation of policy outcomes.
Tucker, Professor of Politics Princeton, 1985
Robert, Ethics, Vol. 95, No. 3, Special Issue: Symposium on Ethics and Nuclear Deterrence (Apr., 1985)
We live in the age of deterrence. … they have to run the terrible risk of attacking us?

The United States federal government should eliminate the United States federal government’s nuclear weapons
arsenal.

Contention 2 is Nonviolent Decision Making.

Choices must ultimately involve more than dogmatic adherence to continuity of life. Nuclear war has already imposed
an understanding of technocracy that has compromised the values that make life worth living. Only refusal can
reinvigorate decision making.

Kovel 1984

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Joel, psychotherapist and activist, Against the State of Nuclear Terror, p. 155-156
If this is the value of the facts… rescuing reason from the clutches of the technocratic state.

Expressing ourselves authentically involves embracing risk and suffering. Nonviolent suffering is not an end to be
avoided, but rather a possibility which must be embraced. Paranoia is a life negating force, and only reconciling
ourselves with these feelings of insecurity can reclaim meaning from the depths of nuclear deterrence.
Kovel 1984
Joel, psychotherapist and activist, Against the State of Nuclear Terror, p. 158-162
Nonviolent detachment is … fearlessness and hope.

Unilateral nuclear disarmament is the critical refusal to subscribe to violent decision making which is crucial to reorient
politics towards nonviolence.
Kovel 1984
Joel, Psychotherapist and Activist, Against the State of Nuclear Terror, p. 201-208
Fresh heights of irrationality … line of a nuclear assault.

Continuing to appeal to the necessity to violate the integrity of innocent life plays into the hands of a security strategy
which can only reproduce unending examples of genocidal violence.
Holt, BBC Commentator, 1995
Jim, Morality, Reduced to Arithmetic, New York Times
Can the deliberate massacre … and morality to arithmetic.

Whatever decision calculus we choose must be absolute. Any expression of willingness to sacrifice innocent life for
some ulterior end plays into the self-serving hands of those in power and legitimizes a might makes right mentality
which ends in genocidal violence.
Parsons accessed 2009
9/14, John, Deconstructing Mr. Farah: The Fallacy of a Utilitarian Ethic
In philosophy, pragmatism …The choice of whom you will believe is ultimately yours.

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California Gray/Srivangipuram (Critical-Ethics) [Arif]

The Sacred and The Holy are two distinct ways of orienting ourselves towards Others. While the Sacred embodies a
view of innate superiority that perceives others with mistrust and disdain, the Holy strives to nonviolently actualize
human dignity and respect in place of inhospitable relationships. Politics then, is merely a universe of relationships,
and choices and decisions, a way of organizing our position in that universe.
Fasching and deChant 2001
Darell and Dell, professor and director of undergraduate studies in the department of religious studies at the University
of South Florida, Comparative Religious Ethics: A Narrative Approach, p. 10
“Human religiousness is defined… my identity and my stories.”

These ideologies manifest in explicitly different ways. The Sacred takes the form of an apologetic theology, which acts
out of mistrust and precipitates escalation and violence. The Holy is an alienated theology, which acts out of hope and
compassion, and in so doing, de-centers the self. Questioning subjectivity lays hope for stable relationships built out of
hospitality.
Fasching 1993
Darrell, professor of religious studies at the University of South Florida, The Ethical Challenge of Auschwitz and
Hiroshima, p. 2-6
This book is an experiment in decentered… in the process of alienated theology.

Nuclear deterrence embodies the Sacred. The mere possession of nuclear weapons is deeply violent; it denotes a
conditional willingness to slaughter masses of innocent civilians. The ultimate paradox is that in attempting to assert
control, nuclear politics deprives us of control over all the beautiful features of principled living. It is preferable to take a
moral stance than to subscribe to violent axioms.
Dummett 1986
Michael, professor of Logic at Oxford University, Nuclear Weapons, Deterrence, and Disarmament, ed. Copp,
Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Supplementary Volume 12
As we have seen, a genuinely idle threat… anything to do with nuclear weapons.

More important than physical deployment of weapons, nuclear posturing is deeply wrapped up in a genocidal,
institutional ideology which treats life as disposable.
Lifton and Markuson 1990
Robert, professor of psychiatry and psychology at the Graduate School University Center, Erik, Professor at South
State University, p. 3
The United States and the Soviet Union… arrangements necessary for the genocidal act.

This is a form of hostage holding. Willingness to exchange innocent life en masse for compliance with our political
goals is deeply immoral. Any decision calculus which treats individuals as a means to an end must be rejected.
Lee 1993
Steven, Philosophy at Hobart and William Smith College, Morality, Prudence, and Nuclear Weapons, p. 45
Hostage holding is morally wrong… threatening such retaliation may be morally acceptable.

Strategizing around the necessity of instruments of genocide in this way infinitely sidelines morality for fear mongering
and killing to heal. Psychic numbing, the idea that we repress anxiety in relation to the bomb, is a dangerous tool that
allows us to engage in deeply violent acts without reservation.
Fasching 1993
Darrell, professor of religious studies at the University of South Florida, The Ethical Challenge of Auschwitz and
Hiroshima, p. 115-120
After Auschwitz and Hiroshima… total darkness of planetary suicide.

This debate is not about determining whether or not nuclear weapons are useful. Rather, it is about activating
ourselves in a struggle for something true and sincere. Rejecting the false choices of technocratic thinking is the
essential leap of faith for resisting psychological devastation.
Kovel 1984
Joel, psychotherapist and activist, Against the State of Nuclear Terror, p. 155-156
If this is the value of the facts,… clutches of the technocratic state.

THE PLAN –

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THE UNITED STATES FEDERAL GOVERNMENT SHOULD ENACT A POLICY MANDATING DISARMAMENT OF
THE UNITED STATES FEDERAL GOVERNMENT’S NUCLEAR WEAPONS ARSENAL.

Contention 2: The Blueprint

Voting aff is more than a call to quantitatively reduce warheads. It embodies a refusal to submit ourselves to the
violence of nuclear reasoning, and a willingness to take a nonviolent leap of faith in the face of recurring paranoia.
Disarmament rejects the violence of the Sacred and inscribes ethics in the violent space of international politics.
Kovel 1984
Joel, Psychotherapist and Activist, Against the State of Nuclear Terror, p. 201-208
Fresh heights of irrationality open… in the front line of a nuclear assault.

Finally, personal responsibility is central to the debate over nuclear deterrence. As a strategy, deterrence is
underwritten by public opinion, and as citizens in a representative democracy, we have rendered ourselves either
politically impotent or acquiescent. Refusing the precept that murder of millions can ever be justified is the essential
criteria for ethical decision making.
Patten 1986
Steven, professor of philosophy at the University of Lethbridge, Nuclear Weapons, Deterrence, and Disarmament, ed.
Copp, Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Supplementary Volume 12
My suggestion for understanding individual… for individual responsibility might be rebutted.)

SFSU opener
Round 1 vs. Southwestern Fite/Peck

1AC from Gonzaga

2AC:

AT: Disposal Specification


Weapons are considered part of the arsenal until they are actually dismantled
Perry, Chairman Strategic Posture Commission, ‘9
(William J.-, James R. Schlesinger, “The Final Report of the Congressional Commission on the Strategic Posture of
the United States”, “America’s Strategic Posture”, http://media.usip.org/reports/strat_posture_report.pdf; Jacob)
The third concern is about… disclosure of stockpile information.

Normal means is just dismantling

We won't no-link out of anything, so no abuse

There is no resolutional basis for requiring disposal specification.

AT: Socialism K
Our critique of the nuclear complex is ultimately a critique of the modern state and capitalism.
Chernus 1991
Ira, Associated Professor of Religious Studies @ University of Colorado Nuclear Madness: Religion and the
Psychology of the Nuclear Age, p. 62-
Indeed the entire nuclear weapons… must protect the entire machine forever.

Revolution is no good. We need a social transformation that is non-violent and broader-based than the kind the
negative favors.
Kovel 1984
Joel, psychotherapist and activist, Against the State of Nuclear Terror, p. 224
Will it come to revolution… we look through nuclear terror.

Alt can't solve numbing, which is a prerequisite to eliminating violence

AT: CP: Dispose of nuclear material in ocean


They reduce nature to a standing reserve
Neil Evernden, professor of Enviornmental Stuides at York, The social Creation of Nature, 1992, p. 130
In his study of endangered species….there seems no threat of insurrection

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Reduces nature into pure energy.


Charles Bergman, professor at PLU, Wild Echoes, 1990, p. 5-7
But this concept is limited by…for cancer will come from

Outweighs extinction
Michael E. Zimmerman, professor of philosophy at Tulane, Contesting Earth’s Future: Radical Ecology and
Postmodernity, 1994, net-library
Heidegger asserted that human self-assertion…hell on earth, masquerading as a material paradise.

The judge is an ethical decision maker; can decide not to dispose of waste on native lands

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Case Western Mattern/Wolf (Critical) [Mark]

GSU Aff Disclosure

Contention One:

In 1944, von Neumann and Morgenstern published their seminal work on game theory—they used applied
mathematics in economics to determine strategic behavior.

By the start of the cold war and the nuclear age, game theory was popularized as America’s “secret weapon”: political
scientists used game theory to determine how to interact with other states and how to maintain America’s advantage
over the Soviet Union.

Belletto 09. Steven Belletto, Assistant Professor at Lafayette College and specialist in Cold War literature, “The Game
Theory Narrative and the Myth of the National Security State,” American Quarterly (2009): 333-357.

“As the cold war…against the Soviets.”

Game theory in international relations is different—it uses mathematical models to predict how states will act and
whether it is more beneficial to cooperate or defect. The outcome of state interactions is determined by each state’s
assumptions about the interests of the others. Game theory assumes that divergent interests create conflict, and it
requires states to treat each other as enemies.

Wendt 99. Alexander Wendt, Ralph D. Mershon Professor of International Security at the Ohio State University, Social
Theory of International Politics, 1999, p.331-332.

“Power relations play….they will make”

In nuclear weapons policy, the problem of assuming other states are enemies is especially telling. For example,
conflict over the size of a weapons arsenal, the management of rogue nations, and military aid has prevented any
substantial U.S. or Russia nuclear arms reduction. The United States refuses to reduce its nuclear arsenal any further
than Russia promises to reduce its.

New York Times 09. “U.S.-Russia Nuclear Agreement Is First Step in Broad Effort.” New York Times, 7 July 2009,
Lexis.

“The progress reflected…2,000 to 3,000 warheads.”

The insistence on a negotiated and reciprocal arms reduction is part of our larger diplomatic strategy:

Negotiated diplomacy is based on game theory’s assumption that the international system is comprised by actors with
divergent interests naturally resistant to cooperation. Not only is this assumption a construction, but it ensures state
conflict to the point of making nuclear conflict thinkable.

Fierke 98. KM Fierke, Lecturer at Queen’s University. Changing Games, Changing Strategies. p. 135-138

The impacts are manifold:

First, the assumption of bargaining ensures conflict.

Lebow 98. [Richard Ned Lebow, the James O. Freedman Presidential Professor of Government at Dartmouth College
and a Visiting Fellow at the University of Cambridge. He has his own Wikipedia page.] EJIR 4(1):31-66

“I begin by…to influence them.”

Second, it guarantees war and institutional violence.

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Bagshaw 04, Dr. D.M. Bagshaw, researcher and practioioner in conflict mediation, Group for Mediation Studies,
University of South Austrlia, “Verbal Abuse and Adolescent Identities: Marking the Boundaries of Gender,”
http://www.unisa.edu.au/ hawkeinstitute/cpcm/documents/ dale%20bagshaw%20thesis.pdf

“In common with….and reproduced an interaction.”

Third, our nuclear weapons policy is based on the idea that some nations are competent enough to have nuclear
weapons while others are not. This discourse is part of a larger production of otherness and racist ideology that seeks
to create the fantasy of the perfect America through the demonization of others.

Gusterson 99, Hugh Gusterson, Professor of Anthroplogy and Science and Technology at the Massachusetts Institute
of Technology, "Nuclear Weapons and the Other in the Western Imagination." Cultural Anthropology 14(1):111-143
(1999)

“Thus in Western…institutions and states.”

The plan solves:

First, by unilaterally eliminating its nuclear weapons arsenal, America would change the rules of the game.

Actors can change how they interact with each other by changing their assumptions. This is empirically proven by the
largest change in the history of international politics: the cold war ended because Reagan and Gorbachev decided to
see the other actor as cooperative, not conflictual.

KM Fierke 98, Changing Games, Changing Strategies pg. 20-24

Second, a unilateral elimination of nuclear weapons is self-binding behavior. By eliminating its nuclear weapons,
America imposes a visible sacrifice on itself. Anarchy is what states make of it, and this self-binding behavior forms
collective identities among states paramount to international cooperation.

Wendt 99. Alexander Wendt, Ralph D. Mershon Professor of International Security at the Ohio State University, Social
Theory of International Politics, 1999, p.359-363.

Third, it is because states can work to change their assumptions, especially in rational choice and game theory, they
we can change the international system’s culture.

Wendt 99. Alexander Wendt, Ralph D. Mershon Professor of International Security at the Ohio State University, Social
Theory of International Politics, 1999, p.371-372.

Four, international cooperation is key to solving climate change, terrorism, and to curb negative social externalities.
The plan overcomes the “self-help” state behavior characteristic in the nuclear age.

Muller 08. Harold Muller, Director of the Peace Research Institute Frankfurt in Germany and a professor of
international relations, “The Future of Nuclear Weapons in an Interdependent World,”The Washington Quarterly 31.2
(2008): 62-75

“Today’s international environment…the major powers.”

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Central Oklahoma Koslow/Spurlock (Critical-Spanos) [Jake]

1ac description
The aff indicts Western metaphysics' desire to create the world into binaries, with one being considered full and
productive and the other void of value, fit to be objectified and abused. This has been the root of American imperialism,
with things like nuclear testing, mining, and waste all being done in the desert. This is because the desert is seen as
absent of life and value-the unproductive end of a binary. The affirmative affirms the nothing of the resolution,
acknowledging that any metaphysical statement contains within it both a supposedly filled material logic and a space
of emptiness that is glossed over, and thus becomes an exceptional space that must be conquered or made
productive. Affirming the desert is key because it is devoid of metaphysics. Theory has for too long abandoned the
category of ontology, so we must begin there. The debate doesn't leave the room all that matters is how we are trained
to act.

(this is not UCO's description, but one i have typed up based on key parts of my 1ac flow. If something is inaccurate
don't jump my ass)

[includes excerpts from John Beck's article Without Form and Void: The American Desert as Trope and Terrain
Nepantla: Views from South - Volume 2, Issue 1, 2001, pp. 63-83

Other authors include William V. Spanos, Valerie Kuletz and Masahide Kato.

2ac at: framework


this debate doesn't leave the room. we are focusing on epistemology and ontology

line by line debate is bad-relies on static structure that favors technostrategic metaphysical thinking

by affirming everything positively we escape topical imperialism in this room

debate's technical practices train us to be neocons

predictable education-they can run their aff on the neg to answer ours

framework is calculative thinking that seeks to manage every debate. No authentic dialogue-it's just coded to reinforce
imperialism

framework is biopolitical-it makes us create enemies to be fought against

Gonzaga Prelims and Double Octafinals

Melville/Spanos –
Below is a rough outline of the 1AC – we do not read “tags” per se, but do read segments of text from the authors
listed below. If you have any questions about the 1AC itself or our affirmation of the topic we would be more than
happy discuss any and all portions of our advocacy in depth before the round.

Call me Ishmael, U COKS if you may.

Our affirmation is an excursion through a reading of mostly various parts of our readings of William V. Spanos as well
as Herman Melville's Moby Dick.

Ishmael begins the story in a way that calls forth the thinking/saying of his journey. "Call me Ishmael" signals his sense
of a-partness on this journey - and indeed we are all on a topical journey this year. From our exilic perspective we have
come to view the resolution in a different way that is simultaneously a-part of and a-part from the traditional
insturmental reading of the resolution.

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Following a similar mode of inquiry as the past, we affirm the topical nothing that belongs to and is inside of the topic.

It is from this position of exile that we should view current politics, that is the task of the thinker in the interregnum.

Footnotes
[1] Melville, Moby

[1] Melville, Moby Dick pp. 22-30


[1] Black Velvet Flag, Come Recline With Me, Code Blue
[1] Spanos, William V. - American exceptionalism in the age of globalization: the specter of Vietnam. Pp 7
[1] Lucy 2004 (Dr Niall Lucy. MA, University of Western Australia; PhD, University of Sydney. A Derrida Dictionary,
Blackwell Publishing. Pages 114-115)
[1] Spanos, William V. - American exceptionalism in the age of globalization: the specter of Vietnam__. Pp 321
[1] Ibid PP 321
[1] Weber 2005 (Samuel, Professor of Humanities at Northwestern - Targets of Opportunity On the Militarization of
Thinking - Fordham University Press New York 2005)
[1] Ibid p 185
[1] The "Nameless Horror": The Errant Art of Herman Melville and Charles Hewitt, by William V. Spanos © 1980 Duke
University Press. 127
[1] Spanos 2003 (William V. The "Nameless Horror": The Errant Art of Herman Melville and Charles Hewitt – Ebsco)
[1] Heidegger, Martin. What is Called Thinking?, Harper & Row publishers, 1954 – Page 4
[1] The Errant Art of Moby-Dick: The Canon, the Cold War, and the Struggle for American Studies (New Americanists)
p267
[1] Spanos 2000 (The Question of Philosophy and Poiesis in the Posthistorical Age: Thinking/Imagining the Shadow of
Metaphysics, )

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Central Oklahoma Spomer/Sales

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Central Oklahoma Sales/Spomer (Critical-Indians) [Jake]

The aff indicts Western metaphysics' desire to create the world into binaries, with one being considered full and
productive and the other void of value, fit to be objectified and abused. This has been the root of American imperialism,
with things like nuclear testing, mining, and waste all being done in the desert. This is because the desert is seen as
absent of life and value-the unproductive end of a binary. The affirmative affirms the nothing of the resolution,
acknowledging that any metaphysical statement contains within it both a supposedly filled material logic and a space
of emptiness that is glossed over, and thus becomes an exceptional space that must be conquered or made
productive. Affirming the desert is key because it is devoid of metaphysics. Theory has for too long abandoned the
category of ontology, so we must begin there. The debate doesn't leave the room all that matters is how we are trained
to act.

(this is not UCO's description, but one i have typed up based on key parts of my 1ac flow. If something is inaccurate
don't jump my ass)

Gonzaga

Despite governmental attempts to cover up its past, in 1946 based on a capitalist ethic of divine right and exploitation,
the United States began its policy of nuclear testing on indigenous nations and in 1954 the Marshall Islands were
targeted by the first dirty bomb creatively named “Bravo”. Meanwhile the indigenous peoples living on the islands were
deemed as no more than savage and therefore suitable guinea pigs in order to test the effects of radiation. The
aftermath of these bombs has resulted in some of the greatest atrocities seen throughout history. Furthermore, these
are not issues of the past but ones that still continue to haunt indigenous people today causing dispossession, and
destroying their culture, autonomy and lives all in the name of national security. In a 1987 interview Jenny Dowell and
Patrick Flanagan discuss further the nuclear destruction that many indigenous people have been forced to face over
the last sixty years.
THE NUCLEAR PACIFIC: AN INTERVIEW WITH PATRICK FLANAGAN

The problems that the United States have created on Indigenous lands are at the cost of many indigenous peoples
freedoms and lives and is not a just a problem of the past, but rather a continuing genocide in the form of dumping,
mining, testing and military invasion that the government and its people refuse to acknowledge. The US nuclear policy
is not now and will never be neutral but instead it is infiltrated with racist actions and ideologies that have produced
atrocities such as Nazi doctors, forced sterilization, cultural imperialism and death. Indigenous beliefs and cultural are
not only lost but can never be recovered from this nuclear colonization.
Trask in 2004
Haunani Kay Trask. The Color of Violence. Social Justice, Vol. 31, 2004

We reject the role of nuclear weapons as it pertains to the creation of the nuclear landscape.

Kuletz 98 The Tainted Desert

Traditionally, debate produces a particular type of scholarship that consistently ignores and rejects alternative
viewpoints and systems of knowledge. We believe that nuclear weapons are a necessary technological development
that protects our great nation from foreign predators, all the while forgetting about those that have to endure the
repercussions of nuclear development, those on the margins that have felt the violence of colonization and western
imperialism. It is our advocacy that that we should interrupt the dominant paradigm embedded within academia by
investigating other forms of knowledge production in order to make liberation possible.
Vine Deloria Jr. in 1999

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Clarion Ciak/Swanlek (Critical-Democracy) [DCH]

Observation I: Fear of Risk

We begin with a brief synopsis of the development of the nuclear bomb


from the book Danger and Survival by McGeorge Bundy, who served as
National Security Advisor to JFK. Despite the fear that Germany would
be racing towards the bomb, Bundy tells of a German scientific elite
detached from Hitler’s politics who explicitly, and successfully,
worked to keep a German bomb off the table. In America however, Bundy
identifies two key scientists, Leo Szilard and Vannevar Bush, who
feared the risk of a German bomb and persuaded FDR that Hitler
couldn’t be allowed to get there, and that the British MAUD Report was
accurate in arguing for the bomb as a deterrent but as a weapon of
use. Furthermore, the American General Leslie Groves continued the
full court press for the bomb even after American intelligence had
clear evidence that there was no German bomb.
We open with this brief history as a way of attenuating the fact that
we inhabit a world of risk. This is not a world where we know what
will occur around us but instead is a world where we think we know.
It is a world not understood in terms of immediate threats or even
risk as probability times magnitude, but rather a world of
uncertainty. Ulrich Beck is wrong: it is not the Risk Society but the
Risk Perception Society. Bill Durodie, a senior lecturer at Cranfield
University in Risk and Security, explains in 2005:

Durodié, Senior Lecturer in Risk and Security at Cranfield University, 2005


[Bill, The Concept of Risk, http://www.durodie.net/pdf/HEALTH.pdf,
access 6-19-09]

Risk is an abstraction that represents AND our understanding,


competence and will.

The use risk to identify low probability, big impact claims justifies
policy based on the possible over the probable resulting in
ineffective but high-prolife policies.

Durodié, Senior Lecturer in Risk and Security at Cranfield University, 2005


[Bill, The Concept of Risk, http://www.durodie.net/pdf/HEALTH.pdf,
access 6-19-09]

Combined with the contemporary cultural proclivity AND thereby driving


those concerns still further.

The result is that risks come to be seen as things to be feared and


managed because some action is better than no action

McInnes, Professor of International Politics at the University of


Wales-Aberystwyth, 2005
[Colin, HEALTH, SECURITY AND THE RISK SOCIETY,
http://www.nuffieldtrust.org.uk/ecomm/files/HSecrisksoc.pdf, access
6-19-09]

A number of points emerge from AND risk is absolute rather than probabilistic.

The logic of risk relies on a politics of fear that cedes the


political to managers. This kills public deliberation.

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Durodié, Senior Lecturer in Risk and Security at Cranfield University, 2005


[Bill, The Concept of Risk, http://www.durodie.net/pdf/HEALTH.pdf,
access 6-19-09]

All of these developments have had AND the issues of health and security.

Deliberation is essential for solving all problems. Boggs, National


University Social Science Professor, in 2000:

Carl Boggs, Professor of Social Sciences and Film Studies at National


University, Los Angeles, 2000, The End of Politics, p. 245.

The disintegration of political life in AND shape the future of human societies.

Observation II: Nuclear Risk


The conceptualization of risk identified above dominates current
understandings of the nuclear arms race. The logic of risk is
constantly deployed to justify control and management of the nuclear
arsenal. Hugh Gusterson, a George Mason Anthropology professor,
explains in May of 2009:

Gusterson, professor of anthropology and sociology at George Mason, 2009


[Hugh, Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, May/June, BAS database]

The status quo. Our established AND that keep the avalanche at bay.

Accepting the bomb as inevitable reduces policy to management and


destroys human agency. Gusterson, previously cited:

Gusterson, professor of anthropology and sociology at George Mason, 2009


[Hugh, Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, May/June, BAS database]

But the status quo narrative also AND weapons exist because the weapons exist.

We don’t have to spin a giant story about the risk of nuclear weapons
“proliferation” because the danger created by the presence of the bomb
sells itself. Frida Berrigan, Senior Program Associate at the New
America Foundation's Arms and Security Initiative, recounts the horror
of Hiroshima and Nagasaki earlier in 2009:

Berrigan, a Senior Program Associate at the New America Foundation's


Arms and Security Initiative, 2009
[Frida, For the Sixty-Fourth Time: No More Nuclear War - Reflections
on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Our World,
http://www.pacificfreepress.com/news/1/4470-again-no-nukes.html,
access 9-4-09]

In Hiroshima, Little Boy's huge AND an outspoken proponent of nuclear


disarmament.

Movement towards the elimination of nuclear weapons is at a


standstill. Fear of the risk has left us with a policy of management
and control instead of elimination. The time for arms control has
passed; disarm is needed now. Tim Wright of the International
Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons, 2009:

Wright, President, of the Peace Organisation of Australia and Board

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Member of the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons, 2009


[Tim, Melbourne Journal of International Law, ebsco]

In 1996, the International Court AND elimination, not merely arms control.

And, before you say “Obama,” even his call for disarm falls short of
sincere. Schell, 09:

Schell, Peace Fellow at The Nation Institute and teaches a course on


the nuclear dilemma at Yale, 4-15-09
[Jonathan, The Nation, http://www.thenation.com/doc/20090504/schell]

Unfortunately, as soon as he AND , will go on as before.

Therefore the plan: The United States Federal Government should


eliminate its nuclear weapons arsenal and all roles and missions for
its nuclear weapons.

Observation III: Taking Risks

We need to reject the fear-based, piecemeal politics of the status quo


and learn to take risks. Durodie, 02:

Durodié, Director of the International Centre for Security Analysis at


King’s College London, 2002
[Bill, Homeland Security & Resilience Monitor Vol.1, No.4, November
2002, pp.16-18, http://www.durodie.net/pdf/PerceptionandThreat.pdf,
access 6-19-09]

The main asymmetry exploited by those AND greater purpose, drive and meaning?

The endorsement of abolition is our effort to demonstrate the power of


human agency. Gusterson, 2009:

Gusterson, professor of anthropology and sociology at George Mason, 2009


[Hugh, Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, May/June, BAS database]

Clearly the abolitionist narrative has momentum AND last speech before
he was assassinated.

Government based on risk as fear can never solve. Reversing the


understanding of risk is critical to solving our Boggs evidence and
providing true security

Durodie, Senior Fellow co-ordinating the Homeland Defence research


programme in the Centre of Excellence for National Security of the
S.Rajaratnam School of International Studies at the Nanyang
Technological University, Singapore and Associate Fellow of the
International Security Programme at the Royal Institute of
International Affairs, 8-3-09
[Bill, Straits Times, http://www.durodie.net/index.php/site/article/130/]

THE proper role, composition and AND in order to achieve great things.

Viewing disarm through obstacles skews the world in which nuclear


abolition can actually occur – All of the current risk logic assumes a
world of negatives. We aren’t just saying end the double standard of

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US Nuclear ambitions we are also affirming the idea that your


“authors” cannot assume the world of abolition in which we endorse.
Other countries would not have the ability to argue anymore, and all
powers would unite in our cause. Schell 09:

Schell, Peace Fellow at the Nation Institute and teaches a course on


the nuclear dilemma at Yale, 4-15-09
[Jonathon, http://www.carnegieendowment.org/files/abolishing_nuclear_weapons_debate.pdf,
pa 9-14-9]

The very editorial restriction that has AND world on its way to abolition.

It is up to us to help turn Obama’s invitation to disarm into a


reality. Only our participation can generate the historic. Schell,
one more time:

Schell, Peace Fellow at The Nation Institute and teaches a course on


the nuclear dilemma at Yale, 4-15-09
[Jonathan, The Nation, http://www.thenation.com/doc/20090504/schell]

The answer, of course, AND while he is still among us.

GSU Round 2 vs. Wake DT

AT: Consult NATO

1. Case is a DA – CP enables Elites to control the public through a Politics of Fear over *NB*

2. Case is a DA – CP leaves some nuclear weapons – Berrigan Identifies the weapons as innately bad

3. No Solvency – The source of the question is key


Dillon 96
Michael Dillon senior lecturer in politics and international relations @ university of Lancaster Politics of Security
Towards a Political Philosophy of Continental Thought 1996 p 22-23
However much it is therefore stimulated by the interrogatory disposition of the genealogist... offers a way - I think,
perhaps, the way - of opening-up the question of the political.

4. No Solvency – PIC re-entrenches Status Quo Risk Technologies and leads to bad policies – McInnes in the 1AC

5. No Solvency – CP is a vulnerability-led response based on avoiding Harms which our Guterson Solvency evidence
indites

6. No Solvency – CP does not embrace a narrative of DisArm which is crucial to lasting change and is proven to be a
more believable

7. CP Links to Das

8. Consult Bad Theory

9. CP doesn’t solve – the inclusion of the Net Benefit rhetoric ensures the perception of a risk, even if accepting a lack
of probability
Daase, Chair in International Organisation at the University of Frankfurt, 2007
[Christopher, International Risks and the Perils of Proactive Security Policy, Sept 12-15,
http://archive.sgir.eu/uploads/Daase-daase_perils.pdf, access 6-24-09]
After the attacks of 9/11, the cooperation in the fight against international terrorism... artificially enhances the threat
perception and leads to policies that are out of proportion to the real danger.

AT: Deterrence

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1. DA is an embodiment of Risk – Insert Reason (Motivation/Cap/Ect.)

2. No Link – Da Does not Assume a world post-plan – There will be a positive view of Disarm, Countries will react
favorably, and Disarm will snowball, that’s Schell in the 1AC

3. Turn – DA leads to bad policies - The risk mentality of the DA leads to bad policymaking that takes bad actions to
‘prevent’ harms that’s McKinnis in the 1AC

4. Turn – DA cedes politics to the elite – Only embracing risks and through the affirmative can public deliberation avoid
DA’s Impacts

5. The Negative’s View of deterrence proves its flawed nature


Oerlich, Acting President of Federation of American Scientists, 2008
[Ivan, What Are Nuclear Weapons for?, April, http://www.aps.org/units/fps/newsletters/200804/oelrich.cfm]
This approach is irrelevant today because the threat I need to pose is tied to the prizes... sane situation would call for
such an act, that we should find ways of dramatically reducing Russian and American arsenals.

6. Turn – DisAd claims destroy science and inhibit real efforts to solve
Durodié, Senior Lecturer in Risk and Security at Cranfield University, 2005
[Bill, The Concept of Risk, http://www.durodie.net/pdf/HEALTH.pdf, access 6-19-09]
Combined with the contemporary cultural proclivity to speculate wildly... out to make a fast buck by exploiting public
concerns, and thereby driving those concerns still further.

7. No Impact

8. Case Out Weighs – Our view of risk outweighs any possible new risks
Durodié, Senior Lecturer in Risk and Security at Cranfield University, 2005
[Bill, The Concept of Risk, http://www.durodie.net/pdf/HEALTH.pdf, access 6-19-09]
But, rather than the world changing any faster today than in the past... themselves to identifying everything as a risk.

More on Case

1. Maintaining the arsenal to justify hegemony crushes hegemony – this proves our Boggs argument
Fromm, renowned social psychologist, psychoanalyst, humanistic philosopher and democratic socialist, 1960
[Erich, Daedalus, no 4, jstor]
Finally, to take up one last criticism... the position for unilateral disarmament is the one which is most radically opposed
to the Soviet principle.

2. Only absolute rejection of nuclear weapons solves – our action can inspire the world
Prasad, First President of the Republic of India, 1962
[Rajendra, The Case for Unilateral Disarmament, 6-16,
http://www.indianembassy.org/policy/Disarmament/disarm8.htm]
We have seen disarmament conferences dragging on their weary course endlessly only to bog down in a morass of
equivocation and double talk... in terms of readiness to suffer, and of the intensity of sympathy and active or passive
support of the thousands of nonterrorists.

3. Disarm solves war – it eliminate the fear that motivates others to respond to our arsenal with their own
Fromm, renowned social psychologist, psychoanalyst, humanistic philosopher and democratic socialist, 1960
[Erich, Daedalus, no 4, jstor]
The most likely result of unilateral disarmament-whether it be undertaken... the Soviet Union or the United States
would most likely do away with this major cause and, thus, with the probability of war.

4. Disarm doesn’t cause nuclear war. The worst-case scenario is that an adversary can just walk in and take over but
without bloodshed.
Schell, 2000
[Jonathan, Fate of the Earth and the Abolition, p107]
Sometimes it is suggested that unilateral disarmament might itself lead to the use of nuclear weapons... Defeat could
be entirely “stable.”

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5. Accepting domination is a better fate than nuclear conflict


Irvine, University of British Columbia Philosophy Professor, 1999
[A.D., Bertrand Russell: Critical Assessments Vol 1, p 184-5]
The real reasons for Russell’s conversion say more for his motives than his judgment... In effect, to avoid the risk of
war Russell was willing to settle for peace at any price. [p184-5]

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Columbia Awsare/Dentler (Critical-Preemption) [Daryl]

<<aslso: see Redlands>>

I will have the first three words/last three words of each card once I get back home and have a real template to do so.
-Shree

UNLV RR Round 1 1AC

Chapter 1: PreCrime

The Obama Administration has expanded the doctrine of pre-emption to include nuclear strikes

Lantier ‘8 (Alex, Writer @ the World Socialist Web Site, 10/30, http://www.wsws.org/articles/2008/oct2008/gate-
o30.shtml shree)

Logics of pre-emption and deterrence breed perpetual apocalypse by actualizing potential threats

Massumi ‘7 (Brian, Prof of Comm at U of Montreal, “Potential Politics and the Primacy of Preemption”, Theory & Event
10:2shree, evidence under erasure)

This war on uncertainty prevents an affirmation of life and fuels genocide

Seem 83 (Prof @ U of Minn, Introduction of the 1983 printing of Anti-Oedipus; Anti-Oedipus p xvi-xviishree, evidence
under erasure)

The logic of pre-emption normalizes knowledge production about the unknown, requiring the elimination of all potential
threats and causing extinction

Hoffman ‘7 (Kasper, International Development Studies at Roskilde University, May, Militarized Bodies and Spirits of
Resistance, http://diggy.ruc.dk:8080/handle/1800/2766 shree, ev under erasure)

Thus, we refuse to endorse the pre-emptive use of the United States’ nuclear weapons by the United States Federal
Government.

Chapter 2: Minority Report

Vote affirmative to validate a minority report against pre-emptive violence. Pre-emption is bad if it’s wrong even once.

Weber ‘7 (Cynthia, Prof of IR at Lancaster, The Logics of Biopower and the War on Terror: Living, Dying, Surviving, p
124-6shree)

We are defined relationally to others, given over to them in ways we cannot irreducibly know. A politics centered on a
shared condition of precariousness challenges frames of war which make us normatively script our agency and
mourning

Butler ‘9 (Judith, Prof of Rhetoric @ Cal, Frames of War, p 26-36shree)

Pre-emptive state violence and static notions of subjectivity are two sides of the same coin. Avowing injurability without
considering our shared precariousness perpetuates an epistemology that necessitates violence.

Butler ‘9 (Judith, Prof of Rhetoric @ Cal, Frames of War, p 178-181shree)

Norms that produce subjects are iterable and thus fragile. This demands an ethical practice of responsiblity that
divorces itself from absolutism and seeks to protect the other from violence

Butler ‘9 (Judith, Prof of Rhetoric @ Cal, Frames of War, p 167-177shree)

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Using government practices as a focal point is not the same as a totalizing endorsement of instrumentality—our
demand testifies to the strategic reversibility of power relations

Campbell 98 (David, Prof of IR at Newcastle, Writing Security, p 204-5shree)

Disavowing the iterability of norms is a sovereign act that justifies unconditional violence

Rasch ‘4 (William, Prof of Germanic Studies – Indiana, Sovereignty and its Discontents p. 3-4shree)

How we envision the social construction of the body defines our relationship to the world

Pizzini 2K (Franca, Prof of Socio @ Milan, “The Medicalization of Women’s Body”, October,
http://www.women.it/quarta/workshops/epistemological4/pizzini.htm shree)

On the negative (in UNLV RR Round 2 and 4), we have read--

Agamben K

The affirmative divides Being between zoe and bios, producing both the normative subject of the law and a
concomitant zone of indistinction between the two poles where the Muselmann arises as the zero point of atrocity,
annihilating meaning and value.
Giorgio Agamben, Professor of Philosophy at University of Verona, Remnants of Auschwitz: The Witness and the
Archive, 1999, 155-157

Furthermore, their framing of impacts solipsistically avoids becoming because of a reactionary desire to preserve
structure- this fuels a genocidal fascism that makes death desirable.
Deleuze and Guattari 72 (Gilles, ex-Prof at U of Paris at Vincennes, Felix, ex-psychiatrist at La Borde Anti-Oedipus
330-9shree)

Fortunately, the creation of molar fascist structures is not inevitable but is rather the result of limiting desire to one
ontological strata- that of biological existence- which then becomes the ground for sovereign power and the
concomitant production of bare life. Vote negative in order to endorse Whatever-being in opposition to the affirmative’s
attempt to lodge existence within the biological strata.
Anne Caldwell, Assistant Professor in the Department of Political Science at the University of Louisville, 2004, Theory
& Event, 7.2

Baudrillard K

The 1ac prefigures the object of their discourse by reading a biopolitical code into nuclear weapons. The assumption
that nuclear signifiers still attach to a realm of known effects leaves the structures of nuclearism in place. Instead, we
should adopt an ironic strategy that radically decenters meaning.
Chaloupka, William. 1992. “Knowing Nukes : The Politics and Culture of the Atom.”
Minneapolis, MN, USA: University of Minnesota Press, xiii-xv.

All that power asks of us is that we take it seriously enough to oppose it. Rather than decrying the abuses of power, we
should let power work on us in mute silence, exposing it to its own lack of substance and reality.
Jean Baudrillard. Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School, 1981,
Simulacra and Simulation, p. 24-25.

Shit is already vacuous and discourse doesn’t determine anything. You double-turn yourself by talking and prescribing
things. Conflict can only break through systems of control in the form of accidents, events beyond all agency and
responsibility which means you don’t solve.
Chaloupka, William. 1992. “Knowing Nukes : The Politics and Culture of the Atom.”Minneapolis, MN, USA: University
of Minnesota Press, 39-41.

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The affirmative posits themselves as subjects of knowledge and power, using the discourse of the 1AC to establish
critical distance and intervene in the nuclear scene, but this strategy is bound to fail because it is not the subject that
wills the world into existence but rather the object that seduces it. Any attempt to revive the strategy of the subject
simply breeds self-hatred and repression which reproduces their harms.

Baudrillard 90__ (Jean, Professor of Philosophy of Culture and Media Criticism at the European Graduate School,
Fatal Strategies, p. 111-13)

Disalienation and liberation through discourse is impossible because society exchanges signs in a generalized system
that includes the 1AC. Efforts at liberation only lead to deeper and deeper depths of unhappy consciousness because
the freed slave is never spared the master’s gift of life.
Lotringer ‘7 (Sylvere, French post-structuralist critical thinker. “Forget Foucault: A semiotexte of the present” pg. 9-17,
introduction.)

The Nuclear Bomb isn’t evil! The bomb has liberated us from the tyranny of the subject, discourse and representation.
Chaloupka, William. 1992. “Knowing Nukes : The Politics and Culture of the Atom.”
Minneapolis, MN, USA: University of Minnesota Press, 27-28.

Deterrence DA

Nuclear Weapons deter conflict


Murdock 08
From a systemic perspective...deterrence holds fast

Millions of people die as a result of conventional wars because there is no incentive to de-escalate conflict
Disarmament and International Security 99
Limitless and unrestricted...expense of these weapons

War is the ultimate creation and exercise of biopolitical control


Moretti '3
It is the suspension of...cohering into a form-of-life.

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CSU-Fullerton Bridge/Gray (Critical-Body) [Daryl]

Gonzaga Disclosure
We begin with a discussion the bodies that the nuclear weapons arsenal is built on, including the bodies of those left
dead and injured by the bombs dropped at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, nuclear testing, radiation tests, the nuclear fuel
cycle, and depleted uranium weapons.

The nuclear weapons regime creates these bodies in pain to make real its power and anchor its ideological belief
systems.
Gusterson, 98 (Hugh Gusterson, Professor of Anthropology and Sociology at George Mason University. Nuclear Rites:
A Weapons Laboratory at the End of the Cold War. 1998. pp. 108-109)
The marked bodies of all these …dominance in the international power structure (Luke 1989).

These bodies are only allowed to appear fragmented, decontextualized, and objectifed. The transformation of bodily
pain into precise, objective, scientific data erases the subjectivity, suffering and person that inhabit the body, enabling
the scientific task to continue unimpeded by awareness of the real pain it inflicts. This erasure is what enables the
physical destruction of these bodies.
Gusterson, 98 (Hugh Gusterson, Professor of Anthropology and Sociology at George Mason University. Nuclear Rites:
A Weapons Laboratory at the End of the Cold War. 1998. pp. 109-111)
The discourse of scientists and other experts …pain itself getting in the way (Hafferty 1991; Kenner 1987; Taussig
1980).

Denial of appearance leaves lives unmarked, able to be taken without recourse.


Butler, 04 (Judith Butler, professor of rhetoric and comparative literature at UC Berkeley. Precarious Life: the Powers
of Mourning and Violence. 2004. pp. xx-xi)
Public policy, including foreign policy…publicly about the effects of war.

Techno-scientific solipsism is organized around disappearance of the body. We become mortified of the flesh and seek
to empty the world of substance, resulting in hatred of living matter and extermination of entire peoples under the guise
of progress.
Virilio, 02. (Paul Virilio, Emeritus Professor at the Ecole Spéciale d'Architecture in Paris. Ground Zero. 2002. pp. 12-
13).
If, according to Francois Raspail…but the madness of the mightiest.

To counter the disappearance of the body enacted by the US nuclear project, an activist group called Baring Witness
has laid their bodies on the line.
Garofoli, 03 (Joe Garofoli. “A Cheeky Protest: Bay Area Anti-War Activists Go Nude in Surge of Creative Vigils.” the
San Francisco Chronicle. January 12, 2003. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0112-09.htm)
Even as U.S. troops inch … in San Francisco this Saturday.

We ask you to use your ballot to Bare Witness to the dismembered body. Confronting the body that we have
abandoned and repressed is a step necessary to challenge the role our nuclear weapons arsenal plays in
dismembering the body, distancing us from it so that it can be destroyed.

Public criticism is an embodied act of exile that reorients violent relations by subverting the exclusion of bodies from
the domain of public representation.
Kennedy, 99 (Kristen Kennedy, Visiting Assistant Professor of English at Wake Forest University. “Hipparchia the
Cynic: Feminist Rhetoric and the Ethics of Embodiment,” Hypatia 14.2 (1999) Muse.)
Hipparchia's use of exile as an ethical …has no need of something to conceal him.] (n.d., 135-37)

Applying the lessons we gain from the body of the suffering other to the process of ordering our daily lives overcomes
the socioengineering schemes that deny the body agency in their pursuit of transcendence through reason. Beginning
with embodiment opens up space for authentic politics by retrieving context and motivating praxis.
Rajan, 90 (Roby Rajan, School of Business at the University of Wisconsin, Parkside. Alternatives, Volume XV. 1990)
It ought to be stressed here that for Gandhi, …it is always and irretrievably situated.

GSU Aff Disclosure


Same as Gonzaga

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Dartmouth Manns/Sterman (Critical-Prolif Racism) [Courtney]

Current descriptions and responses to proliferation are based in Imperial Control Proliferation is destabilizing only
through a colonial lens
Andreas Behnke, Prof. of Poli Sci @ Towson, 2k [January, International Journal of Peace Studies 5.1, "Inscriptions of
the Imperial Order,"http://www.gmu.edu/academic/ijps/vol5_1/behnke.htm]
While sticking to our critical hermeneutics...it is unwilling to listen to.

Proliferation threats are not self evident but seeped in a Racist description of the world The current ideological
approach insures unending war and genocide
Pinar Batur, PhD @ UT-Austin Prof. of Scociology @ Vassar, '7 ["The Heart of Violence: Global Racism, War, and
Genocide," in Handbook of the The Soiology of Racial and Ethnic Relations, eds. Vera and Feagin, p. 446-7]
At the turn of the ...up with genocide, in Darfur.

And the construction of proliferation danger is the central element in current war, global inequality, and racial
dominance - It Prevents Non-Violent Approaches
Matthew Woods, PhD in IR @ Brown - Researcher @ Thomas Watson Institute of International Relations, '7 [Journal
of Language and Politics 6.1"Unnatural Acts: Nuclear Language, proliferation, and order," p. 116-7]
It is important to identify, ...possibilities and co-opting subordinates.

Colonial Discourse is a Decision Rule The role it plays in destroying the vast majority of the planet requires its
rejection, it is the deciding factor in contemporary war
Nermeen Shaikh, @ Asia Source '7, [Development 50, "Interrogating Charity and the Benevolence of Empire,"
palgrave-journals]
It would probably be incorrect to ...and the Mediterranean generally (Anidjar, 2003, 2007).

And we must reject all racism or risk worldwide destruction


Joseph Barndt 1991 Dismantling Racism: The Continuing Challenge to White America, p. 155-56
To study racism is to study ...dare not allow it to continue.

The Discourse of Proliferation danger utilizes racial ideology solidifying colonial domination and justifying use of
nuclear weapons.
Bryan C. Taylor, Prof. of Comm. @ Univ. of Colorado-Boulder, '7 [Presidential Studies Quarterly 37.4, "The Means to
Match Their Hatred": Nuclear Weapons, Rhetorical Democracy, and Presidential Discourse," p. wiley]
Critical concern with the first President ...resisting further arms control and reduction.

Representations of prolif naturalize these racist assumptions of Non-Western States as irrational. The supposed
inability to deter makes the use of nuclear weapons on "rogue" proliferators inevitable.
Hugh Gusterson, @ MIT Center for International Studies, '1 [Bulletin of Atomic Scientists 57.6, "Tall Tells and
Deceptive Discourses," p. http://thebulletin.metapress.com/content/1773264770n77769/fulltext.pdf]
The new discourse, like its ...called the "second nuclear age."

The discourse of irrationality is used to justify nuclear strikes against rogues in the international order.
Michel Chossudovsky, Professor of Economics at the University of Ottawa and Director of the Center for Research on
Globalization, Feb 11 2008, "The US-NATO Preemptive Nuclear Doctrine: Trigger a Middle East Nuclear Holocaust to
Defend "The Western Way of Life"" Global Research

Threatening the use of nuclear weapons in counter proliferation enforces nuclear colonialism while slaughtering
civilians.
Michel Chossudovsky, Professor of Economics at the University of Ottawa and Director of the Center for Research on
Globalization, Feb 11 2008, "The Dangers of a Middle East Nuclear War New Pentagon Doctrine: Mini-Nukes are
"Safe for the Surrounding Civilian Population""" Global Research

As part of a stance against nuclear colonialism, we present the following plan,

Plan: The United States Federal Government should eliminate the use of nuclear weapons against proliferating states
and states that transfer nuclear technology from its counter-proliferation policy.

We reserve the right to clarify.

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The Aff's discussion reorients scholarship, changes the way we conceptualize the problem of proliferation
Rebecca S. Bjork, Prof of Communications @ University of Utah, '95 [inWarranting Assent, "Public Policy
Argumentation and Colonialist Ideology in the Post-Cold War Era," p. 232]
The assumption, all too ...be logically prior to suggesting alternatives.

Refusing racial practices and representations prepares an alternative knowledge base that is a pre-req to effective
policymaking
Diana Brydon, University of Western Ontario, '6 [Postcolonial Test 2.1, "Is There a Politics of Postcoloniality?"
http://journals.sfu.ca/pocol/index.php/pct/article/viewArticle/508/175]
For Hasseler and Krebs, then...under which genuine dialogue might begin.

Imperial representations are not natural or inevitable Arguments about inevitability are used to justify the colonial
status quo.
Hugh Gusterson, @ MIT Center for International Studies, '9 [Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, Narrating abolition,
http://thebulletin.metapress.com/content/h26825722134k888/fulltext.pdf]
Arms control experts speak in terms ...half nuclear and half nuclear free."

Discourse should be privileged in our analysis-Racist Representations ensure racial elimination and are ideologically
constructed to justify the status quo
Roxanne Doty, Prof. of Political Science @ ASU [Woot], '96 [Imperial Encounters: The Politics of Reprsentations in
North-South Relations, p. 166-71]
One of the deadly traces ...responsibility and complicity in dominant representations.

May change a little bit, will report

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Emporia Fifelski/Loghry (Critical-Democracy) [DCH]

Kentucky Cards

This card replaced Croyle:


The recent UN resolution was a façade to extend the secrecy of nuclear expansion abroad and to whitewash the
development of its own nuclear program
Mazari in 2009 (Shireen M; The facade of nuclear disarmament; September 26, 2009; http://www.nation.com.pk/
pakistan-news-newspaper-daily- english-online/Politics/26- Sep-2009/The-facade-of- nuclear-disarmament/1; kdf)
The UN Security … nuclear arsenals.
And this card was added:

The nuclear veil of secrecy makes standard decision making epistemologically unsound – the manufacturing of
intelligence to build support for the Iraq war proves that the plans reactivation of the public sphere is a prerequisite to
making any accurate political assessments
Masco in 2007 [Joseph [Dept. of Anthropology @ U Chicago], “The Nuclear Public Sphere,” Ethnografeast III:
Ethnography and the Public Sphere, http://ceas.iscte.pt/ ethnografeast/papers/joseph_ masco.pdf, kdf]
Finally, the secret …basis for action.

Aff v.Northwestern FS
Gonzaga, Round 3 :
vs:

Plan texts:
The United States federal government should abolish its nuclear weapons arsenal.
The United States should abolish its nuclear arsenal.
The United States federal government should abolish its nuclear arsenal.
1ac cites:

Politicians love to talk about a world free of nuclear weapons – sadly, this is usually political posturing, as it is with
Obama – Politics in this way results in the United States inevitably maintain nuclear weapons
Coyle 2008 (Phillip, Election Special—Nonproliferation Views, Part 1, September 12, Written by Holly Lindamood,
Program Director and Research Associate, Daisy Alliance
http://blog.daisyalliance.org/2008/09/12/election-special%E2%80%94nonproliferation-views-part-1/; sm)
Senator Obama … weapons states.

This gap between rhetoric and reality is steeped in nuclear reclusion – nuclear war is unthinkably horrifying so our
common response is to just to ignore it – this also means that debates about nuclear weapons become depoliticized—
leaving us paralyzed by fear
Fishel in 2008 (Stefanie [Dept of Political Science @ John Hopkins], "Nuclear Collective Memories, Hidden Histories,
and Remembering the Future", Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION,
BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA Online, kdf)
Historically, nuclear … the atom.

The culture of deterrence has naturalized all forms of conflict through the framework of depoliticization—we have
become culturalized to feel safe in a world full of chaos—this is because are truly afraid to question the horrors of
nuclear weapons and to recognize out complicity in the erosion of the political—ultimately resulting in the paralysis of a
culture of violence
Brown in 2006 (Wendy [ Prof of political science @ UC Berkeley]; Regulating Aversion: tolerance in the Age of Identity
and Empire; p. 15-16, kdf)
Part of …to culture.

Thus, the plan: The United States federal government should abolish its nuclear weapons arsenal.

We must demand the impossible when it comes to nuclear weapons—each time we pass up the opportunity we fail to
question the underlying political order—while it might be difficult to achieve our goal we must stay resilient—otherwise
we continue to legitimate proliferation, constantly risk cosmic catastrophe, reverse trends of denuclearization, spark an
arms race, and allow for the depoliticization of our culture

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Booth and Wheeler in 92 (Ken [Personal Chair in the Department of International Politics @ University of Wales] and
Nicholas J. [UN Security Council]; Security Without Nuclear Weapons; ed: Regina Cowen Karp; p. 51-5; kdf)
There is …appear achievable.

Disarm movements continue to think complete disarmament can be easily achieved—and realist strategies have
ceded to the inevitability of nuclear weapons—we reject both of these paths as failed forms of utopianism—instead we
adopt a method that says because of the current political process complete disarmament will be difficult but because of
the unethical nature of nuclear weapons we should tie ourselves to zero rather than seeing them as inevitable
Karp in 92 (Regina Cowen [Senior Researcher and leader of the SIPRI Security Without Nuclear Weapons? Project;
frmr Resident Fellow @ the Institute for East-West Security Studies]; Security Without Nuclear Weapons?; p. 1-3; kdf)
More …over policy.

We are a unique form of a utopian demand—all of their criticisms will assume a fictional utopia where the goal seems
easily obtained—instead we are a form of process of utopianism where we project the goal at zero and then engage
the political process maintaining that goal—this ordering of events is important because it reverses the trends of the
current political order
Karp in 92 (Regina Cowen [Senior Researcher and leader of the SIPRI Security Without Nuclear Weapons? Project;
frmr Resident Fellow @ the Institute for East-West Security Studies]; Security Without Nuclear Weapons?; p. 1-3; kdf)
In chapter … be legitimized.

The current political reality considers what “is” resulting in the reclusion of nuclear weapons—the affirmative focuses
on what the world “should” be in order to transcend the current order
Kampleman in 2006 (Max M. [headed the nU.S. delegation to the negotiations on nuclear and space arms in Geneva
from 1985 to 1989], We Should, so we Can: Life Without the Bomb, http://www.commondreams.org/views06/0424-
21.htm, kdf)
In my … the will.

The aff is a strategic demand because it creates a rupture within institutional politics by enacting a utopian imagination
of abolition—anything less continues the paralysis of depoliticization which is committed to powerless and meaningless
reform
Jameson Professor of Comparative Literature at Duke 2004 Fredric New Left Review 25 p 43-46
How should … conventional slogans.

Through our utopian demand we examine the problems within calls for abolition—at the same time only this demand
can create a break with the securization inherent in deterrence
Booth and Wheeler in 92 (Ken [Personal Chair in the Department of International Politics @ University of Wales] and
Nicholas J. [UN Security Council]; Security Without Nuclear Weapons; ed: Regina Cowen Karp; p. 21-4; kdf)
The problem of … in the thinking'.11

Voting affirmative resonates into something beyond just the act of voting—it creates the space for universal politics by
exposing the violence of the current system and wills a new one into existence
Dean in 2005 (Jodi [Associate Prof of Political Theory @ Hobart & William Smith]; Zizek Against Democracy;
jdeanicite.typepad.com/.../zizek_against_democracy_new_version.doc, kdf)
I’ve argued thus … absent this ‘beyond’).

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Emporia Williams-Green/Wash (Critical) [Phil]

whoa

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Florida State Fixell/Silver [Critical-Capitalism) [Mark]

GSU Aff Disclosure


Imaginary world of debate is in crisis of sublimation. Attempts to encounter the real of politics give fals value to a form
of debate which substitutes “real action” with role playing. Key to any acto f solvency is realizing the valuelessness of
debate and the extent to which it subverts our passions and abilities to break free of capitalism
Zupancic 03 The shortest shadow: nietzsche’s philosophy of the two.

Capitalism uses debaters to reify hegemony


Spanos 93 The end of education: toward posthumanism

State power uses debate and education t teach us to play with politics as fantasy and to always have to operate within
its given framework
Sarup 84 Marxism/structuralism/education: theoretical developments the sociology of education p1-2

Capitalisms disciplinary gaze ensures violence


Spanos 93

Capitalism causes technorational thought


Spanos 93

Zero point
Dillon 99

Myth of western progress is root of destruction


Spanos 93

No value to life
Debord 77 society of the spectacle

Individual rejection solves


Roszak 92 The voice of the earth p315-17

Nihilism inevitable
Zupancic 03

Active nihilism key


Zupancic 03

Critical to our embracing o factive nihilism is knowing which enemy to fight


Hardt and negri, empire,

Role o fballot is to use the ballot as means of production against capitalism


Stone www.by.edu/wcp/Papers/Soci/SociSton.htm
“capitalism is both an” AND “provides no proof”

Discursive activities such as debate are crucial to expose hidden assumptions


Pacheco 78 Philosophy of education p219

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George Mason Owens/Reynolds (Critical) [Courtney]

OBS 1 THE ROLE OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS


Humanity’s development through time has created an unstable environment that throws us into a longing for Eden.
The role of nuclear weapons is to achieve our dream of timelessness by becoming our Alpha and the Omega. They
are the deity which steers our destiny as it wishes, toward an inevitable Apocalypse that will occur at the will of the
Bomb. We are helpless to its symbolism that tells us the end is already here.
Chernus 1986 (cochair of the religion peace and war group of the american academy of religion) Dr. Strangegod p25-8

Although there are other signs of society’s quest for ritualistic doom, the Nuclear Armageddon is the most concrete
embodiment of humanity’s fatalistic self-extinction. This creates, AND reinforces worship of and acquiescence to the
Bomb in both religious and secular society. The public sphere’s emphasis on the Bomb as a necessary tool of strategy
has only made things worse.
Wojcik 1997 (Associate Prof of English and Folklore at the U of Oregon, PhD from U of California LA) The End of the
World as we know it p99-103

Current political dialogue only reinforces the current role of nuclear weapons. Even the quest to reduce emphasis still
reveres their awesome and God-like power. The government relies on the logic that the Bomb is the solution to its own
problem, that deterrence will somehow eliminate our dependence.
President Barack Obama 2009 Obama Prague Speech On Nuclear Weapons: FULL TEXT
Huffington Post 9/17/2009 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/04/05/obama-prague-speech-on-nu_n_183219.html?
view=print

The Bomb will never be relinquished as the ultimate solution to our international troubles because it symbolizes our
goals as a nation. Its existence as the definitive power and freedom mandates an enemy after the same goals,
bringing us to neverending war. Even if the plan fails, we are in no more danger than the SQ. Avoiding the link to the
disad is only a band-aid solution to a deeper problem. Plan is our ONLY hope.
Chernus 1986 (cochair of the religion peace and war group of the american academy of religion) Dr. Strangegod p32-5

Our aspiration to meet God and know limitless Truth leads us to death as we attempt to break the barriers between
reality and the cosmos. The search for death lives in all of us and is inescapably ground into the foundations of our
national and local politics. It does not matter whether or not the Bomb CAN bring the Apocalypse because the
Apocalypse is already upon us so long as we adhere to the religion of the Bomb.
Chernus 1986 (cochair of the religion peace and war group of the american academy of religion) Dr. Strangegod p16-9

In addition to the psychological state of extinction, a literal form of suicide is inevitable in order to release our
frustrations and take back final control over our numbed existence.
Chernus 1986 (cochair of the religion peace and war group of the american academy of religion) Dr. Strangegod p124-
7

Plan: The United States Federal Government should eliminate the role of its nuclear weapons arsenal.

OBS 2 TAKING BACK OUR LIVES


We advocate deemphasizing nuclear weapons not because we are in awe of what they are or what they do, but
because of what they have become in the mind of society. Eliminating the role of the US nuclear arsenal clears the air
so we can take back our lives. We will no longer be pawns of a nuclear God, but a society with a future and the ability
to feel again. We cannot afford to make compromises. Any concession to the Bomb is 100% concession. The purpose
of fiat is to create a political container for our plan where we can immediately envision the effects. This will guide
further policies.
Chernus 1991 (same quals) Nuclear Madness p287-90

Humanity gets its feeling of agency from vicariously living through the Bomb because the USFG’s “experts” show us
that’s how it should be. Only a top-down approach solves.
Chernus 1986 (cochair of the religion peace and war group of the american academy of religion) Dr. Strangegod p56-8

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It’s tempting to vote for the comfortable short-term impact calc arguments, but trusting the traditional realist modes of
politics without question is a religious ritual of re-establishing our current logic. Each time around the cycle makes our
situation more dangerous.
Chernus 1986 (cochair of the religion peace and war group of the american academy of religion) Dr. Strangegod p50-2

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George Mason James/Leinbach (Critical) [Daryl]

Throughout the course of history, mankind has been compelled by the desire to create and destroy. We are slaves to
the technological imperative- the demand to justify the use of our newest creations even if it culminates in our
destruction. In the context on nuclear weapons- this makes total annihilation inevitable.

Kultgen 99

Kultgen, John H. “In the valley of the shadow: reflections on the morality of nuclear deterrence” 1999 pages 334-335

Additionally, the massive amounts of funding that have been poured into nuclear weapons demand their use. Intense
pressure on leaders in times of crisis, empirical strategies of violence and lack of restraint, and the nature of probability
make use of nuclear weapons inevitable as long as they exist. Unavoidable escalation of violence, by political leaders,
officers in the field facing dehumanizing conditions, or in the nuclear wars sure to follow, dash any hope for a just or
survivable war.

Kultgen 99

Kultgen, John H. “In the valley of the shadow: reflections on the morality of nuclear deterrence” 1999 224-228

By their very nature, use of nuclear weapons is unjustifiable. Their indiscriminate and disproportional character makes
a just war impossible, and their devastating effects make any war unsurvivable. Even if they are never used, the
conditional intent to use them, euphemized as ‘deterrence’, ensures our complicity in immorality.

Kultgen 99

Kultgen, John H. “In the valley of the shadow: reflections on the morality of nuclear deterrence” 1999, pages 257-258

Conditional intentions increase the probability of the use of nuclear weapons, and are inherently immoral by their
commitment to an immoral act. ‘Escalation control’ assumes the enemy can, or will, limit their violent reactions. In
reality, a disproportionate response would be the most likely retaliation by an enemy.

Kultgen 99

Kultgen, John H. “In the valley of the shadow: reflections on the morality of nuclear deterrence” 1999, pages 263-264

Additionally, conditional intentions to use nuclear weapons are a result of a predisposition towards violence which has
characterized international affairs. This increases the probability of using nuclear weapons in crisis situations, while
simultaneously creating the incentive for enemies to preempt. This cycle of violence and Realpolitik is unending and
increasingly escalatory.

Kultgen 99

Kultgen, John H. “In the valley of the shadow: reflections on the morality of nuclear deterrence” 1999, pages 307-308

Claims that deterrence works are grounded in a dangerously simplistic illusion about the causal chain in foreign affairs.
It is impossible to prove that deterrence works- the causal chain is far too complex. It is more likely deterrence has
raised the probabilities of nuclear war from 1 in 100 to 1 in 10- even if it hasn’t happened yet.

Kultgen 99

Kultgen, John H. “In the valley of the shadow: reflections on the morality of nuclear deterrence” 1999, pages 281-282

Thus,

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Plan Text: The United States federal government should disarm its nuclear weapons arsenal.

Deterrence is a form of using innocents as hostages in the international arena: stripping citizens of their autonomy.

Kultgen 99

Kultgen, John H. “In the valley of the shadow: reflections on the morality of nuclear deterrence” 1999, page 293

To be stripped of autonomy condemns us to insanity or utter dehumanization. This is the biggest impact in the round-
all of their impacts assume a life worth living, they are all written in the context of human beings experiencing these
impacts- not shells of people.

Rousseau 1762

Big Deal Philosopher. The Social Contract. www.constitution.org/jjr/socon_01.htm#006

We understand ourselves in relation to others- knowingly taking the first step in a nuclear war via nuclear deterrence is
an immoral act which has paramount meaning to our lives. All U.S citizens are morally complicit. Disarmament is the
first step in ending international relations based in violence and fulfilling its moral obligation

Kultgen 99

Kultgen, John H. “In the valley of the shadow: reflections on the morality of nuclear deterrence” 1999, pages 324-327

It doesn’t matter if we cant see the ultimate goal of disarmament- we must move in the right direction.

Nunn 09

Former Senator Sam Nunn, Co-Chairman, Nuclear Threat Initiative, American Nuclear Society Annual Meeting, June
15, 2009.

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George Washington Olmsted-Rumsey/Helgeson (Critical)


[Stiffy]

Plan text:

PLAN: THE UNITED STATES FEDERAL GOVERNMENT SHOULD ISSUE AND SIGN A PRESIDENTIAL POLICY
DIRECTIVE THAT DICTATES THAT NUCLEAR WEAPONS WILL NOT BE USED ON EITHER COUNTER-FORCE
OR COUNTER-VALUE TARGETS INCLUDING TERROR CENTERS.

1ac cites:

OBSERVATION ONE IS STASIS.

THE US MAINTAINS A POLICY OF AGGRESSIVE NUCLEAR DETERRENCE AGAINST THE THREAT OF


NUCLEAR TERRORISM.

Nuclear Threat Initiative, “PREFACE: THE NEW THREAT FROM NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL, AND CHEMICAL
WEAPONS.” 2007 by MIIS. http://nuclearthreatinitiative.org/db/china/engdocs/dodproli/preface.htm

Our progress is good news…DoD support for various nonpproliferation agreements.

OBSERVATION TWO IS THE SIMULATION

THE WAR GAMES OF NUCLEAR DETERRENCE ABSTRACT THE TECHNOLOGY OF WAR INTO A SIMULATION,
SOMETHING UNREAL.

JAMES Der Derian. “The Simulation Syndrome: From War Games to game Wars” Social Text No. 24 1990 Duke
University Press. Muse. Accessed 10/5.

We all have some notion of the reality of war… (a point brought home by the botched bombing of the Panamanian
military barracks by a stealth FB-117)

NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY DISSOCIATES VIOLENCE FROM THE INDIVIDUAL, DIVERTING BLAME.


CONTEMPORARY REALISM IS A SELF-REINFORCING THEOREM THAT SIMULATES CONTROL OVER EVENTS
WE HAVE NO CONTROL OVER.

Elshtain “Reflections on War and Political Discourse: Realism, Just War and Feminism in a Nuclear Age” POLITICAL
THEORY Vol. 13 No. 1 p. 37-57. Sage Publications inc. / FEBRUARY 1985 Muse 10/7

Hannah Arendt's attempt to rescue politics from war deepens …indiscriminately usable for our strategic planning.

DETERRENCE MASKS THE DESTRUCTIVE NATURE OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS BY OBSCURING THE REALITY
OF NUCLEAR CATASTROPHE.

Kristenson, Norris, and Olerich, April 2k9. Hans M. Kristenson is director of the Nuclear Information Project at the
Federation of American Scientists. Robert S. Norris is a senior research associate with the Natural Resources Defense
Council nuclear program and director of the Nuclear Weapons Databook project. Ivan Oelrich is vice president for
Strategic Security Programs at the Federation of American Scientists. “From Counterforce to Minimal Deterrence: A
New Nuclear Policy on the Path Toward Eliminating Nuclear Weapons,” report from Federation of American Scientists
and the Natural Resources Defense Council.

In part, the overuse and misuse …deterrence no matter what mission they have.

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THE IMBALANCES IN THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM HAVE CREATED A WORLD OF PERPETUAL WAR. THE
YOUNG “TERRORISTS” IN THE WORLD RESORT TO VIOLENCE BECAUSE IT IS THE ONLY OPTION IN THE UN-
ENDING WAR AGAINST THE WEST.

Keith P. Feldman, Professor at University of Washington, The New Centenniel Review, “Seattle Imperial Formation
and “Permanent State of War”” Volume 8, Number 2, Fall 2008 Project Muse.

Let us first consider the analytical purchase …of historical narrative as a tool of the state and as a subversive weapon
against it” (Stoler 1995, 62).

OBSERVATION THREE IS IDENTITY

OUR NUCLEAR ARSENAL ENFRAMES HUMANS AS MEANS TO ENDS AND AGENTS OF DESTRUCTION
EXISTING IN A PERPETUAL STATIS. OUR FOREIGN POLICY OBJECTIVES ARE NEVER ACHIEVABLE.

Anthony Burke, Senior Lecturer in Politics and International Relations at UNSW, Sydney “Ontologies of War: Violence,
Existence and Reason” 10:2 | © 2007 Theory and Event. Johns Hopkins University Press. Project Muse 9/30/2008.

This essay describes firstly the ontology … commitments but their own substance'. 21

THIS PERPETUAL STATE OF WAR CREATES A CONSTANT ENEMY: WE ONLY KNOW THE TERRORIST OTHER
THROUGH OUR RHETORIC OF NUCLEAR DETERRENCE.

Elshtain “Reflections on War and Political Discourse: Realism, Just War and Feminism in a Nuclear Age” POLITICAL
THEORY Vol. 13 No. 1 p. 37-57. Sage Publications inc. / FEBRUARY 1985 Muse 10/7

Modern thinkers of the abstracted unthinkable … good citizens for doing so.

“TERROR” AS AN INTENTIOANLLY OBSCURE TERM FEEDS THE FICTION OF US FOREIGN POLICY THAT
BECOMES REALITY.

Peg Birmingham, Professor at DePaul University and the author of Hannah Arendt and Human Rights The Good
Society Volume 16, Number 2, 2007 “A Lying World Order: Deception and the Rhetoric of Terror” Project Muse.

In these early pages of Origins of Totalitarianism, …One can say that to some extent fascism has added a new
variation to the old art of lying—the most devilish variation—that of lying the truth".6

IN THIS STATE OF PERPETUAL WAR, INDIVIDUAL IDENTITY IS IMPOSSIBLE, FREEDOM IS CRUSHED UNDER
THE WAR MACHINE THAT OBSCURES BEING.

Anthony Burke, Senior Lecturer in Politics and International Relations at UNSW, Sydney “Ontologies of War: Violence,
Existence and Reason” 10:2 | © 2007 Theory and Event. Johns Hopkins University Press. Project Muse 9/30/2008.

Hegel indeed argues that 'sacrifice … form of the national security state.

THIS STATE-CENTERED IDEOLOGY SHAPES OUR THINKING TO CONDONE DEHUMINAZATION AND


VIOLENCE AND A MASS-SCALE.

Anthony Burke, Senior Lecturer in Politics and International Relations at UNSW, Sydney “Ontologies of War: Violence,
Existence and Reason” 10:2 | © 2007 Theory and Event. Johns Hopkins University Press. Project Muse 9/30/2008.

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Identity, even more than physical security ... rationalistic conceptions of war into a theoretical unity.44

OBSERVATION FOUR IS OUR ONLY OPTION

DETERRENCE IS BASED ON THE LOGIC OF COST-BENEFIT CALCULATION, CONDEMINING STATES TO THE


LOGIC OF SELF-PRESERVATION.
Maximum Deterrence

Gauthier, David. “Deterrence, Maximization and Rationality” Ethics, Vol. 94. 1984 University of Chicago Press. Muse
Accessed 10/5

Retaliation would therefore seem to … this argument succeeds and the former argument fails.

US FOREIGN POLICY HAS TWO HISTORICAL OBJECTIVES: TO ENTRENCH US HEGEMONY AND MAINTAIN
EQUILIBRIUM. THIS PERSPECTIVE ROOTS POLICY FIRMLY IN THE STATUS QUO. NO SOLVENCY IS
POSSIBLE INSIDE THIS FRAMEWORK.

Anthony Burke, Senior Lecturer in Politics and International Relations at UNSW, Sydney “Ontologies of War: Violence,
Existence and Reason” 10:2 | © 2007 Theory and Event. Johns Hopkins University Press. Project Muse 9/30/2008.

At the same time, Kissinger's hubris and hunger … divisive war to remove Saddam Hussein from power.

THIS WAY OF THINKING OBSCURES OUR CONCEPTIONS OF RIGHT AND WRONG AND REMOVES THE US
FROM ALL CULPABILITY.

Elshtain “Reflections on War and Political Discourse: Realism, Just War and Feminism in a Nuclear Age” POLITICAL
THEORY Vol. 13 No. 1 p. 37-57. Sage Publications inc. / FEBRUARY 1985 Muse 10/7

Hannah Arendt's On Violence responds … a temporary manifestation of a still-hidden good."

EVEN IN NUCLEAR DIPLOMACY THE US ADOPTS A ZERO-SUM STANCE THAT MAKES VIOLENCE
INEVITABLE.

Anthony Burke, Senior Lecturer in Politics and International Relations at UNSW, Sydney “Ontologies of War: Violence,
Existence and Reason” 10:2 | © 2007 Theory and Event. Johns Hopkins University Press. Project Muse 9/30/2008.

In his Politics Among Nations Hans Morgenthau … for conventional weapons is a rational instrument of international
politics'.28

THE US DEFINES THE WAR ON TERROR IN NEGATIVE TERMS, MAKING WAR A NECESSITY.

Rosalind C. Morris Copyright © 2002 Duke University Press. All rights reserved. Social Text 20.3 (2002) 149-175
Access provided by George Washington University Theses on the Questions of War: History, Media, Terror

The Bush administration's repeated …globality that is deeply, perhaps irreducibly, American.

THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE WAR AGAINST TERRORISM HAS GIVEN TERROR A RECIPROCAL ABILITY TO
DESTABILIZE AMERICAN POWER, MAKING AN END TO TERROR IMPOSSIBLE.

Leonard Wilcox Head of the Department of American Studies at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New
Zealand2003 Baudrillard, September 11, and the Haunting Abyss of Reversal PMC 14.1. Muse 10/6

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Another aspect of the system's propensity to … targeted; we had our own scenes of anthrax terror--we were "real."

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Georgeton Hantel/Shen (Critical-Hiroshima) [Katie]

<<get cards from Phil>>

GSU Aff Disclosure


The resolution’s invocation of America’s nuclear arsenal and posture is like every debater’s dream, drawing a quick
straight line to extinction scenarios. For once, this tendency is not unique to debaters, because nuclear weapons in our
collective imagination have become significant only as agents of Armageddon, some future scenario of fantastic
apocalypse looming overhead. Whether on the left or the right, hawk or dove, this focus on the coming Armageddon is
actually a fantasy precluding an earnest investigation into the meaning of our nuclear age. In particular, it displaces the
single and most important historical resource we have to draw upon, the US atomic bombing of Japan in World War II.
The fun of apocalyptic imagery has become a toxic fiction, written to disarm critical thought and to avoid the work of
memory and remembrance demanded by Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Foard 97 (JH, JAAR, Prof of Religion at ASU, "Imagining Nuclear Weapons," JSTOR)

This ambivalence about… self evident fact.

The erasure of Hiroshima or Nagasaki as events to be mourned and engaged with is embodied by the right wing
approach to history. The possibility of open-ended memory-work threatens a transcendental, fixed, and redemptive
reading of history which affirms the eternal rightness of American nationalism.
Nash et al. 97 (Gary, Ross Dunn, Charlotte Crabtree, History on Trial: Culture Wars and the Teachings of the Past,
125-127)

Despite such a… just being born.

This detached relationship from Hiroshima is in reality an ideological prison binding us to a quest for total omnipotence
and the future use of nuclear weapons.

Lifton and Mitchell 1996 (Psychologist at Harvard Medical School, Editor of E and P and author of 9 books, Hiroshima
in America, 302)

Since Hiroshima, we… Lewis Mumford observed.

The liberal-humanist appropriation of Hiroshima is no better - it represents the same transcendental project, ultimately
complicit with virulent forms of racism and nationalism. Instead of a glorified American referent, ‘us’ becomes the
human community who look endlessly upon the victims of Hiroshima and Nagasaki as the abject reminders of our own
rightness and humanity. They are frozen in time, and all of history along with them, in a narrative of linear progress
through a single political project.

Haver 1994 (William, positions, 2.1, “A World of Corpses”)

What is in… as it were.

Hiroshima always has and always will resist these moralizing and prohibitive containers that attempt to establish and
fix the meaning of the atomic bombings within the totality of linear history. We are not simply a cry to “Remember
Hiroshima”, demanding the constant repetition, in documentary form, of the statistics of the violence that transpired.
This quest for a positivist recollection is an attempt to soothe the crisis of representation caused by Hiroshima, but it is
this very failure of representation that provides the critical starting point for a new politics of memory.

Lambert 2 [Non-Philosophy of Gilles Deleuze, p. 95-96]

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In order to… zone in time

And so, our 1AC asks how to go about constructing new public spaces of memory. First and foremost, we must
escape the confines of monumental history--the fixed and rigid relationship to the past—such as the right wing censure
of Hiroshima or the liberal-humanist appropriation. The solution is not, however, a simple oppositional anti-
monumentalism which elides the past altogether and makes critical examination impossible.
Luciano 2004 (Dana, Georgetown English Professor and Max’s Thesis advisor, Arizona Quarterly, Autumn, proquest)

The antebellum inclination… melancholically denies it.

Our solution is the very disavowal of capital H history and the static representational practices that entails., not a top-
down centralized political project The radical potential of our intervention into the memory of Hiroshima is precisely this
open-ended lack of guarantees that makes the public space of rememberance contested and always-becoming. This
is the only way to effectively challenge the forms of oppression that take root when the meaning of History is
tyrannically fixed.
Haver 1994 (“A World of Corpses,” Positions)

What I have… demand the impossible.

We open the space of historical grieving. This interrupts the representational practices that fuel endless war and
destroy the possibility of our humanity.

Butler 2009 (Judith, Prof of Rhetoric at Berkeley, Frames of War, 182-184)

Non-violence thus… time and again.

This counter-monumental approach refuses the easy resolution of right-wing redemption or liberal sentimentality in the
name of critical and polyvocal relationships to history that radically reshape our present and open the way for new and
alternative futures.

Luciano 2004 (Dana, Georgetown English Professor and Max’s Thesis advisor, Arizona Quarterly, Autumn, proquest)

The counter-monument… in monumental history.

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Gonzaga Corrigan/Joseph (Critical-Patriarchy) [Phil[

1AC ROUND 2 -- HARVARD


CONTENTION ONE – THE NUCLEAR FAMILY; OR HOW I LEARNED TO STOP WORRYING AND LOVE MY STEP-
FATHER.
UNDER THE GUISE OF PARENTAL OBLIGATION, AMERICAN NUCLEAR POLICY HAS TAKEN A PARTICULARLY
INCESTUOUS TURN. DECADES OF URANIUM MINING AND RADIATION TESTING HAVE VIOLATED MILLIONS
WHO PLACE THEIR TRUST IN THE NUCLEAR FATHER FOR PROTECTION. JUST LIKE EXPERIENCES
DESCRIBED BY VICTIMS OF INCEST, DEVOTION TO THE BOMB AND ITS POLICIES FORCE THE SELF TO
SPLIT FROM THE BODY, WARPING AND PERVERTING IDEAS LIKE SURVIVAL, TRUST AND FAMILY TO MAKE
DAILY VIOLENCE AND PENETRATION NOT ONLY PSYCHOLOGICALLY PALATABLE BUT THE EXPECTED
NORM.
CAPUTI, 1994
Jane. Unthinkable Fathering: Connecting Incest and Nuclearism, Hypatia, Vol. 9, 1994. 21 pgs
THE NUCLEAR FATHER: WARHEAD OF THE FAMILY
An uncanny image appears on the cover of a 1985 children's comic book The Outsiders. A band of tiny costumed
heroes, ready for battle, approaches an enormous mushroom cloud, upon which is inscribed a face that is broadly
reminiscent of a 1950s sitcom dad. A pipe juts from his mouth and his expression is a lordly know-it-all and sadistic
smirk. Here is a prime portrait of the cultural figure whom I call the "nuclear father" -- the quintessential patriarch, the
man who nominally provides for and protects his dependents but who actually threatens and violates them. This
"nuclear father" figure can be found ruling over a family, a laboratory, a corporation, a military force, a church, or a
nation.
In his astute study Fathering the Unthinkable ( 1983) Brian Easlea, a physicist and historian, points to a predominance
of metaphors of male birth and fatherhood in the language of the Manhattan Project, the U.S. government's mission to
develop the atom bomb. He and Carol Cohn ( 1987) perceive these metaphors as indicators of the masculinist bias
steering the development of nuclear weapons. For example, at Los Alamos in 1945, as scientists struggled to produce
the bomb before the war ended, they took bets on whether they would produce a dud or a success-in their lingo, a
"girl" or a "boy." Their project was a success, and the bomb dropped on Hiroshima was nicknamed "Little Boy." The
National Baby Association reacted to this birth/explosion by naming J. Robert Oppenheimer "Father of the Year."
Oppenheimer remains the paradigmatic father figure in a select nuclear club that includes such men as Edward Teller,
"father of the U.S. H-bomb"; Glenn Seaborg, one of the "five fathers of plutonium"; Andrei Sakharov, "father of the
Soviet H-bomb"; and Admiral Hyman B. Rickover, "father of America's nuclear navy."
Oppenheimer, Teller, and other such scientific nuclear fathers were widely heroized after World War II. Astutely, their
colleague Leo Szitard observed, "It is remarkable that all these scientists . . . should be listened to, but mass
murderers have always commanded the attention of the public, and atomic scientists are no exception to this rule"
(cited in Boyer 1985 , 61). This linkage of fatherhood and mass murder is eerily reflected in the contemporary nuclear
family, where murderous mayhem is an increasingly common event.
Another kind of nuclear father was exemplified by forty-one-year-old Ernie Lasiter of Roswell, New Mexico, who in
January 1992 strangled his wife and four of his children and then shot himself. A couple of days earlier, his seventeen-
year-old daughter had been removed from the home by police, who were investigating her complaint of incestuous
assault by Lasiter. In the aftermath of the atrocity, a number of friends confirmed, as is typical in such cases, that
Lasiter was a "good guy" and fine family man. A secretary in the highway department where he worked added, "He
was very conscientious and a hard worker. He was almost like a machine" ( Jadrnak 1992, 3E). The machine that a
family (war)head like Ernie Lasiter most resembles is the unendingly lethal nuclear weapon. Not only does the
apocalyptically raging nuclear father have an immediate mass kill from his "blast," but the effects of his lethality linger
forever in the bodies and psyches of his survivors. Eerily, the mass murder/suicide pattern of the nuclear father
presages the probable fate of any nation that initiates nuclear war.
Nuclear-family men such as Lasiter seem omnipresent these days. Other recent family mass murderers include John
List, Jeffrey MacDonald, Ramon Salcido, George Franklin, Gene Simmons, and even the god-identified,
apocalyptically aimed, and allegedly sexually abusive father figure of the Branch Davidian Christian cult, David Koresh.
This lethally abusive nuclear father is also represented by fictional "pop" figures such as Leland Palmer in "Twin
Peaks" (1989-1990), Jerry Blake in The Stepfather ( 1988), "De-Fens" in the despicably racist Falling Down ( 1993),
and Freddy Kruger in A Nightmare on Elm Street ( 1984).
Moreover, in all sorts of stories with explicit themes of nuclear weaponry and power -- from comic books to popular
films to elite literature -- abusive fathers appear as prime metaphors for the Bomb. Examples include the novels The
Nuclear Age by Tim O'Brien ( 1985), Falling Angels by Barbara Gowdy ( 1990), The Mosquito Coast by Paul Theroux (
1982), The Prince of Tides by Pat Conroy ( 1986), the films Star Wars ( 1977), Forbidden Planet ( 1956), and Desert
Bloom ( 1986), and even, humorously, the current hit television show "The Simpsons."

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Of course, in his original mythic manifestations, primarily in television sitcoms, the fictionalized head of the nuclear
family is the benevolent patriarch who always "knows best." During the 1950s, the heyday of atomic culture,
fatherhood became a much valorized role, and Father's Day became for the first time a holiday of national significance
( May 1988 , 146). In The Feminine Mystique ( 1963) Betty Friedan connected the cult of the (white, middle-class)
nuclear family with a national psyche scarred by "the loneliness of the war and the unspeakableness of the bomb."
These conditions, she argued, made women particularly vulnerable to "the feminine mystique," the belief that the
highest value for women was fulfillment in a femininity characterized by "sexual passivity, male domination, and
nurturing maternal love" (37). At the same time, women and men also were vulnerable to a "masculine mystique," the
illusion that a man's rightful position was head of the family, where he was all-powerful, protective, a provider,
benevolent, omniscient, essentially godlike -- attributes simultaneously ascribed to America's newest weapon.
In truth, the bomb, while purportedly protecting actually threatens. So too does the nuclear father. Just as those
seeking refuge in a fallout shelter from an atomic bomb attack might instead find themselves roasted alive, those
seeking security in the nuclear family might instead find themselves under attack in the form of battery, rape, incest,
and mass murder. Affirming the connection of the political to the personal, and in subliminal recognition of the often
apocalyptic experience of American family life, the phrase "nuclear family" established itself firmly in the national
vernacular by 1947.
The film Atomic Cafe ( Rafferty, Loader, Rafferty 1982) is a witty compilation of clips from 1950s government and
military disinformation. These clips demonstrate the efficacy of that inflated Great White Father image to such
nuclearist propaganda. Over and over, they present heavily iconic white family images: dads coming home from work;
moms in the kitchen, cooking and serving; and Dick and Jane-type kids in the living room, watching TV.
Simultaneously, we see white governmental father figures blithely assuring us of the safety of radiation and indeed of
nuclear war itself. This genuflection to paternal authority was equally apparent in mainstream popular culture.
Television boasted popular shows with such masterfully subtle titles as "Father Knows Best" and "Make Room for
Daddy." So dominant was the image of the white, middle-class, patriarchally ordered family that one critic claimed,
"Dad's authority around the house appeared to be the whole point of the spectacle" ( Miller 1986 , 196). Of course, that
televised paternal authority also served to legitimate and ordain "Dad's" authority around the globe.
Benevolent nuclear father imagery was resurrected with great vigor during the Reagan-Bush era when the federal
government spent four billion dollars per year on the Strategic Defense Initiative or "Star Wars" -- Reagan's proposed
space-based nuclear "defense" system. In order to persuade Americans to place their trust in him and his utterly
specious project, Reagan smoothly donned the mask of the father protector, promising that his plan would offer a "new
hope for our children in the twenty-first century." (1983, 20)
Reagan's "good father" image continued in a 1985 television commercial produced by High Frontier, a pro-Star Wars
lobbying group. The spot opened with a childlike drawing of a simple house: stick figures represented a family, and
there was a gloomy-faced sun. A syrupy little girl voice chirped, "I asked my daddy what this Star Wars stuff is all
about. He said that right now we can't protect ourselves from nuclear weapons, and that's why the president wants to
build a Peace Shield." At this point, large red missiles appeared to threaten the house, but they harmlessly disintegrate
when met by a blue arc in the sky. Like magic, the grumpy sun began to smile and the arc was transformed into a
shimmering rainbow. This scenario was about as believable as Reagan's hair color. Yet, credibility was not really the
point. The essential message of this little package was that we, the much vaunted "American people," are children, in
need of the loving protection of the all-powerful father/president. See, he can even make the sun smile.
Reagan again assumed the mask of the benevolent nuclear father in his 1984 address to the peoples of Micronesia
acknowledging the cessation of their "trust" relationship with the United States. In 1947, the United Nations had made
the United States the administrator of Micronesia (which encompasses more than two thousand islands) as a "strategic
trust." This action authorized the United States to use the area for military purposes. In exchange, the United States
would "protect" the islands from invaders. Ironically, over the next eleven years, the real invader was the protector --
the United States itself. The U.S. government tested sixty-nine atomic and hydrogen bombs on the islands, rendering
some of them permanently uninhabitable. Diana Davenport (1989), a native of Rongelap Atoll, remembers witnessing
the blast of the hydrogen bomb Bravo, dropped on neighboring Bikini Atoll in 1954:
Electricity crackled through my father's body, and during the flash my mother saw all her bones, her arms and legs,
and hips, glowing through her skin. Windows shattered, animals bled through their eyes. Bikini Atoll become
debris. . . . Six hours after the "Bravo" blast, something rioted down on us, on our water and food. Like starflakes, or
shavings of the moon. We danced in it, we played with it. It didn't go away. . . . We were caught in the fallout that
scientists named "Bikini Snow." (61)
Within twenty-four hours, everyone on Rongelap showed signs of radiation sickness. The legacy of this contamination
continues in the form of all sorts of health calamities, including "Blindness. Thyroid tumors. Miscarriages. Jelly. fish
babies. Mental retardation. Sterility. Lung cancer. Kidney cancer. Liver cancer. Sarcoma. Lymphoma. Leukemia. . . .
Retardation. Infants born who leaked through one's fingers like breathing bags of jelly. Others with long, twisted
pincers like crabs" ( Davenport 1989 , 62). More than 50 percent of the deaths on Rongelap each year are children
under five.

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Childbirth has become, in Davenport's word, a "metaphor" for the monstrosity of the future in a postnuclear world. With
no sense of irony, nuclear father Reagan employed a metaphor of healthy children growing up and leaving home in his
formal 1984 good-bye to the Marshall Islands:
Greetings. For many years a very special relationship has existed between the United States and the people of the
trust territory. . . . Under the trusteeship, we've come to know and respect you as members of our American family.
And now, as happens to all families, members grow up and leave home. I want you to know that we wish you all the
best. . . . We look forward to continuing our close relationship to you in your new status. But you'll always be family to
us. ( O'Rourke 1986)
Here Reagan revealed himself as the ultimate unthinking and unthinkable father. His own role and the "American
family" to which he referred represented, on a global scale, the "toxic parenting" and "dysfunctional family" of scores of
best-selling recovery books. The "family" he described is one afflicted by a severely disordered and abusive father --
one who more or less destroys the next generation, physically and/or psychically, and then denies his own horrendous
behavior and tries to coerce everyone else into the denial as well.
Incest is the atrocity most paradigmatic of fatherly abuse. In her essay "The Color of Holocaust," novelist Patricia A.
Murphy (1985) uses nuclear metaphors to describe both her incest experience and the interior self of her
father/perpetrator:
The nuclear winter resonates through our culture reaching into our global imagery as expressed through television. It
extends into the secret heart of the family and finally into that private space inside our own skins. The color of this
winter is ash, which seems to be the color of all holocausts public and private. My father and I were once children of
the sky. That great blue bowl which hangs over the limitless prairie where we both experienced our childhoods a
generation apart. He is the color of ash now like a stain on that sky. He smudges life itself. . . . My father has
surrendered to the nuclear winter within. ( Murphy 1985, unpaged)
Murphy reminds us that there would not be an external bomb unless a bomb also existed in the hearts of men, and
that the nuclear winter is a psychic state of blight as well as a physical one. Her father, she tells us, is an artificial
season, a destroyed atmosphere, a stifler of breath, life, and color, a sorry substitute for that older, original, nurturing
father she simultaneously invokes: Father Sky. Barbara Gowdy's Falling Angels ( 1990) also sets up a metaphoric link
between nuclear devastation and incest. This novel tells the story of a 1960s nuclear family consisting of a tyrannical
and crazed father, a nearly catatonic alcoholic mother, and three daughters. One Christmas, the father bestows
minimal and despised presents on his daughters, telling them that in the summer they will take a trip to Disneyland.
However, in the spring, heeding media messages of an imminent Soviet attack, the father begins frenzied work on a
basement A-bomb shelter. When summer arrives, his daughters find that instead of going to one newly constructed,
controlled environment, Disneyland, they are to spend two weeks together in another such environment -- their father's
brandnew bomb shelter.
The experience in the bomb shelter is, of course, hell on earth: the water supply is insufficient and everyone drinks
whiskey incessantly; the oldest daughter gets her first period, to her unbearable shame; the tyrannical father grows
increasingly cranky, angry, and unpredictable; the air is foul; the toilet backs up, and the stench is unbearable. The
metaphor is unmistakable: nuclear family life, while advertised like Disneyland, to be "the happiest place on earth,"
actually is a lot more like life in a bomb shelter: waiting in cramped quarters amid insane behavior for the "bomb" to
drop. In Gowdy's novel, of course, some years later it does: the father eventually makes incestuous advances toward
the oldest daughter, and the mother eventually kills herself by jumping off the roof of the house. The daughters, with
varying degrees of damage, manage to survive.
The incest-nuclear connection also appears in the 1986 film Desert Bloom, a movie that could easily be subtitled: Or
How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love My Stepfather. The setting of the film is Las Vegas in the early 1950s as the
city awaits an impending bomb test. The film focuses on a family composed of a mother, Lilly, her three daughters, and
a stepfather, Jack. Jack is a World War II veteran, wounded in both body and spirit, who desperately seeks esteem
and power through possession of "secret" information obtained via his shortwave radio. Significantly, the family keeps
a number of secrets of its own. Jack is an alcoholic and a bully, lording it over his stepdaughters and his wife, who
placatingly calls him Daddy. Jack's relationship with Rose, the "blooming" pubescent oldest daughter, is charged with
sexual tension: we see him verbally and physically abuse her. Moreover, Rose tells us that "Momma had a way of not
seeing things." In these and other ways, the film strongly implies Jack's sexual abuse of Rose.
Eventually Rose, seeking safety, runs away. Ironically, she ends up at the eminently dangerous nuclear test site,
where she is rounded up by the authorities and returned to Jack, who has followed her trail. As they drive back to the
house, he tells her that he just wants to "protect" her. "From whom?" Rose asks pointedly. The film's parallel between
the incestuous/abusive father and nuclear weapons is extremely persuasive. Each purportedly protects the family and
yet each, in reality, invades it and threatens to destroy its members.
"TRUST ME"
A world once divided into two armed camps now recognizes one sole and preeminent power, the United States of
America. And they regard this with no dread. For the world trusts us with power, and the world is right. They trust us to
be fair, and restrained. They trust us to be on the side of decency. They trust us to do what's right. . . . As long as I am

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president we will continue to lead in support of freedom everywhere, not out of arrogance and not out of altruism, but
for the safety and security of our children. (State of the Union Address, George Bush, 1992)
The incest survivor can be said to be incapable of experiencing trust. She has in fact learned that words don't mean
what they say, that things are not always what they seem, and that what appears safe is generally not to be believed. (
E. Sue Blume, Secret Survivors: Uncovering Incest and its Aftereffects in Women)
"Trust" is one of the key words linking incest and the Bomb on the Newsweek "Future of the Bomb" cover. Witness the
similarity between the incest headline, "Can Memories Be Trusted?" and the bomb headline, "Can We Trust the
Soviets?" Frankly, both of these questions desperately displace the really important concern about trust. That is: can
we trust our fathers, grandfathers, uncles, brothers, priests, old family friends, neighbors, doctors, and teachers around
issues of safety for children? At the same time, based on past deceptions by nuclear authorities, it is absurd to place
much trust in the U.S. government, military, and associated nuclear facilities around issues of nuclear safety.
When I was about twelve, the older boys in my neighborhood used to sexually harass girls by playing a game called
"Trust Me." A boy would put his hand on the top button of a girl's blouse, unbutton it, and ask "Trust me?" The girl was
supposed to say "Yes," even as he proceeded to uncover her breasts or shove his hand down her pants, all the while
reiterating, "Trust me?"
During the 1950s, United States military and government officials played "Trust Me" not only with the Pacific peoples of
the United Nations "trust territory" but also with countless U.S. citizens, including: lower-echelon military personnel
who, as part of their duties, were exposed to radiation from bomb tests; the residents of northern Arizona, Nevada, and
Utah who regularly were hit with fallout from above-ground bomb tests; uranium miners (a great number of whom were
Lakota, Kaibab Paiute, Navaho, and Pueblo Native Americans); and the residents of areas where nuclear production
facilities like Hanford and Oak Ridge were located.
Throughout the era of above-ground testing ( 1951-1963), the Atomic Energy Commission and the United States
government engaged in a "sustained and wide-ranging effort" (Boyer 1985, 318) to fool the public about the dangers
associated with nuclear development and above-ground bomb testing. In the aftermath of the attacks on Japan, the
U.S. government actually denied the lethal and disabling effects of the radiation from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki
bombs by dismissing statements about them as "Japanese propaganda." By 1950, the Federal Civil Defense Agency
was claiming that nuclear war survival was simply a matter of "keeping one's head" and making sure to "duck and
cover." In 1953, President Eisenhower advised the Atomic Energy Commission to keep the public "confused" about
any hazards associated with radiation. Despite warnings from scientists such as Linus Pauling, the official line was that
"low" levels of radiation were perfectly safe, that people could trust the government to protect them, and that bomb
tests were in our best interest. By and large, U.S. citizens believed the government, embraced the bomb through a
million popular songs and artifacts, and accepted the notion of the "peaceful atom." Many of these people later
developed cancer, sterility, and other serious and frequently lethal health problems in return for their trust ( Gallagher
1993).
Now, after decades of enforced secrecy, information is beginning to be released about the massive extent of this
betrayal of trust by the nuclear industry, the Atomic Energy Commission, and their supporters throughout the
government. Tom Bailie ( 1990) is a resident of the desperately contaminated area in Washington state around the
Hanford Nuclear Reservation. He characterizes his experience as a virtual rape since the day he was born:
As downwinders, born and raised downwind of the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in Washington, we learned several
years ago that the government decided -- with cold deliberation -- to use us as guinea pigs by releasing radioactivity
into our food, water, milk and air without our consent. Now, we've learned that we can expect continuing cancer cases
from our exposure in their "experiment." Is this what it feels like to be raped? The exposure began the same day our
lives began. ( Bailie 1990 , 19)
Bailie observes that even after the government admitted that radioactivity had been released, residents were
continually reassured there would be no "observable" health consequences. However, the reason that negative health
effects were not observable was not because there was an absence of harm, but because the consequences of
radioactive contamination were perceived as normal: "Unknowingly, we had been seeing the effects for a long time.
For us, the unusual was the usual!" (19) Bailie recalls nuclear cleanup crews, "men dressed in space suits," wandering
around his town throughout his childhood, nice guys who gave him candy. He remembers the "neck massages" he and
other children received from the school nurse, who was actually looking for thyroid problems. He remembers farm
animal mutations, a high rate of human and animal miscarriage, and a high local cancer rate. To Bailie, all of this was
perceived as "normal," including his own horrific health consequences, starting with underdeveloped lungs and
numerous birth defects. Eventually he "underwent multiple surgeries, endured paralysis, endured thyroid medication, a
stint in an iron lung, loss of hair, sores all over my body, fevers, dizziness, poor hearing, asthma, teeth rotting out and,
at age 18, a diagnosis of sterility."
Bailie's perception of the normalcy of abuse corresponds. almost perfectly with testimony from people who literally
were raped from birth. One incest survivor, Kyos Featherdancing, was raped by her father from the time she was a
baby. Until she was nine years old, she thought that "every father did that with their daughter" (in Bass and Davis 1988
, 395). Just as Bailie "thought all kids lived with death and deformity," Featherdancing assumed that all kids lived with

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incest. She too mistook the abnormal for the normal and suffered long-term damage from the normalized abuse. In her
case, this included drug addiction, alcoholism, and self-hatred.
Lifton points to the shame of many Hiroshima survivors, their "sense of impaired body substance." He observes:
"Radiation effects . . . are such that the experience has had no cutoff point. Survivors have the possibility of
experiencing delayed but deadly radiation effects for the rest of their lives. That possibility extends to their children, to
their children's children, indefinitely into the future" ( Lifton and Falk 1992 , 45-46). Like many survivors of Hiroshima,
the survivors of incest often are frightened to have children, for the effects of incest, like the effects of radiation, are
insidious, long term, and transmitted through generations. They, too, often lie harbored in the victim until they later
erupt into disease or disorder. Some of the long-term effects of incest include fear, anxiety, anger, and hostility; eating
disorders; allergies and asthma; shame; low self-esteem; guilt; depression; inability to trust or to establish
relationships; phobias; multiple personality disorder; sexual dysfunction; a tendency toward revictimization through
participating in such activities as prostitution; drug addiction; alcoholism; self-mutilation; and suicide ( Wyatt and Powell
1988).
OFFICIAL SECRECY
Except possibly for the word "silence" and maybe the word "safety," the word "secret" recurs more than any other in
feminist discussions of incest. Psychiatric social worker Florence Rush ( 1980) calls the sexual abuse of children
patriarchy's "best-kept secret." Sociologist Diana Russell ( 1984) speaks of incest as "the secret trauma," marked by "a
vicious cycle of betrayal, secrecy, unaccountability, repetition, and damaged lives" (16). Similarly, as any analyst of
nuclear culture knows, an unprecedented and profoundly enforced official secrecy is the most prominent feature of the
history of nuclear development ( Lifton and Falk 1992 , 26). Secrecy is fundamental to the abuse of power -- sexual
and otherwise. Protected by the cult of secrecy, fathers molest their daughters; priests violate their flocks;
governments test nuclear weapons on human populations; including their own; and weapons laboratories and defense
contractors plan, manufacture, and mismanage weapons without public knowledge, scrutiny, or criticism. Secrecy in
the nuclear world, moreover, creates a select club of those "in the know," bestows a sense of privilege, and fosters in-
group loyalty. It encourages the arms race, allows safety problems to remain uninvestigated and unresolved at any
number of nuclear weapons facilities in both the United States and the former Soviet Union, and has enabled
disastrous accidents to be completely covered up.
So, too, the truth about child sexual abuse is covered up regularly, by individual perpetrators and the enabling culture.
At the outset, children are told by abusers that their sexual activity is a secret that must never be told, frequently under
threat of abandonment or death (for themselves or loved ones). If the children disregard that prohibition and tell the
truth, they all too often are not believed. The invalidation of children's words, the characterization of their reports as
fantasy, and massive community denial and resistance to believing in the abusive practices of paternal authorities
(individual or institutional) have long histories in psychoanalytic theory and everyday practice ( Summitt 1988).
This scenario of silence, secrecy, denial, avoidance, erasure, initial embrace of the trusted father-figure abuser, and
victim blaming unerringly mirrors the typical responses of nuclear communities to complaints against the institutional
abusers in their midst. Tom Bailie ( 1990) reveals what happened when his family blew the whistle on the devastation
caused by Hanford:
Our patriotism has been impugned, our credibility questioned. . . . We have been slandered as the "glow in the dark
family" by friends and strangers alike. . . . Moscow was condemned for its three days of silence after the Chernobyl
nuclear accident. What about Washington's 40 years of silence? ( Bailie 1990 , 19)
Marylia Kelley is a resident of Livermore, California -- home of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. She is also a
founder of Tri-Valley CARE -- Citizens Against a Radioactive Environment. When she moved to Livermore in 1976,
she knew there was some "super-secret government facility" where almost everyone worked, but neither she nor
anyone she spoke to seemed to have a clear idea about what went on there. There was some awareness that nuclear
weapons work was occurring there, but most people dismissed it as constituting only a small proportion, maybe 10
percent, of the lab's actual endeavors. (In truth, weapons work accounted for about 90 percent of the lab's activities.)
As antinuclear activists increasingly converged upon Livermore in the 1980s, local residents like Kelley became
interested in finding out the truth. Yet local activism faced a certain measure of resistance since so many community
members were economically dependent on the nuclear facility. After several years of deliberate non - cooperation,
some of the churches agreed in 1989 to sponsor a series of talks entitled "Pathways to Peace," to be held in
neighboring Pleasanton. Lectures were given over a six-week period, but, Kelley reports, not once did anyone mention
Lawrence Livermore lab. As she told me in a 1993 conversation, "I felt like the community was keeping a dirty secret,
and it was breaking a taboo to speak the name Livermore in a public way.
In other words, making genocidal bombs isn't taboo, but speaking out against them is. So too, as many observers
note, incest is not really taboo in our culture, but speaking out against it is. The "dirty secret" scenario Kelley describes
parallels the protection by family members of a trusted and/or economically powerful child abuser and the concomitant
silencing of victims. Kelley concludes that one of the most important features of CARE's activism is to overcome this
obeisance to secrecy and to get people to "name things by their true names, to find their voice." Indeed, in order to
thwart both child sexual abuse and nuclearism, we must, in the phrase commonly used by survivors, "break silence."
We must begin to spill those long held and closely guarded secrets and, concomitantly, believe the unbelievable, be it

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that a fine churchgoing family man is sexually abusing his daughter or that high rates of thyroid and brain cancer (such
as those in Los Alamos) are due to radioactive contamination.
KEEPING SECRETS FROM ONESELF
"What was your family life like, Savannah?" I asked, pretending I was conducting an interview.
"Hiroshima," she whispered.
"And what has life been like since you left the warm, abiding bosom of your nurturing, close-knit family?"
"Nagasaki," she said, a bitter smile on her face. ( The Prince of Tides, Pat Conroy.)
Victims of incest often seek temporary refuge in numbing, denial, and massive repression, keeping their worst secret
even from themselves because confronting incest in their own lives is truly "thinking about the unthinkable." Pat
Conroy's best-selling novel, The Prince of Tides, elaborates a complex narrative, encompassing nuclear devastations,
the secrets of family life, and child rape. The book's narrator, Tom Wingo, tells us that he and his twin sister Savannah
"entered the scene in the middle of a world war at the fearful dawning of the atomic age" (9). Their childhood was
simultaneously haunted by a terror of their father's recurrent brutality, directed against them and their mother. While
the world anticipated nuclear war, their "childhood was spent waiting for him to attack."
Tom further reveals that his is "a family of well-kept secrets and they all nearly end up killing us" (97). His father, Henry
Wingo, relentlessly batters his family. His mother, Lila Wingo, adamantly forbids her three children to reveal their
father's brutality. She also conceals the fact that she has been stalked by a rapist and murderer. Yet, the repressed
returns, this time with apocalyptic virulence. The stalker and two other men escape from prison and come to the
family's home while Henry is absent. They rape and try to kill Lila, Tom, and Savannah and are thwarted only because
Luke, the oldest son, manages to disrupt the assaults and lead a lethal attack against the invaders. Lila orders
everyone to render the event permanently unspeakable and unthinkable, meaning that everyone must wipe it from
memory. Tom can't stop himself from remembering; still, he brackets that knowledge and refuses to deal with its
implications or speak of it. Savannah completely expunges this and other horrific memories from her consciousness.
She goes on to become an extraordinarily gifted poet, yet she regularly attempts suicide. Some years later, Lila
conspires to sell off the Wingo family South Carolina island home to the U.S. government so that it can build a nuclear
weapons facility there. Utterly opposed to nuclear weapons, Luke becomes a one-man guerrilla army, battling the
construction of the plant. In a few months, he is shot and killed.
Savannah Wingo's name is not arbitrary. One of the United States'primary nuclear weapons facilities is the Savannah
River Plant, located in South Carolina. For years, Savannah River was the major source of tritium for U.S. nuclear
weapons, but it was closed for the first time in 1988 due to its unsafe practices. As recent investigations reveal, the
Savannah River facility has a "long and shocking record of serious incidents of radioactive contamination and unsafe
disposal of waste," hazards that the Department of Energy "has long attempted to keep . . . from public view" ( Glenn
1988 ). The Savannah River, like the Columbia, is one of the most toxic bodies of water in the world.
Numbing, repression of memory, and denial characterize the Wingo family, patterns that serve as microcosmic mirrors
for larger nuclearist abuse. Robert Jay Lifton and Eric Markusen ( 1990 , 13) detail that denial, numbing, dissociation
or splitting, and even "doubling" ("the formation of a functional second self") are not only classic responses of victims of
genocidal practices but also characterize victimizer consciousness. In special circles, these ways of numbing are
actually celebrated and encouraged. For example, General Curtis LeMay, who oversaw the Hiroshima bombing and
the creation of the Strategic Air Command (SAC), was popularly portrayed, with no onus attached, as "more machine
than man." Spencer Weart notes that in his capacity as head of SAC, "LeMay took care to select only officers like
himself, men who kept their feelings under strict control" ( Weart 1989 , 149). Bombing, as one writer explained in the
Saturday Evening Post, "had to be done 'mechanically, with swift, sure precision, undisturbed by emotion, either of fear
. . . or pity' " (cited in Weart 1989 , 149). LeMay himself recalled that when he flew bombers over Germany, "his
imagination had caught a picture of a little girl down below, horribly burned and crying for her mother. 'You have to turn
away from the picture, he said, 'if you intend to keep on doing the work your Nation expects of you' " (cited in Weart
1989 , 149).
I wager that unapologetic incestuous abusers might sound very much like LeMay-riveted on their own conquest or
pleasure and steeling themselves to turn away from the "little girl down below," crying, injured, and annihilated. Just as
the survivor splits into a "day child" and a "night child" ( Atler 1991 , 90), so does the abuser create a second self,
enabling him to perform atrocities and to keep the secret of his depredations even from himself. With such abusers,
psychic numbing means never having to say you're sorry.
Another method of inculcating nuclear numbing is to render weapons work an always unfinished jigsaw puzzle.
General Leslie Groves, who was the military chief of the Manhattan Project, initiated a policy of "compartmentalization
of knowledge." This policy ensured that "each man should know everything he needed to know about doing his job and
nothing else" ( Lifton and Falk 1992 , 26). The internalization of this mentality among nuclear workers guarantees that
none of them needs to face what he or she is doing. After living in Albuquerque for over ten years and speaking to
scores of people who work at either Sandia or Los Alamos national laboratories, I rarely meet anyone who
acknowledges working on nuclear weapons. Nearly everyone claims to perform some specialized, unrelated task.
Even those technicians who acknowledge that they are making weapons often mute their awareness with truly
stunning doublethink. As one weapons designer at Lawrence Livermore lab told an interviewer, "We're working on

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weapons of life, ones that will save people from weapons of death" (cited in Broad 1985 , 47). Similarly, many
incesters deny that they are grievously injuring children. In their minds, they are pleasuring the children, helping them
to attain adulthood, loving them, giving them only what they want, responding to their initiation of sex play, and so on.
A January 1991 issue of Time magazine opted to name George Bush not "Man," but "Men of the Year" and actually
depicted a two-faced presidential image on its cover. Such doubling nominally referred to Bush's disparate record on
international and domestic affairs. Yet, this image simultaneously portrayed the "doubling" propensity of nuclear fathers
and prepared the nation for Bush's role as commander in chief of the Persian Gulf War and mass murderous activities
by the U.S. military. A similar construction appeared in a 1991 advertisement for the Army National Guard. It depicted
a young man whose face was split precisely down the middle. On the right, it was a relatively normal face. On the left,
the face was heavily painted camouflage style; the eye was widely opened and stared threateningly. This ad was stark
testimony to the military's normative inculcation of a secret "killer self" within the soldier. It also portrayed the fissioned
configurations of not only official femininity but also of official masculinity in the nuclear-fathered world.
TABOO VIOLATION: JUST DO IT
Our mission: to boldly go where no man has gone before. (Star Trek)
In scores of nuclear movies such as the 1958Teenage Caveman and the 1968 Planet of the Apes, there is a recurrent
motif: the "forbidden zone," an area closely guarded by taboo that no one may enter. Usually, this area is contaminated
by radiation from some long-ago nuclear war. In pro-technology films like Teenage Caveman the hero is the one who
disregards the taboo and boldly strides into the proscribed area.
The 1956 film Forbidden Planet puts a different twist on this theme. A scientist, Morbius, lives alone on the
paradisiacal planet Altair with his full,grown daughter, Altaira. Domestic chores are performed by a marvelously
efficient robot named Robby. A spaceship from earth arrives to find out what happened to the original landing party
that came to the planet twenty years ago. Morbius attempts to make them go away. He tells them that, in essence, the
entire planet is taboo to them, for there is a deadly force on the planet that killed everyone in the landing party except
himself and his daughter. Nevertheless, the captain of the ship refuses to leave.
As a sexual attraction develops between the captain and the daughter, the deadly planetary force again makes an
appearance, threatening the men and their ship. Ultimately, we learn that the lethal force is generated by the jealous
Morbius's own mind. The planet Altair formerly was inhabited by members of a technologically superior civilization, the
Krell. Although they wiped themselves out years ago "in a single night," the Krell left behind the agent of their own
destruction, a vast nuclear-powered machine. Morbius, lusting for the Krell's technological knowledge, has been able
to tap into the machine's power, allowing him to produce externally all that he can imagine, such as the marvelous
Robby. But, Morbius is operating under a serious mantle of denial. He is transgressing profoundly against self-, family-,
and planetary-preservative taboos in his unbounded quest for both sexual and technological knowledge. The Krell
machine manifests in material reality not only his conscious wishes but also his most awful unconscious thoughts and
desires, unleashing "monsters from the id." The lethal planetary force, then, is actually an externalization of Morbius's
unconscious. When his incestuous paradise with his "forbidden partner," his daughter, is threatened, his unconscious
strikes out to eliminate the threat. In the film's climactic moment, Morbius faces his own evil self and the experience
does indeed destroy him. Romance, however, manages to "save" Altaira. She and the captain escape into space,
bringing Robby with them, while Morbius and the planet that shares Altaira's name are blown to bits.
The word forbidden in the film's title speaks not only to the archetypal "forbidden knowledge" that structures both
ancient myths and mad-scientist movies, but also to the forbidden incestuous relationship that the father imposes on
his daughter. Forbidden Planet is basically a conservative movie: it sets up pairs of false dichotomies and then in a tidy
resolution replaces the "bad" heterosexual domination -- incest with her father -- with "good" heterosexual domination
-- marriage to the captain. Similarly, the "bad" nuclear technology -- represented by the Krell machine -- is replaced
with "good" nuclear technology -- in the form of Robby the Robot.
Yet, however conventional, Forbidden Planet once again holds up for view the connection between the incestuous
father and nuclearism. If we look past the film's false oppositions, we can discern an unmistakable parallel between
Morbius's unbounded quest for knowledge and his incestuous depredations. As Catharine MacKinnon sums it up,
"Sexual metaphors for knowing are no coincidence. . . . Feminists are beginning to understand that to know has meant
to fuck" (1983, 636). Manifestly, in the patriarchal tradition, knowledge is power (domination) just as space exists to be
invaded. It was this reigning pornographic paradigm of knowledge that fired the drive to gain nuclear knowledge or, as
the most common scientific metaphors put it, "to penetrate the hidden mysteries," to investigate "the most intimate
properties of matter," and even to "smash resistant atoms" (Weart 1989, 58).
While social lip service is widely given to the incest taboo, Diana Russell (1986, 16) suggests that a minimum of one of
every six women in the United States has been incestuously abused. The violation of life-preservative taboo so
characteristic of incestuous practice equally underwrites much technological adventuring. J. Robert Oppenheimer, for
example, reflecting on the quest to split the atom, avowed, "It is my judgment in these things that when you see
something that is technically sweet, you go ahead and do it, and you argue about what to do about it only after you
have had your technical success" (cited in Lifton 1979 , 425). Under the reigning ideologies of knowledge, power, and
progress, there is no ethic of respect for others, no limit on phallic desires, no prudent calculation of future
consequences. Whether advancing upon the "final frontier" of outer space, probing the "most intimate properties of

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matter," taking possession of desirable and colonizable "virgin land," or staking a claim on the body of a child,
patriarchal men routinely disregard any notion of taboo or limitation and continually give themselves permission to
"boldly go where no man has gone before."

NUCLEAR WEAPONS ARE PSYCHOLOGICALLY ROOTED IN THE SEPARATION BETWEEN “SPIRIT” AND
“BODY” REQUIRING THE CONSTRUCTION OF A DUAL SELF THAT SEPARATES AND SUPPRESSES EMOTIVE,
EMBODIED FORMS OF KNOWING. THIS DUALISM CREATES AN INTERNAL SENSE OF SELF HATRED AND A
DESIRE FOR TOTAL ANNIHILATION TO ESCAPE THE FLESH OF THIS WORLD.
GRIFFIN, 1984
Susan, Ideologies of Madness, Exposing Nuclear Phallacies pg 75-83

If one approaches the explosion of a nuclear weapon as if this were symptomatic of an underlying mental condition,
certain facets begin to take on metaphorical meaning. Even the simplest physical aspects of a nuclear chain reaction
carry a psychological significance. In order for a chain reaction to be created, the atom must be split apart, the fabric of
matter has to be torn asunder. In a different vein, it is important to realize that the first atomic weapons were dropped
over a people regarded in the demonology of our civilization as racially inferior. Tangentially, and carrying a similar
significance, the first nuclear device exploded over Bikini Atoll had a pin-up of Rita Hayworth pasted to its surface. And
then, taking from a history that has largely been forgotten or ignored, the prototype of the first missiles capable of
carrying nuclear warheads was invented and designed in the Third Reich. And those first rockets, the German V-2
rockets, were produced in underground tunnels by prisoners of concentration camps who were worked to death in this
production.
These facts of the existence of nuclear weaponry can lead us to a deeper understanding of the troubled mind that has
created our current nuclear crisis. To begin at one particular kind of beginning, with the history of thought, one can see
the philosophical roots of our current crisis in the splitting of the atom. In the most basic terms, what occurs when the
atom is split is a division between energy and matter. Until this century, modern science assumed matter and energy
to be separate. This assumption began not with scientific observation but out of a religious bias. Examining the early
history of science, one discovers that the first scientists were associated with and supported by the church (as was
most scholarship at that time) and that they asked questions derived from Christian theology. “What is the nature of
light?” a question intimately bound up with the theory of relativity and quantum physics began as a religious question.
And the guiding paradigm of the religion that posed this question has been a fundamental dualism degraded regions,
belonging to the devil and corruption. Spirit, or the realm of pure intellect and heavenly influence, belonged to God,
and was, in human experience, won only at the expense of flesh.
Of course, science does not recognize the categories of spirit and matter any longer, except through a process of
translation. The new vocabulary, though, the old dualism has been preserved. Now, matter the equivalent of spirit, is
described as a free agent, inspiring and enlivening. Newtonian physics continued the old dualism, but Einsteinian
physics does not.
When Einstein discovered the formula that eventually led to the development of the atomic bomb, what he saw was a
continuum between matter and energy, instead of a separation. What we call solid matter is not solid, nor is it static.
Matter is, instead, a process of continual change. There is no way to divide the energy of this motion from the physical
property of matter. What is more, energy has mass. And not only is there no division between matter and energy as
such, but to divide any single entity from any other single entity becomes an impossibility. No particular point exists
where my skin definitely ends and the air in the atmosphere begins and this atmosphere ends and your skin begins.
We are all in a kind of field together. And finally, with the new physics, the old line between subject and object has also
disappeared. According to Heisenberg’s Principle of Uncertainty, whatever we observe we change through our
participation. Objectivity with its implied superiority and control has also vanished.
One might imagine that with the disappearance of a scientific basis for dualism and the appearance of a physical view
that is unified and whole a different philosophy might arise, one which might help us make peace with nature. But
instead what this civilization chose to do with this new insight was to find a way to separate matter from energy (it is
spoken of as “liberating” the energy from the atom). And this separation has in turn produced a technology of violence
which has divided the world into two separate camps who regard each other as enemies.
The real enemy, however, in dualistic thinking, is hidden: the real enemy is ourselves. The same dualism which
imagines matter and energy to be separate also divides human nature, separating what we call our material existence
from consciousness. This dualism is difficult to describe without using dualistic language. Actually, the mind cannot be
separated from the body. The brain is part of the body, and is affect by blood flow, temperature, nourishment, muscular
movement. The order and rhythm of the body, bodily metaphors, are reflect in the medium of thought, in our patterns
of speech. Yet, we conceive of the mind as separate and above the body. And through a subtle process of
socialization since birth, we learn to regard the body and our natural existence as something inferior, and without
intelligence. Most of the rules of polite behavior are designed to conceal the demands of the body. We excuse
ourselves, and refer to our bodily functions through euphemism.

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From this dualistic frame of mind two selves are born: one acknowledged and one hidden. The acknowledged self
identifies with spirit, with intellect, with what we imagine is free of the influence of natural law. The hidden self is part of
nature, earthbound, inextricable from the matrix of physical existence. We have become very seriously alienated from
this denied self. So seriously that our alienation has become a kind of self-hatred, and this self-hatred is leading us
today toward the suicidal notion of nuclear combat.
Of course, the body and mind are not separate. And ironically, the warfare incipient between our ideas of who we are
and who we really are is made more intense through this unity. Consciousness cannot exclude bodily knowledge. We
are inseparable from nature, dependent on the biosphere, vulnerable to the processes of natural law. We cannot
destroy the air we breath without destroying ourselves. We are reliant on one another for our survival. We are all
mortal. And this knowledge comes to us, whether we want to receive it or not, with every breath.
The dominant philosophies of this civilization have attempted to posit a different order of being over and against this
bodily knowledge. According to this order of being, we are separate from nature and hence above natural process. In
the logic of this order, we are meant to dominate nature, control life, and in some sense felt largely unconsciously,
avoid the natural event of death.
Yet, in order to maintain a belief in this hierarchy one must repress bodily knowledge. And this is no easy task. Our
own knowledge of our own natural existence comes to us not only with every breath, but with hunger, with intimacy,
with dreams, with all the unpredictable eventualities of life. Our imagined superiority over nature is constantly
challenged by consciousness itself. Consciousness emergence from and is immersed in material experience
Consciousness is not separated from perception, which is not to sensuality, and as such cannot be separated from
matter. Even through the process of the most abstract thought, we cannot entirely forget that we are part of nature. In
the biosphere nothing is ever entirely lost. Death itself is not an absolute end, but rather a transformation. What
appears to be lost in a fire becomes heat and ash. So, too, no knowledge can ever really be lost to consciousness. It
must remain, even if disguised as a mere symbol of itself.
If I choose to bury a part of myself, what I bury will come back to haunt me in another form, as dream, or fear, or
projection. This civilization, which has buried part of the human self, has created many projections. Out of the material
of self-hatred several categories of otherness have been fashioned existing on a mass scale and by social agreement,
these categories form a repository for our hidden selves.
The misogynist’s idea of women is a fundamental category of otherness for this civilization. In the ideology of
misogyny, a woman is a lesser being than a man. And the root cause of her inferiority is that she is closer to the earth,
more animal, and hence, material in her nature. She is thus described as more susceptible to temptations of the flesh
(or devils, or serpents), more emotional and hence less capable of abstract thought than a man. Similarly in the
ideology of racism, a person with dark skin is perceived as, at one and the same time, more sensual and erotic and
less intelligent.
During the rise of fascism in Europe, a fictitious document was created called the Protocols of the Elders of Zion. In
this “document” Jewish elders plan to corrupt and eventually seize Aryan bloodlines through the rape and seduction of
Aryan women. If one has projected a part of the self upon another, one must always be afraid that this self will return,
perhaps even entering one’s own bloodstream. But what is equally significant about this myth, and much of the racist
and anti-Semitic imagination, is that a sexual act, and especially rape, lies at the heart of its mythos.
It was in writing a book on pornography that I first began to understand the ideology of misogynist protection. Since so
much in pornography is violent, I began to ask myself why sexual experience is associated with violence. This is a
question which poses itself again in the context of nuclear weaponry, not only because Rita Hayworth’s image
happened to adorn an experimental nuclear bomb, nor simply because of the phallic shape of the missile, nor the
language employed to describe the weapons—the first atomic bomb called “little boy,” the next “big boy”—but also
because of the sexualization of warfare itself, the eroticization of violence in war, the supposed virility of the soldier, the
test of virility which is supposed to take place on the battlefield, and the general equivalency between masculine
virtues and prowess in battle.
Over time in my study of pornography I began to understand pornographic imagery as an expression of the fear of
sexual experience itself. Sexual experience takes one back to a direct knowledge of nature and of one’s own body
before culture has intervened to create the delusion of dominance. It is part of the nature of sexual pleasure and of
orgasm to lose control. And finally the feel of a woman’s breast, or of human skin against bare skin at all, must recall
infancy and the powerlessness of infancy.
As infants we all experience an understanding of dependence and vulnerability. Our first experience of a natural,
material power outside ourselves was through the bodies of our mothers. In this way we have all come to associate
nature with the body of a woman. It was our mother who could feed us, give us warmth and comfort, or withhold these
things. She had the power of life and death over us as natural process does now.
It was also as infants that we confronted what we have come to know as death. What we call death—coldness,
isolation, fear, darkness, despair, trembling—is really the experience of an infant. What death really is lies in the
dimension of the unknown. But from the infantile experience of what we call death, one can seethe psychological
derivation of civilization’s association between women and death. (One sees this clearly in the creation myth from
Genesis, as Eve the seductress brings death into the world.) In this sense, too, sexual experience returns one to a

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primal fear of death. And through this understanding one can begin to see that at the center of the impulse to rape is
the desire to dominate the power of sexual experience itself, and to deny the power of nature as this is felt through
sexual experience.
The connection between sexuality and violence exists as a kind of subterranean theme in the fascists and authoritarian
mentality. In several places in Jacobo Timmerman’s book, Prisoner Without a Name, Cell Without a Number, he points
out a relationship between the violence of the dictator and a pornographic attitude toward sexuality. Imprisoned and
tortured himself, he recalls that those who did not do “a good scrubbing job” when ordered to clean the prison floors,
were forced to “undress, lean over with their index finger on the ground and have them rotate round and round
dragging their finger on the ground without lifting it. You felt,” he writes, “as if your kidneys were bursting.” Another
punishment was to force prisoners to run naked along the passageway “reciting aloud sayings dictated” tot hem, such
as “my mother is a whore, I masturbate, I respect the guard, the police love me.”
That, to the fascist mind, “the other” represents a denied part of the self becomes clear in the following story about
Adolf Hitler. In a famous passage in Mein Kampf he describes the moment when he decided to devote his life’s work to
anti-Semitism. He recounts that while walking through the streets of Vienna, he happened to see an old man dressed
in the traditional clothes of Jewish men in that city at that time i.e., in a Kaftan. The first question he asked was, “Is this
man Jewish?” and he corrected himself, and replaced that question with another, “is this man German?”
If you are to project a denied self onto another, you must first establish that this other is different from yourself. Were
you to notice any similarity, you would be endangered by the perception that what you project may belong to you. The
question that Hitler asked himself became a standard part of German textbooks in the Third Reich. A stereotypical
portrait of a Jewish man’s face was shown under the question, “Is this man German?” and the correct answer the
students were taught was, of course, “No.” In fact, Germany became a nation rather late. For centuries it existed as a
collection of separate tribes, and one of the oldest tribes in that nation was Jewish.
Hitler’s story of the man in the Kaftan became a standard part of his orations. He would become nearly hysterical at
times telling the story, and is said to have even vomited once. In the light of this history, a seemingly trivial story from
Hitler’s early life becomes significant. As a young art student he bought his clothes secondhand, because like many
students, he was poor. In this period most of those selling secondhand clothing were Jewish and Hitler bought from a
Jewish clothes seller one item of clothing that he wore so often that he began to be identified with this apparel. And
that was a Kaftan.
What is also interesting historically is that the Kaftan was a form of medieval German dress. Exiled from Germany
during a period of persecution, many Jews, who then lived in ghettoes, continued to wear this traditional German dress
and were still fearing it when they returned to Germany centuries later. Not only did Hitler fail to recognize an image of
himself encountered in the streets of Vienna, but so did an entire generation of Germans. So an entire civilization, that
to which we all belong, is in conflict with a part of human nature, which we try to bury and eventually even destroy.
The weapons that now threaten the destruction of the earth and life as we know it were developed because the allied
nations feared that the fascist powers were making them. The missiles which are now part and parcel of nuclear
weaponry were first developed in the Third Reich. It is crucial now in our understanding of ourselves and what it is in
us that has led to the nuclear crisis that we begin to look at the Nazi holocaust as a mirror, finding a self-portrait in “the
other” who is persecuted and denied, and seeing a part of ourselves too in the fascist dictator who would destroy that
denied self.
The illusion this civilization retains, that we are somehow above nature, is so severe that in a sense we have come to
believe that we can end material existence without dying. The absurdity of nuclear weaponry as a strategy for defense,
when the use of those weapons would annihilate us, would in itself argue this. But if you look closely at the particulars
of certain strategies within the overall nuclear strategy you again encounter the same estranged relationship with
reality. A man who used to be in Reagan’s administration, T.K. Jones, actually proposed that a viable method of civil
defense would be to issue each citizen a shovel.
It took an eight year old boy to point out that this plan cannot work because after you dig a hole and get into it for
protection, someone else must stand outside the hole and shovel dirt on top. The Pentagon refers to its strategies for
waging nuclear war as SIOP. One year the Pentagon actually went through the paces of a SIOP plan. As a literary
scholar I found the scenario which the Pentagon wrote for this dramatization very disturbing. The Pentagon could write
this play any way that they wished, and they wrote that the President was killed with a direct hit to the self. But this
death is not experienced as real. Though the earthly self dies, in the Pentagon’s version, the sky self does not die; The
Vice President goes up in an airplane fully equipped to wage nuclear war by computer. There is such a plane flying
above us now, and at every hour of the day and night.
The division that we experience from the natural self, the self that is material and embedded in nature, impairs our
perceptions of reality. As Timmerman writes:
The devices are recurrent in all totalitarian ideology, to ignore the complexities of reality, or even eliminate reality, and
instead establish a simple goal and a simple means of attaining that goal.
Proceeding both from an alienation from nature, and an estrangement from the natural self, our civilization replaces
reality with an idea of reality. Through maintaining the supremacy of the idea, one creates a delusion of a supernatural
power over nature.

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In the development of this alienation as a slate of mind, the delusion of well-being and safety eventually becomes more
important than the realistic considerations which will actually effect well-being or safety. Hannah Arendt writes of an
illusionary world created by totalitarian movements”…in which through sheer imagination uprooted masses can feel at
home, and are spared the never ending shocks which real life and real experience deal to human beings…” Later, in
the Origins of Totalitarianism, she speaks of the mass state of mind under the third Reich in which people ceased to
believe in what they perceived with their own eyes and ears, preferring the conflicting reports issued by the Fuhrer.
One encounters the same failure to confront reality in Stalin’s psychology as it is described by Isaac Derutchsher in his
biography:
He [Stalin] was now completely possessed by the idea that he could achieve a miraculous transformation of the whole
of Russia by a single tour de force. He seemed to live in a half-real and half-dreamy world of statistical figures and
indices of industrial orders and instructions, a world in which no target and no objective seemed beyond his and the
party’s grasp.
During the period of forced collectivization of farms, Stalin destroyed actual farms before the collectivized farms were
created. As Deutscher writes, it was as if a whole nation destroyed its real houses and moved “lock, stock and barrel
into some illusory buildings.”
We are, in fact, now living in such an illusory building, the entire manner in which plans for a nuclear war are
discussed, rehearsed, and envisioned, partakes of a kind of unreality, an anesthetized and nearly automatic
functioning, in which cerebration is strangely unrelated to experience or feeling. The Generals imagine themselves
conducting nuclear war from a room without windows, with no natural light, choosing strategies and targets by looking
at enormous computerized maps. The language they use to communicate their decisions is all in code. No one uses
the word “war,: the word “bomb,” the word “death,” or the words “blood,” “pain,” “loss,” “grief,” “shock,” or “horror.” In
Siegfried Sassoon’s recollection of World War I, he remembers encountering a man, a soldier like himself, who has
just learned that his brother was killed. The man is half-crazy, tearing his clothes off, and cursing at war. As Sassoon
passed beyond this man into the dark of the war, he could still hear “his uncouth howlings.” It is those “uncouth
howlings” that those who are planning nuclear war have managed to mute in their imagination.
But of course that howling is not entirely lost. In the shared imagination of our civilization, it is the “other” who carries
emotion, the women who howl. And far from wishing to protect the vulnerable and the innocent, it is the secret desire
of this civilization to destroy those who feel, and to silence feeling. This hidden desire becomes apparent in
pornography where women are pictured in a traditional way as weaker than men and needing protection, and yet,
where erotic feeling is freely mixed with the desire to brutalize and even murder women.
One can find a grim picture of the insane logic of the alienated mind of our civilization in the pornographic film “Peeping
Tom.” The hero of this movie is a pornographic film maker. He has a camera armed with a spear. As he photographs a
woman’s naked body, the camera releases the weapon and he makes a record of her death agonies. The final victory
of the alienated mind over reality is to destroy that reality (and one’s experience of it) and replace reality with a record
of that destruction. One finds the same pattern in the history of actual atrocities. In California, a man lured women into
the desert with a promise of work as pornographic models. There, while he tortured and murdered them, he made a
photographic record of the event. The Nazis themselves kept the best documentation of atrocities committed in the
concentration camps. And the most complete records of the destruction of native Americans have been kept by the
United States military.
Now, the state of conflict in which this civilization finds itself has worsened. The enemy is not simply “the other” but life
itself. And it is in keeping with the insane logic of alienation that the Pentagon has found a way that it believes we can
win nuclear war. We have situated satellites in space that will record the process of annihilation of life, and the
Pentagon counts, as a future victor, that nation which has gathered the best documentation of the destruction.
There is however another form of reflection available to us by virtue of our human nature. We are our own witnesses.
We can see ourselves. We are part of nature. And nature is not divided. Matter is intelligent. Feeling, sense, the needs
of the body, all that has been consigned to the “other,” made the province of women, of darkness, contains a deeper
and a sustaining wisdom. It remains for us to empower that knowledge and to carry it into the world. In insanity and
madness, one is lost to oneself. It is only by coming home to ourselves that we can survive.

MERE SURVIVAL IS INSUFFICIENT IN THE FACE OF ONGOING NUCLEAR WAR. DEATH IS INEVITABLE BUT
AFFIRMING THE STRUGGLE AGAINST NUCLEAR WEAPONS IN THE FACE OF ANNIHILATION IS A LIFE
AFFIRMING ACT NECESSARY FOR INDIVIDUAL VALUE TO EMERGE.
KOVEL, 1984
Joel, Against the State of Nuclear Terror, pg 153-155

To focus only upon survival reveals technocratic politics as opportunistic. Doubtless, everybody wants to survive, but
not everybody wants to survive in a way that values life or dignifies it. The nuclear age, after all, can be interpreted as
an augury of Armageddon, and responded to as such. Thus we have a rash of survivalist periodicals, and cults to
match, in the U.S. The premise of this movement is to imagine a Hobbesian society of “all against all” as a result of the
bomb, and to encourage people to revert to open brutality in order to survive. For example, a recent issue of the

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magazine Survival Guide Describes how to make stone-age weapons (“Using the legacy of prehistory to survive
without the benefit of conventional weapons”), and offers T-shirt with the slogans such as “Gun control is being able to
hit your target” and “Peace through superior firepower.” While this sort of thing might be too repulsive for the average
citizen, what is one to do about the fact that a number of those fundamentally responsible for the conduct of the war in
Vietnam (for example, William Colby, former director of the CIA, and originator of the Phoenix program of
assassinations in Vietnam) have clambered aboard the peace movement, evidently out of fear for their lives. The
question is not whether such as Colby—or Presidential adviser McGeorge Bundy or Robert McNamara, former head of
the Deparment of Defense and World Bank—are to be forgiven for their sins, now that they have declared themselves
for the nuclear freeze. It is rather to establish a basis of antinuclear politics which will allow such questions to be
considered. Mere survival is not enough: everybody wants to survive, mass murderers along with innocent children. An
antinuclear movement has to establish conditions where the value of life is affirmed, and then consider whether or not
somebody is entitled to join it. Technocracy blurs this point and, in so doing, critically weakens the essential thrust
against the state.
Finally, the use of scare tactics only fertilizes the soil once again for nuclear terror. When we experience nothing but
fear, we will stop at nothing to be reassured. But who under these conditions, will reassure us best? The state with its
salve and its projection of the all-justifying Soviet threat –or the peace movement, proposing the novel and risky course
of disarmament? It is no contest. Unless the peace movement can provide an affirmative vision, it is defeated in
advance.
If this is the value of the facts, what is the value beyond the facts? I think this can best be seen through a critique of
mere survival as the ground for antinuclear politics. The point is not only to survive, but to struggle for a life worth
having. This means the realization that nuclear war has already been going on for some time—and that it has
assaulted and degraded us during this time. Therefore, a life worth living is to be attained through the struggle against
the weapons and not simply as an abstract condition for controlling or eliminating them. Once one appreciates this
value, there is no settling for arms control. Strategic arms are themselves an abomination, wielded all the time whether
or not they ever get exploded. Therefore only elimination will do. If Messrs, McNamara and Bundy are willing to
recognize this truth and to own up to all the havoc that their decisions and ways of governing have wreaked upon the
world, then I, for one, would welcome them into the peace movement. If, however, they are simply afraid for their lives
because their machine has gone haywire, and wish to confine themselves to tinkering with it so that it becomes a more
efficient instrument of domination, then I would prefer to keep my distance from them.
One does not attack nuclear arms because they do not work properly, nor because they have become suddenly
dangerous to their masters. One attacks them because they are fiendish instruments of domination. The fact that they
will kill us unless checked is not the main point, since we are all here to die in any case. What galls us is the way this
will happen, the wanton, omnicidal, future-destroying way of it, and what the system of nuclear states mean to the
world right now.

THE UNITED STATES FEDERAL GOVERNMENT SHOULD ABOLISH THE UNITED STATES NUCLEAR ARSENAL

CONTENTION TWO – UNIVERSAL PARENTHOOD


IN REJECTING UNILATERAL DISARMAMENT OPENS OURSELVES TO NEW FORM OF RELATIONS WITH
BIRTH. IN BREAKING THE ATOMIC SWORD, THE AFFIRMATIVE ENABLES A NEW STORY OF HOPE
ENGRAINED IN THE FLESH THAT STANDS IN OPPOSITION TO THE INCESTUOUS NARRATIVE OF
SEPARATION AND DEATH.
ELSHTAIN, FEBRUARY 1985
Jean Bethke, Reflections on War and Political Discourse: Realism, Just War, and Feminism in a Nuclear Age, Political
Theory, Vol. 13, No. 1 (Feb., 1985), pp. 39-57

Evidence of hopelessness is all around us. The majority of young people say they do not believe there will be a future
of any sort. We shake our heads in dismay, failing to see that our social arrangements produce hopelessness and
require it to hold themselves intact. But the ontological possibility for hope is always present, rooted, ultimately, in “the
fact of natality.” Arendt’s metaphor, mostly fully elaborated in the following passage from The Human Condition, is
worth quoting in full:
The miracle that saves the world, the realm of human affairs, from its normal, “natural” ruin is ultimately the fact of
natality, in which the faculty of action is ontologically rooted. It is, in other words, the birth of new human beings and
the new beginning, the action they are capable of by being born. Only the full experience of this capacity can bestow
upon human affairs faith and hope, those two essential characteristics of human existence…that found perhaps their
most glorious and most succinct expression in the new words with which the Gospels accounted their “glad tiding”: ‘A
Child has been born unto us.’
The infant, like all beginnings is vulnerable. We must nurture that beginning, not knowing and not being able to control
the “end” of the story.

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Arendt’s evocation of natal imagery through its most dramatic urrarrative is not offered as an abstraction to be
endorsed abstractly. Rather, she invites us to restore long atrophied dispositions of commemoration and awe; birth,
she declares, is a “miracle,” a beginning that renews and irreversibly alters the world. Hers is a fragile yet haunting
figuration that stirs recognition of our own vulnerable beginnings and our necessary dependency on others. Placed
alongside the reality of human beginnings, many accounts of political beginnings construed as the actions of male
hordes or contractionalists seems parodic in part because of the massive denial (of “the female”) on which they
depend. A “full experience” of the “capacity” rooted in birth helps us to keep before our mind’s eye the living reality of
singularities, differences, and individualities rather than a human mass as objects of possible control or manipulation.
By offering an alternative genealogy that problemzatizes collective violence and visions of triumph, Arendt devirilizes
discourse, not in favor of feminization (for the feminized and masculinized emerged in tandem and both embody
dangerous distortions), but politicalization, constituting her male and female objects as citizens who share alike the
“faculty of action.” At this juncture, Arendt’s discourse makes contact with that feminism I characterized as a modified
vision of the beautiful soul. Her bracing ideal of the citizen adds political robustness to a feminist picture of women
drawn to action from their sense of being and their epistemic and social location. Arendt’s citizen, for example, may act
from her maternal thinking but not as a mother—an important distinction that could help to chasten sentimentalism or
claims of moral superiority.
But war is the central concern of this essay. Does Arendt’s discourse offer a specifiable orientation toward international
relations? Her discourse shifts the ground on which we stand when we think about states and their relations. We
become skeptical about the forms and the claims of the sovereign state; we deflate fantasies of control inspired by the
reigning teleology of progress; we recognize the (phony) parity painted by a picture or equally “sovereign states” and
are thereby alert to the many forms hegemony can take. Additionally, Arendt grants “forgiveness” a central political role
as the only way human beings have to break remorseless cycles of vengeance. She embraces an “ascesis,” a
refraining or withholding that allows refusal to bring one’s force to bear to surface as a strength not a weakness.
Take the dilemma of the nuclear arms race that seems to have a life and dynamic of its own. From an Arendtian
perspective, we see current arms control efforts for what they are-the arms race under another name negotiated by a
bevy of experts with a vested interest in keeping the race alive so they can "control" it. On the other hand, her
recognition of the limiting conditions internal to the international political order precludes a leap into utopian fantasies
of world order or total disarmament. For neither the arms control option (as currently defined) nor calls for immediate
disarmament are bold-the first because it is a way of doing business as usual; the second because it covertly sustains
business as usual by proclaiming "solutions" that lie outside the reach of possibility. Instead, Arendt's perspective
invites us-as a strong and dominant nation of awesome potential force-to take unilateral initiatives in order to break
symbolically the cycle of vengeance and fear signified by our nuclear arsenals. Just as action from an individual or
group may disrupt the automisms of everyday life, action from a single state may send shock waves that reverberate
throughout the system. Arendt cannot be pegged as either a "systems dominance" nor "sub-systems dominance"
thinker-a form of argumentation with which she has no patience in any case. She recognizes systemic imperatives yet
sees space for potentially effective change from "individual (state) action." The war system is so deeply rooted that to
begin to dismantle it in its current and highly dangerous form requires bold strokes.
At this juncture, intimations of an alternative genealogy emerge. Freeman Dyson suggests the Odyssey or the theme
of homecoming rather than the Iliad or the theme of remorseless force as a dominant ur-political myth if we break the
deadlock of victims versus warriors. Socrates, Jesus of Nazareth, and Nietzsche, in some of his teachings, emerge as
articulators of the prototypical virtues of restraint and refusal to bring all one's power to bear. For it was Nietzsche, from
his disillusionment, who proclaimed the only way out of "armed peace" to be a people, distinguished by their wars and
victories who, from strength, not weakness, "break the sword" thereby giving peace a chance. "Rather perish than hate
and fear," he wrote, "and twice rather perish than make onself hated and feared." 40 Historic feminist thinkers and
movements who rejected politics as force take center stage rather than being relegated to the periphery in this
alternative story.
To take up war-as-discourse compels us to recognize the powerful sway of received narratives and reminds us that the
concepts through which we think about war, peace, and politics get repeated endlessly, shaping debates, constraining
consideration of alternatives, often reassuring us that things cannot really be much different than they are. As we nod
an automatic yes when we hear the truism (though we may despair of the truth it tells) that "there have always been
wars," we acknowledge tacitly that "there have always been war stories," for wars are deeded to us as texts. We
cannot identify "war itself" as an entity apart from a powerful literary tradition that includes poems, epics, myths, official
histories, first-person accounts, as well as the articulated theories I have discussed. War and the discourse of war are
imbricate d, part and parcel of political reality. Contesting the discursive terrain that identifies and gives meaning to
what we take these realities to be does not mean one grants a self-subsisting, unwarranted autonomy to discourse;
rather, it implies a recognition of the ways in which received doctrines, "war stories," may lull our critical faculties to
sleep, blinding us to possibilities that lie within our reach.
ADDITIONALLY, WE MUST ADOPT THE PERSPECTIVE OF UNIVERSAL PARENTS TO ADEQUATELY DEAL
WITH THE NUCLEAR ERA – WE MUST EXTEND THE ETHICS OF CARE TO ALL BEINGS.
MCFAGUE, 1987

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Sallie, Models of God: theology for an ecological, nuclear age, pg 120-122

If we were to see ourselves as universal parents, as profoundly desiring not our own lives to go on forever but the lives
of others to come into being, we would have a model highly appropriate to our time. Schell limits the model to the
human species and to birth (or the simple willing of others into existence); I, on the other hand, would extend it both to
other species and to nurturing activities beyond birth and feeding. Before amplifying these two points, however, I would
stress that the power of the model rests on the base Schell has given it: the will deep within all of us which could be
called the parental instinct, the will not to save ourselves but to bring others into existence. Most broadly, whether or
not one is a biological or adoptive parent, the parental instinct says to others, “It is good that you exist!” even if this
involves a diminishment and, in some cases, the demise of the self. Or to put it a little differently, we realize, if we
contemplate the possible death of our species (or worse still, the extinction of all life), that it is not our own individual
end that is most appalling to us but the death of birth. We all want to be life givers, to pass life on, and when we do we
can face our own deaths more easily. Therefore, to suggest universal parenthood as a model to help bring about
justice through care calls upon our deepest instincts, where life and death mingle and where the preservation of life for
others takes precedence over concern for the self.
Universal parenthood, however, cannot be limited to our species or to birth. To limit it to our species displays the
anthropocentric focus that fails to appreciate the interdependence and interrelatedness of all levels of life. Since
human beings are the only “conscious” parents—that is the only ones who can, both for their own species and as
surrogate parents for other species, will to help birth take place—we have the special responsibility to help administer
the process: to join God the creator-mother in so arranging the cosmic household that the birth and growth of other
species will take place in an ecologically balanced way, both for our own well-being and for the well-being of other
species. We must become the gardeners and caretakers of our Eden, our beautiful, bountiful garden, not taming and
ruling it, let alone despoiling and desecrating it, as we so often do, but being to it as a universal parent, willing the
existence of all species and, as a good householder, ordering the just distribution of the necessities of existence. We
are, of course, speaking here of an attitude, of a role model that, if assumed, can begin to change both how one sees
the world and how one acts in and toward it. If one thought of oneself as parent to the world, that is, if one moved
oneself inside that model and walked around in it, acting the role of parent, what changes might come about in, say,
how one spent one’s time, one’s money, one’s vote? The universalizing of our most basic loves, extending them
beyond the confines of our immediate families and primary communities and even beyond our own species, is, I
believe, the necessary direction in our search for models for behavior in an ecological, nuclear age.
The other direction in which we must universalize parenthood is in extending it beyond birth and an attention to basic
nurture, to an attention to the entire well-being of our successors. As creator, God the mother is concerned not only
with birth and nourishment but also with fulfillment. We have noted that female deities in other religious traditions and
female attributes or personas of God in ours were not limited to bearing and caring for new life but were also pictured
as involved in the fulfillment of life through the ordering of justice, the impartation of wisdom, the invitation to the
oppressed, the transformation of life, and so forth. Parenthood is not limited to birth and nurture but includes all
creative activities supported the next generation—and by implication, the weak and vulnerable as well. This, of course,
once again undercuts the split between nature and history, for in the humans species at least, nurture and fulfillment
involve all ranges of the body, mind, and spirit. All people, therefore, who engage in work, paid or unpaid, that helps to
sustain the present and coming generations are universal parents. The agapic, just love that we have designated as
parental, the love that gives without calculating the return, that wills the existence and fulfillment of other beings—this
love is manifest in ways beyond counting. It is found in the teacher who gives extra time to the slow or gifted students,
in the social worker whose clients are drug-addicted pregnant women, in the librarian who lovingly restores old books,
in the specialist in world population control whose days are spent on planes and in board meetings, in the zoologist
who patiently studies the behavior of the great apes in the wild, in the owner of the local supermarket who employs ex-
juvenile delinquents, in the politician who supports more funds for public education, in the botanist who catalogues new
strains of plants, in rock stars who give their talents to famine relief. All of these are examples of universal parenthood:
the examples are independent both of gender and of biological parenthood and are not limited to our own species. Nor
are they unusual. In fact, much paid work in any society and almost all volunteer work have potential parental
dimensions. It is these dimensions that need to be uncovered and encouraged in order to work within the ethic of God
as mother-creator, the ethic of justice.
Needless to say, individual examples alone will not accomplish revolution. Is it possible to think of governments
modeling themselves as universal parents? The model in most capitalist democracies is a mechanical one, balancing
the rights and responsibilities of various constituencies while focusing on the freedom of the individual. In such a model
the vulnerable and the weak, including children and the natural world, tend to do poorly, since they do not have a voice
strong enough—if they have any voice at all—to sway the balance of power or to protect themselves against rapacious
individualism. Some forms of socialism do approach the parental model more closely, both in understanding the
political order in organic rather than mechanistic terms and in providing better support for the necessities of life to the
young, the sick, and the vulnerable.

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The intention of these remarks on the ethic of God the mother-creator as justice is not, however, to provide the
blueprint for the reconstitution of society but to sketch the change in attitude, the conversion of consciousness, that
could come about were we to begin to live inside the model and allow it to become a lens through which we looked out
on the world, We would no longer see a world we named and ruled or, like the artist God, made: mothers and fathers
to the world do not rule or fashion it. Our positive role in creation is as preservers, those who pass life along and who
care for all forms of life so they may prosper. Our role as preservers is a very high calling, our peculiar calling as
human beings, the calling implied in the model of God as mother.
THE PROBLEM WITH NUCLEAR POLICY IS IT ATTEMPTS TO PRESCRIBE THE CONTENT OF THE FUTURE BY
RESTRICTING HUMAN NATURE TO A SELECT FORM OF VIOLENT RELATIONS. THESE PREDICTIONS
PROCEED FROM A STATE OF HOPELESSNESS THAT MAKES NUCLEAR VIOLENCE A SELF FULFILLING
PROPHECY. INSTEAD, OUR REJECTION OF NUCLEARISM IS EMBODIED IN AN OPEN HOPE FOR THE
FUTURE WHICH DOES NOT SEEK TO PRESCRIBE ITS CONTENT BUT RATHER RECOGNIZES THAT THE
RELATIONSHIPS SURROUNDING NUCLEAR WEAPONS FOR CLOSE THE POSSIBILITY OF HOPE.
NOYALIS, 1989
Walter, Associate Professor and Chairman of Religious Studies at Anna Maria College, Doing the Truth: Peacemaking
as Hopeful Activity, A Shuddering Dawn, pg 163

We now return to the theme of hope and hopelessness to examine how this sheds light on making peace and making
war. As one of the theological virtues, hope proceeds from our rootedness in God. It is nevertheless far from an
optimistic attitude to the future. Such an attitude might say “I am optimistic that there will be no nuclear war. Who
would be so crazy? Besides, God would not allow it.” Or, “Deterrence has worked so far; it will continue to work.” The
optimists have been wrong about every war we have had until now. The trouble with such optimism is that it envisions
the content of the future; it attempts to predict and so does not take into account the freedom of history to move
beyond our conceptualizations.
War-making, including preparing for war, and especially for a protracted nuclear war, involves a similar optimism—that
our technological capacity and penchant for control can account for every future contingency. It, too, tries to predict the
future (as Clarke Chapman clearly demonstrates in Chapter 8 of this book). But war-making also proceeds from
hopelessness. It envisions the future simply by extrapolating from a content currently known. From an understanding
of the past and the present that is taken as the ultimate potential for the future. It assumes that the unreconciled,
unpeaceful world that relies on nuclear weapons is the norm—that conflict is the norm and can be avoided finally only
by the threat of greater conflict. It does not see any deeper grounding for human existence than self-interest defined as
current or expected benefits. To the extent that we see this extrapolation as definitive, there can be no possibility,
newness, or surprise, because the ground of imagination has become closed to ongoing future experience.
The maxim “If you want peace, prepare for war” is thus the maxim of hopelessness, of the failure to imagine an open
future due to conceptual identification of the structure of the future within the events of the past. What we think
becomes the future; our sense of its content precludes experiential awareness of the specific, concrete horizon of our
being. The nuclear vision of the future is thus closed, constricted, profoundly antimetaphorical. (The examples of
nuclear fatalism offered by John McDargh in Chapter 6 of this book testify to this.) If there is any saving grace in
nuclear weapons, it lies in the Bomb’s power to expose this dimension of the war-making mythos. The prospect of the
destruction of the species through war has compelled many people to see war in an entirely new attitude. This now
means to see the hopelessness behind all war, to see how removed war is from the true horizon `of our life.
This is not to say that it is wrong to expect benefits from the future. The problem arises when the content of what is
expected is separated from awareness of human grounding in a nonmanipulable way in the absolute future, the free
future. To oppose nuclear war, on the other hand, is to become aware of this deepest grounding. It is hopeful activity,
even if we sense little basis for optimism in current history. To write on the subject, to speak, to demonstrate, to
engage in civil disobedience are concrete actions geared to change the situation. As such, they themselves point to
that deeper horizon, the grounding in the future. They do not assign the future a specific content but they say that its
reality, its structure as presently experienced, is incompatible with nuclear conceptualization. They are metaphors of
an open future that is known only in exploring its surprising manifestations, in committing ourselves to a practical
value. Working for peace, building a peaceful world, is not mere opposition to nuclear weapons, it is a positive
expression of a specific truth—in Christian terms, the Kingdom of God that is the working out of the deepest truth of
creation. And in experiencing the structure of true peace while attempting to help it blossom, we encounter in the
veiled metaphorical manner of our actions the Ultimate truth itself. As metaphors, these actions are experiences of the
concrete reality of the Ultimate and express its shape, its structure.
Peacemaking, then, reminds us of what war-making forgets, that our constructs of reality are profoundly metaphorical.
The truth of our life is not conceptually known. It is done, lived out. We live out the nonviolent alternative to war,
discerning its shape as we go along. Peacemaking is thus creative, able to compose, to texture and tone, a peaceful
reality because of openness and commitment to the deepest structures of living, of our ultimate future. War-making,
which it its nuclear expression may be the ultimate form of Cartesian dualism, is closed to these structures, denies the

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possibility of such vision, and lives in a conceptualized future of its own making, alienated from the concrete structures
of life. This, it threatens the future of us all.

New 1ac - round 7 @ UNLV -- Sorry that it took so long to get this up all, (james fault) basically same aff minus the
incest metaphor - Lets debate the aff, start writing strategies about disarm!
CONTENTION ONE – MAN I FEEL LIKE A WOMAN
NUCLEAR POLICY IS MAINTAINED THROUGH A STRICT SEPARATION BETWEEN THE EMOTIVE AND THE
RATIONAL, THE ABSTRACT AND THE EMBODIED. THIS SEPARATE ENABLES NUMBED POLICY
CONSTRUCTION THAT MAKES THE ILLUSORY DREAM OF DETERRENCE STILL DESIRABLE IN THE FACE OF
THE INCALCULABLE CONSEQUENCES OF NUCLEAR POLICY ON THE MILLIONS OF “DOWNWINDERS,”
INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS AND MILITARY PERSONNEL INTENTIONALLY IRRADIATED IN THE
DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF OUR NUCLEAR ARSENAL.
COHN & RUDDICK, 2003
Carol and Sara, A Feminist Ethical Perspective on Weapons of Mass Destruction, Boston Consortium on Gender,
Security and Human Rights, Working Paper No. 104, http://genderandsecurity.umb.edu/cohnruddick.pdf
Abstract language and a penchant for distinctions are… development and deployment.

NUCLEAR WEAPONS ARE PSYCHOLOGICALLY ROOTED IN THE SEPARATION BETWEEN “SPIRIT” AND
“BODY” REQUIRING THE CONSTRUCTION OF A DUAL SELF THAT SEPARATES AND SUPPRESSES EMOTIVE,
EMBODIED FORMS OF KNOWING. THIS DUALISM CREATES AN INTERNAL SENSE OF SELF HATRED AND A
DESIRE FOR TOTAL ANNIHILATION TO ESCAPE THE FLESH OF THIS WORLD VIA NUCLEAR HOLOCAUST.
GRIFFIN, 1984
Susan, Ideologies of Madness, Exposing Nuclear Phallacies pg 75-83
the simplest physical aspects of a nuclear chain reaction carry… home to ourselves that we can survive.

MERE SURVIVAL IS INSUFFICIENT IN THE FACE OF ONGOING NUCLEAR WAR. DEATH IS INEVITABLE BUT
AFFIRMING THE STRUGGLE AGAINST NUCLEAR WEAPONS IN THE FACE OF ANNIHILATION IS A LIFE
AFFIRMING ACT NECESSARY FOR INDIVIDUAL VALUE TO EMERGE.
KOVEL, 1984
Joel, Against the State of Nuclear Terror, pg 153-155
Mere survival is not enough… states mean to the world

TEXT: THE UNITED STATES FEDERAL GOVERNMENT SHOULD ABOLISH THE UNITED STATES NUCLEAR
ARSENAL.

CONTENTION TWO – PEACE AS PRACTICE


UNILATERAL DISARMAMENT IS A NECESSARY BREAK WITH THE HOPELESSNESS THAT SURROUNDS ARMS
CONTROL THOUGH AN AFFIRMATION OF PEACE AS PRACTICE THAT WILL REVERBERATE THROUGH THE
INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM. BY BREAKING THE ATOMIC SWORD, VOTING AFFIRMATIVE DOES NOT ONLY
EMBRACE A NEW POLICY BUT A NEW POLITICAL NARRATIVE OF HOPE BASED ON CONNECTION AND
NATALITY RATHER THAN THE INCESTUOUS NARRATIVE OF SEPARATION AND DEATH.
ELSHTAIN, FEBRUARY 1985
Jean Bethke, Reflections on War and Political Discourse: Realism, Just War, and Feminism in a Nuclear Age, Political
Theory, Vol. 13, No. 1 (Feb., 1985), pp. 39-57
hopelessness is all around us… that lie within our reach.

THE QUEST FOR PEACE IS A QUESTION OF PRACTICE. THE PROBLEM WITH NUCLEAR POLICY IS IT
ATTEMPTS TO PRESCRIBE THE CONTENT OF THE FUTURE BY RESTRICTING HUMAN NATURE TO A SELECT
FORM OF VIOLENT RELATIONS. THESE PREDICTIONS PROCEED FROM A STATE OF HOPELESSNESS THAT
MAKES SURVIVAL IMPOSSIBLE AND NUCLEAR VIOLENCE INEVITABLE. INSTEAD, OUR REJECTION OF
NUCLEARISM IS EMBODIED IN AN OPEN HOPE FOR THE FUTURE WHICH DOES NOT SEEK TO PRESCRIBE
IT’S CONTENT BUT RATHER RECOGNIZES THAT THE RELATIONSHIPS SURROUNDING NUCLEAR WEAPONS
FOR CLOSE THE POSSIBILITY OF HOPE.
NOYALIS, 1989
Walter, Associate Professor and Chairman of Religious Studies at Anna Maria College, Doing the Truth: Peacemaking
as Hopeful Activity, A Shuddering Dawn, pg 163
The trouble with such optimism… future of us all.
UNLV RR - ROUND 4
NIETZSCHE/WAR GOOD/PROGRESS BAD 2AC

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PERMUTATION UNILATERALLY DISARM AS AN ACT OF WAR AGAINST NUCLEAR WEAPONS – THIS


DEVISTATES THEM BECAUSE NUCLEAR WEAPONS ARE NOT WEAPONS OF WAR – INFACT THERE USE
WOULD GUARANTEE THE END OF ALL WARS EVER.
CHERNUS, 1985
Ira, War and Myth: "The Show Must Go on," Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Vol. 53, No. 3 (Sep., 1985),
pp. 449-464
War approached as play...
plague us so perilously.

NO HONOR IN NUCLEAR WAR.


AXINN, 1986
Sidney, Honor Patriotism, and Ultimate Loyalty, Nuclear Weapons and the Future of Humanity, pg273
military honor requires that...
of those actions

We should be neither for nor against the State: critiques of totalization open up the possibility of strategically using the
State when necessary whereas totalizing rejection produces oppression.
Soloman 1988 [J. Fisher, Assistant Professor of English as UCLA. Discourse and Reference in the Nuclear Age, pp.
270-271]
we cannot simply...
play as identity.

PEOPLE WHO SAY SUFFERING IS GOOD HATE THE WOMEN.


DONAHUE, JANUARY 1ST 2005
Sean, Beyond the Myth of Ritual Sacrifice, http://www.counterpunch.org/donahue01012005.html
which our own physical sacrifice...
them with moralistic abstractions.

ACTION GOOD -- SAME AS BELOW


SCHELL, SUMMER 2002
Jonathan, A politics of natality, Social Research,
http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2267/is_2_69/ai_90439541/pg_5/?tag=content;col1

EDELMAN 2AC
IDENTIFYING THE CHILD WITH A REJECTION OF QUEERNESS NECESSARILY REJECTS FEMININITY AND
AFFIRMS THE MASCULINE POLITICS OF THE STATUS QUO – THIS TURNS THE K AND MAKES CASE A DISAD.
FRAIMAN, 2003
Susan, Cool Men and the Second Sex, pg 132-133
The problem with this is...
more familiar than China or Guatemala.

Their psychoanalytic reading of the social body as always-already impervious to real change by queers and other
movements is a reductive falsehood.
John Brenkman, Distinguished Professor of English and Comparative Literature at the CUNY Graduate Center and
Baruch College, 2002, Narrative, Vol. 10, No. 2, p. 176
the political realm—whether viewed...
institutions of compulsory heterosexuality

( ) Political engagement isn’t just queer assimilation – it radically changes the terms of the political itself. The social
order is NOT inevitably exclusive to queers – working through the political process can and does produce not just a
better but a different social order for queers.
John Brenkman, Distinguished Professor of English and Comparative Literature at the CUNY Graduate Center and
Baruch College, 2002, Narrative, Vol. 10, No. 2, p. 188-189
Innovation is a crucial...
within the nonpolitical realm.

() PERM DO BOTH – Despite their polemic against futurism, it doesn’t link to our arguments about the necessity of
attending to the political consequences of our actions. If our counterplan agrees with the need to displace the child as
the center of politics, we don’t link to Edelman’s critique of futurism – we just disagree with their radically negative
solution.

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John Brenkman, Distinguished Professor of English and Comparative Literature at the CUNY Graduate Center and
Baruch College, 2002, Narrative, Vol. 10, No. 2, p. 189-190
claim that this discourse defines...
its representation of the "real" fails

() THE ALTERNATIVE WILL BE ROLLED BACK – If it’s true that the social order inherently represses and expels
queerness, then directly assuming the traits of negativity for which queers are stigmatized literally does nothing to
confront that violence.
R Benjamin Bateman, doctoral candidate in English at the University of Virginia, Spring 2006, The Minnesota Review,
online: http://www.theminnesotareview.org/journal/ns6566/bateman_r_benjamin_ns6566_stf1.shtml, accessed March
15, 2007
if the Real must exist for the Symbolic...
strategy less than appealing

BAURDILLARD/CHALOUPKA NONSENSE K
CHALOUPKA HATES THE NATIVES.
TAYLOR 2007
Chaloupka ...
confronted with a long list of witnesses

Relegating human suffering to the realm of the sign and simulation is just disguised nihilism, which crushes the
possibility for effective politics
Douglas Kellner, Phil. Chair @ UCLA, 1989, Jean Baudrillard, p. 107-8
Baudrillard advocates really...
lead him to embrace nihilism

Baudrillard’s critique is naïve – without a distinction between the reduction of reality to image and a mediation of reality
by image, we allow the worst atrocities of the status quo to continue unabated
James Marsh, Professor of Philosophy, Fordham University, 1995, Critique, Action, and Liberation, pp. 292-293
a reduction of everything to image or...
institutionalizing the ideals of free, full, public expression and discussion

ACTION GOOD
SCHELL, SUMMER 2002
Jonathan, A politics of natality, Social Research,
http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2267/is_2_69/ai_90439541/pg_5/?tag=content;col1
What Arendt finds in both...
each of us is something new

UNLV RR - ROUND 2
New 1ac Card - Did not read the Galtung evidence
MERE SURVIVAL IS INSUFFICIENT IN THE FACE OF ONGOING NUCLEAR WAR. DEATH IS INEVITABLE BUT
AFFIRMING THE STRUGGLE AGAINST NUCLEAR WEAPONS IN THE FACE OF ANNIHILATION IS A LIFE
AFFIRMING ACT NECESSARY FOR INDIVIDUAL VALUE TO EMERGE.
KOVEL, 1984
Joel, Against the State of Nuclear Terror, pg 153-155

GIVE THE LAND BACK 2AC


We should employ state sovereignty when the specificity of a situation demands it – the state is essential to combating
the forces of neoliberalism that are impacted by our Balibar evidence. The only way to act on responsibility is to
support the state in particular instances like the plan.
Jacques Derrida, Directeur d’Etudes at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales in Paris, and Professor of
Philosophy, French and Comparative Literature at the University of California, Irvine, 2004, For What Tomorrow? A
Dialogue With Elisabeth Roudinesco, p. 91-92
It is necessary to deconstruct...
question the principle of sovereignty.

() CHURCHILL FABRICATES AND PLAGIARIZES EVIDENCE; ALL CLAIMS FROM HIM SHOULD BE SUSPECT.
THE NEW CRITERION, 07 (http://www.newcriterion.com/archives/25/06/a-footnote-on-ward-churchill/)
Much of what Churchill...

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be suspended for a year

() LINKING INDIGENOUS PEOPLES TO LAND INCARCERATES THEM IN A SINGLE SPACE FOR COLONIAL
OBSERVATION – TURNS THE K.
APPADURAI, 1988
Arjun, February Professor at the Department of Anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania, Cultural Anthropology,
Volume 3, No.1, Place and Voice in Anthropological Theory,pp. 36-49, Putting Hierarchy in Its Place, JSTOR
natives are not only persons...
language of incarceration

() GIVING THE LAND BACK WHITE WASHINGS COLONIAL VIOLENCE BY ATTRIBUTING IT TO SOLELY
MATERIAL SOURCES AND OFFERS NO BENEFICIAL STRATEGY FOR THOSE CURRENTLY OPPRESSED TO
FIGHT AGAINST GOVERNMENTAL ABUSE.
BRADFORD, 05
William, Chiricahua Apache and Associate Professor of Law, Indiana University School of Law, Beyond Reparations:
An American Indian Theory of Justice, 66 Ohio St. L.J. 1
a serious commitment to justice...harmony and peace between peoples

() ALTERNATIVE LEADS TO GENOCIDE AGAINST THE ‘WHITE ELITE’ – HISTORY PROVES.


JONES, 05
Adam, Research Fellow in the Genocide Studies Program at Yale University, Genocide: A Personal History, Sept,
http://www.genocidetext.net/personal_journey.htm
Between 1847 and 1849...would be banished forever

CASE
A2 -- YOU EMPOWER THE STATE/ANTI NUCLEAR NUCLEARISM Y ARGS.
UNILATERAL DISARMAMENT SENDS SHOCKWAVES THROUGH THE GLOBAL STATE SYSTEM – THIS CARD IS
MILES AHEAD OF ANY EVIDENCE THEY READ
KOVEL, 1984
Joel, Against the State of Nuclear Terror, pg 190

GU - ROUND 1 TO QUARTERS (PRETTY SURE THIS IS ALL THE AFF CARDS WE READ AT THE
TOURNAMENT :)

CONTENTION ONE – WARHEADS OF THE FAMILY; OR HOW I LEARNED TO STOP WORRYING AND LOVE MY
(STEP)FATHER
UNDER THE GUISE OF PARENTAL OBLIGATION, AMERICAN NUCLEAR POLICY HAS TAKEN A PARTICULARLY
INCESTUOUS TURN. DECADES OF URANIUM MINING AND RADIATION TESTING HAVE VIOLATED MILLIONS
WHO PLACE THEIR TRUST IN THE NUCLEAR FATHER FOR PROTECTION. JUST LIKE EXPERIENCES
DESCRIBED BY VICTIMS OF INCEST, DEVOTION TO THE BOMB AND ITS POLICIES FORCE THE SELF TO
SPLIT FROM THE BODY, WARPING AND PERVERTING IDEAS LIKE SURVIVAL, TRUST AND FAMILY TO MAKE
DAILY VIOLENCE AND PENETRATION NOT ONLY PSYCHOLOGICALLY PALATABLE BUT THE EXPECTED
NORM.
CAPUTI, 1994
Jane. Unthinkable Fathering: Connecting Incest and Nuclearism, Hypatia, Vol. 9, 1994. 21 pgs
the "nuclear father"… has gone before

NUCLEAR WEAPONS ARE PSYCHOLOGICALLY ROOTED IN THE SEPARATION BETWEEN “SPIRIT” AND
“BODY” REQUIRING THE CONSTRUCTION OF A DUAL SELF THAT SEPARATES AND SUPPRESSES EMOTIVE,
EMBODIED FORMS OF KNOWING. THIS DUALISM CREATES AN INTERNAL SENSE OF SELF HATRED AND A
DESIRE FOR TOTAL ANNIHILATION TO ESCAPE THE FLESH OF THIS WORLD VIA NUCLEAR HOLOCAUST.
GRIFFIN, 1984
Susan, Ideologies of Madness, Exposing Nuclear Phallacies pg 75-83
the simplest physical aspects… that we can survive

TEXT: THE UNITED STATES FEDERAL GOVERNMENT SHOULD ABOLISH THE UNITED STATES NUCLEAR
ARSENAL.

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CONTENTION TWO – PEACEMAKING


UNILATERAL DISARMAMENT IS A NECESSARY BREAK WITH THE HOPELESSNESS THAT SURROUNDS ARMS
CONTROL THOUGH AN AFFIRMATION OF PEACE AS PRACTICE THAT WILL REVERBERATE THROUGH THE
INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM. BY BREAKING THE ATOMIC SWORD, VOTING AFFIRMATIVE DOES NOT ONLY
EMBRACE A NEW POLICY BUT A NEW POLITICAL NARRATIVE OF HOPE BASED ON CONNECTION AND
NATALITY RATHER THAN THE INCESTUOUS NARRATIVE OF SEPARATION AND DEATH.
ELSHTAIN, FEBRUARY 1985
Jean Bethke, Reflections on War and Political Discourse: Realism, Just War, and Feminism in a Nuclear Age, Political
Theory, Vol. 13, No. 1 (Feb., 1985), pp. 39-57
hopelessness is all around us… lie within our reach.

THE QUEST FOR PEACE IS A QUESTION OF PRACTICE. THE PROBLEM WITH NUCLEAR POLICY IS IT
ATTEMPTS TO PRESCRIBE THE CONTENT OF THE FUTURE BY RESTRICTING HUMAN NATURE TO A SELECT
FORM OF VIOLENT RELATIONS. THESE PREDICTIONS PROCEED FROM A STATE OF HOPELESSNESS THAT
MAKES SURVIVAL IMPOSSIBLE AND NUCLEAR VIOLENCE INEVITABLE. INSTEAD, OUR REJECTION OF
NUCLEARISM IS EMBODIED IN AN OPEN HOPE FOR THE FUTURE WHICH DOES NOT SEEK TO PRESCRIBE
IT’S CONTENT BUT RATHER RECOGNIZES THAT THE RELATIONSHIPS SURROUNDING NUCLEAR WEAPONS
FOR CLOSE THE POSSIBILITY OF HOPE.
NOYALIS, 1989
Walter, Associate Professor and Chairman of Religious Studies at Anna Maria College, Doing the Truth: Peacemaking
as Hopeful Activity, A Shuddering Dawn, pg 163
The trouble with… the future of us all

THE UNITED STATES MUST ABOLISH ITS NUCLEAR ARSENAL – TO ENGAGE IN TREATIES OR TIT FOR TAT
NEGOTIATIONS CONCEDES LEGITIMACY TO NUCLEAR DEVICES THAT MAKES THEIR POSSESSION
POSSIBLE.
GALTUNG, 2003
Johan, Norwegian sociologist and a principal founder of the discipline of Peace and conflict studies, holds more than 7
doctorate degrees, published more than 1000 articles and over 100 books, Towards the Abolition of Nuculear
Weaponry: A Theological Approach, International Symposium for Peace, http://salsa.net/peace/article63.html
The key lies in the word… and similar instruments.

2ac cards
A2 DETERRENCE
DETERRENCE RELIES ON RATIONAL ACTOR THEORY THAT DISREGARDS THE INEVITABILITY OF
MISCOMMUNICATION, SYSTEM MALFUNCTIONS AND CULTURAL DIFFERENCE THAT MAKE ACCIDENTAL OR
PURPOSEFUL USE INEVITABLE.
COHN AND RUDDICK, 2003
Carol and Sara, A Feminist Ethical Perspective on Weapons of Mass Destruction, Boston Consortium on Gender,
Security and Human Rights, Working Paper No. 104, http://genderandsecurity.umb.edu/cohnruddick.pdf
Deterrence theory is… or purposive use possible

A2 FRAMEWORK
NARRATIVES K TO POLICY MAKING EDUCATION.
McDONOUGH, 2006
John E., Using and Misusing Anecdote in Policy Making, Narrative Matters, pg 9-12
Why is narrative… why agreement is not possible

A2 WASTE DISPOSAL DA
NON UNIQUE AND NO LINK – 15 YEAR NUCLEAR BACKLOG.
MERCHANT, 09
Brian, The US and Russia Agreed to Disarm Hundreds of Nukes - But Where Will They Go?
http://www.treehugger.com/files/2009/07/where-us-nuclear-bombs-go.php

2AC K OF PROLIF
YOU ARE A RACIST
COHN AND RUDDICK, 2003
Carol and Sara, A Feminist Ethical Perspective on Weapons of Mass Destruction, Boston Consortium on Gender,
Security and Human Rights, Working Paper No. 104, http://genderandsecurity.umb.edu/cohnruddick.pdf

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A2 REDUCE ARSENAL TO 200 CP


THE CP RELIES ON A “SAFE BOMB” FANTASY THAT REPRESSES NUCLEAR SIGNIFICANCE GUARANTEEING
ACCIDENTAL LAUNCH.
CHERNUS, 1991
Ira, Professor of Religious Studies at UC Boulder, Nuclear Madness: on Religion and Psychology in the Nuclear Age, p
92-93

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Idaho State Brantley/Murphy (Critical-Patriarchy) [Juju]

Acheson & Wright, recount a story explaining the problems techno strategic discourse in nuclear weapons –
disarmament has been put on the back burner because masculine assumptions embedded it the following story
examines a male physicist who unlike is colleagues was opposed to allowing for the destruction that nuclear weapons
casued. As he spoke out against them they didn’t talk to him – join us now and lets see the conclusion of the story 08
[Speaker: Ray Acheson, Reaching Critical Will of the Women's International League for Peace andFreedom; Tim
Wright, International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons
http://www.reachingcriticalwill.org/legal/npt/prepcom08/ngostatements/Gender.pdf Gender and Nuclear Disarmament
STPL]
A white male physicist...status is very difficult.

THE DISCOURSE SURROUNDING WMD'S DEVALUES THE FEMININE WHILE LINKING MASCULINITY WITH
VIOLENCE. COHN, HILL AND RUDDICK, '05 (Carol, Felicity and Sara, "The Relevance of Gender for Eliminating
Weapons of Mass Destruction", Disarmament Diplomacy, Issue No. 80, Autumn 2005, The Acronym Institute,
http://www.acronym.org.uk/dd/dd80/80ccfhsr.htm, accessed through Google Scholar, June 11th, 2009)
The impact of ideas...in American politics.
DISARMAMENT BECOMES AN EXPRESSION OF FEMININITY AND WEAKNESS--REVEALING AND
CHALLENGING THE GENDER ASSUMPTIONS BEHIND NUCLEAR WEAPONS IS KEY TO DECONSTRUCTING
THESE INTELLECTUAL AND POLITICAL PROCESSES. SWEDISH PEACE AND ARBITRATION SOCIETY, '08
("Gender and Sex: Learn About Nuclear Weapons", Swedish Physicians Against Nuclear Weapons, accessed through
Google Scholar, June 11th, 2009) Most states want... associated with femininity.
GENDER IS KEY – IT PREVETNS US FROM ABSTRACTING VIOLENCE AND THE HUMAN BODY FROM
ANALYSIS OF WARCOHN, HILL AND RUDDICK, '05 (Carol, Felicity and Sara, "The Relevance of Gender for
Eliminating Weapons of Mass Destruction", Disarmament Diplomacy, Issue No. 80, Autumn 2005, The Acronym
Institute, http://www.acronym.org.uk/dd/dd80/80ccfhsr.htm, accessed through Google Scholar, June 11th, 2009)
We start with...plans and WMD.

Traditional frame of IR fails – challenging masculine assumptions is key to effective change


Ann J. Tickner Gendering World Politics: Issues and Approaches in the Post-Cold War Era Columbia University Press.
Place of Publication: New York. Publication Year: 2001. [page 2]
The title of...that analyzes them.
Current IR has relied too heavily on rationality excluding feminist methodological approaches to IR – understanding
feminist methodologies is key to creating a shift in politics and adopting new effective epistemologies
Ann J. Tickner Gendering World Politics: Issues and Approaches in the Post-Cold War Era Columbia University Press.
Place of Publication: New York. Publication Year: 2001. [page 4-5]
These different realities...realities discussed above.

NUCLEAR DEVELOPMENT LEGITIMIZES PATRIARCHY BY GENDERING NUCLEAR ISSUES, REINFORCING A


RIGID DICHOTOMY THAT EQUATES VIOLENCE WITH MASCULINITY.
COHN AND RUDDICK '03 ("A Feminist Ethical Perspective on Weapons of Mass Destruction", Boston Consortium on
Gender, Security and Human Rights, Working Paper No. 104, Pg. 14-15, accessed through Google Scholar, June 8th,
2009)
Further, feminists are...and protect against.

THE DISCOURSE SURROUNDING WMD'S DEVALUES THE FEMININE WHILE LINKING MASCULINITY WITH
VIOLENCE.
COHN, HILL AND RUDDICK, '05 (Carol, Felicity and Sara, "The Relevance of Gender for Eliminating Weapons of
Mass Destruction", Disarmament Diplomacy, Issue No. 80, Autumn 2005, The Acronym Institute,
http://www.acronym.org.uk/dd/dd80/80ccfhsr.htm, accessed through Google Scholar, June 11th, 2009)
The impact of...in American politics.

NUCLEAR IMAGERY IS PART OF A CONTINUOUSLY ESCALATING COMPULSIVE ADDICTION TO CONFRONT


EXTINCTION: LARGER DOSES OF DESTRUCTION BECOME NECESSARY UNTIL ANYTHING LESS THAN
COMPLETE DESTRUCTION BECOMES A VICTORY FOR HUMANITY.
LAMARRE ’08 (Thomas, “Born of Trauma: Akira and Capitalist Modes of Production”, Positions: East Asia Cultures
Critique, Volume 16, Number 1, accessed through Project Muse,
http://oboler.isu.edu:2110/journals/positions/v016/16.1.lamarre.html, June 28th, 2009)
Images of atomic...vent remains incomprehensible.

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GENDER IS KEY--IDEAS ABOUT GENDER SHAPE POLITICAL DISCOURSE AND INFLUENCE THE WAY PEOPLE
THINK ABOUT BOTH NUCLEAR WEAPONS AND MASCULINITY.
COHN, HILL AND RUDDICK, '05 (Carol, Felicity and Sara, "The Relevance of Gender for Eliminating Weapons of
Mass Destruction", Disarmament Diplomacy, Issue No. 80, Autumn 2005, The Acronym Institute,
http://www.acronym.org.uk/dd/dd80/80ccfhsr.htm, accessed through Google Scholar, June 11th, 2009)
The ways in...effective WMD disarmament.

Thus we present the following plan: The United States Federal Government should substantially reduce the size of its
nuclear weapons arsenal, and/or substantially reduce and restrict the role and/or missions of its nuclear weapons
arsenal.
(Rd 4: We belive the United States fedeal government should disarm.)

DEBATE IS AN EPISTEMIC COMMUNITY. ENGAGING OUR SOCIAL LOCATION FROM WITHIN THIS
COMMUNITY IS KEY TO BREAKING DOWN DOMINANT EPISTEMOLOGIES THAT MASK THE SUFFERING
NUCLEAR WEAPONS INFLICT, NATURALIZING THEIR DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT.
COHN AND RUDDICK '03 ("A Feminist Ethical Perspective on Weapons of Mass Destruction", Boston Consortium on
Gender, Security and Human Rights, Working Paper No. 104, Pg. 8-9, accessed through Google Scholar, June 8th,
2009
Both in philosophy...the frame itself.

Taking a feminist epistemology is the most viable solution to creating liberation and breaking away from the social
norms that develop masculine discourse
Ann J. Tickner Gendering World Politics: Issues and Approaches in the Post-Cold War Era Columbia University Press.
Place of Publication: New York. Publication Year: 2001. [Page 17] Although all of...of these experiences.
Critical evaluation of social situations through taking a feminist epistemology strengthens objectivity and creates
“reality” that lies in the human condition

Ann J. Tickner Gendering World Politics: Issues and Approaches in the Post-Cold War Era Columbia University Press.
Place of Publication: New York. Publication Year: 2001. [Page 17] Similarly, Sandra Harding... the human condition.
UNLV New ending

What does it mean when 30 million people are killed instantly from a nuclear bomb? What about the survivors? The
following quote is the recount from a Hiroshima survivor explaining her experience of being a post nuclear apocalyptic
survivor
Carol Cohn and Sara Ruddick 2003 A Feminist Ethical Perspective on Weapons of Mass Destruction [page 3]
http://www.genderandsecurity.umb.edu/cohnruddick.pdf

ISU 1AC
We start by talking about the expectations that we have as men in the debate community and rather we want to be the
vulnerable and represent the oppostie of the masuline.

We read our same story about the nuclear phyisist.

Then we Read the quote from the Hiroshima survivor.

Then we read the Tickner evi from the original 1AC that talks about standpoint and then we read the gender is key
from Cohn Hill and Ruddick.

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Idaho State Jennings/Johnson (Critical) [DCH}

daho State JJ Aff


Gonzaga Disclosure

The 1ac is a story about Tony walking into a debate round and finding a cube, as he looks into it the cube vibrates and
vascilates and begins to speak to him. Here is a line from the 1ac, "and as my anxiety began to peak a voice spoke
deeply as if through me: I am you, like it or not, you are becoming me… I have been waiting… all summer."
we quote White 2000 (Stephen K.Political theory prof @ Univ of Virginia)Sustaining Affirmation: The Strengths of
Weak Ontology in Political Theory. Princeton University Press, 2000. P. 14-15 Questia.)
The familiar image of the disengaged self implies an agent whose identity is secure......the uncanny not as something
necessarily in need of mastery or moral categorization, but rather as something to be prized as a manifestation of the
“abundance” or “richness of being.”

the cube then reveals itself as a crazy confluence of many topical words, ideas and images, here is a line from the
story, "the closer I look the more it seemed that this cube could not be contained, expanding and contracting, and/or,
and/or, mission/role, seeds, propane, seeds propane, cultivation, not agriculture, thank god, but cultivation, the
complexity of the cube revealed itself, myself, in flash,"
we quote White 2000 (Stephen K. Political theory prof @ Univ of Virginia)Sustaining Affirmation: The Strengths of
Weak Ontology in Political Theory. Princeton University Press, 2000. p. 6-7 Questia.)
The first commonality emerges around the question:...I want to shift the intellectual burden here from a preoccupation
with what is opposed and deconstructed, to an engagement with what must be articulated, cultivated, and affirmed in
its wake.

the cube then shrinks, from the 1ac, "and in seconds I saw the cube again, miniature but still fluctuating in my hand, it
spoke again: does this make you feel better?" Do you like it better when all of this is within your grasp? Don't worry this
doesn't change the fact,… the fact of what? I did not feel better, I felt sick, some deep revulsion, taking me over, “what
are you,” I wheezed through the tortured pains of disgust, I am you whether you like it or not, “but what is that?” I
yelled, all of these things you have seen and understood but none of them alone, “how? Where does that come from?”
Actually it comes from a piece of language, as most things do:
The United States Federal Government should substantially reduce the size of its nuclear weapons arsenal, and/or
substantially reduce and restrict the role and/or missions of its nuclear weapons arsenal."

we quote White 2000 (Stephen K.Political theory prof @ Univ of Virginia)Sustaining Affirmation: The Strengths of
Weak Ontology in Political Theory. Princeton University Press, 2000. p. 14-15 Questia.)
One of the characteristics of a felicitous weak ontology.... A better alternative is to take on the affirmative burden of
large narratives, but in such a way that one's story signals its own contestability.

then the story shifts a bit and tony finds himself at some sort of crazy craps table with strange historical figures and
debate icons. soon it will be tony's turn to throw, from the 1ac, "Prometheus is already throwing, Athena next and then
me, where's the cube? Why won’t it tell me what to do now? Wait! The cube is still in my hand, I can feel it, I open up
my palm and there it was just as it was in the past tense, the cube resting there in its same unstable and miniature
way, buzzing,… but wait-- its two cubes—its… its… a pair of dice, what… I am feeling a cold sweat, oh god I am
gonna be sick, suddenly the voice of the cube is speaking in my head, would you throw me forever and ever eternally,
I shake myself out of my trance, and as I come to, the whole dimension is chanting “its your turn,”"

we quote Hawes 99 (Leonard C, professor in the Department of Communication @ U of Utah)The Dialogics of


Conversation: Power, Control, Vulnerability Communication Theory, Vol. 9, 1999.)
In Ecce Homo, Nietzsche claims that the idea of the eternal return is the highest formula of affirmation...
is an active love of fate that forces self to will whatever happens as the necessary manifestation of chance.

the 1ac ends with tony taking his turn, from the 1ac, "hey, its Mike Baxter Kauf, he’s smiling, “Just throw it tony,” “but
there are a lot of people out there with a lot of different bets,” and MBK just grins and gives a quick chuckle, “don’t
worry I’ll like it,” and at once I understand, not with finality or truth, but with purpose, with contingency and openness,
and I throw,"

we quote Farrar 2000 (Margaret E., Chair of political science @ Augustana, “Health and Beauty in the Body Politic:
Subjectivity and the Urban Space,” Polity volume 33 issue 1, questia)

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These responses occur below the level of discursive consciousness, in what Iris Marion Young refers to as the
subject's sense of ontological integrity...Coherence, unity, and sameness in the representational space of the nation
are achieved only by setting out parameters for the citizen body/body politic and ignoring or displacing elements of the
social body that fall outside of those parameters, by establishing a space for the abject and keeping it at bay.

GSU Aff Disclosure


Same as Gonzaga

GSU Doubles
Aff vs. Emory NS

2AC
Recognizing finitude is necessary to celebrate life.
White 2000, The strengths of weak ontology in political theory, pg. 14-15
“a persistent engagement with one’s finitude” and “noble acceptance of
our own death”

Disarmament is a rouse–the aff just makes power seem more benevolent


and accountable but ignores the way sovereignty makes existential
ontology inevitable. You cannot escape the problems of security
without active interrogations.
Burke 2007, Ontologies of war: violence, existence and reason
“I was motivated to begin the larger project” and “dealing with
conflict and difference”

We cannot win the struggle against violence with logical argument


alone–we must undermine the dominant stories of warfare by creating
our own counterstories every place at every time.
Chernus 2003,
“In the long run, the most important” and “living rooms all over the country”

Weak ontologies are a process of critiquing and reflecting—we cannot


just declare out ontologies as acceptable truths.
White 2000 “
“weak ontologies respond to two pressing” and “enacted rather than
just announced”

Weak ontologies configure the ways which humans are constituted by the
indeterminate, such as language and finitude.
White 2000 “
“When I speak of “existential realities”” and “attentive to vivifying
our finitude”

Founding community based on a linguistic commonality or a set of


appropreate agreements destroys difference, their frame work requires
homogeneity and destruction of all perspectives that are deemed
outside of it
Secomb 2000, Fractured community, Hypatia volume 15, pp 138-139
“This reformulated universalist model of community” and “that assume
homogeneity and transparency”

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John Carroll Brossmann/Miranda (Critical-Heidegger) [Arif]

GSU Aff Disclosure


For 60 years the United States has been using its nuclear arsenal to further its sphere of influence, dominate the world
and maintain the global arrangement.

Gerson ‘7 (Dr. Joseph Gerson is Director of Programs of the American Friends Service Committee in New England)
Empire and the Bomb: How the U.S. Uses Nuclear Weapons to Dominate the World, pg 12 2007.

It is widely understood that the AND for the twenty-first century.”

The US’ nuclear arsenal is used as a means of securing world order and access to commodity resources.

Gerson ‘7 (Dr. Joseph Gerson is Director of Programs of the American Friends Service Committee in New England)
Empire and the Bomb: How the U.S. Uses Nuclear Weapons to Dominate the World, pg. 207-9 2007.
On the night of January 17, 1991, … nations from joining the nuclear club.

This world order thinking cannot avoid the trap of subjectivism, which depends on an ontological commitment to
human dominion over the globe, which necessarily includes valuation and calculation.

Swazo 2(Norman K. Swazo, Professor of Philosophy and Chair of the Department of Philosophy and Humanities at the
University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Crisis Theory and World Order: Heideggerian Reflections pgs. 119-20) 2002
Political theory and practice are ever … unavoidably remains steeped in subjectivism.

Power wars and ecocide are inevitable when humans see themselves as the center of a world of resources; ontologies
which enframe make all other impacts inevitable.

Zimmerman ’81 (Michael E. Zimmerman [prof of Philosophy @ Tulane U]; Eclipse of the Self: The Development of
Heidegger’s Concept of Authenticity, pp. 220-224)

In 1951, Heidegger noted that Spengler’s … a capitalist gone mad, the capitalist is a rational miser.”

The focus on achieving and preserving world order depends on a system of understanding reality necessarily couched
in our technological horizons. The pervasiveness of this technological understanding is what’s known as “enframing.”
This organizes the way the world is understood and reproduces its technocratic politics.

Swazo 2(Norman K. Swazo, Professor of Philosophy and Chair of the Department of Philosophy and Humanities at the
University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Crisis Theory and World Order: Heideggerian Reflections pgs. 125-6) 2002

Today, we noted, philosophy finds … is not a course either inevitable or unalterable.

By casting all other being as Standing Reserve, enframing predetermines our relationship to all things. This ontological
destruction is more dangerous than the nuclear annihilation that inevitably follows.

John Caputo, Demythologizing Heidegger, 1993 p. 136-41

The essence of technology is nothing …, profound, essential, authentic, ontological destruction.

Ontologies that seek long-term certainty and sustainability relies on a larger framework of calculation and technology
which renders the all beings standing reserve.

Elden 6 (Stuart Elden [reader in Political Geography @ the U of Durham]; Speaking Against Number: Heidegger,
Language, and the Politics of Calculation, pp. 154-157) 2006

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One of the most extensive discussions … understanding some of their more problematic aims.

Security challenges such as terrorism are a confirmation of technological enframing and standing reserve.

Mitchell 5 [Andrew J. Mitchell, Post-Doctoral Fellow in the Humanities at Stanford University, "Heidegger and
Terrorism," Research in Phenomenology, Volume 35, Number 1, 2005 , pp. 181-218]

Heideggerian thinking is a thinking that … too obstinately squelch them.

It is in that context that we’re resolved:

The United States Federal Government should substantially reduce the size of its nuclear weapons arsenal, and/or
substantially reduce and restrict the role and/or missions of its nuclear weapons arsenal.

Our resolve puts us outside of the traditional notions of willful action, but recalls that power nonetheless. Resoluteness
is the ultimate act of the authentic being; the beginning of a move towards releasement and openness.

Pezze, '6 (Barbara Dalle), "Heidegger on Gelassenheit," Minerva - Internet Journal of Philosophy 10 (2006): 94-122
http://www.mic.ul.ie/stephen/vol10/Heidegger.pdf (accessed 2/12/09)
Let us pause for a moment to … open towards the openness itself.

Our subjectivist posture is that of resoluteness- our political advocacy doesn’t spring from a will to act, such as
decisionism, but rather is a steadfastness opposed to continued technological enframing of being

Odeysseos 07 (Louiza, Senior Lecturer in Internation Relations at the University of Sussex) The Subject of
Coexistence: Otherness in International Relations (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007 pp. 108)

What is of concern is whether the … by the optics of coexistence in chapter 3.

This resolving towards releasement is necessary to break from the domination of self-will.

Zimmerman 81 (Michael E. Zimmerman [prof of Philosophy @ Tulane U]; Eclipse of the Self: The Development of
Heidegger’s Concept of Authenticity, pp. 245-248)

Under the domination of egoism … beyond the personal God of Creation.

We create space for meditative thought where calculative/technological thought currently dominates. This pursuit of
ontological questioning is interrupts the closing off of technological enframement.

Korous 97 (JD, Emory BA Philosophy, Become What you Are) 1997 22-25

The thought that inhabits critique …potential energy waiting to be unleashed.

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Kansas State Denney/Reynolds (Critical-Genealogy)


[Nick/Heather]

KSU DR is running a genealogy of Los Alamos.

We begin with a look at the start of the nuclear age:


Masco 2008 (Joseph, The Nuclear Borderlands: The Manhattan Project in Post-Cold War New Mexico, pg 1)
"The nuclear age began in earnest...yet lasting, achievements."

We start at a beginning - the origins of the nuclear complex in America


Masco 2008 (Joseph, The Nuclear Borderlands: The Manhattan Project in Post-Cold War New Mexico, pg 4)

But even in periods ...impacted everyday lives"

As we delve deeper, we uncover the start of the Manhattan Project in New Mexico,
Masco 2008 (Joseph, The Nuclear Borderlands: The Manhattan Project in Post-Cold War New Mexico, pg 99)
When the Manhattan Project arrived ... progression into the nuclear age.

genealogical approach reveals the micropolitical


May 95 (Todd, Between genealogy and Epistemology, pg 100)

genealogies =/= histories


Colwell 97 (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/theory_and_event/v001/1.2colwell.html, Deleuze and Foucault: Series, Event,
Genealogy, C)

|| back to los alamos - masco ||

|| we start at a beginning - origins of nuclear complex in america masco ||

|| uncover start of manhattan project - masco ||

|| important to understand locality of the bomb - masco ||

|| genealogial appoarch allows to rediscover history of nuclear weapons -- may ||

|| see that our fetish dooms us to extinction that we try to avoid - masco 2008 ||

|| open up to the micropolitical -- may ||

|| alternate disco on weapons - masco ||

|| operation crossroads masco 2008 ||

|| what a genealogy is - colwell ||

|| understand importance in nuclear age masco 2008 ||

DR AFF from EMPORIA

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The United States Federal Government should substantially reduce the size, role, and missions of its nuclear weapons
arsenal by disarming all USFG owned or operated nuclear weapons.

the plan is enacted as a form of buddhist meditation known as contemplative action

To act in a meditative mode called contemplative action means that it is not the results of the action that matters it is
the process in which we approach the action that can provide us with human liberation by the simple act of acting
Hahito explains in 2005
Ruhen L. F. Hahito, resident teacher at Maria Kannon Zen Center in Dallas, Texas and teacher at Perkins School of
Theology, Southern Methodist University. Hooked; Buddhist Writings on Greed, Desire, and the Urge to Consume.
edited by Stephanie Kaza. 2005 p. 42-43
"Let me illustrate" ... "fullness of being."

We must disarm our inner selves, laying down these weapons and embracing peace
Dalai Lama ‘98
"The Need for Compassion in Society: The Case of Tibet," The Art of Peace: Nobel Peace Laureates Discuss Human
Rights, Conflict and Reconciliation, ed. by Jeffrey Hopkins – transcript of a speech by the Dalai Lama, 1998
http://www.snowlionpub.com/pages/N56_3.html
"So, tranquillity or peace" ... "that is external disarmament."

Current negative karma can be reshaped through our meditative approach to the topic and its resulting understanding
of interdependency, this reshaping is an establishment of a positive karma which becomes the basis for future
approaches to the world
Jones explains in 2003
Ken Jones, lifelong activist and a Zen practitioner for over 30 years and founding member of the UK Network of
Engaged Buddhist. The New Social Face of Buddhism; a Call to action. 2003 p 25-26
"Some understanding of karma" ... "of our lives."

The current epistemological approach to the world is rooted in scientific knowledge that demands a dualistic
understanding of the world—this negates our ability to comprehend the interdependency that exists
Hahito explains again
Ruhen L. F. Hahito, resident teacher at Maria Kannon Zen Center in Dallas, Texas and teacher at Perkins School of
Theology, Southern Methodist University. Hooked; Buddhist Writings on Greed, Desire, and the Urge to Consume.
edited by Stephanie Kaza. 2005 p.44-45
"The realization that" ... "whole of nature in its beauty."

It is through our lack of understanding interdependency that our ego created selves emerge, these ego selves are the
root why we suffer in the first place, understanding interdependency is critical to promote human liberation
Brown explains in 1995
Michael Brown, Department of Philosophy of Saint Mary's University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
Degree of Master of Arts Saint Mary's Univers:ty, Halifax, Nova Scotia. THE MYTH OF ABSURDITY: ACRITICAL
EXAMINATION OF ALBERT CAMUS'THE MYTH OF SISYPHUS FROM A BUDDHIST PERSPECTIVE, A Thesis for
Masters of Arts at Saint Mary’s University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. April 1995 pg 51
"Because the Buddha's experience" ... "the Cessation of Suffering."

Through our understanding of interdependency and our radical embracement of the way the world is now through our
contemplative action affirms one’s ability to achieve human liberation because of the new relationship established with
the inevitable suffering that our life will incur which is the most important thing, even more important than preventing
nuclear war
Jones again explains
Ken Jones, lifelong activist and a Zen practitioner for over 30 years and founding member of the UK Network of
Engaged Buddhist. The New Social Face of Buddhism; a Call to action. 2003 p 39-41
"1n 1859, in the Preface to his Critique" ... "comprehensible -and liberative."

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This is not to say that we can solve all of the worlds suffering, we acknowledge that suffering is an inevitable part of
life, but through understanding our interdependency and accepting the way the world is allows us to reform the
relationship we have to that suffering
Bortholin explains 2005
Matthew Bortholin, Huge Star Wars nerd and ordained member of Thich Nhat Hanh’s Buddhist community, and lived in
Buddhist monasteries. The Dharma of Star Wars. 2005 p. 20-23
"Recognizing that suffering is" ... "time to carefully examine it."

The quest for knowledge only ensure conflict and environmental destruction as knowledge can’t be used correctly
because of the dualistic understanding of the world
Hahito ‘05
Ruhen L. F. Hahito, resident teacher at Maria Kannon Zen Center in Dallas, Texas and teacher at Perkins School of
Theology, Southern Methodist University. Hooked; Buddhist Writings on Greed, Desire, and the Urge to Consume.
edited by Stephanie Kaza. 2005 p. 38-39
"A second area of craving is" ... "my own happiness."

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Kansas State Farmer/Funcheon (Critical-Poesis) [Logan]

Gonzaga Intel
Gonzaga Round 1
Poem – Suheir Hammad’s “In America”

From this cadence we find a motivation to action and a need to be, to live in and to start the change. But this is not
action, as we may know it, we do not call for the US off the Rock nor do we foresee a world free of Western techne.
Rather, we see it fit to re-evaluate history so as to better understand the meaning of our modern age. We are the
containers of infinite potentiality and the choices we make spill fourth and construct the world in which we dwell.

“At the beginning of this cycle … waiting to hear... waiting to hear... - “North American Indian Prophecies “Talk Given
by Lee Brown 1986 Continental Indigenous Council http://www.ausbcomp.com/redman/hopi_prophecy.htm

The point of or historical investigation has not been to defame or discredit any one group nor to point fingers at any
particular person or act. The world is continuing on exactly as it was meant to for us at this point in time, for this
moment as was said is important and special. It is a great honor to be here now at this point in the storm. We have
reached this point of crisis in the modern age precisely because we have always been destined to meet this crossroad

A bold vision of what it means to be in the world was delivered to the United Nations by Leon Shenandoah of the
Onondaga people …

“We were instructed to carry … one body, one heart and one mind for peace.” - Address to the General Assembly of
the United NationsDelivered October 25, 1985 by Leon Shenandoah, Tadodaho, Haudenosaunee
http://www.dreamscape.com/morgana/atlas.htm

The time has come to change the way we listen to shift our understanding to a spiritually balanced perspective. The
time has come to listens to the keepers of the Eastern door, to stop shutting out prophecy based on scientific or
religious bias. We finally listen to the words of Ira Kennedy a Cherokee activist as he explains the meaning and
importance of prophesy in the modern age:

“Written in the 1970s, … threshold into a new earth.” - Ira Kenedy 1999
http://www.texfiles.com/features/prophecies.htm “American Indian Prophecies: A Brief History of the Future of
America”

Missions Aff

We begin with the etymology of the word mission:


http://www.myetymology.com/english/mission.html
http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=mission
Kinney 2000 (Katherine, Friendly Fire: American Images of the Vietnam War, p. 54-55)
It is clear from the etymology of the word mission that it is a statement of purpose that pertains to something ‘out
there.’ This provides us with a clear problematic when considering the relevance to this year’s resolution and the use
of the word ‘mission’ in reference to the United States nuclear arsenal. In light of this history we are compelled to ask a
very fundamental question; what is the USFG’s mission in regard to nuclear weapons? And more important and
perhaps disturbing, what does using the word mission imprint on the psyche of those with their hands on the levers of
power?

The Department of Defense defines the term mission as:

mission
Definitions:
(DOD) 1. The task, together with the purpose, that clearly indicates the action to be taken and the reason therefore.
http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/doddict/data/m/5569.html

To give this definition some context we will quote at length from a 2008 report, from the influential Center for
International and Strategic Studies, entitled “The Department of Defense and the Nuclear Mission in the 21st Century”:
The United States, of course […]nuclear deterrent failed.

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Clark A. Murdock, http://csis.org/files/media/csis/pubs/080305-murdock-nuclearmission.pdf

The United States federal government should substantially reduce and restrict the missions of nuclear arsenal.

Our call to end mission is not a political action, it is a value statement in favor in evaluating the question of the role of
missions in the 1AC.
Spanos in 2000 (William, Americas Shadow, 20-23)

Spanos in 1996 (“Culture and Colonization: The Imperial Imperatives of the Centered Circle”, William V. Spanos,
boundary 2, Vol. 23, No. 1., Spring, 1996)
Our thinking in debate is NOT an ahistorical fact, nor is it an unseen occurrence. Debate societies do instill a
pedagogical method and are laboratories for thinking. The casual promotion of abhorrent argumentation and the
reliance on normative political assumptions only perpetuate the structures of American Imperialist exceptionalism. The
purpose of our scholarship is to call into question the way we go about making assumptions about the ends of our
actions. This methodological questioning is more important than the immediate political consequences of our
arguments. The affirmative plan does not ‘pass’ it is not enacted in congress, but it fundamentally affairs the resolution
as a statement that call us to question the role of missions in current government structures. This shift is crucial to
making debate conscious and to changing the war hungry structure of politics as usual. In a correspondence with Joe
Miller about the American Debate circuit, Spanos lays out exactly the dangers of mission-centric and metaphysically
driven thought and the stakes of changing debate itself…
Stenstad 2006 (Gail, professor in the Department of Philosophy and Humanities at East Tennessee State University,
associate editor of Heidegger Studies, and a member of the board of directors of the International Association for
Environmental Philosophy. “Transformations Thinking After Heidegger” University of Wisconsin Press. Pages )

Recalling the former meanings of words and performing etymology opens space for new meaning. Additionally, it
creates a context for the ‘how we got here’ of the word. This fundamental interrogation is essential if we are
reconceptualize our current place in the world. These meditations are not empty questions, nor calls for
resignifications, rather it part of a task of remaining open ot the possibilities of the future that allow us to escape the
violent conceptualization of static interpretations. Gail Stenstead explains …
Stenstad 2006 (Gail, professor in the Department of Philosophy and Humanities at East Tennessee State University,
associate editor of Heidegger Studies, and a member of the board of directors of the International Association for
Environmental Philosophy. “Transformations Thinking After Heidegger” University of Wisconsin Press. Pages )

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Kansas State Hallinan/Woods (Critical-Kato) [Arif]

We do not read the 1ac in the usual tag-cite-card fashion.


We instead read in block-like, paragraph format. However we read the following ev:

Nuclear Fathering:
(Jane Caputi, 1994, Hypatia 9.n2 (Spring 1994): pp102(21). )

“In truth, the bomb … national vernacular by 1947.”

A. Definition: nuclear posturing is tantamount to positioning within the nuclear family, the warhead as the father of the
world
Caputi in 94
“In his astute study …father of America's nuclear navy."”

Kato discusses and Jane Caputi reiterates the annihilation of the spirit of being that is NOT discussed in the realm of
nuclear annihilation talks, Mutually Assured Destruction, the Bay of Pigs incident etc.
but rather in the heinous previous and currently ongoing genocide of indigenous cultures, not only within a
Superpower’s own boundaries, but outside of playground too.

Following is a story of Bikini Atoll in Micronesia:


The story of Rongelap, effects of radiation...
Caputi
“Within twenty-four hours…are children under five.”

And we reference Cuomo – War as an Event.

Our argument: moments of centering (we cite the plan, the nuclear phallus, nuclear weapons) cause a hero worship. If
we choose not to engage in hero worship we are cast out and removed from dominant discourse. This is not only
politically asphyxiating but is the reason why patriarchy, hierarchical value structures and ontological violence occurs.

Blake and I are happy to field any questions you have about the 1ac/citations. We can be reached at our team account
: ksuhwdebate@gmail.com

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Kentucky Gautam/Gentile (Critical-Disarm) [Daryl]

Kentucky GG

GSU Aff Disclosure

Contention One: Same As It Ever Was….


The Nuclear Weapons Topic is okay but I liked it much better when it was called the Mid-East Topic….or the China
topic….or the Courts topic…or the Ag topic….
Okay that’s a lie, no one liked the Ag topic….but when are we are not debating about nuclear weapons -- or more
specifically nuclear wars – and the chance they will bring about human or even planetary extinction? In a very real
sense policy debate has become exclusively nuclear-orientated – every issue of public policy viewed through the lens
of how it relates to the always already imminent (and, yet, somehow unique) nuclear apocalypse. We may be using all
this nuclear jibber-jabber to deal with our collective fear of mortality, but it’s more than that. After September 11th, an
escalation in the discourse of nuclear terror went orbital – the threat of superpower war and nuclear proliferation was
magnified by the fear of a terrorist acquisition of nuclear weapons – while at the same time the nuclear weapons
complex wants to normalize or make the existence of this weapons a banality of life – this discursive tension is an
effective strategy to maintain the relevance of nuclear weapons in current national security policies
Masco 06 (Joseph, Assistant Professor of Anthropology @ University of Chicago, Nuclear Borderlands: The
Manhattan Project in Post-Cold War New Mexico, pg. 329-331)
This is not just a scare tactic and these nuclear weapons are do not exist in a vacuum – we participate in an activity
that rewards those with the biggest impacts – we fetishize body counts and collect nuclear war scenarios from
policymakers so that one day we might be successful enough become part of the nuclear glitterati and get our CSIS
internship…
But our sub-culture is not alone - we are merely a microcosm. We live a culture that preserves nuclear weapons as an
essential part of its heritage – the bomb is a organizing principal in 21stAmerican life
Masco 06 (Joseph, Assistant Professor of Anthropology @ University of Chicago, Nuclear Borderlands: The
Manhattan Project in Post-Cold War New Mexico, pg. 17-18)
This fetishizing of the bomb through radioactive nation-building has its costs – for the debate community, we obfuscate
the central questions of each topic – whether we should have agricultural subsides is decided not by questions of
economics or food security in themselves but only expressed as a function of how many nuclear wars they access.
Many of us have spent most of the summer teaching high school students not about the chronic problem of poverty
and homelessness in the US but how the states counterplan and politics will peel off those issues so we can focus
clearly on the impact calculus. Just as we ignore the in-depth debates about these (quote-unquote) Real World issues
because of the looming threat of war, the nuclear weapons complex uses the threat of impending war to silence
opposition in the public sphere to nuclear weapons production and creates them as objects of banality to make
invisible the systemic damage the nuclear weapons complex does on a daily basis in the United States.
Masco 06 (Joseph, Assistant Professor of Anthropology @ University of Chicago, Nuclear Borderlands: The
Manhattan Project in Post-Cold War New Mexico, pg. 25-26)
Ultimately, it is a question of nuclear citizenship – of those who are allowed to speak about and “know” nuclear
weapons – to produce knowledge about nuclear weapons and nuclear policy - and the marginalization of groups who
are most directly affected by the nuclear economy: those who experience the environmental consequences of the
ongoing Manhattan Project. Closing off who is authorized to speak in the debate over nuclear weapons policy
promotes and polices a norm of secrecy that forecloses any meaningful way to democratically engage nuclear
weapons
Masco 06 (Joseph, Assistant Professor of Anthropology @ University of Chicago, Nuclear Borderlands: The
Manhattan Project in Post-Cold War New Mexico, pg. 336-337)
The screening out of marginalized nuclear experience is prime example of a disinterested knowledge of the Other that
is the enabling mechanism for the destruction of that alterity. All quote unquote pragmatic nuclear solutions attempt to
fill in the blind spots in our map of all human interaction ensures that we can only see these marginalized voices as the
targets of the bomb
Rey Chow, Humanities and Modern Culture & Media Studies at Brown University, 2006 (The Age of the World Target:
Self-Referentiality in War, Theory, and Comparative Work, 40-1)
Contention Two: Time Isn’t After Us
The 1AC is an act of resistance against limiting nuclear politics exclusively to the realm of international relations –
studying the effects of the bomb on everyday national life is necessary to expose the normalizing effects of the Bomb
and highlights the diverse experiences of nuclear citizens that challenge notions of a stable and all-encompassing
national security strategy.

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Masco 06 (Joseph, Assistant Professor of Anthropology @ University of Chicago, Nuclear Borderlands: The
Manhattan Project in Post-Cold War New Mexico, pg. 333-334)
To put it another way, we must interrogate the repressed spaces of the nuclear project. This allows us to fully examine
the local effects of nuclear weapons complex and fundamentally rewrite the story of the nuclear age to include those
that have been displaced to margins of nuclear history.
Masco 06 (Joseph, Assistant Professor of Anthropology @ University of Chicago, Nuclear Borderlands: The
Manhattan Project in Post-Cold War New Mexico, pg. 4-5)
Engagement with the symbolic elements of the Bomb is crucial – yes the genie is out of the bottle but that doesn’t
mean that the genie has control over the production of nuclear truth – judges should be provided with a package of
strategies to intervene in the apolitical construction of agency that current constraints on nuclear citizenship engender.
Chaloupka 92 (William, Professor of Political Science @ Colorado State, Knowing Nukes: The Politics and Culture of
the Atom, pg. 137-138)
And voting affirmative is critically to reorienting the scope of the nuclear weapons debate within our own community –
we can choose to view the question of nuclear weapons from a vantage point of nuclear freemasonary and trust in
their rituals, expert knowledge and strict secrecy – or we can break with the past and recognize our mutual interest
with downwinder communities – the collection of groups that live in fallout zone of ever expanding nuclear economy.
Because of Policy Debate’s unique position in relation to the actual decision-makers of real world, policy engagements
like the 1AC are a VITAL avenue of communication between those future policymakers and the public that offers the
possibility of a more genuine democratic engagement.
Kinsella and Mullen 07 (William J., Associate Professor of Communication @ North Carolina State University and Jay,
Professor of History @ South Oregon University, “Becoming Hanford Downwinders: Producing Community and
Challenging Discursive Containment,” Nuclear Legacies: Communication, Controversy, and the US Nuclear Weapons
Complex, ed. Taylor, Kinsella, Depoe, and Metzler, pg. 99-101)
While there will always be shortcomings within any political system, the best thing that democracy can do is constantly
re-imagine itself to be more inclusive of new communities and dissenters – nuclear criticism provides a strategy to
provide the necessary pre-conditions for an unrelenting democratic engagement
Peterson 07 (Tarla Rai., Boone and Crockett Chair of Wildlife and Conservation Policy @ Texas A&M University,
“Response: Nuclear Legacies and Opportunities for Politically and Ethically Engaged Communication Scholarship,”
Nuclear Legacies: Communication, Controversy, and the US Nuclear Weapons Complex, ed. Taylor, Kinsella, Depoe,
and Metzler, pg. 252-253)
Finally, whether we choose to acknowledge it or not, we are all implicated in the violence perpetuated by the nuclear
weapons complex. Instead of giving into the ultimately hollow impulse to “change the world,” you should use the ballot
as a means of initiating a change in yourself. Only by centering our interrogations at the level of our lived experience
can we make possible modes of relating to each other which do not fall back into the pattern of violent ordering.
Jayan Nayar, Law—University of Warwick, 1999 (“SYMPOSIUM: RE-FRAMING INTERNATIONAL LAW FOR THE
21ST CENTURY: Orders of Inhumanity ,” 9 Transnat'l L. & Contemp. Probs. 599)

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Macalester Chen/Copeland (Critical-Zizek) [DCH]

Team: Aff v. Wichita BR


RD. 1 UNI
JUDGE: Max Archer
Plan text:

The United States Federal Government Should Reduce the Size of Its Nuclear Weapons Arsenal By Immediately and
Permanently Disarming Its Nuclear Weapons and Banning the Use of Nuclear Weapons.

1ac cites:

Observation 1 is Weapons:
Despite Obama’s Call—The Path to Disarmament Will be Thwarted By the Nuclear Establishment’s Resistance
Ron Rosenbaum, Freelance Author, “Will the Pentagon Thwart Obama's Dream of Zero?” Slate.com, August 21st,
2009 (http://www.slate.com/id/2225817/)

Obama put Zero on the map at...managers of the path to Zero.

The Fear of the Enemy Which Motivates the American Nuclear Option is the Same as the Neurotic Protection of Terry
Shciavo—We Focus on the Risk of the Massive Strike Despite the Danger of the Millions of Minute Acts of Violence
Everyday—The Result is a Desire for a Nation that Lives Up to Our Impossible Standards Or Immediately Becomes
Our Enemy
Slavoj Zizek, “Biopolitics: Between Terri Schiavo and Guantanamo ,” Artforum, December 2006
(http://www.lacan.com/zizartforum1205.htm)

In March 2005, the US ... desire for conquests." __3__


This Fantasy of Security is the Basis of All Violence—The Inevitable Failure of the Other To Live Up to Our Standards
Justifies Its Destruction
Slavoj Zizek, “Ideology between Fiction and Fantasy,” Cardozo Law Review, 1995, p. lexis

Our argument can be briefly summarized ...acquired by the remainder...

The United States Federal Government Should Reduce the Size of Its Nuclear Weapons Arsenal By Immediately and
Permanently Disarming Its Nuclear Weapons and Banning the Use of Nuclear Weapons.

Observation 2 is Deterrence:

We Use and Target Weapons as an Attempt to Secure a National Identity—Our Justifications of Deterrence and
National Security Serve to Cover the Lack in Desire
Michael Shapiro, Prof of Poli Sci at University of Hawaii, “That obscure object of violence: Logistics and Desire in the
Gulf War ,” The Political Subject of Violence, 1993 (Google Books)

Ultimately, the imposition of meaning ...an effective and virile male entity.

The Fear of Failed Deterrence is Precisely the Wrong Solution—the Ultimate Example of Nuclear Détente Proves that
it is the Refusal to Acknowledge the Message of Deterrence that Solves
Slavoj Zizek, “A Letter Which Did Not Reach its Destination..........(and thereby saved the world),” Lacan.com, 2007
(http://www.lacan.com/zizdidnot.htm)

Kennedy's stroke of genius ...Soviet missiles from Cuba.)

The Mentality of Deterrence and the Immanence of Violence—We Must Threaten Apocalypse to Avoid Apocalypse—
Ensures Destruction—We Must Intervene Into the Ideology of War to Solve
Mark B. Borg, Jr, practicing psychoanalyst and community/organizational consultant, “Psychoanalytic Pure War:
Interactions with the Post-Apocalyptic Unconscious,”Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society, Spring
2003 (Project Muse)

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Paul Virilio and Sylvere Lotringer’s concept o... social, and cultural death.

Nuclear Weapons and the Language and Logic of Deterrence Encourages Rivalry and Violence—Removing Nuclear
Weapons Presents Us With the Opportunity to Intervene Into the Dialogue Responsible for Enmity Itself
Ian Whitehouse, Prof of English at Vancouver Island University, “Nukespeak: Review,” Textual Practice, Winter, 1987
(Google Books)

A striking parallel ...with alternative views.

Don’t Trust the Negative Impact Comparisons—Our Primary Mission Must Be a Confrontation With Desire—Focusing
on Utilitarian Impact Calculations Can Only Lead Us to Ignore the Primacy of these Issues and Cause the Impacts You
Aim To Avoid
Rolando Gaete, “ARTICLE: Law & The Sacred: Desecration, Law and Evil,” Law/Text/Culture, 2000, p. lexis

This is the terror that Burke wrote about, "...return as the repressed" (La Capra 1992: 126).

The Affirmative is an Act of Ethical Responsibility—Rather than Deferring the Question of Duty We Must Universally
Assume Our Actions and the Basis For Those Actions
Slavoj Zizek, Robespierre or the "Divine Violence" of Terror, Lacan.com, 2007 (http://www.lacan.com/zizrobes.htm)

We can see now why Lacan's motto ...what my duty is.

Nuclear Weapons are The Physical Component of the Textual Fantasy that is Nuclear Warfare—Telling the Stories of
Deterrence, Speaking the Potential of Nuclear War is Precisely What Realizes this Impossible Violence
Jacques Derrida, Philosopher Extraordinaire, “No Apocalypse, Not Now (Full Speed Ahead, Seven Missiles, Seven
Missives), DIACRITICS, v. 14 n. 2, Summer 1984, p. 23-24.

Third reason. In our techno-scientifico...a grand premiere appearance.

RD. 2 UNI
AFF.vs. WSU BR

2ac tricks, Add-ons:

Answers to off-case args:

1ar strategy notes:

2ar strategy notes:


none

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Page 88 of 703
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Macalester (Freeman/Indarte) (Critical-Zizek) [DCH]

Plan text:

The United States Federal Government Should Reduce the Size of Its Nuclear Weapons Arsenal By Immediately and
Permanently Disarming Its Nuclear Weapons and Banning the Use of Nuclear Weapons.

1ac cites:

Observation 1 is Weapons:
Despite Obama’s Call—The Path to Disarmament Will be Thwarted By the Nuclear Establishment’s Resistance
Ron Rosenbaum, Freelance Author, “Will the Pentagon Thwart Obama's Dream of Zero?” Slate.com, August 21st,
2009 (http://www.slate.com/id/2225817/)

Obama put Zero on the map at...managers of the path to Zero.

The Fear of the Enemy Which Motivates the American Nuclear Option is the Same as the Neurotic Protection of Terry
Shciavo—We Focus on the Risk of the Massive Strike Despite the Danger of the Millions of Minute Acts of Violence
Everyday—The Result is a Desire for a Nation that Lives Up to Our Impossible Standards Or Immediately Becomes
Our Enemy
Slavoj Zizek, “Biopolitics: Between Terri Schiavo and Guantanamo ,” Artforum, December 2006
(http://www.lacan.com/zizartforum1205.htm)

In March 2005, the US ... desire for conquests." __3__


This Fantasy of Security is the Basis of All Violence—The Inevitable Failure of the Other To Live Up to Our Standards
Justifies Its Destruction
Slavoj Zizek, “Ideology between Fiction and Fantasy,” Cardozo Law Review, 1995, p. lexis

Our argument can be briefly summarized ...acquired by the remainder...

The United States Federal Government Should Reduce the Size of Its Nuclear Weapons Arsenal By Immediately and
Permanently Disarming Its Nuclear Weapons and Banning the Use of Nuclear Weapons.

Observation 2 is Deterrence:

We Use and Target Weapons as an Attempt to Secure a National Identity—Our Justifications of Deterrence and
National Security Serve to Cover the Lack in Desire
Michael Shapiro, Prof of Poli Sci at University of Hawaii, “That obscure object of violence: Logistics and Desire in the
Gulf War ,” The Political Subject of Violence, 1993 (Google Books)

Ultimately, the imposition of meaning ...an effective and virile male entity.

The Fear of Failed Deterrence is Precisely the Wrong Solution—the Ultimate Example of Nuclear Détente Proves that
it is the Refusal to Acknowledge the Message of Deterrence that Solves
Slavoj Zizek, “A Letter Which Did Not Reach its Destination..........(and thereby saved the world),” Lacan.com, 2007
(http://www.lacan.com/zizdidnot.htm)

Kennedy's stroke of genius ...Soviet missiles from Cuba.)

The Mentality of Deterrence and the Immanence of Violence—We Must Threaten Apocalypse to Avoid Apocalypse—
Ensures Destruction—We Must Intervene Into the Ideology of War to Solve
Mark B. Borg, Jr, practicing psychoanalyst and community/organizational consultant, “Psychoanalytic Pure War:
Interactions with the Post-Apocalyptic Unconscious,”Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society, Spring
2003 (Project Muse)

Paul Virilio and Sylvere Lotringer’s concept o... social, and cultural death.

Page 90 of 703
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Nuclear Weapons and the Language and Logic of Deterrence Encourages Rivalry and Violence—Removing Nuclear
Weapons Presents Us With the Opportunity to Intervene Into the Dialogue Responsible for Enmity Itself
Ian Whitehouse, Prof of English at Vancouver Island University, “Nukespeak: Review,” Textual Practice, Winter, 1987
(Google Books)

A striking parallel ...with alternative views.

Don’t Trust the Negative Impact Comparisons—Our Primary Mission Must Be a Confrontation With Desire—Focusing
on Utilitarian Impact Calculations Can Only Lead Us to Ignore the Primacy of these Issues and Cause the Impacts You
Aim To Avoid
Rolando Gaete, “ARTICLE: Law & The Sacred: Desecration, Law and Evil,” Law/Text/Culture, 2000, p. lexis

This is the terror that Burke wrote about, "...return as the repressed" (La Capra 1992: 126).

The Affirmative is an Act of Ethical Responsibility—Rather than Deferring the Question of Duty We Must Universally
Assume Our Actions and the Basis For Those Actions
Slavoj Zizek, Robespierre or the "Divine Violence" of Terror, Lacan.com, 2007 (http://www.lacan.com/zizrobes.htm)

We can see now why Lacan's motto ...what my duty is.

Nuclear Weapons are The Physical Component of the Textual Fantasy that is Nuclear Warfare—Telling the Stories of
Deterrence, Speaking the Potential of Nuclear War is Precisely What Realizes this Impossible Violence
Jacques Derrida, Philosopher Extraordinaire, “No Apocalypse, Not Now (Full Speed Ahead, Seven Missiles, Seven
Missives), DIACRITICS, v. 14 n. 2, Summer 1984, p. 23-24.

Third reason. In our techno-scientifico...a grand premiere appearance.

2ac tricks, Add-ons:

Answers to off-case args:

1ar strategy notes:

2ar strategy notes:

WSU BR Aff
Round # 2
vs Team: Macalester FI
Judge: Neal Travis

Plan Text-

The United States federal government should end all roles and missions of its forward deployed non-strategic nuclear
weapons and remove all of the United States federal governments forward deployed non-strategic nuclear weapons
from North Atlantic Treaty Organization host nations.

1ac w/ cites
Adv. 1- NATO-

Deployment of TNW’s in Europe is creating a divide within NATO


Hans Kristensen, 2006 (F.A.S. “U.S. Nuclear Weapons in Europe: Current Posture and Policy Implications”. ONLINE.)

Formally, at least…withdrawn from Europe

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Removing our TNW’s wouldn’t cripple NATO- would strengthen the alliance by modernizing its mission-
Kristensen (above)

Then there is the…post-Cold War alliance.

NATO will collapse without modernizing


International Analyst Network 2008 (“The Gap between nato missions and means is growing as we speak”.
www.analyst-network.com/article.php?art_id=1607)

This is the key…best possible way

NATO is facing a legitimacy crisis, the key litmus test for the survival of the organization is redefining its strategic
posture
Ian Davis 2009 (“the shadow nato summit: options for nato- pressing the rest button on the strategic concept”)

There are good…of this war.

NATO is key to solve Afghanistan war


Ian Davis 2009 (above)

Afghanistan is where…pulling its weight.

Afghan conflict spills over to central asia


Szayna and Oliker 5 (“Faultlines of conflict in central asia and the south Caucasus”
www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/2005/RAND_MR1598.sum.pdf)

The situation in Afghanistan…South Caucasus conflicts.

Nuclear War
S. Fredrick Starr (“The war terrorism and u.s. bilateral relations with the nations of central asia” Dec. 13.
www.cacianalyst.org/Publications/Starr_Testimony.htm)

However, this does not mean…the U.S. cannot ignore.

ADVANTAGE 2- Proliferation

Ending nuclear sharing prevents proliferation of nuclear weapons- it would restore western non-prolif credibility and
legitimacy to the NPT
Shawn Beatty et al 6 ( “Advancing Disarmament: Canada and North Atlantic Treaty Organization Nuclear Policy”.
ONLINE)
American nuclear weapons…with double standards.

Nuclear weapons in Europe do not deter proliferation


Kristensen (above)

The suggestion that U.S. nuclear…and cultural disasters.

Proliferation causes extinction- nuclear arms races and miscalculated nuclear war
Victor Utgoff, 2 (“Proliferation, Missile Defense, and American Ambitions”. Survival, Vol. 44, Number 2, summer 2002)

First, the dynamics…even whole nations.

The NPT is proven to prevent prolif- recent set backs are a lack of enforcement and international support
Simon Morgan 8 (“40 years on, NPT in urgent need of overhaul: exerpts”. June 29. Agent France Presse. Lexis)

Experts acknowledge the… bargain- and soon

NPT Key to prevent terrorists from acquiring nukes


Mary kaldor 9 (“Dismantling the Global Nuclear Infrastructure”. ONLINE)

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It is often…monitoring and verification

Nuclear terrorism causes extinction


Marshall Speice 6 (“Negligence and nuclear nonproliferation: eliminating the current liability barrier to bilateral U.S.-
Russian nonproliferation assistance program” 47 Wm and Mary L. Rev. LEXIS)

The potential consequences…use of nuclear weapons.

Prolif cred is essential to prevent prolif


James E. Goodby 8 (Washington Times. July 9. “The Test of Leadership”)

Fewer than 10 nations…of nuclear weapons

SCENARIO 1- NPT

The NPT is on the verge of collapse- the most important step is to end NATO nuclear sharing in Europe
John Avery 9 (“The way is open for a nuclear weapon-free northern europe”
www.peoplesdecade.org/experts/detail.php?id=45)

The strongest argument…along the road.

The NPT is dying because of hypocrisy


Amulya Ganguli 9 (“NPT is dying”. www.dnaindia.com/opinion/main-article_npt-is-dying_1280284)

Pakistan, on the other…rogue nuclear states.

SCENARIO 2- NORTH KOREA

Nuclear sharing destroys US negotiating leverage with Iran and Korea


Christos Katsioulis and Christoph Pilger 8 (“Nuclear Weapons in NATO’s New Strategic Concept” library.fes.de/pdf-
files/id/ipa/05425.pdf)

The nuclear-sharing arrangements…the security of Europe.

Border skirmish with south korea would cause miscalc and nuclear war
Peter Goodspeed 9 (“Kim’s return brings instability back to Korean peninsula”.
www.nationalpost.com/news/world/story.html?id=1246135)

After months out of…the study said.

SCENARIO 3- IRAN

Iran is going for nukes- they ar in the final stages


Debka 8-31 (“Six nations may reveal data concealed by ELBaradei in Iran’s nuclear progress”
www.debka.com/headlin.php?hid=6244)

US, Israel and four…discuss nuclear proliferation.

Removing tactical nukes from Turkey is key to prevent Iranian prolif


Mustaga Kibaroglu 7 (“A Turkish nuclear turnaround” Bulletin of Atomic Scientist. Nov/Dec.)

However, the tide has…lead the way.

Nuclear Iran causes Extinction


Enders Wimbush 7 (“Testimony before committee on house foreign affairs” Jan. 31. LEXIS)

From my perspective…Islam’s triumph worldwide

SOLVENCY

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The US should withdraw tactical nuclear weapons from Europe


The Acronym Institute 9 (“Nation nuclear policy: opportunities to strengthen the NPT”
www.acronym.org.ok/nato/briefing.htm)

As part of its…forces as well.

Multiple NATO countries have phased out strike capabilities already


Kristensen 6 (above)

That NATO permits this…no longer necessary.

Withdrawing our nuclear forces wouldn’t have any negative impact and is inevitable within 10 years
Kristensen 6 (above)

2ac Tricks, Add-Ons,

Answers To Off Case Args

Answers To Major Case Args

1ar Strategy Notes

2ar Strategy Notes

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Miami Fox/Lopez (Critical-Pitstuffing) [Amy]

Miami (Florida) LF

GSU Aff Disclosure


plan:

The United States federal government, specifically the executive branch, should mandate verifiable pit stuffing for all
nuclear warheads awaiting dismantlement. Implementation through normal means.

Observation One: TRANSPARENCY

Obama will pursue deep cuts in operationally deployed warheads, pressure allies and enemies alike to do the same,
ban testing and production of fissile material, and revise u.s. nuclear posture – even if some of these efforts ultimately
fail, unilateral reductions are inevitable

Oliver Stuenkel, 6-16-2009, M.A. Public Policy, Harvard Kennedy School of Government, Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung
Washington Office, KAS is a think tank and consulting agency, offering political education and conducting scientific
fact-finding research for political projects, Country Reports: United States, “More Than a Dream? Obama’s Vision of a
Nuclear Arms-Free World,” http://www.kas.de/proj/home/pub/1/2/dokument_id-16799/index.html

Obama’s plan has three steps. First, the United States will recognize that nuclear weapons have only a deterrent
function … Russian President Medvedev has signaled that he is ready to engage in negotiations with Mr. Obama to
accelerate the reduction of nuclear arsenals. US Assistant Secretary of State Gottemoeller held talks in Moscow on a
replacement for the START, which will expire in December 2009.

Current warhead counting rules mean that pledged reductions exist in name only – thousands of warheads awaiting
dismantlement are maintained to provide significant “upload” potential

Jeffrey Lewis and Meri Lugo, 4-13-2009, Director of the Nuclear Strategy and Nonproliferation Initiative at the New
America Foundation; research intern at the New America Foundation, “Where nuclear weapons go to die,” Foreign
Policy, http://experts.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2009/04/13/where_nuclear_weapons_go_to_die

Speaking in Prague on April 5, U.S. President Barack Obama called the thousands of nuclear weapons sitting in world
arsenals "the most dangerous legacy of the Cold War." He proposed deep cuts in U.S. and Russian nuclear stockpiles.
But when policymakers talk about nuclear reductions, what do they mean in practice? ... So, even if we agree to get rid
of them, nuclear weapons will be with us for quite a while.

this means any future reductions only increase the dismantlement backlog – and the infrastructure necessary to store
them safely doesn’t exist

Charles Digges, 5-13-2009, Editor of Bellona Web, Bellona Foundation, “Problems of where to store extra plutonium
from deeper Cold war weapons cuts dog Obama,”
http://www.bellona.org/articles/articles_2009/obama_weapons_cuts_storage

US President Barack Obama plans for deep new cuts in America’s nuclear arsenal comes at a time when the
government is facing a 15-year backlog of warheads already awaiting dismantlement, and billions of dollars are

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needed for new facilities to store and dispose of plutonium. … Among those areas where a US backlog in weapons
dismantlement are likely to become apparent quickly are a Texas storage site for plutonium pits, which will start hitting
space shortages in 2014, an inspector general audit released earlier this years said.

implementing further reductions without verifiably disabling warheads awaiting dismantlement makes all progress in
arms control easily reversible, failing to generate confidence that the reductions are meaningful

Steven E. Miller, Sep 2000, “A Comprehensive Approach to Nuclear Arms Control,” in Arms Control and Disarmament:
A New Conceptual Approach, United Nations Publications, Department for Disarmament Affairs, DDA Occasional
Papers, No.4, p.22-24, googlebooks

3 A comprehensive approach to nuclear arms control would seek to control warheads in reserve as well as deployed
warheads. Washington and Moscow generally have retained inventories of nuclear weapons that were not actually
deployed with either strategic or tactical forces. … Such rules would be a desirable component of a comprehensive
approach to nuclear arms control, since this would prevent rapid redeployment of weapons slated for destruction.

this reversibility dramatically increases the risk of breakout, ensuring multiple scenarios for a failure of deterrence and
subsequent nuclear war:

first, fears of greater upload potential risk miscalculation and force regeneration, which uncontrollably escalates

second, inexperience with force regeneration also risks accidental launch

third, centralizing warhead storage jeopardizes survivability and creates perverse incentives for first-strikes

and, the visibility and time required to upload means there’s no upside

Dr. Kathleen C. Bailey, 3-31-1998, Senior Fellow at National Institute for Public Policy, former Assistant Director for
Nuclear and Weapons Control, Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, former Deputy Assistant Secretary of State,
Statement Before the US Senate Armed Services Committee, Subcommittee on Strategic Forces, http://armed-
services.senate.gov/statemnt/980331kb.htm

Proposed de-alerting measures have a number of significant detrimental effects, one of the most important being their
impact on deterrence. … If warheads were dispersed in many storage facilities to make them less inviting targets, the
task of protecting them would be extraordinarily demanding compared to the security required for either warheads on
missiles, or warheads in few storage areas.

pit-stuffing is the only process which can irreversibly and verifiably disarm nuclear warheads within minutes without
compromising sensitive information

Matthew Bunn, 1998, Assistant Director of the Science, Technology and Public Policy Program in the Belfar Center for
Science and International Affairs at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government, “‘Pit-Stuffing’: How
To Disable Thousands of Warheads and Easily Verify Their Dismantlement,” FAS Public Interest Report, 51(2),
Mar/Apr, http://www.fas.org/faspir/pir0498.htm

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Technology exists which makes it possible to disable thousands of nuclear warheads, rapidly, permanently, and
verifiably -- and to verify their dismantlement with a minimum of cost and intrusion. … This technology can offer policy-
makers new options - and deprive them of excuses for not pursuing deep, transparent, and irreversible reductions in
nuclear arms.

this resolves dismantlement bottlenecks and eliminates problems with storage

Jeremy J. Stone, 1998, President, Federation of American Scientists, Ph.D. Mathematics, Stanford University,

“Disarmament By Pit-stuffing: Bomb Disablement Need Not Await Bomb Dismantlement,” FAS Public Interest Report,
51(2), Mar/Apr, http://www.fas.org/faspir/pir0498.htm

Post Cold-War U.S.-Russian relations provide a unique window of opportunity for disarmament. How frustrating then to
find that political leaders on both sides are failing to seize these opportunities, and to discover that bottlenecks in
dismantling warheads, or storing them securely, can turn potentially rapid progress in disabling nuclear weapons into
eyeball glazing decade-long disarmament processes. … In sum, pit-stuffing makes large-scale "instant" disarmament a
real and a live option. And this could change a lot in the calculations of decision-makers on whether to attempt fuller
exploitation of the present window of opportunity for disarmament.

implementing pit-stuffing now is key – verification after deep cuts is too late to solve confidence

Bruce Blair, et al., 1999, Jonathan Dean, James Goodby, Steve Fetter, Hal Feiveson, George Lewis, Janne Nolan,
Theodore Postol, and Frank von Hippel, “11. Verifying Deep Reductions in Nuclear Forces,” The Nuclear Turning
Point, Brookings Institution Press, p.225-227, googlebook

Verifying the warhead and fissile material declarations of the United States and Russia will be an enormous endeavor.
Because it will take many years for states to gain confidence in the accuracy and completeness of the declaration,
verification should begin as far in advance of deep reductions as possible. … Such operations could be readily verified
by existing materials measurement and accounting procedures.

observation two: RUSSIA

consultations with russia over reductions are ongoing, and although a treaty is inevitable, disagreements over warhead
counting rules and european missile defense have resulted in lowered expectations and drawn-out negotiations,
bolstering the position of hard-liners in the russian defense establishment and preventing meaningful progress

Charles Ferguson, and Stephen Sestanovich, 6-30-2009, Philip D. Reed Senior Fellow for Science and Technology,
Council on Foreign Relations; George F. Kennan Senior Fellow for Russian and Eurasian Studies, Council on Foreign
Relations, Presider: Bernard Gwertzman, Consulting Editor, Council on Foreign Relations, “Media Conference Call:
The Obama-Medvedev Summit,” http://www.cfr.org/publication/19731/

CHARLES D. FERGUSON: Well, Bernie, because the START agreement is going to expire in early December, that's
one of the main motivations to have this summit here in -- you know, coming in early July -- as you point out, it's still
early in the -- President Obama's term -- but because there are relatively few months left to have a follow-on START
agreement. … There was some work done on that in the late 1990s and I think the presidents may talk about trying to
get interest going again in that particular area.

upload capability is the primary concern of the russian defense establishment – absent transparency measures,
mistrust will collapse the entire nonproliferation agenda

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Stephen J. Blank, Mar 2009, the Strategic Studies Institute’s expert on the Soviet bloc and the post-Soviet world since
1989, former Associate Professor of Soviet Studies at the Center for Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and Education,
Maxwell Air Force Base, and taught at the University of Texas, San Antonio, and at the University of California,
Riverside, Ph.D., M.A. History, University of Chicago, B.A. History, University of Pennsylvania, “Russia and Arms
Control: Are There Opportunities for the Obama Administration?”
http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/pub908.pdf

Whereas Russia is destroying or cannot replace nuclear weapons equal to the enhancement of U.S. conventional and
nuclear capabilities, America, by walking out of the ABM treaty and refusing any kind of verification or constraint upon
its ability to upload or replenish weapons, has a huge strategic nuclear reserve that can be quickly mobilized for
military purposes. … Absent such reassurance and such an anchor, we will all be sailing on very stormy seas without a
rudder and with a corpse in the cargo.

scenario a: stockpile security

russia has demanded the u.s. make nuclear reductions irreversible by destroying warheads awaiting dismantlement –
u.s. agreement is critical to boost the position of russian moderates and secure access to russian stockpiles

Pavel Podvig and Frank von Hippel, 3-18-2002, member of the Board of Directors of the Bulletin of the Atomic
Scientists, researcher at the Center for International Security and Cooperation at Stanford University, former
researcher at the Center for Arms Control Studies at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, recipient of the
American Physical Society’s Leo Szilard Lectureship Award of 2008, Ph.D. Political Science, Moscow Institute of
World Economy and International Relations, degree in physics from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology;
Professor of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University, former Assistant Director for National Security in
the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, “Take Russia’s ‘Yes’ for an Answer,”
http://www.bu.edu/globalbeat/syndicate/podvighippel031802.html

Long term concerns about the security of Russia’s fissile materials have now been compounded by the fear that some
terrorist groups would use nuclear weapons if they could acquire them. … Resolving remaining technical and legal
issues may still require considerable effort, but the two presidents could signal their political decision to move ahead by
coupling their agreement on reductions of deployed nuclear warheads with a joint statement on warhead elimination.
This would make the May summit both a guaranteed success and an encouraging first step toward securing and
reducing the most dangerous legacy of the Cold War.

specifically, absent transparent warhead elimination, russia won’t bugde on inspections, warhead and fissile material
security, or tactial nuclear weapons

Hans M. Kristensen, Dec 2001, Director of the Nuclear Information Project at the Federation of American Scientists,
co-author of the Nuclear Notebook column in the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (widely regarded as the most
accurate source of information on nuclear weapons and weapons facilities available to the public) and the World
Nuclear Forces overview in the SIPRI Yearbook, “The Unruly Hedge: Cold War Thinking at the Crawford Summit,”
Arms Control Today, http://www.armscontrol.org/print/961

This article presents new information about the hedge that has recently been declassified and released under the
Freedom of Information Act. Newly available documents demonstrate that the U.S. Strategic Command (STRATCOM),
which is responsible for U.S. nuclear forces, repeatedly warned during the 1990s that increased transparency of the
nuclear arms reduction process was more important after START II than new cuts, suggesting that Bush’s inclusion of
only operationally deployed strategic warheads in the new round of cuts is unwise because it will contribute to the
hedge and therefore the opacity of U.S. forces. … If Bush wants to transform our strategic relations with Russia, he
must make the entire stockpile accountable.

offering the plan ensures a verifiable framework for securing russian nuclear stockpiles

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Matthew Bunn, Mar 2000, Assistant Director of the Science, Technology and Public Policy Program in the Belfar
Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government, “The Next
Wave: Urgently Needed Steps to Control Warheads and Fissile Material,” Carnegie Endowment for International
Peace, http://www.ciaonet.org/wps/bum01/index.html

ASSISTANCE FOR TRANSPARENT DISMANTLEMENT OF THOUSANDS OF WARHEADS. Increased transparency


in the management of nuclear warhead and fissile material stockpiles (while maintaining protection for legitimate
nuclear secrets) will be fundamental to achieving deep reductions in nuclear arms, as well as cooperation to secure
nuclear stockpiles—and hence to reducing the nuclear threat to the United States. … Preliminary U.S.-Russian lab-to-
lab work in designing such measures is already under way. The total cost of such an effort, including the financial
assistance for warhead dismantlement, might be in the range of half a billion dollars over several years.

this is critical to prevent the most likely scenarios for nuclear terrorism

Jon Wolfsthal, 4-9-2002, Deputy Director for Nonproliferation, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, former
special policy advisor on nonproliferation, U.S. Department of Energy, former on-site monitor, Yongbyon nuclear
facility, North Korea, founder of New Analysts in International Security, term member of the Council on Foreign
Relations, B.A. Emory University, “Preventing Nuclear Terrorism,” Carnegie Proliferation Brief, 5(7),
http://www.carnegieendowment.org/publications/index.cfm?fa=view&id=950&prog=zgp&proj=znpp

Bush administration officials say that because the United States and Russia are no longer enemies, the size of the
Russian nuclear arsenal no longer matters. But that sentiment ignores the main risk from Russia: not from a deliberate
nuclear attack but the possible leakage of nuclear weapons or material to would-be nuclear states or terrorist groups.
… The improving nature of the U.S.-Russian relationship should expand to include effective, transparent, and
reciprocal steps to ensure the safety and security of nuclear weapons as they wind their way toward eventual and
permanent elimination.

Nuclear terrorism ensures global nuclear war

Jerome Corsi, 2005, PHD in political science from Harvard, Expert in Antiwar movements and political violence,
excerpt from “Atomic Iran”, http://911review.org/Wget/worldnetdaily.com/NYC_hit_by_terrorist_nuke.html

The combination of horror and outrage that will surge upon the nation will demand that the president retaliate for the
incomprehensible damage done by the attack. … That we might believe we can solve the problem diplomatically is
exactly the conclusion the mullahs are praying we will come to.

Scenario b: European theater missile defense

obama is planning to trade away the proposed european missile defense system in the hope of accelerating arms
reduction talks

The Washington Times, 8-28-2009, “Obama jilts Poland and the Czech Republic; America reneges on missile defense
for New Europe,” l/n

The United States is poised to dump a critical missile-defense agreement with two of its most dependable NATO allies.
… We are afraid to contemplate how long it will be before the Obama administration's national-security blunders have
serious and irreversible consequences.

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russian concerns over the missile shield are intrinsically tied to perceptions of u.s. upload capability – a concession on
one of the two issues is inevitable

Ambassador M K Bhadrakumar, 7-4-2009, a career diplomat in the Indian Foreign Service, assignments included the
Soviet Union, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Germany, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Kuwait and Turkey, “A moment of
truth for Obama in Moscow,” Asia Times Online, http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Central_Asia/KG04Ag01.html

Washington has a pressing need to engage Russia specifically and selectively on certain issues. … Possibly, even a
framework for a new accord may be announced, as it is customary for US-Russia summits to produce some results.
But a final deal could still be hampered.

alternative u.s. concessions are key to russian aquiescence to the missile shield

Pavel Podvig, 7-22-2009, member of the Board of Directors of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, researcher at the
Center for International Security and Cooperation at Stanford University, former researcher at the Center for Arms
Control Studies at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, recipient of the American Physical Society’s Leo
Szilard Lectureship Award of 2008, Ph.D. Political Science, Moscow Institute of World Economy and International
Relations, degree in physics from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, “The Moscow summit: A positive first
step,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, http://thebulletin.org/web-edition/columnists/pavel-podvig/the-moscow-summit-
positive-first-step

Missile defense also drew significant attention during the talks. Russia has strenuously opposed the deployment of a
U.S. missile defense system in Eastern Europe for some time and has tried to force Washington to abandon it as part
of the arms control talks. … Better still, if they get this right, coming to an agreement on nuclear reductions and missile
defense will be much easier.

European missile defense uniquely prevents allies in the middle east from initiating nuclear weapons programs

Eckart von Klaeden, 5-10-2007, German MP and foreign-affairs spokesman of the CDU/CSU parliamentary group,
“Missile Defense Means Common Security for Russia Too,” Atlantic Community, http://www.atlantic-
community.org/index/articles/view/Missile_Defense_Means_Common_Security_for_Russia_Too

Moscow should not cling to the old zero-sum game from the Cold War era. … The US missile-defense program will
serve the same purpose. It does not foment a nuclear arms race, but rather seeks to prevent it.

these rapid crash programs will overwhelm any stabilizing effects

Peter Madson, Mar 2006, master’s thesis for the naval postgraduate school, “the sky is not falling: regional reaction to
a nuclear-armed iran,” http://stinet.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=A445779&Location=U2&doc=Getrdoc.pdf

If the Gulf States were to embark on independent nuclear programs three dangerous side effects could emerge. … As
Nuclear Optimists have stressed, stability from nuclear proliferation comes from the slow addition of nuclear states, not
haphazard races for production.

this scenario for proliferation is uniquely destabilizing and risks multiple scenarios for nuclear war

Richard L. Russell, 11-1-2006, Research associate in Georgetown University’s institute for the study of diplomacy and
professor in Georgetown’s security studies program, Military Review, “Military Planning for a Middle East Stockpiled
with Nuclear Weapons,” http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-155824168.html

How would the Middle East be affected by numerous states armed with nuclear weapons? The good news is that
some international security experts argue that the spread of such weapons would actually stabilize the region. … In

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short, in the Middle East of the future, numerous nuclear weapons stores will sit atop potentially explosive political
powder kegs like the one that exists in Pakistan today.

this ensures escalation to global nuclear war

John Steinbach, March 2002, DC Iraq Coalition, Centre for Research on Globalisation, “Israeli Weapons of Mass
Destruction: a Threat to Peace,” http://www.wagingpeace.org/articles/2002/03/00_steinbach_israeli-wmd.htm

Meanwhile, the existence of an arsenal of mass destruction in such an unstable region in turn has serious implications
for future arms control and disarmament negotiations, and even the threat of nuclear war. … In the words of Mark
Gaffney, "... if the familar pattern(Israel refining its weapons of mass destruction with U.S. complicity) is not reversed
soon - for whatever reason - the deepening Middle East conflict could trigger a world conflagration."
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Missouri State Steiner/Stout (Critical) [Britt]

GSU Aff Disclosure


Omelas Story at Beginning

“With a clamor of bells” and “the ones who walk away from Omelas.” *1

Planet Earth is beginning to look a lot like Omelas to the nuclear weapons states (NWS). The citizens of these states
are happy and joyous, rejoicing in the pristine eloquence of the nations they have created. They are secure from
enemies, militaries, crime, and guilt. The story represents our collective ability to bracket certain groups in society
(those who should not possess nuclear weapons) based on the threat of catastrophe. Our affirmative is not only about
the political consequences of our nuclear weapons policy, but also about the way the policy and the missions of
nuclear weapons are framed. Our argument is that this framing structures the very fabric of our existence. We become
unable to create new forms of ordering the world. A society without violence and into the void of happiness and joy is
not possible as long as the weight of our nuclear missions hang above us like the parabolic Sword of Damocles, that at
any minute can drop and destroy everything we have worked for. Caitlin Ward, Vincent Parascandolo and Lourdes
Villanueva*2 explains how this internalization of fear destructs identity and causes every situation to be viewed through
a lens of catastrophe. The goal of this world framing is to create a normalized community of nations.

“On July 16, 1945” and “Why is that never discussed?” she asked.”

This normalized community, like the community of Omelas, has several goals. One of which is to ontologically
construct the way our identity functions. Elimination is an inevitable result of this process. The will to radical
securitization, as indicated by Michael Shapiro *3 represents a deep seeded desire for ontological completion, a need
to define oneself in terms of particular policy prescription. In the context of our story people construct this identity on
the basis of the excluded non-nuclear powers. In the context of nuclear weapons policy other nations have become
forced to structure their policies and lives around the global goal of accepting only the declared nuclear powers as
legitimately owning and threatening the use of nuclear weapons. This desire for a coherent national identity is more
important than the political implications of the 1AC:

“…what is represented as quest for accomplishing political “ and “a violent confrontation with an enemy.”

The desire to manifest threats, to map and know the world geopolitically despite the cost is part of an active nihilism. A
way of knowing the world that mandates new fears to be eliminated. A way of knowing that creates a hatred and
invariably draws us closer together. Perhaps we do not directly interact with the people constructed as enemies. That
said, we are aware they are there. We are forced to remember our enemies through projected nuclear simulations,
through violent forms of science, and through a lack of discussion about our role in nuclear weapons policy. Instead of
forgetting about our enemies and releasing their control of us we are forced to remember. Indeed, this drive to
remember our fears is what prevents our ability to overcome our drive to control the globe. The memory that any
second we could be destroyed by a nuclear weapon or through a failure to develop a new weapons technology creates
a forced choice. Some of us choose to go back to our home, our utopias, convincing ourselves that we really are
special, we really do need nuclear weapons but others don’t. After all, it is not our place to continuously criticize global
structures of control. Those of us that choose not to go home wander endlessly, perhaps to another country or another
community. It is not important. Whether we stay and do nothing or run away, as long as we allow these nuclear
policies to remain in place it becomes impossible to actualize true human freedom. A freedom in which relationships
are not mediated by continual ethical domination.

Nuclear weapons remind us that anyone can be dangerous. No longer must we only fear international terrorism,
organized crime, environmental degredation, sexual slavery, faltering economies, racism, poverty, AIDS, world hunger
and swine flu we must also worry about what every country is developing in their basement and whether they are
being influenced by our strategies of deterrence. The mission of our nuclear weapons converts the population into an
object subject to managerial control. We become responsible for enforcing the policy of non nuclearization and as
Alain Badiou*4 explains this forces us to live a life free of its excess:

“…Ethics is the ideology of this insularity” and “whose other name is: death drive. “

The fundamental premise of this policy is that the government must avoid disaster of any flavor. In our endless pursuits
to calm our fears we create an existence in which the drive to be safe overrides the drive to live. No where is this more
clear than in the current mission of our nuclear weapons arsenal. Don’t create nuclear weapons. Don’t pursue nuclear

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technology. Don’t even think about trying to become like us. Alenka Zupancic*5 explains the way this policy forces us
to exist:

“An emblematic contemporary figure of this” and “most trivial and daily level of our lives”

Not only is life dangerous, it is also limited. Life is inherently about conflict. Why do we run from this? Why do we act
as if we are only a little safer, a little more protected, that we alone can escape on a ship of immortality. As a way of
giving up and embracing our inability to manage and control the world we stand resolved that: The United States
Federal Government should substantially reduce and restrict the missions of its nuclear weapons arsenal.

This affirmation embraces the totality of life. It is the recognition of the fundamental agonism and pain of existence. Our
affirmation is what creates an existence of meaning as opposed to the one based entirely on the have and have nots
of the nuclear game. The affirmation that someday you will die is based on the notion that we must cease to make
decisions based entirely on death avoidance. It affirms exactly what the mission of our nuclear weapons policy seeks
to deny……the idea that life is not free from conflict.

"Our father's were our models for god” and “ that we are free to do anything…” *6

1) LE Guin Ursala K “The ones who walked away from Omelas”


2) Caitlin Ward, Vincent Parascandolo and Lourdes Villanueva(insert quals later) “Nuclear Turning Point. North Korea,
Iran, and Nuclear Disarmament” International Policy Report November 2006
http://ciponline.org/asia/publications/1106_NTP.pdf
3) Michael Shapiro Violent Cartographies pg 97
4) Alain Badiou Ethics
5) Alenka Zupancic, The shortest shadow: Nietzsche’s Philosophy of the Two
6) Fight club

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Oklahoma Bunas/Tomik (Critical-Disarm) [DCH]

Oklahoma TW
Round # 3
vs Team: Wake BM
Judge: Ed Lee

Plan Text

The United States Federal Government should permanently disarm the United States’ entire nuclear arsenal.

1ac w/ cites

On caselist. Advantage is Nietzschean Stuff


2AC Tricks, Add-Ons
No Add-Ons

Answers to Off-case Arguments

Uses case to critique nearly everything—DAs based on value systems, causes to securitize everything in name of
security, few cards read

Also plays generic defense

Answers to Major Case Arguments

Answer varied based off the case argument but essentially created distinctions between the case and what the 1NC
argument was making—

1NC and block had Nuclear Fear Good, Calculations Good, Sassurian Language Bad, Nietzsche = Atrocity, We should
still act even if violence is inevitable

1AR Strategy Notes

Went for three main arguments across the flow—


1. No reason to vote Neg—justification for stopping death = value system that is arbitrary
2. Securitizing causes impacts—causes irrational fear of the other, means violence is inevitable
3. Violence Inevitable—can’t stop it, means only a reason why the Aff is good

2AR Strategy Notes

Went for a lot of external offense (was very similar to 1AR in argumentation)
Oklahoma TW Aff @ Gonzaga
Intro from aesthetics of ruins

P 432 “weapons that can destroy…you decide”

Nuclear buildup structues itself around the notion of a threat out there that we must protect ourselves against, a
dangerous other who wants to do us harm. During the cold war this image was that of Russia eagter to destroy, not
just everything we hold valuable and good, but the country as well. With theend of the cold war a new threat has
presenced itself, the image of the terrorist. This new enemy is invisible however, always lurking and waiting for our
mistakes ready to strike. The united states becomes viewed as merely looking to defend itself, removing any check on
its power.
Zizek in 05 “give Iranian nukes a chance __www.inthesetimes.com/article/ 2280__

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“every power structure has to rely…the real criminal”

The world is will to power and nothing besides. The image of the dangerous other we must protect ourselves against is
a power seizure, it is the realization of only one possibility and only one explanation of the world. Instead of accepting
this as moral law, we should see it for what it is, what we all are, merely an expression of one will to power

Ciano aydin Nietzsche on reality as will to power: toward and organization struggle model the journal of Nietzsche
studies 22 spring 07
“we can begin with some…always remain possible”

The logic of MAD is the logic of ressentiment par excellence, it attempts to make us feel secure without ever reaching
us there, doing nothing to remove the dangers of threats themselves. The strange and alien become identified as evil,
labeled a threat that must be dealt with. This strikes at difference itself. Deterrence strikes away at all that makes life
worth while

James der derian 1993 the political subject of violence p 101-105


“one must begin with nietzsche’s idea….calculation of risks and benefits”

THE USFG SHOULD PERMANENTLY DISARM THE UNITED STATES’ ENTIRE NUCLEAR ARSENAL

OUR BUILDUP OF WEAPONS IS ROOTED IN A NOTION OF DEFENSE. THIS CRETS A NEVER ENDING CYLE
OF PROLIFERATION AS WE SECURITIZE LIFE IN THE NAME OF SAFETY. Instead we view disarm as a break
away from the system, casing the sword down shattering it once and for all, only out of a height of feeling.

Nietzsche human all to human aphorism 284 1878


“the means to real peace…and from up high”

Nuclear weapons are a part of a larger system to approach to conflict itself. Assumed to keep us safe, small scale
disasters that are unimaginable under mad become incomprehensible. In fact it is the very notion that nuclear
weapons deter conflict that results in grander events of violence.

James der derian national security: an accident waiting to happen, predicting the present 27:3 2k5
“it often takes a catastrophe…total war by other means”

Disarm may make us more safe to break away from the web of bureaucracy and demonization, but we don’t really
care about that. Our claim is not that somehow extinction is immoral, but rather that our focus should instead be on the
affirmation of life itself. The number of threats we can imagine is never ending, and our responses similarly. Rather the
value of the aff is the opening up of vulnerability, the acceptane of the contingency and disorder inside of the world.
This reclaims life for ourselves

Themi in 8 Themi Deakin University 2008 Tim Cosmos and History: The Journal of
Natural and Social Philosophy, 4.1-2
__http://www.cosmosandhistory. org/index.php/journal/article/ view/96/192__
“but with psychoanalysis, rightly or wrongly…accidentally finishes us”

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Oklahoma Giglio/Watts (Critical) [Phil]

Kentucky Round Robin - Race 8 (Aff vs. California)

The nuclear umbrella argument relies upon an arbitrary elevation of military security over economic and cultural
decisionmaking
William c. Potter, 2008 Gaukhar Mukhatzanova. “divining nuclear intentions” international security vol. 33, no. 1 p. 142-
144
“perhaps the most startling findings pertain” and “negotiation of the NPT”

Be skeptical of their media reports – they overemphasize violence because it is exciting – these portrayals make
resolving conflict more difficult and risk escalation, turning the case
Tejas Patel.
“according to Galtung, the way media operate” and “to test Galtung’s claims”

All political appeals to managing terorirsm obscure the cycle of terrorism the affirmative is engaged in. terrorism is the
inevitable phenomenon of the war on terror terrorizing being
Andrew Mitchell. “Heidegger and Terrorism” research in phenomenology vol.35
“this does not mean that” and “which terrorism takes place”

Predictive disaster planning strips us of the tragedy and beauty of loss


Mitchell
“with everything available as stranding-reserve” AND “war in the mirror of technology”

The insecurity of the domino effect, especially in southeast asia, is a byproduct of a capitalist anxiety about the loss of
predictability and control over the countries described
Spanos American exceptionalism in the age of globalization. P 65-66
“the historical context” and “collapse of the soviet union”

Kentucky Round Robin - Race 3 (Aff vs. Michigan State)

Plan: The United States federal government should disarm the United State's nuclear arsenal.

Nuclear have weapons changed warfare from practice to doctrine. The emphasis on perception and process defined
not only how wars would be fought, but also the horizon of international politics and social lives in general. In a world
where war is omnicide, we are all living according to nuclear doctrine
Chow, 2k6 (Rey, Andrew W. Mellon Professor of the Humanities and Professor of Modern Culture & Media Studies,
Comparative Literature, and English, The Age of the World Target: Self-Referentiality in War, Theory, and
Comparative Work, Duke University Press, pg. 33-34)
The dropping of the atomic bombs … powers of visibility and control.
Contention 1 is The Age of The World Target
U.S. nuclear weapons policy is designed to foster control, not of international politics, but of global ideology. Our
nuclear policy defines certain things as worthy goals, like safety and security, but does so at the exclusion of global
environmental, economic, and social/humanitarian needs. These now-invisible costs are mounting toward a global
crisis making war and irreversible environmental damage inevitable
Chow, 2k6 (Rey, Andrew W. Mellon Professor of the Humanities and Professor of Modern Culture & Media Studies,
Comparative Literature, and English, The Age of the World Target: Self-Referentiality in War, Theory, and
Comparative Work, Duke University Press, pg. 30-33)
In the essay cited above, …the same level of visibility.
Current attempts to create a peaceful global order are draped in a rational and benign garb which depoliticize the
violent knowledge production inherent in the creation of the world as a mere object to be organized in accordance to
enlightened principles

Chow, 2k6 (Rey, Andrew W. Mellon Professor of the Humanities and Professor of Modern Culture & Media Studies,
Comparative Literature, and English, The Age of the World Target: Self-Referentiality in War, Theory, and
Comparative Work, Duke University Press, pg. 38-39)
Once the relations among war, … practices of peacetime learning.

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Failure to engage the West’s current egotistical knowledge production make warfare inevitable
Chow, 2k6 (Rey, Andrew W. Mellon Professor of the Humanities and Professor of Modern Culture & Media Studies,
Comparative Literature, and English, The Age of the World Target: Self-Referentiality in War, Theory, and
Comparative Work, Duke University Press, pg. 40-41)
Often under the modest …"the problem of the vanishing object."
The Impact is extinction
Zimmerman 81 (Micheal E., Prof of philosophy @ Tulane; Eclipse of the Self: The development of Heidegger’s
Concept of Authenticity. Pp 220-224
In 1951…rational miser
224)

Contention 2 is Pure War


Clausewitz had it backwards--Current economic and political activity is merely the continuation of war by other means
James, 2k7 (Ian, Lecturer in French and Fellow of Downing College at the U of Cambridge, Paul Virilio, Routledge,
pg.69-70)

The priority Virilio … of urban and geopolitical space.


The “total peace” promised by nuclear deterrence is an inversion of the “total war” of World War Two and constitutes a
virtualization of war through the bombardment of threats and the creation of insecurity in civilian populations aimed at
structuring the world in such a way as to eliminate the friction involved in traditional warmaking while maintaing total
control over populations
James, 2k7 (Ian, Lecturer in French and Fellow of Downing College at the U of Cambridge, Paul Virilio, Routledge,
pg.77-80)
Perhaps one of the most … order of security based on nuclear weapons.

Contention 3 is Site of Politics


The 1ac is a political act--Modernity’s emphasis on technology and speed has destroyed a traditional undersanding of
the locus of politics which now takes place in the sphere of communication itself. James, 2k7 (Ian, Lecturer in French
and Fellow of Downing College at the U of Cambridge, Paul Virilio, Routledge, pg. 95-97)
As his writing develops … temporality of real time proper to them.

Our psychologization of the current state of internationl politics exposes the tendency to ignore the connections
between such seemingly different concepts as war and peace, the only alternative is an ignorant attempt to engage the
world through a hegemonic lens of sameness
James, 2k7 (Ian, Lecturer in French and Fellow of Downing College at the U of Cambridge, Paul Virilio, Routledge, pg.
18-19)
If Virilio's account … towards those who see differently.

Bleiker everyday politics evidence

Kentucky Round Robin - Race 1 (Aff vs. Emory)


CONTENTION ONE: PRE-EMPTION
Continued reliance on a nuclear deterrent leads to societal anxiety which necessitates pre-emptive use – the very
presence of nuclear weapons creates the conditions for a violent social pathology which incessantly creates enemies
to be constructed and destroyed
Koehler PhD NYU 2005 Brian The International Society for the Psychological Treatments Of the Schizophrenias and
Other Psychoses 5/07http://www.isps-us.org/koehler/nuclear_arms.htm
Hanna Segal, Kleinian psychoanalyst, … guilt over destructiveness, etc.
While it is true that all power structures rely on an implicit threat, the political structures of the 20th century have
radically shifted where this threat is located by externalizing threats onto an Outsider Enemy which creates the
permanent state of emergency that serves as the primordial justification for violence Zizek in 2005 Slavoj, In These
Times, August 11, http://www.lacan.com/zizekiranian.htm
Every power structure … Jean Charles de Menezes).
This enemy construction creates incessant actualization of violent measures against a threat – the policy of Mutually
Assured Destruction has led us to the politics of one sole madman – this is the most dangerous politics because

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defense of an arbitrary and dangerous ideology can justify all violence – the presupposition of an enemy’s bad
intentions is inhumane and a form of constant war
Zizek in 2005 (Slavoj, In These Times, August 11, http://www.lacan.com/zizekiranian.htm)
Classic power functioned … completely as the desire for conquests.

The MAD ideology does not lead to international security – it instead necessitates the maintenance of asymmetry
through a violent build up of weapons
Massumi, Comm Department at University of Montreal, 2007 Brian, Theory & Event 10.2
Now for a future cause … you can't very well stop.
This asymmetry necessitates a politics of preemption
Massumi, Comm Department at University of Montreal, 2007 Brian, Theory & Event 10.2
Deterrence does not work … return to a Cold War logic.

This logic of nuclear preemption is based on the assessment of future threat –unfortunately the global situation is
threat-o-genic because it is capable of producing an infinite number of future potential threats – this makes it eerily
simple to justify the use of nuclear weapons
Massumi, Comm Department at University of Montreal, 2007 Brian, Theory & Event 10.2
Preemption shares many characteristics … entirely different plane.

Plan: The United States federal government should disarm the United State’s nuclear arsenal.

CONTENTION TWO: POLITICS


The advent of nuclear weapons has radically reconfigured the political sphere. The nuclear security state uses the ever
present threat of nuclear use to preclude civic engagement by formulating its policy beneath a matrix of secrecy
Masco, 2007 [Joseph , Dept. of Anthropology @ U Chicago, “The Nuclear Public Sphere,” Ethnografeast III:
Ethnography and the Public Sphere, available athttp://ceas.iscte.pt/ethnografeast/papers/joseph_masco.pdf]
The power of the secret … a highly distorted public sphere.

The crisis of the nuclear arsenal necessitates robust and public deliberation – unfortunately the security state limits the
possibility for open deliberation by maintaining a rhetoric of guardianship
Bryan C. Taylor, Associate Professor of Communications @ University of Colorado @ Boulder, and Judith Hendry,
Lecturer in Communication @ U New Mexico Albuquerque, 2008,“Insisting on Persisting: The Nuclear Rhetoric of
“Stockpile Stewardship””, Rhetoric and Public Affairs Vol. 11 No.28

In response, rhetorical critics … to ensure their adequate consideration?

Abdication of the public sphere leads to conservative fill-in guaranteeing authoritarianism and extinction
Boggs, Professor of Political Science, ’97 (Carl, National University, Theory & Society 26, December, p. 773-4)
The decline of the public sphere … from civil society.75

The lack of deliberation over nuclear doctrine creates a public that is numb to the normality of nuclear use
Granoff, 2k3 (Jonathan, President of the Global Security Institute, “Power Over the Ultimate Evil”, Bimonthly Jewish
Critique of Politics, Culture & Society,http://www.gsinstitute.org/archives/000211.shtml)
Over time, … banality of nuclear weapons.
Furthermore, the nuclear security state’s insistence on the secrecy of deterrence policy assures policy failure and
conflict escalation
Arbatov and Dvorkin, 2k5 (Alexei and Vladimir, Center for International and Security Studies @ Maryland, Revisiting
Nuclear Weapons”,http://74.125.155.132/search?
q=cache:dti5awEM5Y4J:www.cissm.umd.edu/papers/files/arbatov_dvorkin.pdf+nuclear+deterrence+projection+rationa
lity&cd=13&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us&client=firefox-a#13)
In a real crisis situation, …he fateful hour comes.

And, this makes the decision to launch our nuclear arsenal a mere formality
Arbatov and Dvorkin, 2k5 (Alexei and Vladimir, Center for International and Security Studies @ Maryland, Revisiting
Nuclear Weapons”,http://74.125.155.132/search?
q=cache:dti5awEM5Y4J:www.cissm.umd.edu/papers/files/arbatov_dvorkin.pdf+nuclear+deterrence+projection+rationa
lity&cd=13&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us&client=firefox-a#13)

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Moreover, at such time the … potential attack azimuths.

The nuclear veil of secrecy makes standard decision making epistemologically unsound – the manufacturing of
intelligence to build support for the Iraq war proves that the plans reactivation of the public sphere is a prerequisite to
making any accurate political assessments Masco, 2007 [Joseph , Dept. of Anthropology @ U Chicago, “The Nuclear
Public Sphere,” Ethnografeast III: Ethnography and the Public Sphere, available
athttp://ceas.iscte.pt/ethnografeast/papers/joseph_masco.pdf]
Finally, the secret society that is the …remains as the basis for action.

We must reclaim control over nuclear decision making – the plans refusal of government secrecy is necessary to
reactivate a productive political sphere
Giroux, 2k9 (Henry A., Global TV Network chair in English and Cultural Studies at McMaster University in Canada,
“The Politics of Lying and the Culture of Deceit in Obama’s America: The Rule of Damaged Politics”, Truthout, Sept.
21, 2k9, http://www.truthout.org/092109R) The politics of lying … ignorance and widespread injustice.

2AC Stuff --

AT: Government will Still be secretive without nukes

The material existence of the nukes is the foundation of governmental secrecy

Joseph Masco, Dept of Anthropology @ U Chicago, 2007


(“The Nuclear Public Sphere,” Ethnografeast III: Ethnography and the Public Sphere,
http://ceas.iscte.pt/ethnografeast/papers/joseph_masco .pdf)

“The classified universe is…the secrecy/threat matrix”

AT: Deterrence Good

Deterrence theory is draped in expertism

Derber and Schwartz, 89 (Charles and William A., Prof of Sociology @ Boston College, The Nuclear Seduction: Why
the Arms Race Doesn’t Matter and What Does, Pg. 230-31)

“Similarly, to dominate the….can get on blacklisted”

AT: Health Care

Unilateral cuts coming – Obama Plan

Weekly Standard 9-24 (http://www.weeklystandard .com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/016/993kkohs.asp)

“John Noonan recently wrote….or international community thinks.”

Perception is non-unique – UN speech

International Relations & Security Network 9-25

“A big week in….work toward these ends”

Narratives of weather disaster provide a spectacular fixation for a displaced desire to control nature absolutely.

Sturken, Associate Prof of Communication @ UC, 2001


(Marita, “Desiring the Weather: El Nino, the Media and California Identity,” Public Culture 13.2, project muse online)

“One of the primary narratives….El Nino’s ornery little sister.”

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Gonzaga Round 2

Death Drive – 1AC

The international system is plagued by the fantasy that we are omniscient masters who can conquer and defeat the
violence that permeates our internal order. The ideology and desire of late Capital and modernity structure this fantasy
to overcome and conquer the psychic death drive. This fantasmic desire to overcome the drive produces an endless
cycle of error replication because we repeatedly mis-target the sources of conflict and violence. This cycle is an
inevitable march toward ultimate destruction. Paradoxically, the drive structures the logic of the international system,
yet also poses as the radical possibility to move beyond it. Acknowledging that death is not the mark of human finitude
allows us to take pleasure in the pain of continually missing our goal. This confrontation with the death drive allows for
a radical break beyond this cycle of violence and corruption.

Zizek, Senior Researcher at the Institute for Social Studies, Ljubljana 1999Slavoj, The Ticklish Subject, page 293- 297

The lesson of drive … repeatedly missing one’s goal. 65

To confront the internal order constituted by the death drive, we must accept the apolitical and destructive logic of the
status quo. Any partial embracing of the death drive is underwritten by the desire to avoid authentically confronting it
and to violently maintain the ideological fantasies of Truth and Goodness

Zizek, Senior Researcher at the Institute for Social Studies, Ljubljana 1999 Slavoj, The Ticklish Subject, page 160-161

In Lacanese, the subject … Truth and/or Goodness.

In the realm of nuclear weapons the death drive is manipulated in the name of deterrence and eradication of those
who contradict the sovereign notion of good. We are confronted with the chaos of the death drive at a time when the
advancements in technology have outpaced our ability to advance an understanding of ethics. Deterrence ideologies
act as ignorance of the Thing of the nuclear age which surpasses all rational calculation. Our path to destruction is
buttressed by our lack of theorization and application of a theory of the Real and our insistence on policing the
boundaries of the Good

Themi Deakin University 2008 Tim Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy, 4.1-
2http://www.cosmosandhistory.org/index.php/journal/article/view/96/192

But with our advancements …our most tragic problems.

Continued reliance on an ideology of the Good causes us to project evil onto the enemy other

Themi Deakin University 2008 Tim Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy, 4.1-
2http://www.cosmosandhistory.org/index.php/journal/article/view/96/192

The goal here … hinted at self-amusement.[54]

And this enemy construction creates an ever-expanding measures against ever present threats – the ideology of
deterrence has extended from an ideology amongst nation states to one that can be extended to a Sole Madman – this
ideology guarantees infinite violence in the international realm

Zizek in 2005 (Slavoj, In These Times, August 11, http://www.lacan.com/zizekiranian.htm)

Classic power … desire for conquests.

We must overcome the nihilism inherent in this denial and manipulation of desire by saying yes to life and opposing
the aesthetic of nuclear destruction - only this act can serve as an adequate confrontation with the real

Themi Deakin University 2008 Tim Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy, 4.1-
2http://www.cosmosandhistory.org/index.php/journal/article/view/96/192

But with psychoanalysis, … until it accidentally finishes us!

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In order to confront and overcome the nihilism created by the ideology of deterrence we affirm that:

The United States Federal Government should permanently disarm the United States’ entire nuclear arsenal. We can
clarify

Recognition of the death drive abolishes the source of totalitarian temptations – our attempt to articulate a new way of
living free of nuclear weapons is the only hope to break away from our violent international order.

Zizek Senior Researcher at the Institute for Social Studies, Ljubljana 1999 Slavoj, The Ticklish Subject, page 390-391

On the other hand, …order is profoundly misleading.

The particular construction of enemies is the ideological knot that holds together the universal system of deterrence
and nuclear weapons – untying this disintegrates the system as a whole

Zizek 1999 Slavoj, The Ticklish Subject, page 175-176

Ridiculous as this notion … by addressing the sinthome. . . .

The affirmative creates the space necessary for politics by using a universal gesture to expose the exclusions and
violence created by democratic systems - our demand for disarmament is for more then just a call to reduce weapons -
it creates a particular call that can be written onto the universal struggle against capital

Dean, Associate Professor of Political Theory at Hobart & William Smith, 2005 Jodi, Zizek against Democracy,
jdeanicite.typepad.com/i_cite/files/zizek_against_ democracy_new_version.doc

I’ve argued thus far … ‘itself’ absent this ‘beyond’)

Our affirmative is a gesture of state suicide--rather than attempt to subvert the state from out, we force the law to
confront the death drive at the heart of its constitution by pitting the logic of deterrence against nuclear annihilation.
Only this gesture of internal subversion strikes at the heart of law which is symbolic legitimacy, turning it against itself.
Slavoj Zizek, Senior researchaer @ Ljubljana, 2002 For The Know Not What The Do: Enjoyment as a POlitical Factor,
Pg. 206-7

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Pepperdine Franklin/Yagheszian (Critical-Patriarchy) [Juju]

Pepperdine FY

Chapter One: Sexbombs

Nuclear rhetoric is marked by sexually violent imagery that double as pornographic glorifications of the phallus.
Caputi, 2004 (Jane. Professor of Women’s Studies and Communication at Florida Atlantic University. Goddesses and
Monsters: Women, Myth, Power and Popular Culture. p. 245-247)

Nuclearist culture creates and sustains a symbolic system in which bombs are sexy and nuclear weapons are
extensions of the penis. These images and rhetoric posit nuclear blasts as the ultimate orgasm, eroticizing domination
and legitimizing violence against women and the Earth.
Caputi,1993. (Jane. Professor of American Studies at the University of New Mexico. Gossips, Gorgons, and Crones:
The Fates of the Earth. p.53-54

Chapter Two: Bodies as Weapons

Our war culture constructs weapons as bodies and bodies as weapons, systematically gendering the war system
through Western mass media and culture
MYRTTINEN 2003 (Henri. “Disarming Masculinities.” Women, Men, Peace, and Security. Accessed via Google
Scholar)

The body is our basic framework for internalizing knowledge, meaning and truth. Cultural and national style is marked
on our bodies and internalized to be expressed in our relations with others and the material world around us.
Mann in 07 (Bonnie. “How America Justifies Its War: A Modern/Postmodern Aesthetics of Masculinity and
Sovereignty”)

Thus, we stand resolved that we should disarm the technostrategic and sexualized rhetoric of the bomb.

The Bomb is a cultural paradox that can be utilized for radical change. While it has radically altered our existence, it
also illuminates the utter failure of masculinist domination. Rendering the nuclearist narrative obsolete can
reconceptualize the reigning narratives.
Caputi,1993. (Jane. Professor of American Studies at the University of New Mexico. Gossips, Gorgons, and Crones:
The Fates of the Earth. p.29-30)

The political is grounded in aesthetics used to construct meaning and identity. The successful production of war
depends upon the successful production of an aesthetic of war. Only our exposure and rejection of the nuclear
aesthetic can solve.
Mann in 07 (Bonnie. “How America Justifies Its War: A Modern/Postmodern Aesthetics of Masculinity and
Sovereignty”)

The system of nuclear icons is embedded in a system of power. These icons produce truth, objectify of the Other, and
reinforce dominant narratives in order to justify state action and violence.
Harriman 2007 (No Caption Needed. P 1-4)

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Pittsburgh Karlovic/Mangus (Critical-Megamachine) [Jay]

Obs. 1 Rise of the Megamachine

The megamachine is the emergence of a system of power that uses humans as its constituent parts. It is an ideology
that unites the ancient and modern world that molds life to fortify its powers complex – the collective dedication of
death in nuclear war. These modes of extermination are rooted upon the psychic irrationality that sustains the fantasty
of absolute weapons.

“The ideology hat underlies and…..mankind is finally to save itself” p. 260-262

The priests of this religion of the megamachine are the scientists who created and envisioned the world as a
landscape without figures – a purely mechanical system that eclipsed the human, bent on harnessing and controlling
the power of the sun to reshape the world according to the sun God’s strict commands.

“Plainly, it was not the….the ‘music of spheres’” p. 33

These priests replaced the human world of the Christian with a purely impersonal universe of science as law and truth.
History is replete with a progression from the personal human to the austere religion that positions science as the only
source of meaning and the achievement of scientific truth as its ultimate purpose. From Copernicus to Kepler, to Louis
XIV and Atum-Re – the sun as reigned supreme.

“If one ignore the religious aura…Eliade observes, ‘the sun is supreme’” (p. 34-35)

Obs 2. The Omnipresence of Death

The modern megamachine has recoded the Sun worship of the technocratic religion through nuclear technology. The
pyramids of Egypt have become the stockpile of nuclear weapons, space rockets, control centers, and collective
nuclear shelters used to validate and exalt the new religion that has unified all systems and institutions , ways of life,
and being into its ever proliferatory and expansive umbrella of death

“The modernized megamachine has reproduced….as had escaped instant incineration” )p. 300-302)

The production of the nuclear weapon was critical to the constitution and emergence of the modern megamachine. It
gave scientists their new place atop the power hierarchy. Every part of the megamachine is deliberately sterilized of
human values – the relentless pursuit of knowledge, the methods were same but the purpose as mad.

“The production of the atom….dreadful ultimate consequences of their effort” p. 255

Increasing physical power without a corresponding increase of intellectual insight gives scientific and technological
backing to a totalitarian de-moralization of society that released moral inhibitions and life – conserving taboos
concerning technology. This explosive increase of energy has reimposed infantile ambitions and psychotic
hallucinations in the very foundation of society.

“What Adams forsaw in this…..infatile ambitions and psychotic hallucinations” p. 232-233

Total automation has reduced society to the role of automatons – a giving up of all of the conditions to prerogatives for
being human. Surrendering life at the source consigns our existence to the central bureaucratic programming of the
megamachine.

“For the sake of material and…..has always dreamed of? Quite true?” p. 332

The universal imposition of the megamachine as the ultimate instrument of pure intelligence by the construction of the
nuclear pyramid makes the extermination of humanity pale in comparison. A nuclear Ragnarok from which there is no
return – the end of gods and humans.

“In short, up to the present….now perhaps actually taking place.” P. 302-303

Observation 3: Dismantling the Megamachine

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We affirm that the United States Federal Government should eliminate its nuclear weapons arsenal.

The megamachine is not a natural or a priori phenomenon it is the result of human thinking and must be confronted as
such. Technocratic society will continue to cannibalize our vital organs to prolong its meaningless existence until we
recognize that the technocratic prison will open if we just choose to walk out.

“As long as man’s life prospers….as we choose to walk out.” P. 435

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Richmond Hakkenberg/Leeworthy (Critical-Labs) [Phil]

GSU Aff Disclosure


Contention One: We have a unique opportunity to consider the elimination of nuclear weapons

It is possible to reduce nuclear weapons now and, although we do not agree with a standard impact calculus, we may
all be doomed to an inevitable world of nuclear weapons and an eventual nuclear war.

A Panel of Six Unbelievable Experts on Nuclear Weapons, 2009 (“Imagine there's no bomb”, The Age (Melbourne,
Australia), April 8, 2009 Wednesday, NEWS; Opinion; Pg. 17 Malcolm Fraser (former prime minister), Sir Gustav
Nossal (research scientist), Dr Barry Jones (former Labor government minister), General Peter Gration (former
Defense Force chief), Lieutenant-General John Sanderson (former chief of the army and former governor of South
Australia) and Assistant Professor Tilman Ruff (national president of the Medical Association for Prevention of War
Australia).
THERE has never …and is basically immoral.

Yes, we know the Cold War is over, and yet we are still surrounded by nuclear weapons. They have been stockpiled in
warehouses, tucked “safely” onto their bunker shelves, maintained and protected by the rhetoric of politicians and
nuclear scholars since the 1950s. The language of nuclear “guardianship” is still alive and well, naturalizing nuclear
weapons as a part of everyday American life.

Taylor and Hendry 08. Bryan C. Taylor is a Professor of Communication at the University of Colorado-Boulder and
Judith Hendry is a Lecturer in the Department of Communication and Journalism at the University of New Mexico.
“Insisting on Persisting: The Nuclear Rhetoric of “Stockpile Stewardship,” Rhetoric and Public Affairs Vol. 11, No. 2,
2008, pg. 303-304

Audiences attempting to follow

PLAN: The United States Federal Government should substantially reduce and restrict the role of its nuclear weapons
arsenal.

Contention Two: Rhetorically Reversing the Pile! The Stockpile Stewardship Program or SSP.

The SSP is a major component of the US’s nuclear program.

Taylor and Hendry 08. Bryan C. Taylor is a Professor of Communication at the University of Colorado-Boulder and
Judith Hendry is a Lecturer in the Department of Communication and Journalism at the University of New Mexico.
“Insisting on Persisting: The Nuclear Rhetoric of “Stockpile Stewardship,” Rhetoric and Public Affairs Vol. 11, No. 2,
2008, pg. 306

As planned, …located in seven states.

The SSP is a LEGAL excuse to build more dangerous weapons than EVER imagined. Previous federal statements
prove.

Taylor and Hendry 08. Bryan C. Taylor is a Professor of Communication at the University of Colorado-Boulder and
Judith Hendry is a Lecturer in the Department of Communication and Journalism at the University of New Mexico.
“Insisting on Persisting: The Nuclear Rhetoric of “Stockpile Stewardship,” Rhetoric and Public Affairs Vol. 11, No. 2,
2008, pg. 306-308

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In planning and implementing the SSP,

Nuclear policy, public opinion and official rhetoric are one and the same. Ignoring the power of nuclear rhetoric dooms
any policy to failure.

Taylor 07. Bryan C. Taylor is a Professor of Communication at the University of Colorado-Boulder. “‘The Means to
Match Their Hatred’: Nuclear Weapons, Rhetorical Democracy, and Presidential Discourse,” Presidential Studies
Quarterly 37, No. 4, December 2007, pgs. 667-692.

In his related critique …media, and the people?

The language of stewardship simultaneously depicts the nuclear stockpile as an outdated relic and a cornerstone of
US national security. Rearticulating the importance of nuclear weapons in the hegemonic discourse of commodity
production replaces their destructive power with tame rationality, and allows officials to, literally, keep the ticking bomb
on the shelf for a rainy day without any objection.

Taylor and Hendry 08. Bryan C. Taylor is a Professor of Communication at the University of Colorado-Boulder and
Judith Hendry is a Lecturer in the Department of Communication and Journalism at the University of New Mexico.
“Insisting on Persisting: The Nuclear Rhetoric of “Stockpile Stewardship,” Rhetoric and Public Affairs Vol. 11, No. 2,
2008, pg. 311-312

This claim is demonstrated in the April 2005

Taylor and Hendry 08. Bryan C. Taylor is a Professor of Communication at the University of Colorado-Boulder and
Judith Hendry is a Lecturer in the Department of Communication and Journalism at the University of New Mexico.
“Insisting on Persisting: The Nuclear Rhetoric of “Stockpile Stewardship,” Rhetoric and Public Affairs Vol. 11, No. 2,
2008, pg. 313-315

The second strategy …on this planet.

Nuclear weapons are art. Poets and Presidents have manipulated the language and imagery of nuclear war to control
public opinion. Now is the time paint our own pictures and take control of the debate about nuclear weapons.

Taylor 07. Bryan C. Taylor is a Professor of Communication at the University of Colorado-Boulder. “‘The Means to
Match Their Hatred’: Nuclear Weapons, Rhetorical Democracy, and Presidential Discourse,” Presidential Studies
Quarterly 37, No. 4, December 2007, pgs. 667-692.

In the summer of 1987, ….civic deliberation.

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Richmond Farr/Kelly (Critical-Chernus) [Arif]

GSU Aff Disclosure


The cornerstone of Western ethics is reducible to the aesthetic experience of the Kantian sublime – an experience of a
natural or technological phenomenon occurring with such spectacular enormity so as to overwhelm human sensibility
and provoke a ‘feeling’ of ‘transcendental totality.’ Nuclear weapons form the perfect sublime object from which we
derive pleasure, devaluing the real world in their false-confirmation of a ‘God’ of some ‘Sovereign Good.’

Professor Scott Stroud of the Philosophy Department at Temple University, and Assistant Professor in
Communications Studies at UT Austin, explains in 2003,
[Stroud, Scott “Living Large: Kant and the Sublimity of Technology.” Teaching Ethics, Fall 2003. Pg. 53-59.]

If the Bomb is a material replacement for God, our possession of it gives us a God complex. This complex stems from
a desire to baptize Earth by fire—or an attempt to re-fashion the world into one without death or suffering.

[Chernus, Ira. Dr. Strangegod. South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press, 1986. Pg. 133-5, 143-5.]

This complex is symptomatic of a nihilistic death drive. The repression of Death paradoxically aligns us with it, making
life here—in the real—undesirable.

Professor Tim Themi, senior researcher of Philosophy at Deakin University explains in 2008,
[Themi, Tim. “How Lacan's Ethics might improve our understanding of Nietzsche's critique of Platonism.” Cosmos and
History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy, Vol. 4.1, Spring 2008: pp. 328-346.]

Thus, Mycal and I advocate that:


The United States Federal Government should eliminate its nuclear weapons.

We cannot begin to confront the psychological-symbolic level of nuclear weapons as long as they exist. Our plan is the
first step in an ethic of “imagining the real.” Imagining the real means accepting the world, suffering and all. The
ultimate failure of successive conceptions of God cannot be resolved by identifying with a new conception of God. Our
focus must be on the dislocation of these symbolizations itself.

Chernus above.

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Texas Boyle/Singh (Critical-TSD) [Nick/Heather]

GSU Aff Disclosure


Observation one is the Iron Curtain-

The way we think about nuclear weapons is inextricably tied to a narrative of techno-strategic discourse that creates
“terministic screens” that strategically construct our nuclear reality in ways that domesticate nuclear weapons use. This
systematic disenfranchisement of the public sphere from the very language of nuclear decision-making places our
collective future in the hands of puppet officials and techocrats who obfuscate their ethics for simply “getting the job
done.”

Edward Sciappa. Assistant Professor of Speech at Kansas State University. “The Rhetoric of Nukespeak.”
Communication Monographs. 56: September 1989. pp.253-272

The second methodological and…. women, and children is called “demographic” or “countervalue” targeting (Cohn,
1987, p. 691; Hilgartner et al., 1982, pp. 209-210; Totten, 1984, p. 45).

Modern technocratic nuclear discourse is a form of discursive discipline - determining who and who may not speak,
privileging expert rationalities that colonize global commons, and providing for false dichotomies between the
“technical” and “public” spheres in other policy arenas.

Kinsella ’05 [William, Associate Professor at North Carolina State University, Interdisciplinary Program Director—
Science, Technology and Society, “One Hundred Years of Nuclear Discourse: Four Master Themes and Their
Implications for Environmental Communication”, in The Environmental Communication Yearbook by Susan Senecah,
pg.52-54]
Additionally, Ruthven pointed out that… illuminate the roots of this value preference.

Observation two is the Tech-not-so-strategic situation -


Our bodies are the battlegrounds upon which the war for consent to militerism is fought – and the weapons used by
the state is a rhetoric which connects pain, fear and statist ideology. Technostrategic discourse presents us with the
option of “conform or die” – either we speak the language of the state or experience the silence of our own voices, we
cease to have subjectivity, becoming objects of the state & parrots to state violence. This denial of political consent
accounts for nuclear weapons moral obscenity in the realm of warmaking.

Grimes, Asst. Pf. of Theater and English @ St. Leo University, '05 (Charles, Harold Pinter's Politics-A Silence Beyond
Echo, p. )

If silence is the endpoint ….. of the state unites Pinter's political plays.

Furthermore, nukespeak maintains this genocidal ideology through modes of psychological brutalization and
dissociation, by displacing responsibility for our individual actions on larger structures we are numb to their
reprocussions. We become the doctors of Auschwitz, performing gruesome experiments while displacing responsibility
on the Nazis. The decision to use nuclear weapons is no longer seen as a choice but as an inevitability that we could
have done nothing to prevent.
LIFTON AND MARKUSEN, 1990

Robert Jay, Eric, The Genocidal Mentality Pt 3: In defense of Idealistic Moralism vs 'Pragmatism',
http://www.awitness.org/journal/idealistic_moralism.html
In the end the genocidal system…. of its purpose (see also Hales 1997).

By Relying on a reality created by the scientific official Other with a vested interest in the nuclear complex makes, we
are blind and to the violence they inflict, making nuclear war the most likely outcome.

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Schiappa, 1989

(Edward, Assistant Professor of Speech at Kansas State University, The Rhetoric of Nukespeak, Communication
Monographs, Volume 56, September, p. 253-272)
Farrell and Goodnight have…. nuclear war-making.

Thus Shikhar and I endorse the following plan:

United States missileers should choose not to turn the key to launch nuclear weapons.
We’ll clarify.

Just as all policy debate is necessarily a persuasive act towards a change from the status quo, The 1AC is a
persuasive act toward the question of whether the missileer should break with the status quo and choose not to turn
the key to launch nuclear weapons.

Our answer is an unequivocal yes – In the face of the atrocity of nuclear weapons, we affirm the disobedience inherent
in refusing to turn the key – the missileer decision to disobey the orders of the nuclear bureaucracy is an infusion of
presence into the weapons, a re-establishment of ethical agency, and a re-personalization of war.

Guenter Lewy. Professor of Political Science at Smith College. “Superior Orders, Nuclear Warfare, and the Dictates of
Conscience: The Dilemma of Military Obedience in the Atomic Age.” The American Political Science Review. 55.1:
March 1961. pp. 2-23 [THIS EVIDENCE HAS BEEN GENDER-MODIFIED]

When Francis Gary Powers…. ahead, would have been born into life.

Our ethical framework is the care of the self – the individual’s manipulation of power relations for the purpose of self-
formation, a delimitation of his or her ethical agency through an identification and reversal of disciplinary strategies.
The missileer’s disobedience in the face of the disciplinary forces of the nuclear complex is a recognition and
transgression of its normalizing limitations that is irreducible to political success or failure.
Our argument is not that we "free" ourselves or the missileer from military domination. "Freedom" of the individual is
not a pre-existing, natural state that can be returned to. Freedom exists only in practices of liberty. Disobedience is an
act imbued with the message that ethics is the only practice of liberty and liberty the only meaning of ethics. Rejection
of consent to nuclear murder through an act of disobedience communicates the "ethos of freedom," the epitome of
caring for others through care of self. This is a radical reorientation of politics that demolishes the barrier between
ethical and political.

Bernauer and Mahon ‘05[James W, Professor of Philosophy and Boston College, and Michael, associate professor of
humanities at Boston University’s College of General Studies, “Foucault’s Ethical Imagination” in The Cambridge
Companion to Foucault Second Edition, edited by Gary Gutting]

The explicit ethical voice that …those who made the revolution

And, our ethics requires looking beyond the politics of life and death – the engagement with and transgression of the
nuclear complex represents an impatience for liberty that will not submit to a hypothetical, messianic future

Bernauer and Mahon ‘94 [James W, Professor of Philosophy and Boston College, and Michael, associate professor of
humanities at Boston University’s College of General Studies, “The Ethics of Michel Foucault” in The Cambridge
Companion to Foucault, edited by Gary Gutting]
What is the necessity/….. name itself the human essence.

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A true ethical evaluation necessitates forgoing strict morality and utilitarian rationalism – both are only outgrowths of
law’s conceptual domination that limit ethical possibilities. We affirm a loose moral framework that allows for an ‘ethics
of existence’, the ability for individuals to negotiate their position relative to this framework.
Bevir ’99 [Mark Bevir, Professor of Political Science, University of California, Berkeley “Foucault and Critique:
Deploying Agency Against Autonomy” (1999). Political Theory. 27, pp. 65-84]
I hope my discussion of…. though our personal, ethical conduct.

NUCLEAR WEAPONS PRIMARY ROLE IS RHETORICAL – YET POLICY DEBATE RARELY TOUCHES ON
NUCLEAR DETERRENCE AS A CULTURAL PRODUCTION – DISCOURSE, PSYCHOLOGY, AND THE
STRATEGIC PRODUCTION OF CULTURAL MEANING ARE THE VERY FIELDS IN WHICH CLAIMS OF THE
VALIDITY OF NUCLEAR POLICY REST – BY INTERROGATING THIS CRITICAL SOCIAL RELATION INHERENT IN
NUCLEAR POLICY-MAKING, OUR ARGUMENT PRESENTS A DEEP CHALLENGE TO THE LEGITIMACY OF ANTI-
DEMOCRATIC STATE PRACTICES.

TAYLOR, Asst. Pf. of Communications @ UC Boulder, ’07 (Bryan C., Presidential Studies Quarterly 37, no. 4
(December), p. 667-)

This interdependency between… and legitimate icon

WHEN THE TOPIC WAS ANNOUNCED, WE WERE FACED WITH A SERIES OF CHOICES: HOW WILL WE
APPROACH THE TOPIC?, WHAT WILL WE CHOOSE TO TALK ABOUT?, AND ALSO, WHO MIGHT WE BECOME?

THE AFFIRMATIVE SHOULD BE UNDERSTOOD AS AN ADORNMENT OF OUR DEBATERLY BODIES - THE


AFFIRMATIVE IS PART OF THE PROCESS OF SUBJECT-FORMATION AS AN ART - WRITING AND READING
THE AFF IS PART OF OUR AESTHETICS OF EXISTENCE - - - WHAT WE ARE DOING HERE, NOW, IS A MODEL
OF ETHICAL CONDUCT

SIMONS, Pf. Philosophy @ U of Leicester, '95 (Jon, Foucault and the Political, p. 76)

Foucault affirms an aesthetics of…. subjection in the contemporary world.

Claims to nuclear expertise and war planning are nothing more than shamanism – they are based in tenuous
assumptions and not real research. Expertise is manufactured using fantasy doccuments that are self-confirming to
silence voices of dissent – by challenging the legitimacy of this fictional nuclear reality the affirmative is a call to
abandon our reliance on “nuclear experts” in favor of public debate.
Clarke 99

[Lee Ben, sociologist at Rutgers University. He is author of “acceptable risk? Making decisions in a toxic environment
and coauthor of organizations, uncertainties and risk, Mission Improbable: Using Fantasy Documents to Tame
Disaster]
colin gray, long-time contributor… that would be required.

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Texas Cauthen/McNeil (Critical-Anthro) [Daryl]

Gonzaga Intel
Observation I. The War on Nature

Nuclear weapons wage war upon animals and nature—their deployment violates the intrinsic worth of non-human life

Roderick Nash, Professor of History and Environmental Studies at UC-SB, 1989


[The Rights of Nature p. 211-213]

Environmental advocates have found significant …it is not fault of history.

Nuclear weapons wage war upon animals and the earth. You must reject the way nuclear war treats the land and sea
as lifeless.

Rebecca Garcia Lucas Rose, Trinity College, University of Melbourne, 2006


[text theory critique 12 (2006)]
Damage by military conflict is generally …. maybe for unforeseen generations.

We are all complicit with the American government’s war on animals and the Earth. You have a personal ethical
responsibility to reject all use of nuclear weapons
FRANCESCA CAIGATTI 2007
[http://www.allmediap.org/cyrano/?p=167] all caps in original
It is beyond my comprehension how our president …… threats to massively poison people and the Earth?

The United States federal government should ban the utilization of its nuclear forces.

Observation II. The Moral Imperative

Animal liberation is the next stage of human moral evolution. A free and peaceful society will not become possible until
we end the domination of animals.

Steven Best, Chair of Philosophy at UT-EP, no date given


[http://www.animalliberationfront.com/Philosophy/ARNewEnlightenment.htm]

During this turbulent period of social strife…. .. The message of nature is evolve or die.

We must extend rights and dignity to all non-human existence—the boundaries of our moral frontiers must expand
from humans… to animals… to life… to the Earth… and to the universe as a whole

Roderick Nash, Professor of History and Environmental Studies at UC-SB, 1989


[The Rights of Nature p. 4-10]
This book concerns the history and implications …….the American environmental movement since World War II.

Animal standpoint theory recognizes the role that animal oppression plays in racism, sexism, warfare, and genocide.
This makes animal liberation a radical challenge to all forms of hierarchy

Steven Best, Chair of Philosophy at UT-EP, 2007


[JCAS 5.2]

While a welcome advance over the anthropocentric ….Judaic moral baggage official Christianity left behind.

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You have an absolute moral obligation to vote for the plan. We cannot adopt a detached and objective attitude towards
the continued subordination of non-human life.

Steven Best, Chair of Philosophy at UT-EP, no date given


[http://www.animalliberationfront.com/Philosophy/ARNewEnlightenment.htm]
So, as for those who have burned …….but one must take it simply because it is right.”

The question is NOT whether the plan will produce good consequences. You have an ethical obligation to vote for our
policy because it affirms a moral universe in which non-human existence is treated with dignity and respect.

Eric Katz, Director of Science, Technology, and Society Program at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, 1997
[Nature as Subject p. 9-10]

Utilitarianism might be salvaged for ……is the only choice open to preservationists.

Ethical justifications for policy must come first—anthropocentric reasoning weakens the case for respecting non-
human life
J. Baird Callicott, Professor of Philosphy at UNT, 2002
[Environmental Ethics p. 548-550]

Bryan Norton, another environmental antiphilosopher, ….come to be regarded as equally unconscionable.

Animal liberation does not require us to prevent suffering—only that we respect the dignity of non-humans
Angus Taylor, philosophy at the University of Victoria, 2002
[Land Value Community p. 230-231]

The rights version of animal liberation, ……. or by cancer, or by a hungry cougar, or by a knifewielding madman.

We must tackle specieism head-on

Katherine Perdlo, PhD, 2007


[Journal of Critical Animal Studies 5.1]

Animal rights campaigners disagree as to whether empirical arguments…. or governments’ aggressive protection of
animal-abusing industries.

Observation III: Evolve or Die

Nietzsche writes…

[http://www.scribd.com/doc/6903256/Friedrich-W-Nietzsche-On-truth-and-lie]

In some remote corner of the universe,….focused form all sides on his actions and thoughts.

The threat of nuclear destruction challenges us to overcome speciesism. You must take the next step in moral
evolution, embracing your part in a cosmic dance going back billions of years.
Sneed, 1995 (John, “Beyond Anthropocentrism”, online)
"Anthropocentrism" or "homocentrism" means human chauvinism…… and in harmony with life again

This evolutionary dance is often catastrophic. At least five times in the past half billion years, the Earth cleared away
most of its existing life. And after fifty thousand years of human ascendancy, we are mid-way through the sixth mass
extinction event.

Foreman 2004, (Dave, Co-founder of Earth First!, ‘6th great extinction coming’)

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http://www.rewilding.org/thesixthgreatextinction.htm

"Soon a millennium will end. With it will pass … exterminating only individual species, but “entire higher taxa.”

Do not despair over the inevitability of extinction, but instead use this moment to initiate a consciousness shift towards
the interconnectedness of existence.

Richard Epstein, Laboratory of Computational Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, 2009
[with Y. Zhao Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 52:1, Winter 2009]

The end of the human race is …. in minimizing the eventual cumulative burden of human suffering.

Werner Krieglstein no date given


Werner Josef Krieglstein, Ph.D. (October 31, 1941), a Fulbright Scholar and University of Chicago fellow,[1] is an
award winning[2] and internationally recognized scholar, director and actor. Krieglstein is the founder of a neo-
Nietzschean philosophical school called Transcendental Perspectivism. Krieglstein's "philosophy of compassion"[3]
has been the subject of symposium lectures at many prominent conferences including the recent UNESCO section of
the World Congress for Philosophy] conference in Seoul Korea (August, 2008),[4] the ISAIL "Fields of Conflict-Fields of
Wisdom": 4th International Congress in Wuerzburg, Germany (May, 2008),[5] the Meeting of the American
Philosophical Association in Washington D.C.(Symposium Chair: Sept. 2006),[6] and the ISUD Fourth World
Conference of the International Society for Universal Dialogue (Summer, 2001),[1] among many others.

[http://papers.isud.org/files/Kreiglstein_Werner.doc.]

In my paper I will suggest that, as Nietzsche demanded…… Zarathustra’s vision would finally become reality.

Consequentialist analysis is impossible—especially in a non-speciesist context


Nicholas Agar, Senior Lecturer in Philosophy at Victoria University, 2001
[Life’s Intrinsic Value p. 155-157]
According to consequentialists, the consequences…… Decision-making paralysis looms

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Texas-Dallas Leach/Takeda (Critical-Dr. Seuss) [Jay]

Updated 1AC
*(Changes made to previous version of the 1AC were to plan text and the last two cards of the advantage - otherwise
it's all the same.)

We begin this discussion of nuclear weapons with the reading of a familiar childhood artifact which acts as a metaphor
for the contemporary problem of nuclear weapons. This is from Dr. Seuss’s The Butter Battle Book, originally
published in 1984…

[Theodore Seuss Geisel, The Butter Battle Book, Random House, 1984, available online:
http://www.angelfire.com/tn2/minsrecipes/ChildrensCookBookNook/ButterBattle.htm]

On the last day of summer,


Ten hours before fall,

“Be patient,” said Grandpa.
“We’ll see. We will see…”

Like the boys in the back room in the Butter Battle, nuclear discourse in the United States is founded on the imperialist
urge to dominate. This nuclear imperialism is rooted in the technostrategic discourse whose homogenizing view leads
to the destruction of difference and legitimates exploitation. This view marginalizes alternative forms of knowing and
informs the entirety of American culture. The debate community is part and parcel with this system of exclusion as
debate arguments and research practices create a false sense of omnipotence about global politics – this vision is
predicated on a uniquely western vantage point that continues the suppression of difference
Kato, Department of Political Science Univ. of Hawaii, 93
(Masahide, “Nuclear Globalism: Traversing Rockets, Satellites and Nuclear War via the Strategic Gaze” Alternatives
18)
As I have argued, the objectification of Earth from the absolute…discourse, recapture the classic teleological narrative
of the linear "progression" of capitalism.

Unraveling technostrategic discourse is vital not only to resist the closing of political discourse and the extermination of
the periphery, but also to reformulating debate and debate research practice. We must resist both policy experts’
narrowing of global space and time and the debate community’s neautralization of space space through the
technosubjectivization of the globe which is predicated on a belief in western omnipotence
Kato, Department of Political Science Univ. of Hawaii, 93 (Masahide, “Nuclear Globalism: Traversing Rockets,
Satellites and Nuclear War via the Strategic Gaze” Alternatives 18)
Frederic Jameson's proposed formula to cope…recreating space against the global integration of capital.55

The securitization nuclear policy seeps into all aspects of life through deterrence, manifesting as a total warfare in
which all knowledge is colonized by war preparedness. Technical expertise and weapons modernization only magnify
the problem, because they require increasingly advanced and destructive technology, which in turn requires greater
militarization of thought and the scientific sector

Mann 96 (Paul, Department of English @ Pomona College, “The Nine Grounds of Intellectual Warfare,” Postmodern
Culture, Volume 6, Number 2, January 1996, Project Muse)
It is commonplace to reduce intellectual production to economic terms. …have become the ground and stakes of
bloody wars.10

Advocacy Text:

From here you might ask,


As may be your task,
So what now? What’s the plan?
Shouldn’t we do whatever we can?
There’s one road to take, we can make our own road,
But like all thinkers, we must say it in code:

The United States federal government, or the Yooks we might say,

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Should reduce its reliance on Big-Boy Boomeroos this day


By reducing the number of its Big-Boy Boomeroos,
And/or whatever we happen to choose
Perhaps by restricting, and perhaps by reducing
The roles and/or missions of our Big-Boy Boomeroo arsenal.

Think hard, for the question’s quite germinal


After all, at the end of the day, who can say?
“Who’s gonna drop it?
Will you… Or will he…?
“Be patient,” said Grandpa. “We’ll see.
We will see…”

Imagining a different world is the key prerequisite to being able to effectively change it – Suess’s permissive language
and nonsense images disrupt containment policies and Cold War paranoia by using imagination to break through
dominant systems of language and knowledge.
Nel 99 (Philip, PhD @ Vanderbilt, Prof @ Kansas State, “Dada Knows Best: Growing up "Surreal" with Dr. Seuss,”
Children's Literature, Volume 27, 1999, pgs. 150-184, PM)
Given Seuss's challenges to common sense,…wrote in a letter to Seuss, "Dr. Seuss, you have an imagination with a
long tail" (Cott 18).

This ability to imagine a happy ending in spite of an uncertain future is critical to The Butter Battle’s questioning the
logic of mutually assured destruction. Only by using absurdity to reveal the irrationality of existing nuclear policies can
we encourage readers to create new solutions to the problem of nuclear arms
Nel 99 (Philip, PhD @ Vanderbilt, Prof @ Kansas State, “Dada Knows Best: Growing up "Surreal" with Dr. Seuss,”
Children's Literature, Volume 27, 1999, pgs. 150-184, PM)
Although the Times reviewer was correct in saying that The Butter Battle…using their imaginations as a source of
strength.

We don’t need a concrete political counter-proposal to the status quo – that form of resistance is empirically ineffective
in the context of nuclear policy. Instead, we must expose the existing order as the big joke it really is – we must lighten
the mood, and blur the lines between the real and unreal, to puncture the balloon of status quo politics.
Chaloupka 92 (William, Professor of Political Science @ U of Montana, Knowing Nukes, 1992, pgs. 133-135)
Even knowing when that last lecture will be is a problem. N…thoroughly problematic. We enter the era of the puzzle.
@ GSU
Aff Disclosure

We begin this discussion of nuclear weapons with the reading of a familiar childhood artifact which acts as a metaphor
for the contemporary problem of nuclear weapons. This is from Dr. Seuss’s The Butter Battle Book, originally
published in 1984…

[Theodore Seuss Geisel, The Butter Battle Book, Random House, 1984, available online:
http://www.angelfire.com/tn2/minsrecipes/ChildrensCookBookNook/ButterBattle.htm]

On the last day of summer,


Ten hours before fall,

“Be patient,” said Grandpa.
“We’ll see. We will see…”

Like the world Dr. Suess creates in the Butter Battle, the ending of the nuclear age is still open, but also loaded.
Although a nuclear shoot-out has not yet occurred, it hangs over us as an ever-present possibility. As long as nuclear
weapons remain a part of our security policy, they will pose a threat to human survival and the earth’s ecosystem –
reconceptualizing our relationship to nuclear weapons and to warfare is key to undermining the social systems that
perpetuate the risk of nuclear war

Lifton & Falk ’82 [Richard, Professor of Psychology @ City University in NY, Jay, Professor of Politics at Princeton,
The Indefensible Weapons.]

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If moderate postures (that is, as a weaponry of ultimate recourse …prospect of a major military defeat.

And, these social systems are propped up by strategic nuclear discourse and the securitizing ideology of deterrence,
creating a worldview that makes nuclear extinction inevitable.
Hilgartner, Bell and O'Connor ‘82

[Stephen, Associate Professor and Chair of Science & Technology Studies @ Cornell, Richard C, Rory, Nukespeak:
Nuclear Language, Visions and Mindset, 1982 p 209]
The world of nuclear warfare…all the hostages will be destroyed.

This securitization seeps into all aspects of life through deterrence, manifesting as a total warfare in which all
knowledge is colonized by war preparedness. Technical expertise and weapons modernization only magnify the
problem, because they require increasingly advanced and destructive technology, which in turn requires greater
militarization of the scientific sector

Mann 96

[Paul, Department of English @ Pomona College, “The Nine Grounds of Intellectual Warfare,” Postmodern Culture,
Volume 6, Number 2, January 1996, Project Muse]

It is commonplace to reduce intellectual production to economic terms…become the ground and stakes of bloody
wars.10

Plan Text/Advocacy Statement:

From here you might ask,

As may be your task,

So what now? What’s the plan?

Shouldn’t we do whatever we can?

There’s one road to take, we can make our own road,

But like all thinkers, we must say it in code:

The United States federal government, or the Yooks we might say,

Should reduce its reliance on nuclear weapons this day

By reducing the number of its Big-Boy Boomeroos,

And/or whatever we happen to choose

Perhaps by restricting, and perhaps by reducing

The roles and/or missions of our Big-Boy Boomeroo arsenal.

Think hard, for the question’s quite germinal

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After all, at the end of the day, who can say?

“Who’s gonna drop it?

Will you… Or will he…?


“Be patient,” said Grandpa. “We’ll see.

We will see…”

Imagining a different world is the key prerequisite to being able to effectively change it – Suess’s permissive language
and nonsense images disrupt containment policies and Cold War paranoia by using imagination to break through
dominant systems of language and knowledge.

Nel 99

[Philip, PhD @ Vanderbilt, Prof @ Kansas State, “Dada Knows Best: Growing up "Surreal" with Dr. Seuss,” Children's
Literature, Volume 27, 1999, pgs. 150-184 ]

Given Seuss's challenges to common sense,… "Dr. Seuss, you have an imagination with a long tail" (Cott 18).

This ability to imagine a happy ending in spite of an uncertain future is critical to The Butter Battle’s questioning the
logic of mutually assured destruction. Only by using absurdity to reveal the irrationality of existing nuclear policies can
we encourage readers to create new solutions to the problem of nuclear arms

Nel 99

[Philip, PhD @ Vanderbilt, Prof @ Kansas State, “Dada Knows Best: Growing up "Surreal" with Dr. Seuss,” Children's
Literature, Volume 27, 1999, pgs. 150-184 ]

Although the Times reviewer was correct in saying…using their imaginations as a source of strength.

We don’t need a concrete political counter-proposal to the status quo – that form of resistance is empirically ineffective
in the context of nuclear policy. Instead, we must expose the existing order as the big joke it really is – we must lighten
the mood, and blur the lines between the real and unreal, to puncture the balloon of status quo politics.

Chaloupka 92 [William, Knowing Nukes, 1992, pgs. 133-135]

Even knowing when that last lecture will be is a problem…seem thoroughly problematic. We enter the era of the
puzzle.

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Texas-San Antonio Montee/Thomas (Critical-Queer) [Brittany]

Texas-San Antonio TM

GSU Aff Disclosure


Observation One is the Monster in the Closet...

The rhetoric of the war on terror centers on possession of weapons of mass destruction. Thes questions of who should
or should not be able to possess “high-tech” weaponry cannot be seperated from the nuclear posture of the United
States. Historically, the role of our nuclear arsenal has been the symbolic legitimization of state violence under the
guise of fighting “clean wars” while condemning the barbarity of terrorists or rogue nations who do not possess
legitimate weapons of war.

Kelly Oliver. Women as Weapons of War: Iraq, Sex, and the Media. 2007, pg 125-128

“One issue in the current 'war against terror'...realm of the monstrous and unnatural”

We are witnessing the uncanny return of monstrosity in terrorism studies. As children we were thrilled and terrified by
stories of the boogeyman who would steal our eyes in the middle of the night. Now it seems that the Southpark
nightmare of Imaginationland has come true as the image of the terrorist begins to haunt the collective American
psyche. These representations are highly sexualized through techniques of normalization and discipline in which a
heteronormative morality acts to seperate good from evil, normality from abnormality.

Jasbir K. Puar and Amit S. Rai. “Monster, Terrorist, Fag: the War on Terrorism and the Production of Docile Patriots.”
Social Text 20:3, 2002

“To begin, let us consider the monster...discourse of monstrosity in 'terrorism studies'”

The discourse of monstrosity presupposes the existence of a “normal” psyche. In this context, terrorism is the
byproduct of a sick mind – deviance that connotes a failed heterosexuality. This attempt to reduce the complexities of
culture and politics to a model of sexual perversity underwrites the history of Western modernity and colonial
subjugation.

Jasbir K. Puar and Amit S. Rai. “Monster, Terrorist, Fag: the War on Terrorism and the Production of Docile Patriots.”
Social Text 20:3, 2002

“What all these models and theories...practices and rituals of heteronormativity.”

Observation Two is Queer and Loathing in America...

Heteronormative thought establishes an invisible center – one that is definable and sanitary, constantly producing and
reproducing standards for rationality, desireability, and superiority. This becomes the primary instrument for oppressive
power relations and the production of knowledge. Modern institutions rely upon these unspoken rules in order to
rationalize the systemic marginalization of the abnormal.

Gust A. Yep. “The Violence of Heteronormativity in Communication Studies: Notes on Injury, Healing, and Queer
World-Making.” Journal of Homosexuality. 45:2-3, September 2003

“In this passage...race, class, gender, and sexuality”

The political demand to universalize identity results in self-repression, violent assimilation and the eradication of
others.

William Connolly. Identity/Difference: Democratic Negotiations of Political Paradox. 2002, pg 176-178

“Finally, then, there is a dimension...tactics of self-modification.”

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This is not just empty theorizing. Representations that tie queerness as sexual deviancy to the monstrous figure of the
terrorist act to otherize and quarantine subjects classified as terrorists and to normalize and discipline a population
through the invocation of these monstrous figures that translates into actual violence.

Jasbir K. Puar and Amit S. Rai. “Monster, Terrorist, Fag: the War on Terrorism and the Production of Docile Patriots.”
Social Text 20:3, 2002

“Yet again, we could interrogate...body of the normalized nation.”

Therefore, we affirm the resolution through a rearticulation of the terrorist body as an assemblage that resists
queerness-as-sexual-identity withing the dominant narrative of U.S. Nuclear exceptionalism

Observation Three is They Want to Recruit our Children...

Restricting the role of nuclear weapons demands a rethinking of identity. Wars are no longer fought solely on the
material landscape. On the symbolic level, the normalizing function of nuclear weapons confers the status of
“legitimacy” for America's “right to violence” against populations marked as enemies who lack the proper, high-tech
instruments of warfare. We need to question the moralizing rhetoric of monstrosity and sexual deviancy that justifies
state-based atrocities committed on a global scale.

Kelly Oliver. Women as Weapons of War: Iraq, Sex, and the Media. 2007, pg 128-130

“How can a few guys with box cutters...legitimate versus illegitimate violence.”

Identity, intersectionality, and traditional queer studies reflect the postmodern politics of liberal-multiculturalism that
conforms to the disciplinary apparatus of the state. The 1AC affirms queerness, not as an identiy or even anti-identity,
but as an assemblage that is spatially and temporally contingent, dismantling the representational mandates of
visibility and stability in identity politics that feed narratives of U.S. sexual exceptionalism. This is not a strategy of
“queering” human subjects, but of allowing subjects to appear in all their queerness – a method that allows for the
temporality of being as always becoming.

Jasbir K. Puar. Terrorist Assemblages: Homonationalism in Queer Times. 2007, pg 211-216

“There is no entity, no identity...becoming beyond or without being.”

The ballot acts as a point of rupture within the dominant narrative of U.S. sexual exceptionalism that demands
conformity to heteronormative institutions and practices. This is a specific strategy of criticism which should not be
excluded – attempts to define our affirmative by placing arbitrary limits on the game of debate is an extension of a
conservative strategy which produces new normativities and exceptionalisms through the mastery of the unknowable.
You should reject strategies that seperate the body from politics and instead affirma a queer praxis of assemblage that
reshapes the terrain of intersectionality.

Jasbir K. Puar. Terrorist Assemblages: Homonationalism in Queer Times. 2007, pg 221-222

“Mbembe and Spivak each articulate...perhaps even forever unknowable.”

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Towson Crossan/Kirkman (Critical) [Phil]

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Towson Evans/Morgan (Critical) [Phil]

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Towson Jackson/Murray (Critical) [Phil]

Towson JM

GSU Aff Disclosure


Na'im Akbar – Professor of Psychology at Florida State University- 1989- Paradigms Of African American Research-
Akbar Paper- - page 32-33

Unfortunately, “research” is not like the “searches” which characterized the Ancient African scholars who devoted their
scientific endeavors to the pursuit of “Truth”. ….. The models constitute the definition' of what to look for. In sociology,
the model is the underlying theory of society; in educational and psychological research, it is the underlying theory of
man or mind.

Quantitative focus = white paradigm

Na'im Akbar – Professor of Psychology at Florida State University- 1989- Paradigms Of African American Research-
Akbar Paper- - page 37-8

Another assumption of the traditional Western model or conceptualization of the normal human being that guides
research activity is the idea that what is real or knowable is material, quantifiable and directly observable. ….. "Non-
whiteness," communalism, cooperation, femininity would all be in some way viewed as deviant or at best,
nonnormative.

Na'im Akbar – Professor of Psychology at Florida State University- 1989- Paradigms Of African American Research-
Akbar Paper- - page 35-6

Khun (1970) asserts: “for a time paradigms provided model problems and solution to the community of (scientific)
practitioners.” The paradigm that has operated throughout much of the Euro-American history of social science has
been the affirmation of the normality of the male, Caucasian of European descent and his relative superiority to other
peoples. ….. The way a person frames a question determines the limits within which his answer can possibly fall.

Policy impact

Na'im Akbar – Professor of Psychology at Florida State University- 1989- Paradigms Of African American Research-
Akbar Paper- - page 42-3

The method confirms the model; then the model is perpetuated in the modalities of implementing tbe research findings.
The modalities are the ways in which the research findings are implemented. …..Denial of the African American's
humanity simply confirms the original thesis that being human means that one is necessarily a male, Caucasian of
European descent.

AA research paradigm

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Na'im Akbar – Professor of Psychology at Florida State University- 1989- Paradigms Of African American Research-
Akbar Paper- - page 46

The new paradigm should offer a balance between the materialistic preoccupation of the Western or traditional
Eurocentric ….. personal 'Worldview,' his concept of' Nature,' etc., indicate what possibilities there might be that
research results may be unwittingly filtered through unsuspected or unacknowledged prejudices.

Methods of the paradigm

Na'im Akbar – Professor of Psychology at Florida State University- 1989- Paradigms Of African American Research-
Akbar Paper- - page 47-8

Racial ascription is the common denominator that is systematically woven through the international fabric of human life
on this planet. Thus, understanding the depth, ….. Rather than test children's knowledge of alien environmental
artifacts to determine intelligence, they could be tested on their knowledge of indigenous cultural artifacts.

4 tenates of the africam American research modle and why they are good

Na'im Akbar – Professor of Psychology at Florida State University- 1989- Paradigms Of African American Research-
Akbar Paper- - page 48-50

The African American model in its holistic approach encourages methodologies that look at people in a non-
fragmented way. McGee and Clark(1973) observe: The Western inability to synthesize body (material) and mind
(spiritual) has led some respected scientists to make the absurd comment that black people in America are "good" in
athletics but poor in thinking. Such scientists fail to recognize that to have a good body means that one has a good
mind and vice versa; one cannot exist without the other. If the body is poor, the mind is also, and vice versa. The
second issue of methodology is the "how" or types of research procedures that appropriately address the model. There
are four (4) general types of research which are most relevant to an African American paradigm: (1) theoretical, (2)
critique of falsification (deconstruction) research, (3) ethnographic and (4) heuristic (construction or reconstruction)
research. ….. advancing us in the light of the model of enhanced human growth described in the research model that
we described above.

Intitutions are key

Na'im Akbar – Professor of Psychology at Florida State University- 1989- Paradigms Of African American Research-
Akbar Paper- - page 51

The final modality of our research ….All of these modalities provide the ultimate objective of augmenting and
institutionalizing the African American paradigm rooted in nature and respect for humankind.

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UMKC Allsup/Bonnet (Critical-Patriarchy) [Phil]

Observation One: Men and their Missiles


In the status quo discussions of nuclear weapons only focus on matters of hardware and statistics at the expense of
questions regarding the cultural assumptions that are used to justify the bombs existence – this is the product of a
patriarchal militaristic state that constantly seeks hierarchal dominance through processes of dehumanization and
otherization – this worldview see’s war as an inevitability and uses it to justify a global arms race to build bigger and
more powerful weapons – this sacrifice of the feminine locks us into a closed set of possibilities that constantly
reproduces the violence of the status quo and will only culminate in extinction
Spretnak 83
[Charlene, MA in English and American Literature from the University o0f California Berkeley, Naming the Cultural
Forces That Push Us to War, found in the book “Exposing Nuclear Phallacies,” pgs 53-61]
"Women and men can live together and can relate to other societies in any number of cultural "
AND
"unchecked terminal patriarchy will be nuclear holocaust. "

This system of patriarchy turns nuclear weapons into masculine symbols of power and likens questions of
disarmament to weakness and femininity – this has created a global hierarchy of power fueled by a militaristic drive to
eliminate insecurity by eliminating the feminine itself
SPAS 2k8
[Swedish Peace and Arbitration Society, Learn about Nuclear Weapons 2008, 2008,
http://www.laromkarnvapen.slmk.org/ENG/Dokument/Ethics/Gender%20ADVANCED.pdf]
"The final report of the Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission concludes “ In particular, women‟s organisations
have "
AND
"masculinity. "

The ultimate impact is extinction—the dysfunctionality of patriarchy guarantees continued violence, war, and
environmental destruction, making any impact inevitable. Only moving away from this system can create opportunities
for survival.
Karen Warren and Duane Cady, Professors of Philosophy at Macalester College and Hamline University. “Feminism
and Peace: Seeking Connections.” Hypatia. Vol. 9, Iss. 2; pg. 4 Spring 1994 Proquest
"The notion of patriarchy as a socially dysfunctional system enables feminist philosophers to "
AND
"national, and global contexts. "

In a society dominated by masculinity where males are more likely to commit violent crimes it is imperative that we
examine the relationship between gender and nuclear weapons because there is no way to predict when political loss
or national self-interest might drive leaders to use nuclear weapons and causing all-out annihilation
Russell 87
[Diane, Professor of Sociology at Mills College, Sexism, Violence, and the Nuclear Mentality, found in the book
“Exposing Nuclear Phallacies,” pgs 63-68]
"Although Freud probably didn't intend to place the entire responsibility for control over nature on men, his use of sexist
"
AND
"much greater than all other weapons that they deserve a unique analysis and response. "

Thus,

The United States federal government should permanently dismantle the United States federal government’s nuclear
arsenal.

Observation Two: Vulnerability

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The US should pursue unilateral reductions in nuclear weapons, even if it is gradual. Fears of other states reacting are
rooted in the notion that not having nuclear weapons is a sign of vulnerability and femininity. Rejecting this flawed view
of international relations is necessary to prevent the inevitable disasters that nuclear weapons bring.
Cohn and Ruddick in 2003(Carol, Director of the Consortium on Gender, Security and Human Rights, Sara, Professor
Emerita of Philosophy and Feminist Studies at Lang College of the New School for Social Research “A Feminist
Ethical Perspective on Weapons of Mass Destruction”, Boston Consortium on Gender, Security and Human Rights
Working Paper No. 104)
"Our tradition has advocated and will continue to advocate unilateral reduction in nuclear "
AND
"dream” that nuclear weapons inspire. "

Attempts to erase vulnerability and deny disorder are founded on the fantasy that the world can maintain orderliness—
they inevitably incite a violent response. We should instead be mindful of and embrace our vulnerability to violence in
order to craft more responsible political solutions that do not incite violence.

Butler in 2 (Judith, Prof. of Rhetoric and Comparative Lit at Berkley, “Precarious Life”, pg. 28-30)

"Let us return to the issue of grief, to the moments in which one undergoes something outside "
AND
"formerly was orderly. "

Retaliation makes violence inevitable—it creates a cycle of violence wherein retaliation is met with further retaliation.
This increases the likelihood of violence as a reaction to conflict and results in masculine domination. The plan’s
suspension of response is an act of vulnerability—this creates an international politics of mutual understanding and
nonviolence.

Butler in 3 (Judith, prof at Berkley, Interview with The Believer Magazine, May,
http://www.believermag.com/issues/200305/?read=interview_butler)

"JS: If revenge becomes cyclical because one strike leads to another ad infinitum, one way to stop "
AND
"quickly, didn’t we? "

Observation Three: Ethics


This development of nuclear weaponry exacts violence against entire populations especially women. Nuclear
development also genders nuclear weapons fetishizing them and turning all ethical questioning into a feminine
characteristic that should be rejected in exchange for the masculine ideas of rationality.
Cohn and Ruddick in 2003
(Carol, Director of the Consortium on Gender, Security and Human Rights, Sara, Professor Emerita of Philosophy and
Feminist Studies at Lang College of the New School for Social Research “A Feminist Ethical Perspective on Weapons
of Mass Destruction”, Boston Consortium on Gender, Security and Human Rights Working Paper No. 104)
"One of the constitutive positions of anti-war feminism is that in thinking about weapons and wars, we must "
AND
"peace and morality, can have disastrous consequences for both men and women.34 "

You have an ethical duty to reject nuclear weapons and the patriarchal system that harbors them – they plot the
deaths of hundreds of millions of people and hold the whole world hostage to their destructive potential – all other
concerns should be viewed secondary to the elimination of nuclear weapons
Russell 87
[Diane, Professor of Sociology at Mills College, Sexism, Violence, and the Nuclear Mentality, found in the book
“Exposing Nuclear Phallacies,” pgs 69-74]
"Nuclear war is the ultimate act of violence. Since men in patriarchal cultures have been and "
AND
"we must rid ourselves of the other. "

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UMKC Beatty/Sadowski (Critical-Patriarchy) [Phil]

Status quo possession of nuclear weaponry exacts violence upon entire populations—especially women. Nuclear
development also genders nuclear weapons, fetishizing them and turning all ethical questioning into a feminine
characteristic that should be rejected in exchange for the masculine ideas of “rationality.”
Cohn and Ruddick in 3 (Carol, Director of the Consortium on Gender, Security and Human Rights, Sara, Professor
Emerita of Philosophy and Feminist Studies at Lang College of the New School for Social Research “A Feminist
Ethical Perspective on Weapons of Mass Destruction”, Boston Consortium on Gender, Security and Human Rights
Working Paper No. 104)

One of the constitutive...men and women.

And, disarmament is rejected in the status quo because it’s regarded as feminine and weak—this system of patriarchy
turns nuclear weapons into masculine symbols of power and domination. This has created a global hierarchy of power
fueled by a militaristic drive to eliminate insecurity by eliminating the feminine itself.
SPAS 8 [Swedish Peace and Arbitration Society, Learn about Nuclear Weapons 2008, 2008,
http://www.laromkarnvapen.slmk.org/ENG/Dokument/Ethics/Gender%20ADVANCED.pdf]

The final report...lacking in masculinity.

And, techno-strategic discourse surrounding weapons is used to only consider the rational aspects of their existence
and use. This is a product of gender coding wherein “masculine” ideals of rationality are used as a means to silence
“feminine’ objections concerning the violence that these calculations produce.
Cohn, Hill, and Ruddick in 5 (Carol, Director of the Boston Consortium on Gender, Security and Human Rights,
Felicity, Greenpeace International Political Adviser on Nuclear and Disarmament Issues, former Peace & Security
Advisor to UNIFEM's Governance Peace and Security team, Sara, Professor Emerita of Philosophy and Feminist
Studies at Lang College of the New School for Social Research, “The Relevance of Gender for Eliminating Weapons
of Mass Destruction”, Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission, Adapted from a presentation on June 12, 2005)

Why did he feel that way?...strategic plans and WMD.

And, deterrence theory is a myth. It is used to re-inscribes the masculine drive for dominance by prioritizing values of
“military necessity” and “defense” over so-called feminine concerns for human life—this justifies massive arms
buildups.
Cohn and Ruddick in 3 (Carol, Director of the Consortium on Gender, Security and Human Rights, Sara, Professor
Emerita of Philosophy and Feminist Studies at Lang College of the New School for Social Research “A Feminist
Ethical Perspective on Weapons of Mass Destruction”, Boston Consortium on Gender, Security and Human Rights
Working Paper No. 104)

A so-called “realist”...and arms racing.

And, traditional conceptions of security assume an anarchic system of international relations characterized by
stereotypes of threatening femininity. This worldview sees war as inevitable, generating self-fulfilling expectations
regarding conflict, foreclosing real explanations of it. This impedes our understanding of the structural causes of
violence, forms of violence which are more life threatening than inter-state conflicts.
Peterson in 2K (V Spike, Associate Professor of Political Science @ Arizona, SAIS Review, 20.2, rereading public and
private: the dichotomy that is not one, project muse)
Next I undertake...violence, and security.

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The ultimate impact is extinction—the dysfunctionality of patriarchy guarantees continued violence, war, and
environmental destruction, making any impact inevitable. Only moving away from this system can create opportunities
for survival.
Warren & Cady in 94 (Karen and Duane, Professors of Philosophy at Macalester College and Hamline University.
“Feminism and Peace: Seeking Connections.” Hypatia. Vol. 9, Iss. 2; pg. 4 Spring, Proquest)
The notion of patriarchy...national, and global contexts.

And, culture has programmed itself for self-destruction—extinction is inevitable in a world where nuclear weapons
exist.
Ross in 3 (Larry- Founder of NZ Nuclear-Free Peacemaking Association, “RACING TOWARD EXTINCTION”, Dec 10,
http://nuclearfree.lynx.co.nz/racing.htm)

We have greatly changed...escalation would follow.

Thus,

The United States federal government should reduce the United States federal government’s nuclear arsenal to zero.

And, the United States should embrace a position of vulnerability in pursuing a policy of disarmament—relying on
nuclear weapons forecloses non-violent modes of conflict resolution and actually increases the likelihood of dangerous
conflict. Fear of violence in the wake of disarmament is rooted in masculine conceptions of reality which seek
domination.
Cohn and Ruddick in 3 (Carol, Director of the Consortium on Gender, Security and Human Rights, Sara, Professor
Emerita of Philosophy and Feminist Studies at Lang College of the New School for Social Research “A Feminist
Ethical Perspective on Weapons of Mass Destruction”, Boston Consortium on Gender, Security and Human Rights
Working Paper No. 104)

Our tradition has ... nuclear weapons inspire.

And, nuclear weapons represent the ultimate endpoint of realist international relations and US security politics—they
are a form of protection against the anarchic international system and a move to assert the United States’
invulnerability. They have instead made us more vulnerable—we must instead reject this form of security politics and
embrace our globally shared position of vulnerability.
Rolfsen in 8 (Cdr. Sen. Gr. Raag Rolfsen, Yale Center For Faith and Culture, Breakout Session, “The Significance of
Vulnerability in a Time of Crisis” Remarks: Sarah Smith Memorial Conferences 2008: “Are we safe yet?”)

The aim of this paper... calculation and technology.

And, attempts to erase vulnerability and deny disorder are founded on the fantasy that the world can maintain
orderliness—they inevitably incite a violent response. We should instead embrace our vulnerability to violence in order
to craft more responsible political solutions that do not create violence.
Butler in 4 (Judith, Prof. of Rhetoric and Comparative Lit at Berkley, “Precarious Life”, pg. 28-30)

Let us return to... formerly was orderly.

And, denying vulnerability makes violence inevitable. The plan’s suspension of response is an act of vulnerability
which creates an international politics of mutual understanding and nonviolence.

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Butler in 3 (Judith, prof at Berkley, Interview with The Believer Magazine, May,
http://www.believermag.com/issues/200305/?read=interview_butler)

JS: If revenge becomes cyclical...quickly, didn’t we?

Finally, we must be willing to accept the loss of American ‘superiority’—this allows us to create new international ties
that can reformulate politics by reconstituting the American subject in a position of vulnerability
Butler in 4 (Judith, Prof. of Rhetoric and Comparative Lit at Berkley, “Precarious Life”, pg. 40-41)

I condemn on several..."other to" itself.

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Weber State Dawson/Nikolopoulos (Critical-God) [Mark]

Affirmative

Observation one, the nuclear heresy


First, discussion surrounding nuclear weapons are nothing short of apocalyptic humanism. This obsession with out
survival has forced us to ignore what makes our lives and deaths worthwhile and such a secular age is doomed to
wage wars even more dangerous than the ones before.
Hauerwaus 85 (against the nations, pp. 132-133)

And, this survival centered attitutde has given birth to a new religion that worships the bomb. This discussion means
we must engage in talks about God because the boundaries of our mortality have been met which demands a
remapping of our transcendent vision. If mankind is truly approach the problems created by nuclear weapons we must
transform the current secular model into a religious one renouncing nuclear arms.
Chapman in 85 (G. Clarke, Speaking of God in a nuclear age, Anglican Theological Journal, SUmmer 1991)

It is our obsession with the bomb and its destruction that renders us blind to the destruction going on all around us,
Violence takes place all over the world, but is hidden by the big apocalypse.
Plate and Linafelt in 2003 (Brent and Todd, "Seeing Beyond the End of the World" Journal of religion and Film, APril,
2003, unomaha.edu/`jrf/Vol7No1/seebeyond)
The United States Federal Government should substantially reduce the size and/or reduce and restrict the role of its
nuclear weapons arsenal by disarming its entire nuclear weapons arsenal.

Plan

Observation two the theological imperative:

IF we are to understand nuclear weapons must expose their mythology. Science is not neutral. Existence of weapons
guarantees violence only disarm =s hope.
Stringfellow in 82 (William, Keeper of the Word, pp. 103-113

Observation three speaking the word.

Everyday language will not suffice, it is utilitarian. Speaking requires that we theology. Life and our relationship with it
is meaning leass without the appositional power of theology
Wentz in 91 (Richard, FIrst THings, February 1991)

Both Eschatological visions of the end and nuclear weapons are created by language and cannot be imagined. THey
reveal that every apocalypse is survivable. THis making present the survivors allows a reimagination and embrace of
eschatological hope.
Plate and Linafelt in 2003

Last, the discourse of everyday language is nihilism. It is only imminent and epistemic which means life can have no
value.
Cunningham in 2002 (Conor, Geneology of Nihilism, pp. 174-175)
Negative

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West Georgia Boykin/Schultz (Critical) [Logan]

West Georgia BoSc

Kentucky Round Robin - Race 5 (Aff vs. Emory)

LANL aff

Chapter One- The world we know


Policy debate has become exclusivy oriented around the bomb and nuclear war—everything always already has issue
specific uniqueness to end up in the ever present threat of nuclear apocalypse. September 11th escalated this
discourse and mobilized it around the terrorist threat to our super power status all while the nuclear bomb a banal
everpresent condition boring ass fact of life- we have been duped inot normalizing national security.
Masco 06 (Joseph, Nuclear Boderlands: the Manhattan project in post-cold war new mexico pg 328-31
“a weapon has been developed that is potentially…and ambiguities within American military technoscientific self-
fashining.”

Our rush to accumulate the most specific the widest array, oh, the biggest impact is debate fetishizing the bomb, don’t
get it twisted I want a CSIS internship as bad as my idol Jon Warden, but our community is not alone—we are one
example of the American culture that organizes the bomb as a central figure of political life.
Masco 06 (Joseph, Nuclear Boderlands: the Manhattan project in post-cold war new mexico pg 16-18
“While the nuclear phantasmagoria…both imagined and material risk.”

Nuclear weapons are the national fetish par excellence- the international hierarchy of nation states is mediated through
possession of a weapon designed to prevent its own use, here the bomb is an impassioned object linking the
government, military, and scientific communities in the projection of national culture.
Masco 06 (Joseph, Nuclear Boderlands: the Manhattan project in post-cold war new mexico pg 20-23
“to describe nuclear weapons as the national fetish…political, industrial, academiuc, and scientific relationships in
American society”

The nuclear uncanny always retursn in repression here national building, legitmation of violence and genocide become
the toxic politics ties to race and class.
Masco 06 (Joseph, Nuclear Boderlands: the Manhattan project in post-cold war new mexico pg 34
“within the us nuclear complex…post cold war anxiety”

The US is the country of the bomb- radioactive nation building has left us anesthetized to the fact that the US is the
most bombed country in the world, all Americans participate in the nuclear complex, our bodies carry radiation from the
fall out of thousands of above ground tests. There have already been 400,000 cancer deaths from the nuclear colonial
project that targets minority communities for the most dangers experiments – we must shake the nuclear fetish.
Masco 06 p 24-7
“The strange new intimacy of life…and with them, new psychosocial realities.”

The very logic of nuclear weapons is mad- we can see the alienation and blinding our senses to violence of the nuclear
ages in operation upshot knothole
Maco 06 (Joseph, Nuclear Boderlands: the Manhattan project in post-cold war new mexico pg 8-11
“nuclear weapons, however, quickly became note merely…quite meticulously, blinded.”

Chapter Two- a new , old, history


We cannot conitue limitg nuclear politics to the realm of international relations—an ethnographic account of the varied
experiences of us citizens callenges the idea of a stable national subject, unmooring the psycho social affects of
nuclear nationalism, wrapped in national secirty and terrorist discourse- this is an act of resistance against apocalyptic
violence currently normalized in american life
Masco 06 (Joseph, Nuclear Boderlands: the Manhattan project in post-cold war new mexico pg 331-337

To be clear, the roll of the ballot is to write a new history of the nuclear age focusing on the tactile, individual, local
experiences in the nuclear complex
Masco 06 (Joseph, Nuclear Boderlands: the Manhattan project in post-cold war new mexico pg 3-5
"In a post-Cold War world, then, we might usefully interrogate ... American power in the twenty-first century."

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The Manhattan Project provides a uniqe site for exploring the "state of emergency" which gets everyday life caught up
in normalizing MAD politics and where governmentality achieves producing instruments of apocalypse in order to stop
it
Masco 06 (Joseph, Nuclear Boderlands: the Manhattan project in post-cold war new mexico pg 11-12
"The historical process that registers each new "catastrophic technology" ... in order to even begin to answer such
questions?"

Whether we choose to acknowledge it or not, we are all implicated in the violence perpetuated by the nuclear weapons
complex. Instead of giving into the ultimately hollow impulse to "change the world," you should use the ballot as a
means of initiating a change in yourself. Only by centering our interrogations at the level of our lived experience can
we make possible modes of relating to each other which do not fall back into the pattern of violent ordering
Jayan Nayar 99 (9 Transnat'l L. & Contemp. Probs. 599)
"Despite the fixation of the beneficiaries of ordered worlds ... the essential message of Mahatmas."

Kentucky Round Robin - Race 2 (Aff vs. Whitman)

Depleted Uranium

PLAN - The USFG should cease all use of depleted uranium in its nuclear arsenal missions. Any future usage should
be restricted until its safety and legality can be conclusively proven by systematic independent research. We can
clarify.

1ac
no tag: card says the army has been testing DU weapons - they are deadly and the army knows it
Dan Fahey 1997 - "Swords to Plowshares" 3-28-97 - nuclearfiles.org
kw - the army and DU weapons manufacturers spent two decades testing --> as a result of their exposure

following the gulf war, attempts to study DU missions were rebuffed by deceptive DOD practices
Dan Fahey - Depleted Uranium Weapons and International Law 08 - pg 66-67
kw - the most comprehensive study of humans --> were enrolled in the study

A proposal to restrict and reduce this use of the arseanl was rejected
Tod Ensign 99 - Depleted Uranium Education Project - Metal of Dishonor: How the Pentagon Radiates soldiers and
civilians with DU weapons"
p. 75
kw - the PAC reported little success with its effort --> weapons will fade away

as a result, DU missions continue


ICBUW - international coalition to ban uranium weapons - 7-17-09 - www.bandepleteduranium.org/en/i/77.html
kw - governments have often intitially denied using DU --> contaomination virtually impossible

Contention 2 - the trojan horse of nuke war


US military lies to cover up DU use and abuse
dinyar Godrej 07 - New Internationist - www.newint.org/features/2007/11/01/keynote
kw - the answers official bodies have given to valid questions about DU --> rising nearly tenfold in some places

AND - DU harms will only get worse w/ future use


Vishnu Bhagwat 2-29-04 - "silent WMD's: effects of depleted uranium - online
kw - the induction of DU weapons in 1991 in Iraq, the radio-active trash --> on mistaken Intelligence reports

The pentagon's DU policy is one of unfettered use of its nuclear weapons arsenal
Sara Flounders - Metal of Dishonor: How the Pentagon Radiates soldiers and civilians with DU weapons. p. 8-10
kw - the gulf war showed that those countries that already held nuclear monopolies --> urgent need for an independent
inquiry.

US policy on DU is grounded in deception and propoganda


Dinyar Godrej 07 "Toxic Souvenirs" - New Internationalist November - issue 406
kw - contamination hangs around depleted uranium (DU) --> don't scupper their use

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Military industrial complex is self-reinforcing


Lenora Foerstel 99 - Metal of Dishonor - cite above - p. 63
kw the relationship between corporations, the Pentagon and the news media --> campuses and in the public sphere

cover up masks nuke warfare


Anne Gut & Vitale Bruno 03 - Depleted UraniuM: Deadly, Dangerous, and Indiscriminate - p. 12-13
kw - since may 2002, when the original edition of this book appeared in French --> to a kind of nuclear war

this mentality places us all in jeopardy


AMy Worthington 04 - "Chemtrails and Terror int he Age of Nuclear War" june 3rd
kw - the sociopaths who brazenly pervent skies, climate and weather --> we are all in mortal jeopardy

each round of DU is an additional nail int he collective coffin of Afghanistan


Mohammed Miraki 03 - "The silent genocide from America" - online
kw - the perpetuation of the perpetual death in AFghanistan continues with the passage of each day --> collective
coffin of the AFghan people

DU is painfully killing victims and threatnes to destroy all life on the planet
Leuren Moret 07 - "Depleted Uranium: A Scientific Perspective." The Lone Star Ironoclast 7-21
kw - it remobilizes all the radiation, but those are the larger chunks --> it effects everything

C3 - solvency
honesty is the best policy to challenge this DU slaughtergate
Vincent Guarisco 03 - "Axis of Logic" - democraticundgeround - 10/20/03
kw - welcome to the 21st century uranium slaughtergate, an age-old curse --> aimed at causing unnecessary suffering

restrictions needed
Avril McDonald - Depleted Uranium Weapons and INternational Law - p. 283 -
kw - the question of the legality of a weapon as such --> suffering and proporionality

precautionary approach solves best


Avril McDonald - again -
kw - the cornerstron of a precautionary approach to DU weapons must be systematic --> particularly children, in
different ways

and a moratorium provids immediate relief via reduction


Avril McDonald 8 - again p. 316
kw - the ultimate in precaution would be the adoption of a moratorium on the use of DU --> commitment to a
moratorium on DU use

precautionary obligations solve


Theo Boutruches & Jann K. Kleffner 08 - Depleted Uranium Weapons and International Law - - no page number
kw - the importance of precautionary measures in IHL is twofold --> will use another means of warfare

independent review is the crucial restriction


Avril McDonald - 08 again - p. 306-307
kw - given that new information about the effects of a weapon can come --> investigate the lawfulness of weapons

2AC Topicality Reduce Missions

* w/m – 1ac proves DU key to ongoing mil ops


* neg int begs Q on nuclear weapons – buys into pentagon’s policy that hides reality of DU as part of the arsenal
* Lit checks – military acknowledges DU missions

Annd Gut and Vitale Bruno 2003, Depleted Uranium: Deadly, Dangerous, and Indiscriminate, p. 24
“The use of DU Weaponry…DU ammunition was used.”

* C/I – reduce means to lessen in number, restrict refers to codification of the reduction

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Plan meets – standards used to evaluate DU missions are restricting


Avril McDonald, 2008, Depleted Uranium Weapons and international Law, p. 286
“It is therefore…alternatives are available.”

Aff use is same as NFU – NFU plans condition usage – weapons can only be used after x occurs – our plan is the
same – review process as a precondition is regulation as restriction
Avril McDonald, 2008, Depleted Uranium Weapons and international Law, p. 305-6
“An important legal element of a…moratorium or ban on DU use.”
2ac Healthcare
Dems support the plan
Congress Daily, 8/4/09
“Sen. Byron Dorgan…called the situation “appaling.””

2AC Politics

Dem’s key to HC
John Dickerson, www.slate.com/id/2230817, 9/29
“So liberals who helped…from within his own party.”

DU weapons are politically untenable


Mike Hughlett, 2001, www.pioneerplanet.com/secen-days/tod/business/docs/027289.htm
“There’s just one potential problem…untenable weapon,” he said.”

DU unpopularity is growing
Same cite
“As alliant has been…for $180 million.)”

PresCap not significant


Jon R. Bond and Richard Fleisher, the president in legislation p. 223, 1996
“Neustadt is correct that weak…of success or failure”
2ac on case – DU Bad

2AC Case Cards

DOD studies prove cancer dangers


Bill Griffin, the new nuclear danger, www.peacehost.net/pacifistnation/caldicottanddu.htm
“At the same time…eventually causing lung cancers”

DU harms spread globally – worse than 20th century testing


Leuren Moret – “Depleted Uranium: A scientific perspective”
Kw – is there a danger of depleted uranium, being used in weaponry pollution with this radiation

DU risks omnicide
Moret, Leuren – “Depleted uranium: the Trojan horse of nuclear war.” World Affairs: The journal of international issues.
July
Kw – the use of depleted uranium weaponry by the United States new word to describe it: omnicide

GSU Aff Disclosure


WEST GEORGIA BS
Plan: The United States federal government should substantially limit use of its nuclear weapons arsenal by
renouncing launch on warning, ensuring that retaliation would not take place without confirmation of a nuclear
detonation.
Contention One Get Low
First is the Mentality
Currently the United States is on a Launch on Warning status that is rooted in Cold War calculations

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Rosenbaum 9
Ron, “Will the Pentagon Thwart Obama’s Dream of Zero?” Aug 21, http://www.slate.com/id/2225817/pagenum/all/
In his campaign, Obama… launch on warning.

And this mentality of Launch on Warning developed as a component of the system of Mutually Assured Destruction.
Collapse of the Soviet Union did not change these systems, and even with recent reductions there are still enough
weapons to destroy human civilization
Corcoran 9
Ed, Ph.D., serves as a Senior Fellow on national security issues at GlobalSecurity.org., Frmr. Strategic Analyst at the
US Army War College where he chaired studies for the Office of the Deputy Chief of Operations and member of the
National Advisory Board for the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues, we win the qualification game, April 21,
http://sitrep.globalsecurity.org/articles/090421301-strategic-nuclear-targets.htm
That brings us to Russia… a total nuclear exchange.

The US system of hair trigger alert is a relic of the cold war that is perpetuated by the lack of reporting journalism gives
it. This system risks extinction
Mintz 5
Morton, covered the Supreme Court for The Washington Post from 1964 to 1965 and again from 1977 to 1980. He is
also a former chair of the Fund for Investigative Journalism, Nov/Dec, Columbia Journalism Review Vol 44, Iss. 4
The reporting that allows… Nunn nor Habiger.

Second is the Mechanics of Low


The process whereby LOW as operational doctrine causes time crunches which create stress and makes mistakes
likely
Blair 99
Interview Dr. Bruce Blair, September 13, 1999 ADM's Mark Sugg interviews the Senior Fellow for Foreign Policy
Studies at the Brookings Institution, for "Innovation in Arms Control: De-Alerting",
http://www.cdi.org/adm/1316/Blair.html
BLAIR: Well, launch… at a moment's notice.

The confidence and reports of technology being “perfect” is exactly the reason why mistaken launch is more probable
Podvig 5
Pavel PhD CISAC Research Associate and Acting Associate Director for Research Reducing the Risk of Accidental
Launch: A Case for Unilateral Action,
http://cisac.stanford.edu/news/reducing_the_risk_of_accidental_launch_a_case_for_unilateral_action_20050908/
History shows that… regardless of reciprocity.

Contention Two Nukes are Bad


Scenario One is A Weapon
One nuclear weapon would kill over 6 million, jack the environment, and disrupt urbanized areas
Forrow 4
Forrow et al, 2004. Accidental Nuclear War — A Post–Cold War Assessment. The New England Journal of Medicine.
MD
We assume that eight…

Scenario two is “limited nuclear war”


A limited nuclear would kill millions and escalate to counterforce strikes
Fetter 90
Steve, member of the U of Maryland faculty since 1988, serving as dean from 2005 to 2009, He is currently on leave
as Assistant Director in the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy,
http://www.publicpolicy.umd.edu/Fetter/1990-CSIA-NuclearPrimer.pdf
The “limited” war.. numbers of Soviet citizens.

Scenario 3 is escalation
Accidental launch of nuclear weapons is no small thing – Even limited escalation sets the stage to eradicate all
complex life
Starr 8

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Steven, Scientists for Global Responsibility, Autumn, SGR Newsletter, issue 36,
http://www.nucleardarkness.org/include/nucleardarkness/files/high-
General knowledge of… nuclear environmental treaty.

Contention 3 The Risk of Mistaken Launches


Accidental war is more likely than intentional war
Phillips 3
Alan, Physicians for Global Survival , An Introduction to No Launch on Warning
An interview with Dr. Alan Phillips in Hamilton, Ontario, June, http://www.web.net/~cnanw/nolowinterview.htm
At the present time… hasn't happened already.

Massive attacks are not possible neither side has a mutual interest in annihilating each other
Rosenbaum 8
Ron, Acclaimed Journalist Of The New Yorker, The New York Times Magazine, The Atlantic, Harper’s Magazine,
Vanity Fair, Esquire And Slate “A Real Nuclear Option For The Nominees Averting "Inadvertent" War In Two Easy
Steps”, May 9, 2008, Http:Www.Slate.Com/Id/2191104/Pagenum/All/
In Phase 1, he recommends… instant "inadvertent" use?

The only plausible scenario of a false attack is one based on a false warning – other causalities such as bad tech is
unwarranted
Abrams 98
Herbert L. Abrams - Faculty Member at CISAC, Accidental Nuclear War: A Post-Cold War Assessment Published by
New England Journal of Medicine, 1998,
http://fsi.stanford.edu/publications/accidental_nuclear_war_a_postcold_war_assessment/
A particular danger stems… Russian launch-on-warning protocols.

Even if war occurs having posture of hair trigger is worse because is worse because it degrades the rationality of
nuclear decision making
NAS 7
Executive Summary of the National Academy of Sciences Report, The Future of U.S. Nuclear Weapons
Policyhttp:www.armscontrol.org/act/1997_05/nas

"The nuclear command systems… hair-trigger is clear."

Contention Four Solvency


A policy of no launch on warning would solve the risk of accidental war, and is effective even if it isn’t reciprocated
Phillips 02
Alan, graduated with honours in physics at Cambridge University in 1941. He spent the rest of World War II doing
radar research for the British Army. After the war he qualified in medicine at Edinburgh University and specialized in
the treatment of cancer by radiation. He retired in 1984. His retirement activities have included the study of nuclear
armaments and the risks of accidental nuclear war., May, No Launch on Warning,
http://www.wagingpeace.org/articles/2002/05/00_phillips_no-launch.htm
To change from L-o-W… the change has been made.

A policy of No Low solves the risk of accidents


Phillips 02
Alan, graduated with honours in physics at Cambridge University in 1941. He spent the rest of World War II doing
radar research for the British Army. After the war he qualified in medicine at Edinburgh University and specialized in
the treatment of cancer by radiation. He retired in 1984. His retirement activities have included the study of nuclear
armaments and the risks of accidental nuclear war., May, No Launch on Warning,
http://www.wagingpeace.org/articles/2002/05/00_phillips_no-launch.htm
It is argued that the… weapons systems.

Retaliatory Launch Only After Detonation would be easily limited


Phillips, 03
Alan, Physicians for Global Survival , An Introduction to No Launch on Warning
An interview with Dr. Alan Phillips in Hamilton, Ontario, June, http://www.web.net/~cnanw/nolowinterview.htm
Q21: How easy… than a year.

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West Georgia Aff - GSU Quarters

Contention One:
Nuclear War planning specifying China has poisoned relationships and eroded trust
Pan Zhenqiang may 12 2009 “Nuclear Weapons in a Changing Security Environment in North East Asia”

“The second characteristic feature of the US new nuclear” and “confidence and trust among states”

This U.S. analysis of China is based on unquestioned assumptions which legitimate politics and constructs the reality it
imagines
Chengxin pan 2004 “The china therat in American self-imagination: the discursive construction of other as power
politics”

“China and its relationship with the” and "by those common positivist assumptions.”

Contention Two: Mission Accomplished


Scenario one Securitization

Flawed neorealist assumptions define the mission of the US nuclear policy toward china identifying uncertainty as
threat and equating militarism to absolute security

Pan 4 “the china threat in American self imagination alternatives v 29 via google
“the discursive contruction of ….lacks necessary weights”

Attempts to regulate disorder inevitably fail to do anything but legitimate statist institutions and the escalation of
biopolitical violence
Bell 2005 online
“as an instrument of governance…or even humans”

Scenario 2

Covering up racialized thinking in ir has long been standard operating procedure for US policy in the pacific
Furedi 98 The silent war: imperialism and the changing perception of race
“the sentiment that it is best not to talk….subjects of this book “ pg. 73-5

In this way us nuclear war planning is best understood in the context of cultural conflict and manifest destiny
Pan 4 v. 29
“at this point it seems there has been…where can we not prevail”

Objectified in war planning, china becomes the other, an orientalist move by us policy makers
Pan 4 Alternatives v. 29
“by now it seems clear that….become they accordingly”

This form of threat construction is racism


Robins 93 11 Cardozo arts&ent lj 387
“these questions raise the deep the …..suffocated or swamped”

Rejecting racism is a moral imperative which outweighs all other impacts conflict and destruction are inevitable within a
society that allows it
Memmi 2000 Racism, p. 165
“of course, this is debatable…..but the stakes are also irrestibile”

Foreign policy estabilishes a basis from which one can view differences as otherness and commit violence of
neutralize it because of its an ethical prsenation
Campbell 1998 pg. 70-71
“all meaning is constituted….representation of danger”

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The activity of calculation with the calm turns life into a process of death work. The lue of ultimate power sexualizes the
activity of calculation the lure of utilmate you we supposed
Walter davis Deracarationpg. 76-9

“though tank it is abolutely….shatterer of worlds

Plan The usfg should eliminate present targeting plans against china from its nuclear arenal

Contention 3 Vote Aff

Substantially limiting the role of its nuclear arenal is great place to start
Hans Kristensen et al 2006 Chinese nuclear forces and us nucearplanning
The pentagon often depctts…..role if its nuclear weapons in its security policy

Eliminating preset dargete

NRDC 2998
“the united states should eliminate” and “process for flexible planning”

The aff is the crucil supplement to status quo quantitative reductios

Zhenqiang 99 pdf online


“a momentum seems …..and other related aspects at the same time

Curtailing the mission of targeting china in nuclear war planning is the best option

Kristenson and Norris and delrich


“united states and russ-or
“china likewise might, if the united stated, the nuclear mission”

China Aff – GSU Quarters


Contention One: The center of the target.

Nuclear war planning specifying China as poisoned relationships and eroded trust
Zhenqiang 09 [Major General Pan Zhenqiang Deputy Chaiirman, China Foundation for International Studies May 12,
“Nuclear Weapons in a Changing Security Environment in North East Asia”
www.pugwash.org/reports/nw/Paper_Pan_June09.pdf/
“The second characteristic feature … confidence and trust among states.”

This US analysis of China is based on unquestioned assumptions which legitmate power politics and constcuts the
reality it imagines.
Pan 4 (Chengxin, PhD Poli Sci and IR, Australia National Univ. “The China Threat” In American Self-Imagination: The
discursive Construction of Other as Power Politics” Alternatives: Global, Local, Political v29
“China and its relationship with the United States … rendered largely invisible by those common positivist
assumptions”

Contention 2: Mission Accomplished

Scenario 1: Securitization

Flawed Neo-realist assumptions define the mission of U.S nuclear policy toward China, identifying uncertainty as
threat and equating militarism to absolute security.
Pan 4 (Chengxin, PhD Poli Sci and IR, Australia National Univ. “The China Threat” In American Self-Imagination: The
discursive Construction of Other as Power Politics” Alternatives: Global, Local, Political v29
“Having examined how the “China Threat” literature … Islam is rather vague, and Iran lacks necessary weights).”

Attempts to regulate disorder inevitably fail to do anything but legitimate statist institutions and the escalation of
biopolitical violence

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Colleen Bell 05 (Biopolitical Strategies of Security: Considerations on Canada’s New National Security Policy
www.yorku.ca/yciss/publications/documents/WP34-Bell.pdf/
“As an instrument of governance, security operates quite separately … our ability to be citizens, democrats, or even
humans.”

Scenario 2: The ‘Other’ Mission

Covering up racialized thinking IR has long been standard operating procedure for US policy in the Pacific
Frank Ferudi 98 (Professor of Sociology at the University off Kent The Silent War: Imperialism and the Changing
Perception of Race pg 73-75
“The sentiment that it is ‘best not to talk about it’ … racial equality is one of the subjects of this book.”

In this way, US nuclear war planning is best understood in the context of cultural conflict and Manifest Destiny
Pan 4 (Chengxin, PhD Poli Sci and IR, Australia National Univ. “The China Threat” In American Self-Imagination: The
discursive Construction of Other as Power Politics” Alternatives: Global, Local, Political v29
“At this point, it seems there has been … radically different culture can be won, where can we not prevail?”

Objectified in war planning, China becomes the other, an Orientalist move by US policymakers
Pan 4 (Chengxin, PhD Poli Sci and IR, Australia National Univ. “The China Threat” In American Self-Imagination: The
discursive Construction of Other as Power Politics” Alternatives: Global, Local, Political v29
“By now, it seems clear that neither China’s capabilities nor intentions … ‘they’ become ‘they’ accordingly.”

This form or threat construction is Racism


Kevin Robins 93 (Professor of Geography, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, 11 Cardozo Arts & Ent LJ 387 ln)
“These questions raise “the deep, the profoundly perturbed … I will be suffocated or swamped.”

Rejecting racism outweighs all other impacts – conflict and destruction are inevitable within a society which allows it.
Albert Memmi 2k (Professor Emeritus of Sociology @ U of Paris, Naiteire, Racism, transl. Steve Martinot p 165)
“Of course, this is debatable. There are those who think … it is a wager, but the stakes are irresistabble.”

Text: The USFG should eliminate preset targeting plans against China from its nuclear arsenal missions

Contention 3: Vote Aff

Substantially limiting the role of its nuclear arsenal is a great place to start
Hans Kristenson et al, November 06 (Chinese Nuclear Forces and U.S. Nuclear War Planning published by the
Federation of American Scientists/Natural Resources Defense Council, google it)
“The Pentagon often depicts the Chinese military in general – and their nuclear forces in particular as looming threats
… advancing disarmament and nonproliferation goals by diminishing the role of nuclear weapons in its security policy.”

Eliminating preset targeting is key


NRDC February 08 (Toward true security: Ten steps the next President should take to transform U.S. Nuclear
weapons policy published by the Federation of American Scientists/Natural Resources Defense Council, google it)
“The United States should eliminate preset targeting plans … facilitate the development of options tailored to
unanticipated situations.”

The aff is the crucial supplement to status quo quantitative reductions


Zhenqiang 09 [Major General Pan Zhenqiang Deputy Chaiirman, China Foundation for International Studies May 12,
“Nuclear Weapons in a Changing Security Environment in North East Asia”
www.pugwash.org/reports/nw/Paper_Pan_June09.pdf/
“A momentum seems to be gathering … qualitative and other related aspects of the issue.”

Curtailing the mission of targeting China in nuclear war planning is the best option
Hans Kristensen & Robert Norris & Ivan Oelrich April, 09 (From Counterforce to Minimal Deterrence: A New Nuclear
Policy on the Path Toward Eliminating Nuclear Weapons published by the Federation of American Scientists & The
Natural Resources Defense Council, Occasional Paper no. 7)
“China, likewise, might, if the United States and Russia relaxed their postures … clear benefits from curtailing the
nuclear mission.”

China Aff – GSU Semis

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Contention One: Nuclear Missions should be reduced.


Nuclear war planning specifying China as poisoned relationships and eroded trust
Zhenqiang 09 [Major General Pan Zhenqiang Deputy Chaiirman, China Foundation for International Studies May 12,
“Nuclear Weapons in a Changing Security Environment in North East Asia”
www.pugwash.org/reports/nw/Paper_Pan_June09.pdf/
“The second characteristic feature … confidence and trust among states.”

This US analysis of China is based on unquestioned assumptions which legitmate power politics and constcuts the
reality it imagines.
Pan 4 (Chengxin, PhD Poli Sci and IR, Australia National Univ. “The China Threat” In American Self-Imagination: The
discursive Construction of Other as Power Politics” Alternatives: Global, Local, Political v29
“China and its relationship with the United States … rendered largely invisible by those common positivist
assumptions”

Contention 2: Mission Accomplished


Scenario 1: Securitization
Flawed Neo-realist assumptions define the mission of U.S nuclear policy toward China, identifying uncertainty as
threat and equating militarism to absolute security.
Pan 4 (Chengxin, PhD Poli Sci and IR, Australia National Univ. “The China Threat” In American Self-Imagination: The
discursive Construction of Other as Power Politics” Alternatives: Global, Local, Political v29
“Having examined how the “China Threat” literature … Islam is rather vague, and Iran lacks necessary weights).”

Attempts to regulate disorder inevitably fail to do anything but legitimate statist institutions and the escalation of
biopolitical violence
Colleen Bell 05 (Biopolitical Strategies of Security: Considerations on Canada’s New National Security Policy
www.yorku.ca/yciss/publications/documents/WP34-Bell.pdf/
“As an instrument of governance, security operates quite separately … our ability to be citizens, democrats, or even
humans.”

The activity of calculating with the bomb turns life into a process of death-work. The lure of ultimate power sexualizes
the activity of calculation itself, smearing life with the fear of death. The ideology of the bomb interpolates us into
obsessive excesses of scientific objectivity and intellectual masturbation out of fear of its absolute power.
Walter Davis 2001 (professor of English at ohio state, Deracination, New York, page 76-79
“Though Kant is deliberately ambiguous about it … fulfills all that is Unconscious-avid and atavistic-in the other.”

Scenario 2: The ‘Other’ Mission


Covering up racialized thinking IR has long been standard operating procedure for US policy in the Pacific
Frank Ferudi 98 (Professor of Sociology at the University off Kent The Silent War: Imperialism and the Changing
Perception of Race pg 73-75
“The sentiment that it is ‘best not to talk about it’ … racial equality is one of the subjects of this book.”

In this way, US nuclear war planning is best understood in the context of cultural conflict and Manifest Destiny
Pan 4 (Chengxin, PhD Poli Sci and IR, Australia National Univ. “The China Threat” In American Self-Imagination: The
discursive Construction of Other as Power Politics” Alternatives: Global, Local, Political v29
“At this point, it seems there has been … radically different culture can be won, where can we not prevail?”

Objectified in war planning, China becomes the other, an Orientalist move by US policymakers
Pan 4 (Chengxin, PhD Poli Sci and IR, Australia National Univ. “The China Threat” In American Self-Imagination: The
discursive Construction of Other as Power Politics” Alternatives: Global, Local, Political v29
“By now, it seems clear that neither China’s capabilities nor intentions … ‘they’ become ‘they’ accordingly.”

This form or threat construction is Racism


Kevin Robins 93 (Professor of Geography, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, 11 Cardozo Arts & Ent LJ 387 ln)
“These questions raise “the deep, the profoundly perturbed … I will be suffocated or swamped.”

Rejecting racism outweighs all other impacts – conflict and destruction are inevitable within a society which allows it.
Albert Memmi 2k (Professor Emeritus of Sociology @ U of Paris, Naiteire, Racism, transl. Steve Martinot p 165)
“Of course, this is debatable. There are those who think … it is a wager, but the stakes are irresistabble.”

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Foreign policy establishes a basis from which one can view difference as otherness and commit violence or neutralize
it because of this representation
David Campbell, 98 (professor of international politics at the university of Newcastle, Writing Security pg 70-71)
“All meaning is constituted through difference … sharpened by the representation of danger.”

Contention 3: A Brand New Hope


The aff is the crucial supplement to status quo quantitative reductions
Zhenqiang 09 [Major General Pan Zhenqiang Deputy Chaiirman, China Foundation for International Studies May 12,
“Nuclear Weapons in a Changing Security Environment in North East Asia”
www.pugwash.org/reports/nw/Paper_Pan_June09.pdf/
“A momentum seems to be gathering … qualitative and other related aspects of the issue.”

Problem-solution frameworks accept the status quo as a given, foreclosing radically transformative approaches in
favor of domination
Roland Bleiker 2k (Senior Lecturer and Coordinator of the Peace and Conflict Studies Program at Queensland,
Popular Dissent, Human Agency and Global Politics, pg 16-17
“Dissent in global politics is precisely about redirecting this path … shaping the course of contemporary global politics.”

Questioning the search for solutions opens up the space for alternative politics
William Chaloupka 92 (Associate professor of political science at the University of Montana Knowing Nukes pg 134-
135
“We could, at least, protest against the kind of selves produced in the modern era … enter the era of the puzzle.”

We are a critical deconstruction of the way nuclear weapons have taken over our lives and our politics. The 1ac
constitutes a challenge to the way nuclear weapons are written in a culture of fear.
William Chaloupka 92 (Associate professor of political science at the University of Montana Knowing Nukes pg 137-
138
“In Stanley Kubrick’s file Dr. Strangelove, the end of the world stands for hope … The laughing, cynical, fractal, ironic
cyborg – at last.”

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West Virginai Coffman/Powers (Critical-Patriarchy)


[Nick/Heather]

Observation One Inherency


1. Everyday around the world women, and by women we are including girls over the age of 6 and above, are subject to
grotesque violence solely because they are women. If the news report we are about to read shocks you or in any way
moves you, just remember its one of millions that is happens everyday. The United States Government has done little
to nothing to address this issue, while they continue to funnel billions of dollars a year into a failing and oppressive
nuclear weapons system. In order to make sure there was food for herself and her family Dina, at the age of 17, went
to the farm the crops she was abducted and raped by militia nearby, and left to die.
Nicholas D. Kristof and Sheryl WuDunn
Half the Sky: Turning Oppression into Oppurtunity For Women Worldwide
2009

In light of this ongoing violence against women Meghan and I advocate the following plan:

The United States Federal Government should substantially reduce the size of its nuclear weapons arsenal and
substantially reduce the role of its nuclear weapons arsenal by an unconditional disarm of its nuclear weapons arsenal

Funding and enforcement guaranteed, we reserve the right to clarify in cross-ex

Observation Two Harms

Harm One: Violence Against Women

A. The United States’ investments do not serve its citizens, or the citizens of the world. As humans we are homeless,
impoverished, and unprotected against the most basic and obscene crimes. While we are struggling to get by the
United States Federal Government is spending billions of dollars into an oppressive nuclear program.

OREPA 2006-2009
Oak Ridge Environmental Peace Alliance. Stop the Racism

B. While the United States Federal Government pours billions of dollars into it’s nuclear program they are not only
ignoring social issues they are creating a militaristic society with a tendency to weigh military impacts over the impacts
of everyday violence.

Callaghan 2003

C. Women around the world are under attack. The United Nations reports that one in three women around the world
will experience violent acts against them. This is not only an alarming statistic, but the fact of the matter is it denies
women full access to their lives. These violent acts only seem to increase in times of conflict and militarization.
Violence against women takes a back seat to the overarching fear of war, that is promoted by this militaristic society.

Cuomo 1996

D. Everyday violence, such as violence against women, encompasses all areas of society, which kills more human
beings than any instance of nuclear war that has happened in the past. This by far outweighs any nuclear war scenario
you could outline.

Gilligan 1996

Harm Two Nuclear Rhetoric

A. The United States’ continuation of nuclear policies produces a rhetoric that promotes patriarchal domination and
control

Carol Cohn and Sara Ruddick


A Feminist Ethical Perspective on Weapons of Mass Destruction
2003

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B. Nuclear Discourse is culturally constructed by male norms that perpetuate patriarchal practices.

Carol Cohn and Sara Ruddick


A Feminist Ethical Perspective on Weapons of Mass Destruction
2003

C. These patriarchal norms allow for the continued persistence of nuclear weapons. Until we disarm we will continue
the cycle of violence created by the persistence of nuclear rhetoric.

Observation Three Solvency

A. When nuclear weapons are present in society even if there is not a declared “war” going on, militarism continues to
run rampant. Through a complete disarm there would be a complete reduction of nuclear discourse.

Carol Cohn and Sara Ruddick


A Feminist Ethical Perspective on Weapons of Mass Destruction
2003

B. Only through a complete disarm with the United States begin to challenge the militaristic and patriarchal norms that
are prevalent in society. Not only would a disarmament be the way to challenge an existence of patriarchy in status
quo, overall it is the best moral option that faces this years resolution.

C. A full on rejection of militarism will be a critical way we can challenge and denounce patriarchal practices that allow
for violence to persist in the status quo.

Observation Four
The Ballot

Meghan and I advocate that the ballot should be given to the team that best debates within this round. Our job as the
affirmative is to provide a topical affirmative that addresses important issues that affect our lives. Throughout our lives
as rural, white women we have experienced patriarchy at its finest, and through our academic studies of international
relations we have seen the impact patriarchy has on societies around the world. We are in no way claiming to solve for
every instance of patriarchy or for every person in the world. Meghan and I came to this resolution with a question of
how to find a way to challenge the dominance that exists in our world and how nuclear weapons policy perpetuates
that dominance. Meghan and I are also not claiming that every woman or every society has the same problems or
solutions. Through our individual experiences we are able to begin break this system of domination that perpetuates
gross abuses against humanity. Though we don’t necessarily believe that taking a stance against gender-motivated
violence and nuclear rhetoric necessarily makes us feminists, we will advocate global feminism in this round as the
best ideology to challenge patriarchy.

Bring on your Feminism is essentializing, racist, and ignores intersections of oppression all you want. We are not and
should not be held responsible for forms of feminism we do not advocate in this round. Feminism is a theory that has
multiple different schisms within the discipline. We will not be held responsible for every piece of feminist scholarship
that has ever been produced.

Global Feminism is an ideology that works for women’s rights around the globe. Global feminism challenges patriarchy
as well as western domination in theoretical practice. Overall each person in the world will have different needs, and
understanding this intersection is the first step to challenging and dismantling patriarchy.

Chamallas 2003 Introduction to Feminist Legal Theory

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Whitman Edwards/Janyk (Critical) [Arif]

Whitman EdJa AFF outline:

Role Play 1: debate coach and pre-frosh discussing the rules of debate

Role Play 2: nuclear strategist and new PR rep discussing nuclear PR strategy

The focus on the nuclear gadget is a myopic gaze that distracts us from the role that nuclear weapons play, which is to
secure national prosperity. Museums, memorials and tourists events act as a replacement for actual weapons
accumulation that operate through the accumulation of bodies captured via the “State apparatus.”
Marc Lafleur, 2008, PhD student in anthropology at the University of Toronto. “The Bomb and the Bombshell: The
Body as Virtual Battlefront” Interculture 5.1.

Throughout New Mexico are signs of war’s techno-boom... This counter-proliferation is rooted, seemingly
paradoxically, in the recognition and proliferation of the body’s affective intensities, unassimilable moments of
becoming that mark out a new politics of potential

We only talk about nuclear war; it does not exist. It is the non-event without referent. Even speculations are only
specularizations creating fear and assimilation of the unanticapatable other. It is this fable of war that leads us to
stockpile and assimilate society and politics to the war effort.
Jacques Derrida, French dead white guy, Summer 1984, No Apocalypse, Not Now (Full Speed Ahead, Seven Missiles,
Seven Missives), Diacrtics, vol 14, no 2, Nuclear Criticism, p20-31, JStor.

Third reason...An invention because it depends upon new technical mechanisms, to be surer but an invention also
because it does not exist and especially because, at whatever point it should come into existence, it would be a grand
premiere appearance.

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**CTBT**
Boston College Benedict/Stacy (CTBT) (Rohan]

CTBT Affirmative – Horizontal & Vertical Proliferation Advantages

Contention One: Horizontal Proliferation

The NPT is collapsing now—2010 conference failure will spark global nuclear arms races and nuclear war
New Scientist, May 30, 2009:
[editorial,“Thanks for the blast, North Korea”, p.3]
Is a nuclear explosion ever good news? and need testing, and a test ban

NPT collapse will cause global proliferation—9 new states will go nuclear
Cirincione, Ploughshares Fund President, 2007:
[Bomb Scare: The history & Future of Nuclear weapons, Joseph, p.108]
Most nations would continue to and first time in some twenty years.

Rapid proliferation increases the risk of nuclear war in 5 ways—and the outbreak of a regional nuclear war in the
Middle East is a 5 in 6 probability
Allison, Harvard JFK professor and Belfer Center Director, 2006:
(The Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, Fall, Graham, p. 20-21)
Were a cascade of nuclear proliferation and regional nuclear war.

Regional nuclear wars will escalate to global nuclear war


Rogers, Professor of Peace Studies at Bradford University, 2008:
[New Internationalist, June, [Paul], p. http://www.newint.org/features/2008/06/01/warheads/]
The risk is that some time and devastation across much of the world.

Global nuclear war will cause a full blown Ice Age, ending in extinction
Helfand and Pastore, Physicians for Social Responsibility past presidents, 2009:
[U.S.-Russia nuclear war still a threat, March 31; Ira; John, p.
http://www.projo.com/opinion/contributors/content/CT_pastoreline_03-31-09_EODSCAO_v15.bbdf23.html]
Recent studies by the eminent and would become extinct.

Contention Two: Vertical Proliferation

Without US ratification, the moratorium on nuclear testing will collapse--China and other nuclear powers will resume
testing
Joseph, senior foreign policy staffer in the United States Senate, 2009:
[Washington Quarterly, April, Jofi, p. 85]
Obama’s national security team and . The time to move is now.

Breakdown in non-testing norm will lead to the proliferation of MIRVed weapons


McGrath, Monterey Institute for International Studies Research Associate, 2009:
[Issue Brief: Battle Lines Being Drawn in the CTBT Debate: an Analysis of the Strategic Posture Commission's
Arguments against U.S. Ratification, July 8, [Keegan], p. http://www.nti.org/e_research/e3_us_ratification.html]
The authors' assertion that there is no and that this breakdown could occur.

MIRVs enable counterforce targeting, increasing the risk of preemptive nuclear war
Karp, Professor at Old Dominion University and the U.S. Joint Forces Staff College, 2004: [Weapons of Mass
Destruction: An Encyclopedia of Worldwide Policy, Technology, and History, volume 2, eds by E. Coddy, J. Wirtz, and
J. Larsen, [Aaron], p. 225]
Individually too small to insure and in times of crisis (see Crisis Stability; Deterrence).

Nuclear testing and weapons buildup by India and Pakistan increases the risk of nuclear war
Nelson, senior scientist at the Union of Concerned Scientists, 2009:
[Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, March/April, Robert, p . 55]
In South Asia, both Pakistan and India and unstable nuclear arms race in South Asia.

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Renewed testing will allow China to MIRV weapons


Nelson, senior scientist at the Union of Concerned Scientists, observed in 2009:
[Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, March/April, p . 54-55]
For example, China is thought to possess and develop multiple-warhead missiles.

Chinese MIRVs increase the risk of a US-China nuclear war


Fuerth, Shapiro professor of international relations at George Washington argued in 2001:
[Washington Quarterly, Fall 2001, Leon, p. 105]
As for China, its resources may limit and with the Soviet Union.

Chinese nuclear buildup will cause instability and war in Asia


Chu & Rong, Tsingua University professor and PHD student, 2008:
[The Long Shadow: Nuclear Weapons and Security in 21st Century Asia, ed. by M. Alagappa, [Shulong; Yu], p. 182]
If China modernizes its strategic military and be both an “Asian century” and a peaceful century.

Therefore we offer the following plan:


The United States Federal Government should ratify and implement the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and
prohibit the development and deployment of any new nuclear warheads.

Contention III: Solvency

US ratification of the CTBT is key to achieving a successful 2010 NPT review conference and gaining support for
stronger IAEA safeguards and enforcement
Joseph, senior foreign policy staffer in the United States Senate, argued in 2009:
[Washington Quarterly, April, Jofi, p. 82]
In light of this recent discouraging history, and that violate their IAEA obligations.

US leadership is key to bolstering NPT norms and preventing proliferation by Iran and North Korea
Halperin, Center for American progress senior fellow, 2009:
[The Nuclear Order--Build or Break, April 6, Morton, p.
http://www.carnegieendowment.org/files/npc_build_or_break4.pdf]
PERKOVICH: Well, this – that actually leads to a and other countries and take their interests into account.

95% probability exists that China will ratify the CTBT after the US does
Matishak, Global Security Newswire, June 4, 2009,
[Nuclear Test Ban Could Become Reality Without North Korea, Experts Say, Martin, p.
http://www.globalsecuritynewswire.org/gsn/nw_20090602_5876.php]
"The CTBT is one of the best ways to further and China likely will follow suit.

CTBT prevents China from MIRVing weapons


Kimball, executive director of the Arms Control Association, 2009:
[Arms Control Today, May, Daryl, p. 3]
Indeed, the CTBT remains an essential and with multiple warheads.

IMS Global monitoring system will detect all militarily significant testing. That’s the conclusion of the National Academy
of Sciences.
Nelson, senior scientist at the Union of Concerned Scientists, 2009:
[Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, March/April, Robert, p. 55-56]
The CTBT is verifiable where it counts. And underground nuclear explosions.

Cavity decoupling is not feasible for countries without nuclear weapons and China and Russia would not gain militarily
significant information if they cheated
Sharp, Center for Arms Control and Nonproliferation, 2009:
[Corral that bomb testing, March 17, Travis, http://nukesofhazardblog.com/story/2009/3/17/115629/402]
Cavity decoupling involves constructing a cavity and We just know so little about it).

SSP will maintain the reliability and safety of nuclear weapons without testing—3 technical achievements over the past
10 years proves effectiveness
Drell, Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory, 2009:

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[The Future of the CTBT, April 7, Sidney, p. http://www.carnegieendowment.org/files/npc_ctbt1.pdf]


I can tell you what I consider the main and significant advances in understanding.

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Emory Gordon/Jegadeesh (CTBT) [Rohan]

GSU Aff Disclosure


PLAN TEXT

The United States federal government should consent to be bound by the international agreement prohibiting nuclear
explosion tests.

Soft Power 1ac

Advantage 1- Soft Power


Obama improved the US image – but it isn’t translating into soft power – action on nuclear issues key

Ghitis 09 independent commentator on world affairs and a World Politics Review contributing editor

(Frida, World Citizen: Obama Must Parlay Soft Power Gains into Real Results, april 9)

When viewed through a wide lens, the tour …Obama will have to score more solid results.

CTBT ratification is the NUMBER ONE sign that we respect the international community, are committed to
multilateralism, and revamps soft power

Joseph 09 senior Democratic foreign policy staffer in the United States Senate

(Jofi, Renew the Drive for CTBT Ratification, The Washington Quarterly, Volume 32, Issue 2 April 2009 , pages 79 - 90

…. states reached the conclusion that ratification of the CTBT ‘‘would send a very strong signal’’ to demonstrate the
U.S. commitment to disarmament.

Nuclear issues are the best way to change the perception of US leadership – it shores up our soft power – that’s key to
solving a litany of issues

Stanley 07 PhD in the Walsh School of Foreign Service and Department of Government at Georgetown University

(Elizabeth A, , “International Perceptions of US Nuclear Policy,” independent research project for the Advanced
Concepts Group at Sandia National Laboratories, Feb,)
Seen in light of this wider debate about cooperation ..The strategic interaction is complex and incredibly difficult to
model.

Soft power & perception is key to effective leadership – builds alliances, checks counter-balancing, maintains domestic
support – multilateral co-op is the best internal link to solving terrorism

Jervis 09 professor of international politics at Columbia University.

(Robert, Unipolarity: A Structural Perspective, World Politics Volume 61, Number 1, January 2009
To say that the system is unipolar is not to argue that the … its leadership is benign.

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Terrorism causes extinction

SID – AHMED 04 Political Analyst

[Mohamed, http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2004/705/op5.htm]

…. nuclear pollution infects the whole planet, we will all be losers.

Commitment to multilateralism is vital to prevent counter-balancing and overstretch – which destroy US leadership

Grygiel 06 George H. W. Bush Chair in International Relations at Johns Hopkins University

(Jakub “Imperial Allies” Orbis, Volume 50, Issue 2 (ScienceDirect)

But the fact that the United States has achieved overwhelming …. detriment of American interests.

US decline won’t be peaceful – it’ll explode into global chaos & WMD conflicts – mending our image is vital

Brzezinski 05 National Security Advisor in the Carter Administration, Professor of Foreign Policy at Johns Hopkins
University

[Zbigniew “The Choice: Global Domination or Global Leadership” (p. 2-4)]

History is a record of change, a reminder that nothing endures indefinitely. It can …. power to enlist others in a
common effort to shape a more secure international environment.

Leadership stops multiple nuclear conflicts – solves all the worlds problems

Kagan 07 Senior Associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

Robert “End of Dreams, Return of History” Policy Review


(http://www.hoover.org/publications/policyreview/8552512.html#n10)]

Finally, there is the United States itself. As a matter of national … will provide an easier path.

Prolif 1AC

ADVANTAGE 2 - Prolif

US ratification is key – restores international prolif credibility, prevents future testing, stops horizontal and vertical
proliferation and creates hurdles to would be proliferators

GOODBY 4 – 7 – 09 Senior Fellow, Center for Northeast Asian Policy Studies at the Brookings Institute and a member
of the Bipartisan Security Group, Negotiated the Helsinki Accords with NATO, Vice Chair for the US during START
negotiations, chief US Negotiator for the Safe and Secure Dismantlement of Nuclear Weapons. 1st Heinz Award
Winner for Public Policy. Former Diplomat and Ambassador

[James, “Carnegie International Nonproliferation Conference on the Future of the CTBT,”


http://www.carnegieendowment.org/files/npc_CTBT1.pdf]

AMBASSADOR JAMES GOODBY: Thank you…. as realistic or possible. It’s that important.

Thanks.

AND – the internal links of credibility, barriers, & US leadership are vital to checking nuclear annihalation

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Cohn 09 Lecturer law, ethics and logic at the University of New York in Prague and advisor to a leading international
law firm in central Europe.

(William, A Call to Disarm, Australia.TO International Edition - Local and World News, may 19th)

The status quo, however, is unsustainable with ….. beef-up its nuclear weapons capacity.

And, Modernization – Ratification is key to halting a new round of modernization

Joseph 09 – senior Democratic foreign policy staffer in the United States Senate

(Jofi, “Renew the Drive for CTBT Ratification” http://ciaonet.org/journals/twq/v32i2/f_0016181_13955.pdf)

As Obama himself recognizes, the road to a …. multiple warhead ballistic missiles.10

Modernization efforts will spark global proliferation

Civiak, 2k nuclear weapons policy analyst of 24 years

(Robert, Managing the U.S. Nuclear Weapons Stockpile, July,


http://www.trivalleycares.org/ManagingStockpileReport.pdf)

The DOE Stockpile Stewardship Option (_) rates poor …. this problem.

AND – new mini-nukes lower the threshold and make nuke wars inevitable

Western States Legal Foundation, 2001

(Fewer But Newer: the Role of Nuclear Weapons in U.S. Plans for Global Military Dominance, Fall,
http://www.wslfweb.org/docs/fewerbutnewer.pdf)

Last year, the U.S. Congress passed ….t states which do not have them.8
And, TESTING – its inevitable – the impact is global prolif. US ratification jumpstarts the move to reverse the trend

PEDEN & HILL, 06 nuclear analyst and researcher for Greenpeace International; Felicity is the political adviser on
nuclear and disarmament issues for Greenpeace

[William, “Testing the Test-Ban Treaty,” United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research,
http://www.unidir.org/pdf/articles/pdf-art2489.pdf]

Without the CTBT’s entry into force, the damage caused ….: and this is where we should all be directing our energy.

And, GLOBAL NORMS – US action creates a norm that prevents prolif. AND – that is an independent internal link to
preventing conflicts from escalating

Graham and Kampelman 08 Ambassador, involved in the negotiation and/or review process of every major
international arms control agreement in which the United States participated between 1970 and 1997 and Ambassador
to the Conference on Security and cooperation in Europe from 1980 to 1984

(Thomas and Max, Nuclear Weapons: A n Existential Threat to Humanity, CTBTO Spectrum 1, September 2008,)

Sixty-three years ago last month, the beautiful ….. to live up to its potential.

Proliferation risks extinction. It probably doesn’t reduce conventional war but the benefits don’t justify jacking with the
human future.

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Krieger ‘9 (David, Pres. Nuclear Age Peace Foundation and Councilor – World Future Council, “Still Loving the Bomb
After All These Years”, 9-4, https://www.wagingpeace.org/articles/2009/09/04_krieger_newsweek_response.php?
krieger)

Jonathan Tepperman’s article in the September 7, 2009 ….. and his successors are more rational than Mr.
Tepperman?

Prolif uniquely contributes to war. Lack of rationality, bad C and C and short distances.

Cimbala ‘8 (Stephen, Distinguished Prof. Pol. Sci. – Penn. State Brandywine, Comparative Strategy, “Anticipatory
Attacks: Nuclear Crisis Stability in Future Asia”, 27, InformaWorld)

If the possibility existed of a …… or marginalization of major interstate warfare.

Nuclear prolif poses unique risks. Four reasons it could spread quickly and escalate.

Cirincione ‘7 (Joe, Pres. Ploughshares Fund and Senior Fellow and Dir. Nuclear Policy – Center for American
Progress, National Interest, “Symposium: Apocalypse When?” November/December, L/N)

Let me be clear: Nuclear proliferation is a real danger. ….. risks a return to the 1950s nuclear free-for-all.

Ere massively against proliferation – the catastrophic nature of our impacts demand 100% certainty before you would
vote against us

Busch ‘4 (Nathan, Visiting Ass. Prof. Public & Int’l Affairs – Center for Int’l. Trade & Security – UGA, “ No End in Sight:
The continuing Menace of Nuclear Proliferation”, p. 313)

While abstract theorizing can be found on both sides of …. of the policymaker, would lead to policy recommendations
that are more sound.

Deterrence is unstable. Failure is likely even with minimal deterrence.

Arbatov ‘6 (Alexei, PhD History and Dir. Center for International Security, Institute of the World Economy and
International Relations and Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Politics and Law, “Nuclear Deterrence and
Proliferation The Dialectics of “Doomsday Weapons””, 44:5, September-October, 35-60)

The enormous ambivalence of nuclear deterrence ….. all the diversity of political reality—or do nothing at all, taking
the chance that no retaliatory strike will take place. This makes it extremely likely that someone will unleash nuclear
war through miscalculation or a technical error.

Deterrence failure is likely, especially with new powers. Proliferation isn’t stabilizing.

Preston ‘7 (Thomas, Associate Prof. IR – Washington State U. and Faculty Research Associate – Moynihan Institute of
Global Affairs, “From Lambs to Lions: Future Security relationships in a World of Biological and Nuclear Weapons”, p.
29-31)

Essentially, the arguments raised by the pessimist school of ……. to force considering the use of nuclear weapons
(Snyder 1961).

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James Madison Brass/Deck (CTBT) [Rohan]

GSU Aff Disclosure


All of the JMU teams at GSU will be running some variation of this Aff.

Inherency

1) Testing is on the rise now- other countries are waiting on U.S. ratification of the CTBT in order to bring the treaty
and its inspections regime into force

The Economist, 6/4/09. “Making a Start”

But some things … not in the mood.

2) And despite Obama’s spring pledge at Prague, the U.S. has yet to ratify the CTBT. The votes just aren’t there and
there has been no rush to push the treaty in the status quo

PONI 9/10/09. Project on Nuclear Issues blog. “Top Chef CTBT,” Center for Strategic and International Studies. /sal
Can they get …very thorny issues?

Advantage – Iran/NoKo

Advantage ) is Iran and North Korea:

1) The CTBT is at the heart of America’s disarmament hypocrisy as a result the U.S. has alienated diplomatic talks
with so-called “rogue states”

Habib 4/8/09. Adam, is deputy vice-chancellor of research, innovation and advancement at the University of
Johannesburg.

“Africa; Springtime for Disarmament After Obama's Leap in Prague” Africa News. LexisNexis. [SAL]

PRESIDENT Barack Obama … US this year.

2) The CTBT is key to build the international coalitions necessary to boost diplomatic efforts on nuclear weapons
programs in Iran and North Korea

Berger 6/2/09. Samuel R. Berger was national security advisor from 1997-2001. He is co-chairman of Stonebridge
International. Sam Nunn is co-chairman of the Nuclear Threat Initiative and a former U.S. Senator. William J. Perry, a
professor at Stanford University, is a former U.S. secretary of Defense., Politico.com.
Let's be clear: …preventing nuclear dangers.

Advantage - Iran Module

Our first internal link is Iran:

a) Iran is willing to negotiate over its nuclear program now- it’s time to finally seal the deal

BBC News 9/8/09. “Iran 'to submit nuclear package'” /sal

Iran is preparing … its peaceful use.

b) The specter of Iran’s nuclear weapons program has set the world on high-alert. A Middle East arms race has
resulted, causing destabilizing, fast proliferation. This makes nuclear war inevitable.

Cirincione and Leventer 07. Joseph Cirincione is director for nuclear policy at the Center for American Progress and
the author of "Bomb Scare: The History and Future of Nuclear Weapons." Uri Leventer is a graduate student at the
Harvard University John F. Kennedy School of Government. "The Middle East Nuclear Surge," Int’l Herald Tribune
(8/21).

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Iran is …promoting their products.

c) A nuclear Middle East would not be stable- deterrence will be unable to prevent cascading proliferation, nuclear war
and nuclear terrorism

Kurtz 06. Stanley, Ethics and Public Policy Center senior fellow. "Our Fallout-Shelter Future," National Review (8/28).

Proliferation optimists, on …into nuclear confrontations.

d) Middle-East wars will escalate to global nuclear war

Steinbach 2002 (John; DC Iraq Coalition) “Israeli Weapons of Mass Destruction: a Threat to Peace”
http://globalresearch.ca/articles/STE203A.html
Meanwhile, the existence … a world conflagration."

e) And nuclear terrorism will cause global nuclear war and extinction.

Sid-Ahmed 2004 (Mohamed; Al-Ahram staff) “Extinction!” Al-Ahram Weekly issue no. 705 WBW
http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2004/705/op5.htm

What would be … all be losers.

Advantage – North Korea Module

Our second internal link is North Korea:

a) North Korea is ready to reopen diplomatic negotiations- every issue will be on the table

Sheridan 8/20/09. Mary Beth, staff writer “After Meeting, N.M. Governor Says N. Koreans Are Ready for 'Dialogue'”
Washington Post. /sal

In the latest … the U.S. government.

b) Failure of a peaceful, diplomatic deal with Pyongyang causes strikes on North Korea

Evans 07. Gareth Evans is chief executive of the Brussels-based International Crisis Group and a former foreign
minister and deputy Labor leader (Australia). “Maintaining anti-nuclear rage” The Canberra Times (Aug 17). Lexis.

Nobody wants to … long as we live.

c) Strikes will fail and independently lead to extinction

Choi 02. Kim Myong, Executive Director of the Center for Korean-American Peace, Tokyo, and the former editor of
People's Korea. “Agreed framework is brain dead: shotgun wedding is the only option to defuse crisis” Oct 24,
http://www.nautilis.org/for a/security0212A_Choi.html
The second choice is …second-class nuclear power.

d) And a strike on Korea will lead to a regional nuclear war that will draw in the U.S.

Chol, ’02 (Kim Myong, PhD in Political Science and Executive Director of the Center for Korean-American Peace. “The
Agreed Framework is Brain Dead,” http://www.nautilus.org/fora/security/0212A_Chol.html)
Three facts may … a million people."

Advantage – Multilateralism

Advantage _) is Multilateralism:

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1) Multilateralism is down now- the U.S. economic crisis has turned political attention inward as international
obligations are put on the back burner

Altman 8/09. Roger C., Chair and CEO of Evercore Partners. He was U.S. Deputy Treasury Secretary in 1993-94.
“Globalization in Retreat” Foreign Affairs, Jul/Aug (V.88, I.4).
The World Bank … quarter of the world.

2) CTBT ratification will be seen as a signal that the U.S. is committed to multilateralism

Joseph 4/09. Jofi Joseph is a senior Democratic foreign policy staffer in the United States Senate, Washington
Quarterly, April 2009, http://www.twq.com/09april/docs/09apr_Joseph.pdf “Renew the Drive for CTBT Ratification.”

First, a pledge …so much promise.

3) Multilateral cooperation leads to the end of nuclear war, and prevents the impacts to escalating environmental
destruction

Dyer 04. Gwynne, "The end of war," Toronto Star, LN 12/30/2004

War is deeply … existing state system.


Advantage – India-Pakistan

Advantage ) is India-Pakistan:

1) India is warming up to the CTBT now, but U.S. leadership on ratification is key to get India to actually sign it

BBC 3/25/09. “India calls for universal abolition of atomic weapons” BBC Monitoring South Asia – Political. LexisNexis.
[SAL]

Text of report … 2005, he observed.

2) Despite its harsh rhetoric, Indian leaders will not prevent the CTBT entry into force. Pakistan will follow India’s
ratification

Johnson 06. Rebecca, Executive Director of the Acronym Institute for Disarmament Diplomacy, London. “Is it time to
consider provisional application of the CTBT?” /sal

At the time … of Republican loyalty.

3) CTBT ratification slows down the ongoing Indo-Pak arms races and limits the chances for and lethality of any
exchange

Kimball 08. Daryl G. Kimball, Executive Director, May 2008, http://www.armscontrol.org/node/3300, The Enduring
Value of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and Prospects for Its Entry Into Force

The CTBT is … possible nuclear testing.

4) A full scale India-Pakistan nuclear war would break-out with other nations being drawn in causing extinction.

Helen Caldicott, Founder of Physicians for Social Responsibility, 2002 [The New Nuclear Danger, The New Press]

The use of … life on earth.

Plan Text

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Thus, we offer the following plan:

The United States federal government should ratify the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and support its
provisional ratification. Funding and implementation are guaranteed.

Solvency

The post-Bush political climate is the critical time; the other entry into force states will follow the U.S.’ lead

Kurosawa 8/4/09. Mitsuru, a professor at Osaka Jogakuin College who in spring was appointed president of the newly
launched Japan Association of Disarmament Studies. “Declaration praised for clear visions on nuclear policies” by
Shinichi Yanagawa (editor), The Daily Yomiuri (Tokyo). /sal

Q: What is the … toward nuclear disarmament.

U.S. ratification is THE litmus test for global nonproliferation efforts by creating a strong international norm. In
particular, it will strip any benefit of a nuclear program for states like North Korea and India

Perry and Scowcroft 09. William J., Secretary of Defense under Clinton and Brent, National Security Advisor to Ford
and George HW Bush. “U.S. Nuclear Weapons Policy- Independent Task Force Report No. 62” Council on Foreign
Relations (Spring). /sal

The CTBT’s entry … technical benefits discussed.

Provisional ratification bolsters the legal authority of the treaty and will bring non-signatories in during the transitory
stage

Johnson 06. Rebecca, Executive Director of the Acronym Institute for Disarmament Diplomacy, London. “Is it time to
consider provisional application of the CTBT?” /sal
Unlike in 1999 … UN General Assembly:8 1.

Synergies within the monitoring system solves cheating and verification

Shalikashvili 01. General John M. (USA, ret.), Special Advisor to the President and the Secretary of State for the
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.“Letter to the President and Report on the Findings and Recommendations
Concerning the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty” (Jan. 4).

How Big a Problem is Evasion?… might not uncover.

The CTBT is a key candidate for provisional ratification

Johnson 06. Rebecca, Executive Director of the Acronym Institute for Disarmament Diplomacy, London. “Is it time to
consider provisional application of the CTBT?” /sal
With regard to … are less ideological.

The CTBT is fully verifiable- synergies among monitoring tech means that cheaters will get caught

Shalikashvili 01. General John M. (USA, ret.), Special Advisor to the President and the Secretary of State for the
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.“Letter to the President and Report on the Findings and Recommendations
Concerning the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty” (Jan. 4).

How Big a Problem is Evasion?… might not uncover.

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James Madison Chaganti/Lowry (CTBT) [Rohan]

JMU CL
Round #5 KY
vs Team: Wake MS
Judge: Nick Ryan

Plan Text

CTBT – on caselist

1ac w/ cites

CTBT – prolif adv, multilat adv, Japan relations adv

2AC Tricks, Add-Ons

None

Answers to Off-case Arguments

Read impact turns to health care


James Madison CL

We ran this Aff primarily at Clarion- S.L.

Advantage 1 is Nuclear Testing:

The history of U.S. nuclear tests on indigenous populations in the Pacific show: nuclear testing disproportionately
affects women and children, as they are forced to bear the worst of the health impacts.
EVE Online 93. Ecofeminist Visions Emerging. "Pacific Women Speak" a discussion by Colleen M., Robin Z., Mary
Ellen B., and Cathleen M. on July 6, 1993 about Woman of Power by Darlene, Lijon Eknilang, and Chailang Palacios.
Fall 1990. /sal
http://eve.enviroweb.org/perspectives/issues/nuclear.html
This month we read …new cosmologies.

And the May 2009 nuclear test by North Korea is a contemporary metaphor for a system of international relations that
values physical security over the human and environmental security. Ratifying the CTBT will create a system of
international norms to prevent nuclear testing on a global scale.
Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom 5/26/09. WILPF was founded in April 1915, in the Hague, the
Netherlands, by some 1300 women from Europe and North America, from countries at war against each other and
neutral ones, who came together in a Congress of Women to protest the killing and destruction of the war then raging
in Europe. “Response to the Nuclear Weapons Test of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea).” /sal
http://www.wilpf.int.ch/statements/2009/26May2009_DPRK.html
The Women’s International …for thousands of generations

Out of the radioactive dust of nuclear tests, women’s movements have proven to be a powerful force in influencing
government policy. Their unique perspective is key to address for an patriarchical legacy of nuclear testing and to
prevent a continuation of testing in the future.
Watters 04. Kate, the environmental programs director and coordinator of the Central Asia Project at ISAR. “Women
Lead the Way: Environmental Activism in Central Asia.” Institute for Soviet and American Relations.
http://www.isar.org/pubs/ST/Kate.html /sal
Soviet industrialization and …our civilization.

Perpetuating patriarchy makes nuclear war inevitable


Peterson 00. V. Spike, Prof of Poli Sci @ Arizona. “Global Gender Issues: Revisited” 99.
Finally, gender sensitive…in the world

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Advantage 2 is Multilateralism:

1) Multilateralism is down now- the U.S. economic crisis has turned political attention inward as any duty towards
international obligations are put on the back burner
Altman 8/09. Roger C., Chair and CEO of Evercore Partners. He was U.S. Deputy Treasury Secretary in 1993-94.
“Globalization in Retreat” Foreign Affairs, Jul/Aug (V.88, I.4).
The World Bank … quarter of the world.

2) CTBT ratification will be seen as a signal that the U.S. is committed to multilateralism
Joseph 4/09. Jofi Joseph is a senior Democratic foreign policy staffer in the United States Senate, Washington
Quarterly, April 2009, http://www.twq.com/09april/docs/09apr_Joseph.pdf “Renew the Drive for CTBT Ratification.”
First, a pledge … so much promise.

3) Post the plan, multilateral cooperation will be capable of ending the dangerous spread of weapons and war, as well
as the negative environmental impacts associated with them
Dyer 04. Gwynne, "The end of war," Toronto Star, LN 12/30/2004
War is deeply …the existing state system.

Thus we advocate the following plan:


The United States federal government should ratify and implement the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.

We being with the observation that the belief that America’s past requires a rejection of America’s future destroys any
hope of political change and obliterates national pride
Rorty, 1999
(Richard, Professor Emeritus of Comparative Literature and, by courtesy, of Philosophy at Stanford University,
Achieving Our Country) MKD
One does not … national hope.

Rejecting the stats quo trivialization of gendered issues is essential to the broader struggle against gendered violence
– concerns for political consequences assure the continued erasure of violence.
Enloe, 04
(Research Professor – Clark University, The Curious Feminist, Google Book)
Thus we need … to add "lesbian").

Don’t discard these lives in favor of a constructed off case scenario. To label the status quo as "peaceful." We must
challenge this domination and objectification wherever it occurs.
Ray, 97
(Law Clerk to the Honorable Clyde H. Hamilton, United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, Feb46 Am. U.L.
Rev. 793)
Because, as currently … silence women. 268

Race and gender can’t be an either/or proposition – to do so silences women of color


Crenshaw 1991 [Kimberlé Williams, Law Professor, UCLA, “Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics,
and Violence Against Women of Color,” Stanford Law Review, http://www.wcsap.org/Events/Workshop07/mapping-
margins.pdf http://www.wcsap.org/Events/Workshop07/mapping-margins.pdf ]
The problem with …that resists telling.

Failure to adopt an intersectional approach reproduces BOTH racist subordination of people of color and sexist
subordination of women
Crenshaw 1991 [Kimberlé Williams, Law Professor, UCLA, “Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics,
and Violence Against Women of Color,” Stanford Law Review, http://www.wcsap.org/Events/Workshop07/mapping-
margins.pdf http://www.wcsap.org/Events/Workshop07/mapping-margins.pdf ]

Among the … women of color.

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GSU Aff Disclosure


All of the JMU teams at GSU will be running some variation of this Aff.

Inherency

1) Testing is on the rise now- other countries are waiting on U.S. ratification of the CTBT in order to bring the treaty
and its inspections regime into force

The Economist, 6/4/09. “Making a Start”

But some things … not in the mood.

2) And despite Obama’s spring pledge at Prague, the U.S. has yet to ratify the CTBT. The votes just aren’t there and
there has been no rush to push the treaty in the status quo

PONI 9/10/09. Project on Nuclear Issues blog. “Top Chef CTBT,” Center for Strategic and International Studies. /sal
Can they get …very thorny issues?

Advantage – Iran/NoKo

Advantage ) is Iran and North Korea:

1) The CTBT is at the heart of America’s disarmament hypocrisy as a result the U.S. has alienated diplomatic talks
with so-called “rogue states”

Habib 4/8/09. Adam, is deputy vice-chancellor of research, innovation and advancement at the University of
Johannesburg.

“Africa; Springtime for Disarmament After Obama's Leap in Prague” Africa News. LexisNexis. [SAL]

PRESIDENT Barack Obama … US this year.

2) The CTBT is key to build the international coalitions necessary to boost diplomatic efforts on nuclear weapons
programs in Iran and North Korea

Berger 6/2/09. Samuel R. Berger was national security advisor from 1997-2001. He is co-chairman of Stonebridge
International. Sam Nunn is co-chairman of the Nuclear Threat Initiative and a former U.S. Senator. William J. Perry, a
professor at Stanford University, is a former U.S. secretary of Defense., Politico.com.
Let's be clear: …preventing nuclear dangers.

Advantage - Iran Module

Our first internal link is Iran:

a) Iran is willing to negotiate over its nuclear program now- it’s time to finally seal the deal

BBC News 9/8/09. “Iran 'to submit nuclear package'” /sal

Iran is preparing … its peaceful use.

b) The specter of Iran’s nuclear weapons program has set the world on high-alert. A Middle East arms race has
resulted, causing destabilizing, fast proliferation. This makes nuclear war inevitable.

Cirincione and Leventer 07. Joseph Cirincione is director for nuclear policy at the Center for American Progress and
the author of "Bomb Scare: The History and Future of Nuclear Weapons." Uri Leventer is a graduate student at the
Harvard University John F. Kennedy School of Government. "The Middle East Nuclear Surge," Int’l Herald Tribune
(8/21).
Iran is …promoting their products.

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c) A nuclear Middle East would not be stable- deterrence will be unable to prevent cascading proliferation, nuclear war
and nuclear terrorism

Kurtz 06. Stanley, Ethics and Public Policy Center senior fellow. "Our Fallout-Shelter Future," National Review (8/28).

Proliferation optimists, on …into nuclear confrontations.

d) Middle-East wars will escalate to global nuclear war

Steinbach 2002 (John; DC Iraq Coalition) “Israeli Weapons of Mass Destruction: a Threat to Peace”
http://globalresearch.ca/articles/STE203A.html
Meanwhile, the existence … a world conflagration."

e) And nuclear terrorism will cause global nuclear war and extinction.

Sid-Ahmed 2004 (Mohamed; Al-Ahram staff) “Extinction!” Al-Ahram Weekly issue no. 705 WBW
http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2004/705/op5.htm

What would be … all be losers.

Advantage – North Korea Module

Our second internal link is North Korea:

a) North Korea is ready to reopen diplomatic negotiations- every issue will be on the table

Sheridan 8/20/09. Mary Beth, staff writer “After Meeting, N.M. Governor Says N. Koreans Are Ready for 'Dialogue'”
Washington Post. /sal

In the latest … the U.S. government.

b) Failure of a peaceful, diplomatic deal with Pyongyang causes strikes on North Korea

Evans 07. Gareth Evans is chief executive of the Brussels-based International Crisis Group and a former foreign
minister and deputy Labor leader (Australia). “Maintaining anti-nuclear rage” The Canberra Times (Aug 17). Lexis.

Nobody wants to … long as we live.

c) Strikes will fail and independently lead to extinction

Choi 02. Kim Myong, Executive Director of the Center for Korean-American Peace, Tokyo, and the former editor of
People's Korea. “Agreed framework is brain dead: shotgun wedding is the only option to defuse crisis” Oct 24,
http://www.nautilis.org/for a/security0212A_Choi.html
The second choice is …second-class nuclear power.

d) And a strike on Korea will lead to a regional nuclear war that will draw in the U.S.

Chol, ’02 (Kim Myong, PhD in Political Science and Executive Director of the Center for Korean-American Peace. “The
Agreed Framework is Brain Dead,” http://www.nautilus.org/fora/security/0212A_Chol.html)
Three facts may … a million people."

Advantage – Multilateralism

Advantage _) is Multilateralism:

1) Multilateralism is down now- the U.S. economic crisis has turned political attention inward as international
obligations are put on the back burner

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Altman 8/09. Roger C., Chair and CEO of Evercore Partners. He was U.S. Deputy Treasury Secretary in 1993-94.
“Globalization in Retreat” Foreign Affairs, Jul/Aug (V.88, I.4).
The World Bank … quarter of the world.

2) CTBT ratification will be seen as a signal that the U.S. is committed to multilateralism

Joseph 4/09. Jofi Joseph is a senior Democratic foreign policy staffer in the United States Senate, Washington
Quarterly, April 2009, http://www.twq.com/09april/docs/09apr_Joseph.pdf “Renew the Drive for CTBT Ratification.”

First, a pledge …so much promise.

3) Multilateral cooperation leads to the end of nuclear war, and prevents the impacts to escalating environmental
destruction

Dyer 04. Gwynne, "The end of war," Toronto Star, LN 12/30/2004

War is deeply … existing state system.


Advantage – India-Pakistan

Advantage ) is India-Pakistan:

1) India is warming up to the CTBT now, but U.S. leadership on ratification is key to get India to actually sign it

BBC 3/25/09. “India calls for universal abolition of atomic weapons” BBC Monitoring South Asia – Political. LexisNexis.
[SAL]

Text of report … 2005, he observed.

2) Despite its harsh rhetoric, Indian leaders will not prevent the CTBT entry into force. Pakistan will follow India’s
ratification

Johnson 06. Rebecca, Executive Director of the Acronym Institute for Disarmament Diplomacy, London. “Is it time to
consider provisional application of the CTBT?” /sal

At the time … of Republican loyalty.

3) CTBT ratification slows down the ongoing Indo-Pak arms races and limits the chances for and lethality of any
exchange

Kimball 08. Daryl G. Kimball, Executive Director, May 2008, http://www.armscontrol.org/node/3300, The Enduring
Value of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and Prospects for Its Entry Into Force

The CTBT is … possible nuclear testing.

4) A full scale India-Pakistan nuclear war would break-out with other nations being drawn in causing extinction.

Helen Caldicott, Founder of Physicians for Social Responsibility, 2002 [The New Nuclear Danger, The New Press]

The use of … life on earth.

Plan Text

Thus, we offer the following plan:

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The United States federal government should ratify the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and support its
provisional ratification. Funding and implementation are guaranteed.

Solvency

The post-Bush political climate is the critical time; the other entry into force states will follow the U.S.’ lead

Kurosawa 8/4/09. Mitsuru, a professor at Osaka Jogakuin College who in spring was appointed president of the newly
launched Japan Association of Disarmament Studies. “Declaration praised for clear visions on nuclear policies” by
Shinichi Yanagawa (editor), The Daily Yomiuri (Tokyo). /sal

Q: What is the … toward nuclear disarmament.

U.S. ratification is THE litmus test for global nonproliferation efforts by creating a strong international norm. In
particular, it will strip any benefit of a nuclear program for states like North Korea and India

Perry and Scowcroft 09. William J., Secretary of Defense under Clinton and Brent, National Security Advisor to Ford
and George HW Bush. “U.S. Nuclear Weapons Policy- Independent Task Force Report No. 62” Council on Foreign
Relations (Spring). /sal

The CTBT’s entry … technical benefits discussed.

Provisional ratification bolsters the legal authority of the treaty and will bring non-signatories in during the transitory
stage

Johnson 06. Rebecca, Executive Director of the Acronym Institute for Disarmament Diplomacy, London. “Is it time to
consider provisional application of the CTBT?” /sal
Unlike in 1999 … UN General Assembly:8 1.

Synergies within the monitoring system solves cheating and verification

Shalikashvili 01. General John M. (USA, ret.), Special Advisor to the President and the Secretary of State for the
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.“Letter to the President and Report on the Findings and Recommendations
Concerning the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty” (Jan. 4).

How Big a Problem is Evasion?… might not uncover.

The CTBT is a key candidate for provisional ratification

Johnson 06. Rebecca, Executive Director of the Acronym Institute for Disarmament Diplomacy, London. “Is it time to
consider provisional application of the CTBT?” /sal
With regard to … are less ideological.

The CTBT is fully verifiable- synergies among monitoring tech means that cheaters will get caught

Shalikashvili 01. General John M. (USA, ret.), Special Advisor to the President and the Secretary of State for the
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.“Letter to the President and Report on the Findings and Recommendations
Concerning the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty” (Jan. 4).

How Big a Problem is Evasion?… might not uncover.

GSU Round 4
versus Trinity BH

2AC
TURN--Abdicating political engagement causes extinction
Boggs1997(Carl, Professor of Political Sience – National University, Theory & Society 26, December, p. 773-4)
The decline of the public sphere AND had vanished from civil society.75

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5. Turn - Life Affirming - nuclear death images reaffirm the value of human life – the only way to love is to experience
nuclear fear
Fox 1985 [Michael Allen , AND . Groarke) p. 127]
Nor can we rid ourselves of AND often the road to their transcendence.

7. Turn - Prevention – failure to imagine nuclear war causes denial and makes nuclear conflict more likely
Lenz 1990 [Millicent, Professor AND ) p. 9-10]
Since Americans have escaped the devastation AND moreover, takes a psychic toll.

8. TURN—Strategic decisions are inevitable. Dismissing risk calculus legitimizes neoconservative adventurism.
Freier 2007 (Nathan P. AND Assessment,” Strategic Studies Institute) Bankey
Risk in Webster’s is “the AND interests of equal or greater importance.

1. Violence is inherent in human nature – play, toddlers, violent fantasies and literature, sports, social metaphors and
self defense all prove

Pinker, 2002
Steven, phD from Harvard in experimental psychology, director of the Center for Cognitive Neuroscience at MIT,
Johnstone Family Professor of Psychology at Harvard, The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature”, p. 316-
317

Boys in all cultures spontaneously engage AND they learn not to aggress."44
Violence continues to preoccupy the mind AND AIDS, the War on Cancer).
In fact, the entire question AND from those of their vilified counterparts.

Even if representations shape reality, recognizing evolution is a better way to deal with representations – the
alternative is to give all power to elites and give up the attempt to expose falsehoods

Pinker, 2002
Steven, phD from Harvard in experimental psychology, director of the Center for Cognitive Neuroscience at MIT,
Johnstone Family Professor of Psychology at Harvard, The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature”, p. 217-
218

Recognizing that we are equipped with AND look good or to sell products.
But we can best protect ourselves AND to understand how they are promulgated.

Any theory which contradicts evolution will be destroyed


Pinker, 2002
Steven, phD from Harvard in experimental psychology, director of the Center for Cognitive Neuroscience at MIT,
Johnstone Family Professor of Psychology at Harvard, The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature”, p.
30/31
IN 1755 SAMUEL JOHNSON wrote that AND segregating them into a parallel universe.

AT: T
We meet they belong to the US
Kristensen 2005 (Hans M. AND Resources Defense Council, February) Bankey
The contradiction also colors NATO’s position AND S. nuclear weapons in Europe.

200 B61s now


Van Der Zwaan 2009 (Bob van der Zwaan, Ph.D., is senior scientist at the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands
and Columbia University's Lenfest Center for Sustainable Energy, “Nuclear Weapons in Europe: Time for
Disarmament?, Report for the Pugwash Conference, http://www.pugwash.org/reports/nw/time_for_disarmament.htm)
Bankey
The total number of US tactical AND

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in Europe anno 2009.[1]

US determines NATO policy


Diakov et. al. 2004 (Anatoli Diakov, Ph.D., Professor of Physics at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology
and since 1991 the Director, Eugene Miasnikov, Ph.D is a senior research scientist, Timur Kadyshev, Ph.D., senior
staff scientist at the Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies at the Moscow Institute of Physics
and Technology, “Non-Strategic Nuclear Weapons: Problems of Control and Reduction,”
http://www.armscontrol.ru/pubs/en/NSNW_en_v1b.pdf) Bankey
Though NATO official documents and statements AND , to include those in Europe"

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Liberty Dillard/Garrett (CTBT) [Rohan]

2AC Add-Ons
US ratification is key to prevent South Asian nuclear arms racing
Bureau of Arms Control, 10-8-1999
[U.S. Department of State Bureau of Arms Control, "CTBT: Regional Issues and U.S. Interests," Fact Sheet,
http://www.fas.org/nuke/control/ctbt/news/fs_991008_adherence.htm, accessed 10-9-9, mss]

India and Pakistan promise to adhere to the Treaty * At the UN General Assembly in September 1998, the Indian and
… U.S. rejects this treaty, Indian and Pakistani adherence could be all but precluded.

This causes rapid escalation to nuclear war


Fisher and Dori, Heritage Foundation Asian Studies Center senior policy analyst and research associate (respectively),
98
[Richard and John, "The Strategic Implications Of China's nuclear Aid To Pakistan," 6-16-1998,
http://www.heritage.org/Research/AsiaandthePacific/EM532.cfm, mss]

Because India will continue to grow in strength relative to Pakistan, … and could escalate rapidly from a conventional
conflict to an actual nuclear exchange.

This is the most likely global nuclear war


Fai, Kashmiri American Council Executive Director, 2001
[Dr. Ghulam Nabi, “India-Pakistan Summit and the Issue of Kashmir,” July 8, Washington Times,
http://www.pakistanlink.com/Letters/2001/July/13/05.html, mss]

The foreign policy of the United States in South Asia should move from the lackadaisical and … that is home to one
fifth of total human race. We will support any initiative that will bring Pakistan and India into greater harmony and
amity.

CTBT solves conflict and tensions that lead to Middle East war
Bureau of Arms Control, 10-8-1999
[U.S. Department of State Bureau of Arms Control, "CTBT: Regional Issues and U.S. Interests," Fact Sheet,
http://www.fas.org/nuke/control/ctbt/news/fs_991008_adherence.htm, accessed 10-9-9, mss]

Israel participated actively in the negotiation of the CTBT. Throughout those negotiations, the …about inspections.
Inspections will reinforce confidence about the benign nature of activities in the region.

Impact is nuclear war


Steinbach, Center for Research on Globalization, 3-2-2002
[John, http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/STE203A.html, accessed 2006ish, mss]

Meanwhile, the existence of an arsenal of mass destruction in such an unstable region in turn …) is not reversed soon-
for whatever reason- the deepening Middle East conflict could trigger a world conflagration."

Japan prolif 2AC


No chance of Japanese prolif-
A. Economic suicide
Mochizuki, George Washington University political science and international affairs professor, and GWU Elliot School
of International Affairs chair in Japan-U.S. Relations, 7-1-2007
[Mike, "Japan Tests the Nuclear Taboo," The Nonproliferation Review, informaworld, mss]
Such a move would also violate bilateral agreements that enable Japan to …sell uranium only to NPT member
states.38

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B. Feasibility- transparency and lack of testing ground prevent Japanese prolif


Endo, Atomic Energy Commission of Japan former vice chair, 8-23-2007
[Tetsuya, "How Realistic Is a Nuclear-Armed Japan?" Policy Forum Online,
http://www.nautilus.org/fora/security/07063Endo.html]
Technologically, Japan is capable of developing nuclear weapons …suitable place for such a test in Japan.

C. International standing
Furukawa, Japan Science and Technology Agency research fellow and Izumi, University of Shizuoka professor, 7-19-
2007
[Katsuhisa and Hajime, "Not Going Nuclear: Japan's Response to North Korea's Nuclear Test," Nautilus Institute,
http://www.nautilus.org/fora/security/07053IzumiFurukawa.html]
Perhaps even more importantly, Tokyo today aspires to enhance its diplomatic standing … against North Korea's
nuclear weapons programs.

Turn- strengthening the non-proliferation regime is key to prevent Japanese prolif


Campbell and Sunohara, CSIS International Security Program director, 2004
[Kurt, National Security chair and CSIS ISP director, former deputy assistant secretary of defense at the Pentagon
from 1995 to 2000, former director on the National Security Council in 1994, former associate professor of public policy
and international relations and assistant director for the Center for Science and International Affairs at the John F.
Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, and International Institute for Strategic Studies and Council on
Foreign Relations member; and Tsuyoshi, CSIS ISP visiting fellow, “Japan: Thinking the Unthinkable,” in The Nuclear
Tipping Point, mss]
The Japanese have long held that the best way …had to join the nuclear bandwagon.

Turn- CTBT is key to extended deterrence with Japan


Furukawa, Monterey Institute for International Studies’ Center for Nonprolif Studies researcher, 2003
[Katsuhisa, former Council on Foreign Relations research associate working on Japan, former Chief of Policy Planning
Staff at the Reform of Heisei, an NGO specializing in promoting political and economic reform in Japan, "Japan's
Nuclear Option: Security, Politics, and Policy in the 21st Century," Stimson Center, December,
http://www.stimson.org/pub.cfm?id=91, mss]
As noted before, the Japanese Foreign Ministry has continued to …Stockpile Stewardship Program will be steadily
pursued.
[Matt note: MOFA = Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs]

US-China ratification solves 6 party talks- leads to North Korean ratification


Choubey, Carnegie Nonprolif Program deputy director, 2007
[Deepti, 11-7, former director of the Peace and Security Initiative (PSI) for the Ploughshares Fund, formerly worked for
Ambassador Nancy Soderberg at the International Crisis Group, "A CHANCE FOR NUCLEAR LEADERSHIP," States
News Service, l/n]
China could conceivably be persuaded to do so …six parties -- the U.S. and China -- ratified the treaty.

U.S. ratification of CTBT key to getting China on board and that’s key to getting North Korea to ratify.
Arias, Nobel Peace Prize Winner, 2008
(Oscar., President of Costa Rica international spokesman for disarmament and democracy promotion. "The
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban T reaty (CTBT): The Way Forward", September 2008,
http://www.ctbto.org/fileadmin/user_upload/pdf/Spectrum/2008_Sept_spectrum11_p4-6.pdf). jt
China has openly indicated that it is looking towards the … the Six-Party Talks, particularly after the U.S. ratification is
secured.

Turn- solving North Korea is key to prevent a nuclear Japan


Kurosawa, Osaka University School of International Public Policy law professor, 9-1-2004
[Mitsuru, "Moving beyond the debate on a nuclear Japan," The Nonproliferation Review, informaworld, mss]
Given this tentative conclusion that a nuclear-armed Japan is very …Japan will not diminish and may even intensify.

Solving North Korea prevents Japanese prolif- removes the motive


Tomohiko, Australian National University Department of International Relations PhD candidate, 5-21-2009
[Satake, "Japan’s Nuclear Policy: Between Non-Nuclear Identity and US Extended Deterrence," Nautilus Institute,
http://www.globalcollab.org/Nautilus/australia/apsnet/policy-forum/2009/japans-nuclear-policy]

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It is highly unlikely that Japan will immediately … while maintaining its non-nuclear national identity in the years to
come.

No threshold- the broader alliance solves the link


Schoff, IFPA Asia-Pacific Studies associate-director, March 2009
[James L., Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis specialist in East Asian Security and non-proliferation issues,
"Realigning Priorities: The U.S.-Japan Alliance & the Future of Extended Deterrence,"
http://www.ifpa.org/pdf/RealignPriorities.pdf]
A key challenge is the fact that perceptions are …as long as the alliance remains strong.

India Relations 2AC


US-India relations are down now—nuclear deals being blocked by US with the G8—and the only way to solve this is
by ratifying CTBT
Sud, Investment strategies analyst, 9
Hari, 9/18, “New delays mar Indo-U.S. nuclear deal,” UPI Asia,
http://www.upiasia.com/Politics/2009/09/18/new_delays_mar_indo-us_nuclear_deal/8114/ rmg
Another setback for India was the call by … closing the door on the Indo-U.S. nuclear deal unless India signs the
CTBT.

US-India relations low now


Karthikeya, CSIS Hills Government Research Program, 9/28/09
Raja, “India's CTBT debate: Conviction or Confusion,” http://csis.org/blog/indias-ctbt-debate-conviction-or-confusion-
raja-karthikeya rmg
The U.S.-sponsored Security Council resolution on non-proliferation …non-existent "no first-use" policy respectively.

China will ratify if US does-backchannel talks have already confirmed


Gulati, Observer Research Foundation, 9
Sahib, Summer, “The US Domestic Debate on the Indo-US Nuclear Deal Under the Obama Administration:
Implications for India,” http://www.observerindia.com/cms/export/orfonline/modules/analysis/attachments/implications-
for-india_1253193126213.pdf rmg
There have been various speculations about the …any further complication of the nuclear deal.28

Link Turn—pressuring China on proliferation increases US-India relations


Karthikeya, CSIS Hills Government Research Program, 9/28/09
Raja, “India's CTBT debate: Conviction or Confusion,” http://csis.org/blog/indias-ctbt-debate-conviction-or-confusion-
raja-karthikeya rmg
And while India welcomed Obama's Prague speech and … sharing on this issue between the two governments.

No link—High level statements and US will just share test data with India to restore relations
Bagchi, Writer Times of India, 9/26/09
Indrani, “India to drive tough bargain as US pushes hard for CTBT,”
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/news/india/India-to-drive-tough-bargain-as-US-pushes-hard-for-
CTBT/articleshow/5057708.cms rmg
With Anil Kakodkar, secretary in the Department …if the right to test is signed away.

No impact—U.S. India Relations are resilient


Fernandes and Marks, India’s Defense Minister 2
[George and Simon, India’s Defense Minister and Special Correspndent, 2002, News Hour with Jim Lehrer August
29th]
George Fernandes: Our relations with the United States … more potential for growth as both sides learn to trust one
another.

T-Reduce 2AC
1. We meet- the CTBT prohibits nuclear tests and other nuclear explosions
Jonas, Counsel on Nuclear Strategy for DOE, 07
David, Adjunct Professor of Law, Georgetown University Law Center and George Washington University Law School,
“SYMPOSIUM: EXISTING AND EMERGING LEGAL APPROACHES TO NUCLEAR WEAPONS IN THE TWENTY-
FIRST CENTURY: THE COMPREHENSIVE NUCLEAR TEST BAN TREATY: CURRENT LEGAL STATUS IN THE

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UNITED STATES AND THE IMPLICATIONS OF A NUCLEAR TEST EXPLOSION,” NYU Journal of International Law
and Politics, l/n, rmg
The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) n1 prohibits … 136 have ratified it, the treaty still has not entered
into force. N3

AND 2 –A) Reduce is meaningless in the resolution without defining role or missions
B) Counter-interpretation- 15 Nuclear missions---we reduce multiple
Oelrich, FAS Strategic Security Program director, Jan 2005
[Ivan, "Missions for NuclearWeapons after theCold War," Occasional Paper No. 3, Federation of American Scientists,
http://www.fas.org/programs/ssp/nukes/non-proliferation_and_arms_control/missionsaftercwrptfull.pdf, mss]
Table 2
Nuclear Missions
1 Survive and … terminate a regional conventional war
Substantial means considerable in importance
thefreedictionary.com ("substantial", accessed on 8-18-09, http://www.thefreedictionary.com/substantial). jt
substantial (sb-stnshl)
adj.
1. Of, relating to, or …; well-to-do.
We meet- plan removes the option to test which exists to hedge against future uncertainties over long-term nuclear
weapons viability
3. Counter Standards
A. Aff ground- their definition forces the aff to concede the link to deterrence to be topical- means the aff can’t make
link turns or even defensive arguments- this skews the debate by forcing an unrealistic burden on the aff.
B. Education – CTBT is the most timely affirmative with the biggest lit base. It’s essential to any discussion of the NPT
because it’s an unfulfilled obligation under that treaty, which makes it the core of the topic.
4. Prefer reasonability—competing interpretations always moves the goal line and therefore never creates a
predictable topic.
5. Don’t vote on potential abuse its like a potential DA
6. Literature checks abuse—CTBT has the broadest lit base.

Kentucky Leadership Advantage


Obama’s international popularity is not translating into cooperation - soft power consolidation is necessary – more
concrete action on nuclear policy is key.
Ghitis, independent commentator on world affairs, 2009. (Frida., ": Obama Must Parlay Soft Power Gains into Real
Results", 4-9-09, http://www.worldpoliticsreview.com/article.aspx?id=3587). jt

When viewed through a wide lens, ...Obama will have to score more solid results.

Not ratifying CTBT has eroded our soft power and leadership– it makes us look hypocritical. Others perceive our
nuclear weapons policies more than anything else.
Stanley, professor of foreign policy at Georgetown, 2007. (Elizabeth., Ph.D. in political science. "International
Perceptions of US Nuclear Policy", independent research project for the Advanced Concepts Group at Sandia National
Laboratories, February 2007, http://prod.sandia.gov/techlib/access-control.cgi/2007/070903.pdf). Jt

Seen in light of this wider debate .... The strategic interaction is complex and incredibly difficult to model.
Ratification of CTBT will do more than any other measure to show the world that it respects the views of the
international community and that we’re committed to multilateralism.
Joseph, Policy Analyst Senate Foreign Relations, 2009.
(Jofi., "Renew the Drive for Ratification", The Washington Quarterly, April 2009, http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-
issues/nuclear-weapons/issues/testing/PDFs/09apr_Joseph%5B1%5D.pdf).

Senate ratification of the CTBT ...free of nuclear weapons must include the entry into force of the nuclear test ban
treaty.
Soft power is critical to effective US leadership – it builds alliances that prevent counterbalancing and sustains
domestic support. Resulting multilateral cooperation is necessary to deal with terrorism and every global threat

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Jervis, Professor of IR at Colombia, 2009. (Robert., Ph.D. from UC Berkley. "UNIPOLARITY: A Structural Perspective",
January 2009, Project Muse). jt

To say that the system is unipolar ... vision and believe that its leadership is benign.

Terrorism risks world war and extinction, even if it doesn’t work


Sid-Ahmed, 04

(Mohamed Sid-Ahmed, Al-Ahram Weekly political analyst, ’04, Al-Ahram Weekly, "Extinction!" 8/26, no. 705,
http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2004/705/op5.htm]
What would be the consequences ... infects the whole planet, we will all be loser

Credible adherence to multilateralism builds alliances that prevents counterbalancing and overstretch that would
destroy US leadership.
Grygiel, Professor of IR at John Hopkins, 2006. (Jakub., Ph.D. in political science. "Imperial Alliances", Orbis, Vol 50,
Issue 2, 2-8-09, Science Direct). jt

But the fact that the United States ...increasing that nation's sphere of influence to the detriment of American interests.

US decline won’t be peaceful – it leads to global chaos & WMD conflicts – mending our image is vital
Brzezinkski, Profess or foreign policy at John Hopkins, 2005 (Zbigniew., Ph.D. in International Affairs, former National
Security Advisor to Carter, and counselor at the Center for Strategic and International Studies., The Choice: Global
Domination of Global Leadership, Basic Book Publishing, pg 2-4). jt

History is a record of change, a reminder...in a common effort to shape a more secure international environment.

Kentucky IMS Advantage

Contention 3 is IMS
Quick entry into force is key to the effectiveness of the IMS – further delays risk collapse
Aust et al, Professor of engineering at George Washington, 2008
(Anthony, Deputy Legal Adviser of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, London and Legal Adviser of the UK
Mission to the UN in New York. Professor of Engineering at The George Washington University, focusing on
monitoring and verification systems, digital signal processing, controls and systems theory and information systems.
“A new look at the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty (CTBT),” International Group on Global Security, September,
http://www.ctbto.org/fileadmin/user_upload/pdf/External_Reports/A_New_Look_at_the_Comprehensive_Nuclear-Test-
Ban_Treaty.pdf) sjd
In addition to the political arguments put ... as States lose interest and decrease their funding.

5 meteors every year can be mistaken for nuclear weapons--IMS distinguishes meteors from nuclear explosions –
solving accidental nuclear war.
Clarke, in the Journal nature, 2002
(Tom, Association of British Science Writers Award for the Best Feature on a Science Subject in a Specialist
Periodical, “Microphones tell asteroids from A-bombs”, Nature, July 17,
http://www.nature.com/news/2002/020717/full/news020715-4.html) sjd
Free data from a global array of microphones ... tell just how many Tunguskas we can expect".

That results in extinction.

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PR Newswire, April 29, 1998, (Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, “NEJM Study Warns of Increasing Risk of
Accidental Nuclear Attack”)
An 'AnchorAnchoraccidental' nuclear attack would ... with billions of casualties worldwide

IMS is key to detect and prepare for volcanic eruptions.


CTBTO, 2006
(“Potential civil and scientific applications”, CTBTO Spectrum, Vol 8, July,
http://www.ctbto.org/fileadmin/content/reference/outreach/spectrum_issues_singles/ctbto_spectrum_8/p20_21.pdf) sjd
Besides its mandate, to monitor the potential occurrence ... tool to other, already existing, monitoring systems.
Volcanoes put over a billion people at risk – better monitoring is key to solve.
National Geographic, 2002
(“Volcanoes Loom as Sleeping Threat for Millions”, June 14,
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/pf/15889420.html) sjd
Researchers have estimated that more than one billion people... has erupted at least 15 times in the last 400 years.

IMS is key to nuclear forensics and attirbution


Aust et al, Professor of engineering at George Washington, 2008
(Anthony, Deputy Legal Adviser of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, London and Legal Adviser of the UK
Mission to the UN in New York. Professor of Engineering at The George Washington University, focusing on
monitoring and verification systems, digital signal processing, controls and systems theory and information systems.
“A new look at the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty (CTBT),” International Group on Global Security, September,
http://www.ctbto.org/fileadmin/user_upload/pdf/External_Reports/A_New_Look_at_the_Comprehensive_Nuclear-Test-
Ban_Treaty.pdf) sjd
The problem of identifying the attacker...however, until the Treaty enters into force

A nuclear terrorist attack on Russia is inevitable—nuclear forensics prevents it from causing US-Russia war.
Dunlop and Smith, Livermore Lab, 2006
(William, scientist at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories and Harold, distinguished visiting scholar and
professor at the Goldman School of Public Policy, University of California at Berkeley, “Who did it? Using international
forensics to detect and deter nuclear terrorism,” Arms Control Today, October 1,
http://www.armscontrol.org/act/2006_10/CVRForensics sjd
Although Washington has naturally focused on.......constituencies that appropriate action must wait until the evidence
is clear.

US-Russia war is the most likely scenario for extinction


Bostrom, Oxford philosophy faculty, March 2002
[Nick, “Existential Risks Analyzing Human Extinction Scenarios and Related Hazards,” Journal of Evolution and
Technology, Vol. 9, http://www.nickbostrom.com/existential/risks.html, mss]

A much greater existential risk emerged ...thwart humankind’s potential permanently.

GSU Aff Disclosure


Liberty DG 1AC Cites

Not enough votes to get CTBT to pass in the senate


Isaacs, Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, 2009

(John,” A strategy for achieving Senate approval of the CTBT” April, http://www.thebulletin.org/web-
edition/features/strategy-achieving-senate-approval-of-the-ctbt)

At present, there are 56 Democratic …finish line of a 10-mile hike.

Thus we offer the following plan:


The United States Federal Government should ratify and implement the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.

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Contention 1 is Global Ratification

Passing the plan leads to global CTBT ratification


McGrath, CNS (Center for Nonproliferation Studies) research associate, 09

[Keegan, 7-8, Monterey Institute for International Studies; James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies, "Battle
Lines Being Drawn in the CTBT Debate: an Analysis of the Strategic Posture Commission's Arguments against U.S.
Ratification," http://www.nti.org/e_research/e3_us_ratification.html, mss]

Although maintaining that the treaty is held up in … in the architecture of the nonproliferation regime.

U.S. ratification of CTBT is key to getting China, India, Pakistan, and Israel on board
Choubey, deputy director of Nonproliferation, 2009.

(Deepti., "April Perspectives from CTBTO", April 2009,


http://www.ctbto.org/fileadmin/user_upload/pdf/Spectrum/2009/2009_April_Spectrum12_p10-11.pdf). jt

Almost counter-intuitively, senators … could help with security-building.

If it came down to just a few holdouts the ratification rules would be amended
McGrath, CNS (Center for Nonproliferation Studies) research associate, 09

[Keegan, 7-8, Monterey Institute for International Studies; James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies, "Battle
Lines Being Drawn in the CTBT Debate: an Analysis of the Strategic Posture Commission's Arguments against U.S.
Ratification," http://www.nti.org/e_research/e3_us_ratification.html, mss]

Although the likelihood of such … of the entry into force requirements.

Contention 2 is Proliferation

A) Internal Links
US ratification of CTBT strengthens our ability for multilateral imposition of sanctions for non-proliferation
Aacton and Perkovich, associate and director of the Nonprolif program at Carnegie, 2009.
(James M., George., "Defending U.S. Leadership on Disarmament", 7-7-09,
http://www.carnegieendowment.org/publications/index.cfm?
fa=view&id=23354&prog=zgp&proj=znpp&zoom_highlight=CTBT+). jt

The US frequently finds itself … has recognized, except that of George W. Bush.

The international community has powerful non-proliferation sanctioning tools—consensus and will are key
Kanwar, Professor Loyola Law School, 09

Vik, LLM from NYU, “Two Crises of Confidence: Securing Non-Proliferation and the Rule of Law Through Security
Council Resolutions,” 35 Ohio N.U.L. Rev. 171, l/n rmg

The use of Chapter VII sanctions multiplied during …Security Council's power to enforce non- proliferation. n305

CTBT ratification solves US prolif leadership – key to stop prolif


Choubey, Carnegie Endowment Nonprolif deputy director, -2007

[Deepti, 11-7 former director of the Peace and Security Initiative (PSI) for the Ploughshares Fund, formerly worked for
Ambassador Nancy Soderberg at the International Crisis Group, "A CHANCE FOR NUCLEAR LEADERSHIP," States
News Service, l/n]

Whoever wins in 2008, the most …prevent the emergence of more nuclear weapon states.

CTBT ratification key to stop collapse of NPT starting with Article VI


Wable, J.D. from Brooklyn Law School, 2008

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(Kesav Murthy., "The U.S.-India Strategic Nuclear Partnership: A Debilitating Blow to the Non-Proliferation Regime",
Brooklyn Journal of International Law, Vol 33, Issue 719, 2008, l/n). jt

Contemplating the difficulties that … and threaten the very survival of the treaty itself.

NPT is critical to preventing proliferation it is the only possible framework for international cooperation
Thranert, Senior fellow German security policy group, 08
Oliver, Spring, “Would we really miss the nuclear nonproliferation treaty?” International Journal, rmg

The jury is still out on whether … the destabilization of international order.

B) Impacts
We’re on the brink of runaway proliferation- it’s already underway by at least 6 new countries and could be undertaken
by 40
Roche is National Nuclear Campaigner at Greenpeace UK 08

Pete “The Civil Nuclear Power Revival and Nuclear Proliferation,” May 2008 http://www.no2nuclearpower.org.uk
<http://www.no2nuclearpower.org.uk> )

The history of the International … weapons-useable plutonium and enriched uranium. [4]

And proliferation guarantees massive nuclear escalation and war – deterrence fails.
Utgoff, Institute for Defense Analyses Deputy Director, 2002

(Victor, “Proliferation, Missile Defence and American Ambitions,” Survival, vol. 44, p85-102, ldg)

Worse still, in a highly proliferated … of dead cities or even whole nations.

Contention 3 is Israel
Ratifying the CTBT before September 24th is key—UN non-proliferation conference chaired by Obama is a critical
global proliferation signal
Goodenough, CNS international editor, 09

Patrick, 9/9, “Test-Ban Treaty Advocates See ‘Window of Opportunity’ Opened by Obama,”
http://www.cnsnews.com/news/article/53698 rmg

Indonesia last June said that it … “nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament powerhouse.”

Getting international support for non-prolif is key to Iran sanctions—and meetings in September give the opportunity
Coats et. al. Former Senators, 09

Daniel, Charles Robb, Charles Ward, “Taking Iran Seriously,”


http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970203440104574402583170409334.html?mod=googlenews_wsj rmg

It is critical that Mr. Obama use … on Iran without international cooperation.

Without action on Iran by this September Israel will strike


Zenko, Council on Foreign Relations Fellow, 09

Micah, 8/30, “Israel has Iran in its sights,” LA Times, http://www.latimes.com/news/opinion/commentary/la-oe-zenko30-


2009aug30,0,7428703.story rmg

Iran has until late September to respond … U.S. permission, or even a warning.

Iran would certainly draw US into a war if Israel strikes


Wall Street Journal, 09

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8/30, “Israel, Iran and Obama,”


http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970203863204574348533106427974.html?mod=googlenews_wsj rmg

It's no wonder, then, that … into a larger Mideast war.

War with Iran will go nuclear, cause worldwide proliferation and conflict, and destroy the world
Hirsch, October 17, 2005

(Jorge E., professor of physics at UC San Diego, Ph.D. from UChicago, "Israel, Iran, and the US: Nuclear War, Here
We Come," http://www.antiwar.com/orig/hirsch.php?articleid=7649)

Once the U.S. enters the conflict, … an absolute certainty. Bye-bye, world.

Strikes on Iran would destabilize the Middle East—and cut off Strait of Hormuz
Hughes, Chicago geopolitics analyst at Examiner, 09

Michael, 9/9, “Examiner Bio Why bombing Iran's nuclear sites will not be easy,” http://www.examiner.com/x-4454-
Chicago-Geopolitics-Examiner~y2009m9d9-Why-bombing-Irans-nuclear-sites-will-not-be-easy rmg

So sophisticated is Iran’s intelligence … Hamas in Gaza to inflict damage in Israel.

Strait of Hormuz is key to global economy


Mead, fellow at council on foreign relations, 2008
(Walter, “Iran’s Provocation”, Wall Street Journal, 1-10-08, lexis)

The link between global freedom of … perhaps far greater than the Iranians expect.

Economic collapse causes nuclear war


Friedberg and Schoenfeld, Professor IR at Princeton University, 2008

(Aaron and Gabriel, visiting scholar at the Witherspoon Institute, “The Dangers of a Diminished America”, Wall Street
Journal, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122455074012352571.html)

Pressures to cut defense spending, … from internal travails with external adventures.

Contention 4 is multilateralism
CTBT is the single best policy for renewing multilateral institutions
Joseph, Policy Analyst Senate Foreign Relations, 2009.
(Jofi., "Renew the Drive for Ratification", The Washington Quarterly, April 2009, http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-
issues/nuclear-weapons/issues/testing/PDFs/09apr_Joseph%5B1%5D.pdf).

Senate ratification of the CTBT … CTBT ratification during his first term in office.

Multilateral institutions key to prevent nuclear war


Dyer, Ph.D. Military History U of London, 04
Gwynee, 12/30 ,“The End of War Our Task Over the Next Few Years is to Transform the World of Independent States
into a Genuine Global Village,” The Toronto Star, http://www.commondreams.org/views04/1230-05.htm rmg

War is deeply embedded in … within the context of the existing state system.

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Liberty Garrett/Woodruff (CTBT) [Rohan]

Liberty GW (Garrett and Woodruff)


Note: there was a team swap between Poapst, Turnage, Garrett and Woodruff at the Richmond tournament.
Information from GSU, Clarion and Kentucky applies to the team before the swap.

Richmond and Vanderbilt 1AC


Plan: The United States Federal Government should ratify and implement the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban
Treaty.

Contention 1: Proliferation

We’re on the brink of runaway proliferation- it’s already underway by at least 6 new countries and could be undertaken
by 40
Roche is National Nuclear Campaigner at Greenpeace UK 08
Pete “The Civil Nuclear Power Revival and Nuclear Proliferation,” May 2008 http://www.no2nuclearpower.org.uk )asa

The history of the International AND plutonium and enriched uranium. [4]

We’ll Isolate Four Internal Links

First is US leadership-it creates international support and barriers to prolif


Choubey, Carnegie Endowment Nonprolif deputy director, -2007
[Deepti, 11-7 former director of the Peace and Security Initiative (PSI) for the Ploughshares Fund, formerly worked for
Ambassador Nancy Soderberg at the International Crisis Group, "A CHANCE FOR NUCLEAR LEADERSHIP," States
News Service, l/n]

Whoever wins in 2008, the most AND for the next Congress and President

Second is NPT Credibility-CTBT restores faith and leads to a successful RevCon


Joseph, Policy Analyst Senate Foreign Relations, 2009.
(Jofi., "Renew the Drive for Ratification", The Washington Quarterly, April 2009, http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-
issues/nuclear-weapons/issues/testing/PDFs/09apr_Joseph%5B1%5D.pdf)

Senate ratification of the CTBT AND violate their IAEA obligations.

NPT collapse would end the nonproliferation norm resulting in massive proliferation.
Thranert, Senior fellow German security policy group, 08
Oliver, Spring, “Would we really miss the nuclear nonproliferation treaty?” International Journal, rmg

The jury is still out on AND destabilization of international order

Independently RevCon failure sparks a new wave of proliferation


Raghavan, President of the Centre for Security Analysis, 09
Director of the Delhi Policy Group and, Chennai. [V. R. Raghavan (Council member of the International Institute of
Strategic Studies, Adviser to the International Commission on Nuclear Non-Proliferation & Disarmament, Former
commissioner of the UN Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission, and Visiting fellow at CISAC, Stanford University
and the Henry L. Stimson Center), “Nuclear Abolition: Need for a Phased Plan,” Abolishing Nuclear Weapons: a
debate, Edited By: George Perkovich and James M. Acton, Adelphi Paper 396, 2009]

Should the 2010 NPT Review Conference AND United States give its allies.

Third is International cooperative action-CTBT strengthens multilateral cooperation against proliferators


Aacton and Perkovich, associate and director of the Nonprolif program at Carnegie, 2009.

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(James M., George., "Defending U.S. Leadership on Disarmament", 7-7-09,


http://www.carnegieendowment.org/publications/index.cfm?
fa=view&id=23354&prog=zgp&proj=znpp&zoom_highlight=CTBT+). jt

The US frequently finds itself trying AND , except that of George W. Bush.

Fourth, ratification is key to stopping a new round of modernization


Joseph, Policy Analyst Senate Foreign Relations, 2009.
(Jofi., "Renew the Drive for Ratification", The Washington Quarterly, April 2009, http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-
issues/nuclear-weapons/issues/testing/PDFs/09apr_Joseph%5B1%5D.pdf)

As Obama himself recognizes, AND fielding multiple warhead ballistic missiles.10

And, modernization efforts will spark global proliferation


Civak, nuclear weapons policy analyst, 2000
(Robert, Managing the U.S. Nuclear Weapons Stockpile, July, http://www.trivalleycares.org/
ManagingStockpileReport.pdf)

The DOE Stockpile Stewardship Option AND can only exacerbate this problem.

Next is the impacts

The impact is nuclear war-deterrence fails in a proliferated world


Utgoff, Institute for Defense Analyses Deputy Director, 2002
(Victor, “Proliferation, Missile Defence and American Ambitions,” Survival, vol. 44, p85-102, ldg)

Worse still, in a highly proliferated AND to bury the bodies of dead cities or even whole nations.

Prolif leads to nuclear war, accidental launch, and nuclear terrorism- prolif good arguments are wrong-optimists make
flawed assumptions and non-empirical theories.
Glenn, Chronicle staff, 9-2-3004
[David, "A Bomb In Every Backyard," Chronicle of Higher Eduation, ebsco, mss]

Mr. Busch has spent the last seven years—AND that means, if you ever had any doubt, that there's no good
proliferation.

Nuclear terrorism causes a full-scale nuclear war


Spiece, Associate @ Gibson, Dunn and Cruthcr Washington DC 2006 (William and Mary Law Review, February 2006,
lexis)

The potential consequences of AND and escalate to the use of nuclear weapons

That results in extinction.


PR Newswire, April 29, 1998
(Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, “NEJM Study Warns of Increasing Risk of Accidental Nuclear Attack”)

An 'AnchorAnchoraccidental' nuclear attack AND billions of casualties worldwide

Contention 2: Leadership

Obama’s popularity isn’t translating into cooperation. Soft power consolidation is necessary-concrete action on nuclear
policy is key.
Ghitis, independent commentator on world affairs, 2009.
(Frida., ": Obama Must Parlay Soft Power Gains into Real Results", 4-9-09,
http://www.worldpoliticsreview.com/article.aspx?id=3587).

When viewed through a wide lens AND have to score more solid results

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CTBT ratification is the NUMBER ONE signal that the US respects international community-revamps our soft power
and independently revives multilateralism.
Joseph, Policy Analyst Senate Foreign Relations, 2009.
(Jofi., "Renew the Drive for Ratification", The Washington Quarterly, April 2009, http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-
issues/nuclear-weapons/issues/testing/PDFs/09apr_Joseph%5B1%5D.pdf)

First, a pledge to work toward CTBT AND to demonstrate the U.S. commitment to disarmament

And, Multilateralism key to prevent nuclear war


Dyer, Ph.D. Military History U of London, 04
Gwynee, 12/30 ,“The End of War Our Task Over the Next Few Years is to Transform the World of Independent States
into a Genuine Global Village,” The Toronto Star, http://www.commondreams.org/views04/1230-05.htm rmg

War is deeply embedded in our history AND context of the existing state system.

Nuclear issues are key to change perception of US leadership-solves multiple issues.


Stanley, professor of foreign policy at Georgetown, 2007.
(Elizabeth., Ph.D. in political science. "International Perceptions of US Nuclear Policy", independent research project
for the Advanced Concepts Group at Sandia National Laboratories, February 2007,
http://prod.sandia.gov/techlib/access-control.cgi/2007/070903.pdf). Jt

Seen in light of this wider debate AND complex and incredibly difficult to model

Credible adherence to multilateralism builds alliances that prevents counterbalancing and overstretch that would
destroy US leadership.
Grygiel, Professor of IR at John Hopkins, 2006.
(Jakub., Ph.D. in political science. "Imperial Alliances", Orbis, Vol 50, Issue 2, 2-8-09, Science Direct).

But the fact that the United States AND influence to the detriment of American interests.

Maintenance of U.S. global leadership is vital to preventing numerous scenarios for nuclear conflict
Thayer, 06 (Bradley, "In Defense of Primacy," The National Interest, November/December 2006, p. lexis)

Throughout history, peace and stability AND solving the world's ills.

Passing the plan leads to global CTBT ratification


McGrath, CNS (Center for Nonproliferation Studies) research associate, 09
[Keegan, 7-8, Monterey Institute for International Studies; James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies, "Battle
Lines Being Drawn in the CTBT Debate: an Analysis of the Strategic Posture Commission's Arguments against U.S.
Ratification," http://www.nti.org/e_research/e3_us_ratification.html, mss]

Although maintaining that the treaty is held AND the architecture of the nonproliferation regime

CTBT is verifiable- North Korea proves the IMS solves AND clandestine tests would have no military value
Nelson, Union of Concerned Scientists senior scientist, 2009
[Robert, March/April Council on Foreign Relations senior fellow in science and technology, previously he worked on
technical arms control and nonproliferation issues in the Program on Science and Global Security at Princeton
University, "3 reasons why the U.S. Senate should ratify the test ban treaty," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, ebsco,
mss]

The CTBT is verifiable where AND nuclear weapons

Testing not key to maintain deterrence- SSP solves use computer testing
Perry et al., Commission on the Strategic Posture of the US chair, 2009

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[William Perry, 5-6, Stanford University professor and Preventive Defense Project co-director, former co-director of
Center for International Security and Cooperation, former Secretary of Defense; James R. Schlesinger, Commission
vice-chair, MITRE Board chair, consultant to the Departments of Defense and State, Defense Policy Board member,
and International Security Advisory Board member, American Academy of Diplomacy member, first U.S. Secretary of
Energy , former Secretary of Defense, former CIA director, former chair of the Atomic Energy Commission; AND Harry
Cartland, John Foster John Glenn, Morton Halperin, Lee Hamilton, Fred Ikle, Keith Payne, Bruce Tarter, Ellen
Williams, and James Woolsey, Congressional Commission on the Strategic Posture of the United States, "America’s
Strategic Posture: The Final Report of the Congressional Commission on the Strategic Posture of the United States,"
United States Institute of Peace, http://media.usip.org/reports/strat_posture_report.pdf, mss]

First, knowledge gained from past nuclear AND U.S. warhead safety and reliability.

2AC Add-On's

Middle East War


CTBT solves conflict and tensions that lead to Middle East war
Bureau of Arms Control, 10-8-1999
[U.S. Department of State Bureau of Arms Control, "CTBT: Regional Issues and U.S. Interests," Fact Sheet,
http://www.fas.org/nuke/control/ctbt/news/fs_991008_adherence.htm, accessed 10-9-9, mss]

Israel participated actively AND activities in the region.

Impact is nuclear war


Steinbach, Center for Research on Globalization, 3-2-2002
[John, http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/STE203A.html, accessed 2006ish, mss]

Meanwhile, the existence of an AND trigger a world conflagration."

Volcanoes
Quick entry into force is key to the effectiveness of the IMS – further delays risk collapse
Aust et al, Professor of engineering at George Washington, 2008
(Anthony, Deputy Legal Adviser of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, London and Legal Adviser of the UK
Mission to the UN in New York. Professor of Engineering at The George Washington University, focusing on
monitoring and verification systems, digital signal processing, controls and systems theory and information systems.
“A new look at the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty (CTBT),” International Group on Global Security, September,
http://www.ctbto.org/fileadmin/user_upload/pdf/External_Reports/A_New_Look_at_the_Comprehensive_Nuclear-Test-
Ban_Treaty.pdf) sjd

In addition to the political AND decrease their funding.

IMS is key to detect and prepare for volcanic eruptions.


CTBTO, 2006
(“Potential civil and scientific applications”, CTBTO Spectrum, Vol 8, July,
http://www.ctbto.org/fileadmin/content/reference/outreach/spectrum_issues_singles/ctbto_spectrum_8/p20_21.pdf) sjd

Besides its mandate, to monitor AND existing, monitoring systems.

Volcanoes put over a billion people at risk – better monitoring is key to solve.
National Geographic, 2002
(“Volcanoes Loom as Sleeping Threat for Millions”, June 14,
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/pf/15889420.html) sjd

Researchers have estimated that AND 15 times in the last 400 years.

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Kentucky Aff (Round 4) - Covert De-alert


Kentucky- Round 4 vs Mary Washington KS

Plan: The United States Federal Government should issue a top secret directive covertly removing all batteries from all
of its land-based nuclear intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarine-launched nuclear ballistic missiles.

Contention One: Inadvertent Launch


US inadvertent launch is inevitable now- 6 independent reasons

1. Unauthorized launches- high alert guarantees unauthorized launches- air force mistakes PROVE safeguards alone
are insufficient
Blair et al, US nuclear command-and-control expert and former nuclear launch control officer, February 2008
[Bruce, from 1970 to 1974, Dr. Blair served in the U.S. Air Force, serving as a Minuteman ICBM launch control officer
and support officer for the Strategic Air Command’s Airborne Command Post, World Security Institute president,
Global Zero co-founder, former Brookings Institution Foreign Policy Studies Program senior fellow, former project
director at the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment, "Toward True Security,"
http://www.fas.org/press/_docs/Toward%20True%20Security%202008%20.pdf, mss]
Maintaining forces on high alert also increases the risk of unauthorized launches
The military was unaware of the missing warheads for 36 hours.

Status quo barriers are embarrassing- launch officers test and defeat them out of boredom with simple ingenuity and
elbow grease
Rosenbaum, Slate columnist, 8-31-2007
[Ron, "The Return of the Doomsday Machine?" Slate Magazine, http://www.slate.com/id/2173108/pagenum/all/, mss]
One crew member even disclosed to me a flaw in the "command
American ingenuity! Can't beat it for finding a new way to end the world.

2. Human error- stress and mental breakdowns will lead to mistakes and war
Pikaev et al, Non-proliferation and Arms Reduction Center head, 2001
[Alexander Alexeevich, RAS IMEMO PMFC Non-Proliferation and Arms Reduction Center head, Assistant State Duma
Deputy, "De-alerting Russian and US nuclear weapons: A path to reducing nuclear dangers,"
http://www.ieer.org/russian/pubs/dlrtbk-e.html, mss]
The Role Of The Human Factor In Causing A War
it is precisely the human factor that constitutes the weakest link in the nuclear safety assurance system.

This is complicated by drug and alcohol use by launch officers


Boring, University of Washington computer science professor, 2001
[Alan, Dr. Borning's work with Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility resulted in a definitive analysis of the
role of computer failure in accidental nuclear war, "Computer System Reliability and Nuclear War," http://www-
ee.stanford.edu/~hellman/Breakthrough/book/chapters/borning.html, mss]
Another source of failure is human operator error.
about alcohol, drug abuse, and aberrant behavior among American military personnel with access to nuclear weapons.

3. Computer error- complex military codes are doomed to fail


Pikaev et al, Non-proliferation and Arms Reduction Center head, 2001
[Alexander Alexeevich, RAS IMEMO PMFC Non-Proliferation and Arms Reduction Center head, Assistant State Duma
Deputy, "De-alerting Russian and US nuclear weapons: A path to reducing nuclear dangers,"
http://www.ieer.org/russian/pubs/dlrtbk-e.html, mss]
Naturally, in the latter case, the level of nervousness
tragic consequences due to their intrinsic lack of reliability.

4. False warnings- the high rate of false alarms is not only intrinsically dangerous but demonstrates a significant
probability that false alarms will OVERLAP increasing their credibility- spurring nuclear war

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Phillips, physicist and radar technician, and Starr, nuclear engineer, May-June 2004
[Alan and Steven, "Let's go No-LOW," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, general onefile, mss]
The most likely cause of accidental nuclear war is "launch on warning"
when forces are placed on alert, the complexity of warning systems may not only cease to provide redundancy--it may
amplify mistakes. (6)

AND- Timing is key- high alert status reduces decision time forcing nuclear launch
Blair, US nuclear command-and-control expert and former nuclear launch control officer, 10-13-2007
[Bruce, from 1970 to 1974, Dr. Blair served in the U.S. Air Force, serving as a Minuteman ICBM launch control officer
and support officer for the Strategic Air Command’s Airborne Command Post, World Security Institute president,
Global Zero co-founder, former Brookings Institution Foreign Policy Studies Program senior fellow, former project
director at the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment, "A Rebuttal of the U.S. Statement on the Alert Status
of U.S. Nuclear Forces," http://lcnp.org/disarmament/opstatus-blair.htm, mss]
If their early warning assessment determines that a
would “drive the president inevitably toward [such] a decision.”[8]

5. Cyber attacks- electronic backdoors allow false launch orders and credible false-warnings
Rosenbaum, Slate columnist, 5-9-2008
[Ron, "A Real Nuclear Option for the Nominees," http://www.slate.com/id/2191104, mss]
So it's insanely short-fused as it is. But when I spoke to Blair in Washington last week
powerful argument for Blair's de-alerting proposals.

Motive and opportunity exists- sophisticated tactics easily overwhelm safeguards


Fritz, International Commission on Nuclear Nonproliferation and Disarmament researcher and former Army officer and
consultant, 2009
[Jason, master of international relations at Bond University, "Hacking Nuclear Command and Control," accessed 9-30-
9 via google cache, mss]
This paper will analyse the threat of cyber terrorism
could be enough to launch nuclear weapons on its own, without the need for compromising command and control
centres directly.

Easy to create appearance of detonation through EMP burst


Fritz, former Army officer and consultant, 2009
[Jason, International Commission on Nuclear Nonproliferation and Disarmament researcher, master of international
relations at Bond University, "Hacking Nuclear Command and Control," accessed 9-30-9 via google cache, mss]
Creating a false signal in these early warning
This could add pressure to the decision making process, and if coordinated precisely, could appear as a first round
EMP burst.

Some cyber-terror claims are exaggerated but these are real- lack of a unified preparation and difficulty of defending
against cyber-weakness prove
Fritz, former Army officer and consultant, 2009
[Jason, International Commission on Nuclear Nonproliferation and Disarmament researcher, master of international
relations at Bond University, "Hacking Nuclear Command and Control," accessed 9-30-9 via google cache, mss]
Despite the possibility of exaggerated claims
, there would also be considerable confusion as to the coordination of a relief effort (Carfano 2008, Lewis 2002).

Timing is key and makes it easy- cyber-deception need only be believable for 15 minutes
Fritz, former Army officer and consultant, 2009
[Jason, International Commission on Nuclear Nonproliferation and Disarmament researcher, master of international
relations at Bond University, "Hacking Nuclear Command and Control," accessed 9-30-9 via google cache, mss]
The US nuclear arsenal remains designed for the Cold War
would be equivalent to approximately 100,000 Hiroshima bombs (Blair 2008).

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6. Complacency makes the future is much more dangerous than the past
Martin, Stanley Foundation program officer, July 2008
[Matt, "Avoiding an Accidental Nuclear War," http://www.stanleyfoundation.org/articles.cfm?id=498, mss]
Common sense might indicate that better relations
succeeding in this new world will as well.

NEXT- is the risk calculus- you should give massive weight to the risk of accidental launch even if they severely
mitigate the case-
1. Probability- each risk factor builds on the other- in the end our chance of survival is no better than in Russian
roulette
Phillips, Physicians for Global Survival, April 2002
[Alan, retired physician who did radar research for the British army during World War II, "20 Mishaps That Might Have
Started Accidental Nuclear War," http://www.web.net/~cnanw/20mishaps.htm, mss]
The probability of actual progression to nuclear war on
of the trigger at Russian roulette played with a 6 shooter.

This flips presumption aff


FAS, 11-26-2007
[Federation of American Scientists Security Blog, "A Rebuttal to Brown and Deutch Op-Ed in the Wall Street Journal ,"
http://www.fas.org/blog/ssp/2007/11/a_rebuttal_to_brown_and_deutch.php, mss]
There would be some sense in holding defenders of the status quo to less stringent
effort to move toward a global prohibition on nuclear weapons.

2. General nuclear incompetence is the icing on the cake- multiple recent US incidents prove the risk is too high
Martin, Stanley Foundation program officer, July 2008
[Matt, "Avoiding an Accidental Nuclear War," http://www.stanleyfoundation.org/articles.cfm?id=498, mss]
Finally, three disturbing lapses in US nuclear weapons safety
making accidents more prone to occur.

AND- Accidental nuclear attack triggers global nuclear war


Pikaev et al, Non-proliferation and Arms Reduction Center head, 2001
[Alexander Alexeevich, RAS IMEMO PMFC Non-Proliferation and Arms Reduction Center head, Assistant State Duma
Deputy, "De-alerting Russian and US nuclear weapons: A path to reducing nuclear dangers,"
http://www.ieer.org/russian/pubs/dlrtbk-e.html, mss]
The capability of delivering a sudden massive strike on the SNF of the adversary
weapons which are maintained on alert, in an exchange of massive nuclear strikes.

AND- Even without intentional escalation US inadvertent launch triggers Russian doomsday machine- causes
automatic extinction response
Rosenbaum, Slate columnist, 8-31-2007
[Ron, "The Return of the Doomsday Machine?" Slate Magazine, http://www.slate.com/id/2173108/pagenum/all/, mss]
"The nuclear doomsday machine." It's a Cold War term that has long seemed obsolete
Its code name was Perimetr. It went fully operational in January 1985. It is still in place."

Zombie doomsday retaliation means an accident will trigger automated extinction


Thompson, Wired senior editor, 9-21-2009
[Nicholas, "Inside the Apocalyptic Soviet Doomsday Machine," Wired,
http://www.wired.com/politics/security/magazine/17-10/mf_deadhand?currentPage=all, mss]
Once initiated, the counterattack would be controlled by
one mistake that could end it all.

US-Russia war is the only scenario for extinction


Bostrom, Oxford philosophy faculty, March 2002
[Nick, “Existential Risks Analyzing Human Extinction Scenarios and Related Hazards,” Journal of Evolution and
Technology, Vol. 9, http://www.nickbostrom.com/existential/risks.html, mss]
A much greater existential risk emerged with the build
since it would not destroy or thwart humankind’s potential permanently.

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Even a one percent risk of extinction outweighs any impact or moral imperative
Bostrom, Oxford philosophy professor, July 2005
[Nick, Transcribed by Matt Struth, 4:38-6:12 of the talk at http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/view/id/44, accessed 2-2-
8, mss]
Now if we think about what just reducing the probability
people and ignore the potential that could be loss if people went extinct it should still have a high priority.

Contention Two: Solvency


De-alerting completely eliminates risk of accidents
Steinbruner, University of Maryland Center for International and Security Studies director, June 2009
[Dr. John, Arms Control Association board chair, "Reframing De-Alert,"
http://www.ewi.info/system/files/Steinbruner.pdf, mss]
Most individuals not embedded in the contemporary
establish much higher standards of protection against unauthorized access.

Battery removal is more successful than warhead removal without any of the security costs
Feiveson et al, Princeton Science and Global Security Program co-director, 1999
[Harold, Princeton's Nuclear Policy Alternatives Research Program co-principal investigator, Senior Research Policy
Scientist at Princeton University's Center for Energy and Environmental Studies, The Nuclear Turning Point: A
Blueprint for Deep Cuts and De-alerting of Nuclear Weapons, 118-125, mss]
They are therefore now considering other options, including
A third possibility would be to replace the aerodynamic missile nose cones with flat-faced covers, which would shelter
the warheads but not allow the missiles to fly a normal trajectory.

Missiles don’t fly without batteries


Dvorkin, Fourth Central Research Institute (Moscow) director, Feb 1999
[General Vladimir, recently retired from Russian Strategic Rocket Forces, now the Director of the Fourth Central
Research Institute in Moscow, which is responsible for strategic nuclear planning and policy. He is a top advisor to the
Russian Minister of Defense, General Igor Sergeyev and acts as a liaison to the U.S. military and the Department of
Defense, "Russian Roulette," http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/russia/debate/comments.html, mss]
While the essence of the proposal is that there are a number of technical measures which
the missile would not fly anywhere until those on-board sources of power batteries are replaced.

AND- there’s no risk of leaks-


No-drama-Obama doesn’t leak- he runs a tight ship
Tomasky, Guardian American editor, 9-27-2008
[Michael, Democracy: A Journal of Ideas editor in chief and The American Prospect contributing editor, "Wall Street
bail-out: US election briefing How McCain made a drama out of a crisis," The Guardian (London) l/n, mss]
As I write, Congress has yet to reach a deal on the Wall Street bail-out.
beyond legitimate disagreement, no leaking, no grandstanding. He's run a tight ship, and the mantra is credited with
having a lot to do with getting him this far.

Nuclear secrets are kept- intensified controls


Weeks and Holdrenis, Harvard Science, Technology and Public Policy professor, 2000
[Jennifer, Havard John F. Kennedy School of Government Managing the Atom Project director, and John, served on
the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Balancing Scientific Openness and National Security, "Energy's
secrets: Finding the balance," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, l/n, mss]
But the openness trend has been reversed. In response to possible leaks
restrictions on international cooperation at Energy Department laboratories.

TNW operations prove nuclear secrets don’t leak- we removed all our TNW from Britain in total secrecy
Borger, Guardian diplomatic editor, 6-26-2008
[Julian, "US removes its nuclear arms from Britain: Exit of 110 gravity bombs ends 54-year presence: Change
happened secretly over years, say scientists," The Guardian, l/n, mss]
The US has removed its nuclear weapons from Britain
It's so puzzling why Nato goes about the reduction in total secrecy. Keeping this secret completely undercuts our
foreign policy interests."

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Cold war security mechanisms ensure secrecy of classified decisions


Aftergood, FAS Project on Government Secrecy director, Nov/Dec 2000
[Steven, Federation of American Scientists Project on Government Secrecy director, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists,
"Secrecy is back in fashion," ebscohost, mss]
The dominant attitude of the 106th Congress to government
"original classification authorities"-that is, officials who were authorized to designate an item of information as
classified-totalled 3,846.

Atomic secrecy is categorically different and extraordinary


Cheh, GW associate law professor, December 1982
[Mary, associate professor of law at the George Washington University Law Center in Washington, "Secrecy: Why is it
Still With Us?" , ebsco, mss]
Imagine a law that declared an entire body of scientific
atomic energy secrecy is like no other government secrecy.

Even if we lose the leaks debate accidents outweigh- leaks makes their impacts inevitable:
Leaks makes their prolif and deterrence impacts inevitable
Weeks and Holdrenis, Harvard Science, Technology and Public Policy professor, 2000
[Jennifer, Havard John F. Kennedy School of Government Managing the Atom Project director, and John, served on
the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Balancing Scientific Openness and National Security, "Energy's
secrets: Finding the balance," Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, l/n, mss]
It is, of course, essential to protect nuclear secrets
by revealing what we know about other countries' nuclear programs.

Covertly de-alerting solves accidental and unauthorized launch and avoids dangerous re-alerting that turns the case
Podvig, Stanford Center for International Security and Cooperation Research Director, 2006
[Pavel, former Center for Arms Control Studies fellow, and Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists Board of Directors member,
"Reducing the Risk of an Accidental Launch," Science and Global Security, 14:75–115, http://iis-
db.stanford.edu/pubs/21283/14_2-3Podvig.pdf, mss]
Another consideration that should be taken into account is that attempts to
Should an accident occur, no launchers would be available for an immediate attack, allowing enough time to recognize
the error.

GSU Aff Disclosure


We’re on the brink of runaway proliferation- it’s already underway by at least 6 new countries and could be undertaken
by 40
Roche is National Nuclear Campaigner at Greenpeace UK 08
Pete “The Civil Nuclear Power Revival and Nuclear Proliferation,” May 2008 http://www.no2nuclearpower.org.uk
<http://www.no2nuclearpower.org.uk> )asa

The history of the International Atomic... plutonium and enriched uranium

We solve proliferation – Three ways.


1). U.S. Prolif cred - CTBT ratification restores US prolif leadership.
Choubey, Carnegie Endowment Nonprolif deputy director, -2007
[Deepti, 11-7 former director of the Peace and Security Initiative (PSI) for the Ploughshares Fund, formerly worked for
Ambassador Nancy Soderberg at the International Crisis Group, "A CHANCE FOR NUCLEAR LEADERSHIP," States
News Service, l/n]

Whoever wins in 2008… more nuclear weapon states.

U.S. prolif leadership is key to stopping prolif and helps progress for disarmament at the 2010 NPT review.
Perry et. al, fromer Secretary of Defense, 2009. (William., "Aamerica's Strategic Posture: The Final Report of the
Congressional Commission on the Strategic Posture of the United States", 2009,
http://www.usip.org/files/file/strat_posture_exec_sum.pdf). jt

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This is also an opportune… the 2010 NPT Review Conference.

2). NPT is collapsing now. CTBT ratification restores credibility for NPT
Kimball, Executive director of Arms Control, 2008
(Daryl, Aug 22. www.armscontrol.org/node/3300) sjd

Today, the 1996 Comprehensive…2000 NPT Review Conference document

NPT credibility is key to stop non-proliferation


Dhanapala, On the International Board at Martin Non-prolif center, 01
Jayantha, “The State of the Global Nuclear Non-Proliferation Regime: 2001,”
http://www.un.org/disarmament/HomePage/HR/docs/2001/2001May21_France.pdf

For their part… a safer world for everybody

3). International cooperative action against proliferators - CTBT strengthens our ability for multilateral imposition of
sanctions and other actions against proliferators.
Aacton and Perkovich, associate and director of the Nonprolif program at Carnegie, 2009.
(James M., George., "Defending U.S. Leadership on Disarmament", 7-7-09,
http://www.carnegieendowment.org/publications/index.cfm?
fa=view&id=23354&prog=zgp&proj=znpp&zoom_highlight=CTBT+). jt

The US frequently finds… except that of George W. Bush.

The international community has powerful non-proliferation sanctioning tools—consensus and will are key
Kanwar, Professor Loyola Law School, 09
Vik, LLM from NYU, “Two Crises of Confidence: Securing Non-Proliferation and the Rule of Law Through Security
Council Resolutions,” 35 Ohio N.U.L. Rev. 171, l/n rmg

The use of Chapter VII sanctions… to enforce non- proliferation.

Impacts -
Proliferation guarantees massive nuclear escalation and war and deterrence fails.
Utgoff, Institute for Defense Analyses Deputy Director, 2002
(Victor, “Proliferation, Missile Defence and American Ambitions,” Survival, vol. 44, p85-102, ldg)

Worse still, in a… dead cities or even whole nations.

Prolif leads to nuclear war, accidental launch, and nuclear terrorism- AND prolif good arguments are wrong- prefer our
empirical studies- optimists use bad research methodology and make flawed assumptions about rationality and
leaders learning the lessons of past conflict
Glenn, Chronicle staff, 9-2-3004
[David, "A Bomb In Every Backyard," Chronicle of Higher Eduation, ebsco, mss]

Mr. Busch has spent the… that there's no good proliferation.

Nuclear terrorism causes a full-scale nuclear war


Spiece, Associate @ Gibson, Dunn and Cruthcr Washington DC 2006 (William and Mary Law Review, February 2006,
lexis)

The potential consequences of the unchecked… the use of nuclear weapons.

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That results in extinction.


PR Newswire, April 29, 1998
(Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, “NEJM Study Warns of Increasing Risk of Accidental Nuclear Attack”)

An 'accidental' nuclear attack… billions of casualties worldwide

Contention Two – Israel

Ratifying the CTBT before September 24th is key—UN non-proliferation conference chaired by Obama is a critical
global proliferation signal
Goodenough, CNS international editor, 09
Patrick, 9/9, “Test-Ban Treaty Advocates See ‘Window of Opportunity’ Opened by Obama,”
http://www.cnsnews.com/news/article/53698 rmg

Indonesia last June.. disarmament powerhouse.

Getting international support for non-prolif is key to Iran sanctions—and meetings in September give the opportunity
Coats et. al. Former Senators, 09
Daniel, Charles Robb, Charles Ward, “Taking Iran Seriously,”
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970203440104574402583170409334.html?mod=googlenews_wsj rmg

It is critical that… without international cooperation.

Passing the plan leads to global CTBT ratification


McGrath, CNS (Center for Nonproliferation Studies) research associate, 09
[Keegan, 7-8, Monterey Institute for International Studies; James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies, "Battle
Lines Being Drawn in the CTBT Debate: an Analysis of the Strategic Posture Commission's Arguments against U.S.
Ratification," http://www.nti.org/e_research/e3_us_ratification.html, mss]

Although maintaining that the… the nonproliferation regime.

U.S. ratification of CTBT is key to getting China, India, Pakistan, and Israel on board – this solves for Middle East and
Asian arms races and increase regional security efforts.
Choubey, deputy director of Nonproliferation, 2009.
(Deepti., "April Perspectives from CTBTO", April 2009,
http://www.ctbto.org/fileadmin/user_upload/pdf/Spectrum/2009/2009_April_Spectrum12_p10-11.pdf). jt

Almost counter-intuitively… help with security-building.

Thus we offer the following plan:


The United States Federal Government should ratify the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.

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Liberty Poapst/Turnage (CTBT) [Rohan]

Liberty PT (Poapst & Turnage)


Note: there was a team swap between Poapst, Turnage, Garrett and Woodruff at the Richmond tournament.
Information from GSU, Clarion and Kentucky applies to the team before the swap. Both teams read CTBT at
Richmond.

GSU Aff Disclosure


Contention One: Inherency

Current NPR commitments maintain that nuclear weapons are still necessary for military options
Scott D. Sagan, CISAC Center for International Security and Cooperation co-director and political science professor. 6-
1-2009 (“The Case for No First Use” Survival 51:3, 163-182)jap

In his April 2009 speech … conventional military force’3.

Contention Two: Advantages


Advantage One: Proliferation

Proliferation is at its tipping point


Smith, Australian Minister for Foreign Affairs 08/09
(Hon Stephen Smith MP Australian Minister For Foreign Affairs “Building Momentum: Australia, Nuclear Non-
Proliferation and Disarmament” http://www.foreignminister.gov.au/speeches/2009/090812_tange.html) mee

Nuclear weapons continue … non state actors.

Proliferation happens fast-nuclear hedging


Levite, Fellow at CISAC 2003 (Ariel, Visiting Fellow at the Center for International Security and Cooperation (CISAC)
at Stanford University, “Never Say Never Again,” http://iis-db.stanford.edu/evnts/3863/LeviteAriel_2004-0513.pdf
<http://iis-db.stanford.edu/evnts/3863/LeviteAriel_2004-0513.pdf> )PRC

Japan provides the … the Middle East.

Current policy of calculated ambiguity makes a US nuclear response to perceived threats more likely.
Scott D. Sagan, Co-director of CISAC. June 1, 2009
(Scott Sagan is a professor of political science and co-director of the Center for International Security and Cooperation,
“The Case for No First Use” Survival 51:3, 163-182)jap

The Bush administration’s… chemical or biological attack.

We solve proliferation in four different ways:

First, NFU increases US Non-proliferation credibility-solves proliferation


Scott D. Sagan, Co-director of CISAC. June 1, 2009
(Scott Sagan is a professor of political science and co-director of the Center for International Security and Cooperation,
“The Case for No First Use” Survival 51:3, 163-182)jap

example emphasized that … against non-combatants21.

Second, NFU is key to international cooperation against potential proliferators, which also solves proliferation
Scott D. Sagan, professor of political science and co-director of Center for International Security And Cooperation.
June 1, 2009 (“The Case for No First Use” Survival 51:3, 163-182)jap

A US no-first-use … faces nuclear threats.

Third, NFU solves proliferation-changes international nuclear norms, and this is key to solve proliferation.
The Stanley Foundation 08

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(The Stanley Foundation “A new look at no first use of nuclear weapons,” August 22,
http://www.maximsnews.com/news20080822stanleyfdtnnuclearfirststrikedoctrine10808221601.htm
<http://www.maximsnews.com/news20080822stanleyfdtnnuclearfirststrikedoctrine10808221601.htm> ,) mee

Participants noted that …destruction against noncombatants.”

Fourth, a no first use policy ends possible US first strike-stopping adversary proliferation
Jan Lodal <file:///C:\Users\Owner\AppData\Local\Temp\%20\%20bio> , principal deputy undersecretary of defense for
policy and as deputy for program analysis at the National Security Council, March 2001(Pledging 'No First Strike': A
Step Toward Real WMD Cooperation http://www.armscontrol.org/act/2001_03/lodal)jap

Challenges to the …and rogue states.

And Impacts
First, Proliferation guarantees massive nuclear escalation and war-current deterrence fails
Utgoff, Institute for Defense Analyses Deputy Director, 2002 (Victor, “Proliferation, Missile Defence and American
Ambitions,” Survival, vol. 44, p85-102, ldg)

Worse still, in a … even whole nations.

Proliferation increases risk of nuclear terrorism, accidental launch, regional nuclear war and NPT collapse-culminates
in extinction
Cirincione, Director for Non-Proliferation at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2007 (Joseph,
“Symposium: Apocalypse When?”, National Interest, November/December 2007, lexis, ldg)

Let me be clear: Nuclear … nuclear free-for-all.

Nuclear terrorism causes a full-scale nuclear war


Spiece, Associate @ Gibson, Dunn and Cruthcr Washington DC 2006 (William and Mary Law Review, February 2006,
lexis)

The potential consequences…of nuclear weapons

Accidental launch causes extinction


PR Newswire, April 29, 1998, (Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, “NEJM Study Warns of Increasing Risk of
Accidental Nuclear Attack”)

An 'accidental' nuclear … casualties worldwide

NPT collapse causes nuclear war


Stares, vice president for conflict analysis and prevention US Institute of Peace, 2007 (Paul, “To Ban the Bomb, Sign
the Peace”, New York Times, January 30, 2007, lexis, ldg)

Of all the crises …to a nuclear war.

Advantage Two: Hegemony

A policy of first-use cripples US soft power globally.


Helfstein et al. 8 (Dr. Scott, Col. Michael Meese, Don Rassler, Maj. Reid Sawyer, Maj. Troy Schnack, Maj. Mathew
Sheiffer, Dr. Scott Silverstone, Maj. Scott Taylor, http://www.ctc.usma.edu/pdf/Terrorist_Deterrence.pdf)

In contrast to … outweigh potential benefits.

Soft Power is critical to maintaining public and international support for American hegemony
Daalder and Lindsay 3 (Ivo H. and James M., Senior Fellows in Foreign Policy Studies at the Brookings Institution,
Summer, http://www.brookings.edu/dybdocroot/views/papers/daalder/20030814.pdf)

The more others … mean very little.

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Maintenance of U.S. global leadership is vital to preventing numerous scenarios for nuclear conflict—loss of U.S.
power turns the case in numerous ways
Thayer, 06 (Bradley, "In Defense of Primacy," The National Interest, November/December 2006, p. lexis)

Throughout history… the world's ills.

Plan: The United States federal government should adopt a nuclear no first use declaratory policy

Solvency:

The time where threat of first use was needed is over. Current analyses of the role of nuclear weapons are narrow and
exaggerated. We must now adopt a nuclear weapons no first use declaratory policy.
Scott D. Sagan, professor of political science and co-director of Center for International Security And Cooperation.
June 1, 2009 (“The Case for No First Use” Survival 51:3, 163-182)jap

Is the threat … that deterrence fails’.

A No first use Declaratory policy enhances deterrence, reassurance, counterterrorism, and non-proliferation.
Scott D. Sagan, professor of political science and co-director of Center for International Security And Cooperation.
June 1, 2009 (“The Case for No First Use” Survival 51:3, 163-182)jap

Declaratory policy and … nuclear-weapons acquisition.

No-First Use would continue and enhance deterrence and extended-deterrence commitments
Scott D. Sagan, professor of political science and co-director of Center for International Security And Cooperation.
June 1, 2009 (“The Case for No First Use” Survival 51:3, 163-182)jap

Given the current …non-proliferation benefits.

No first use doctrines are credible-three reasons


Scott D. Sagan, professor of political science and co-director of Center for International Security And Cooperation.
June 1, 2009 (“The Case for No First Use” Survival 51:3, 163-182)jap

The second objection … be significantly enhanced.

GSU Round 5

Proliferation Good Frontline


Asian proliferation would occur quickly-rivalries and overreacting
Rosen, Professor of National Security and Military Affairs at Harvard University, 2005 (Stephen, “After Proliferation:
What to Do If More States Go Nuclear”, Foreign Affairs, September/October 2005, lexis)jap
Nuclear arms races might … by a nuclear Middle East

Chances of nuclear terrorism high-proliferation increases risk


Allison, Professor of Government Harvard University, 2007 (Graham, “Symposium: Apocalypse When?”, National
Interest, November/December 2007, lexis, ldg)
MUELLER IS entitled to his … way that it won't happen

Proliferation causes nuclear accidents-that destroys deterrence-3 reasons.


Sagan, professor political science Stanford University, 2003
(Scott, “The Spread of Nuclear Weapons: A Debate Renewed”, pg 74-75, ldg)
My own book, The Limits of Safety… organizational cover-ups

Health Care Frontline

Obama political capital will not pass health care-opposing crowd out
The Advertiser 9-17-09

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(Us health reform vital for Obama, LN)jap


In the United States, President Barack … space and crowd out more reasoned voices.

4. Turn-Addressing the first use of nuclear weapons is popular


Alexei Arbatov, Chairman of Duma Defense Committee, November 2008
(Alexei Arbatov, Deputy Chairman of the Duma Defense Committee of the State Duma in the Federal Assembly of the
Russian Federation, November 2008 “Non-First Use As a Way of Outlawing Nuclear Weapons,” International
Commission on Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament
www.icnnd.org/latest/research/Arbatov_NFU_Paper.pdf)jap
Reducing the role of nuclear … first use of nuclear weapons.

5. Obama needs a win to be able to pass health care-plan is the win*


Washington Times 9-8-09
(Kara Rowland, Obama faces critical test; He needs victory as poll ratings on decline, LN)jap
With health care, financial … Republican strategist Ron Bonjean said

6. Other issues take Obama’s political capital away from Health care-Iran, Iraq, and Afghanistan
Washington Post 8-30-09
(David S Broder, A Scary Season for Obama, LN)jap
He launched a series of ambitious … broad support at home, is increasingly unpopular.

Security K Frontline

There are a number of possible …be wished away. (R. Walker 1997: 76)

2. Ethical policymaking must be grounded in consequences


Jeffrey C. Isaac, Indiana University James H. Rudy Professor of Political Science and Center for the Study of
Democracy and Public Life director, Spring 2002, “Ends, Means, and Politics,” Dissent Magazine
Power is not a dirty …undermines political effectiveness.

3. Turn-
Security studies causes conflict—it produces a false understanding of ‘societal’ identity that causes conflicts
Williams 2003
Michael C. University of Wales-Aberystwyth, "Words, Images, Enemies: Securitization and International Politics
International Studies Quarterly (2003) 47, 519) ge
The concept of societal security …, that make conflicts more likely (74–78).

5. Critical Theory Lacks Concrete Alternatives


Mearsheimer 95**
(John, Professor of Political Science, University of Chicago, International Security, “The False Promise of International
Institutions,” Winter 94/95p36) gek
Critical theory is well-suited for challenging … on what that movement might achieve." (13 3)

Consult CP Frontline

2. Japan says no-Fears North Korea


Michael J. Green, senior fellow for Asian security at the Council on Foreign Relations, and Katsuhisa Furukawa,
research associate for Asian security at the Council on Foreign Relations. 2000
(http://www.cfr.org/publication/3701/new_ambitions_old_obstacles.html?breadcrumb=%2Fpublication
%2Fpublication_list%3Ftype%3Djournal_article%26page%3D49 New Ambitions, Old Obstacles: Japan and Its Search
For an Arms Control Strategy)jap
The orthodox … American nuclear umbrella."26

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3. The US would reassure Japan


Landler and Fackler, staff writers The New York Times, February 09
(Mark and Martin, staff writers The New York Times, “Clinton Offers Words of Reassurance” lexis) mee
In words and … the Obama White House.

Japan won’t proliferate

A. No public support
Newsweek 6/22
(Takashi Yakota, The N Word: Why Japan won't go nuclear, http://www.newsweek.com/id/201859)jap
Yet this is all … possessing such a deterrent.

B. Undermines the alliance


Newsweek 6/22
(Takashi Yakota, The N Word: Why Japan won't go nuclear, http://www.newsweek.com/id/201859)jap
Japan, moreover, now … would get the blame.
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Texas-Dallas Dwyer/Roark (CTBT) [Rohan]

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Vermont Edelman/Ritchie (Critical-Testing) [Rohan]

OBSERVATION ONE: FINALLY, A NUCLEAR WEAPONS TOPIC!


This resolution hails the debate community to test it. We are presented with the question of whether or not the federal
government should make change… a call to master the simulation … to prove why our visions of alternate futures are
superior. We are called to roleplay as the federal government to test the efficacy of different courses of action … to be
actors – to put our humanness aside… to test the merit of competing ideas.
Ronell2005 (Avital Ronell [Prof of German, comparative lit, and English @ NYU]; The Test Drive. 190-193)
To the extent that… …into itself from distance or future.

In order to prove our hypotheses about the resolution, we are called to dive into a structure of incessant research… to
find the “what is” of the Resolution. The Resolution becomes a testing site for our competing claims of value and truth.
We must be cautious, however, because elevating the site of testing to a position of truth-confirming can replace the
value of human life with the value of testing.
Ronell2005 (Avital Ronell [Prof of German, comparative lit, and English @ NYU]; The Test Drive. 5-7)
Whether you mean to prove… … will to scientific knowledge.'

If we follow the Resolutional call to test, we position our techniques of debating in relation to our literature base in ways
that infuse politics with illusory values to confirm reality through violence. Our obsession with death to prove our claims
in debate is the very thing that holds the structure of testing together.
Ronell2005 (Avital Ronell [Prof of German, comparative lit, and English @ NYU]; The Test Drive.8-10)
The test, which belongs… … the field gets heavily technologized.

This obsession with the immanence of destruction is at the heart of the test drive. This impulse is perhaps most
evident in the laboratories of the U.S. nuclear complex. The key to post-Cold War national security is understood to be
caring for an aging arsenal through constant testing to fight the effects of old age. Here, the personification of the
bomb is so complete that the body of the bomb has replaced the human body. This obsession with testing to preserve
a fragile arsenal ensures that the value of military technology will take precedence over human life.
Masco2004 (Joseph Masco [Dept of Anthropology; Univ of Chicago], “Nuclear technoaesthetics: Sensory politics from
Trinity to the virtual bomb in Los Alamos,” American Ethnologist, 31, 349-373)
In Los Alamos, the post–Cold War period… .. protecting the human body.

Therefore, we affirm the resolution as a test site whose (de)merits itself must be interrogated before we evaluate the
individual claims that the resolution asks us to test.

OBSERVATION TWO: TOPICAL TESTING


Our affirmation recognizes the test site itself as the place where we are called to determine all ethical claims. Only
through this recognition can we even begin to pose the question of not engaging the test drive. Our affirmation
considers the structure of debate as a site of experimentation, and recognizes our obsession with testing is also an
obsession with violence. Our affirmation seeks to read the links between violence and testing through the topology of
the test site itself.
Ronell2005 (Avital Ronell [Prof of German, comparative lit, and English @ NYU]; The Test Drive. 187-189)
The normatively secured test… … disruption be at all possible?

UNTIL WE QUESTION OUR INCESSANT DRIVE TO TEST (i.e., our need to prove the reality and truth of the world),
we will continue TO NEGATE LIFE as it is AND TO STRENGTHEN and SPREAD the prevailing culture of
RESSENTIMENT and NIHILISM. Instead we must recognize that our truths and values ARE illusions and embrace
them as such. The only question we should be asking ourselves--as debaters, people, beings-in-and-of-the-world--is
how can we AFFIRM LIFE in any and every instance. In this sense, AFFIRMATION is the pre-requisite to life itself.
Deleuze2006 (Gilles Deleuze, Nietzsche & Philosophy, pp. 86-87)
If one can see through… … is an indication of nihilism.

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Vermont Martel/Robertson (Critical-Testing) [Rohan]

observation 1 - Point and shoot, I know just what you mean...


Nuclear discourse is defined by two regimes of discourse - the discourse of the nation-state and that of the non-nation
state - both construct nuclear war as comparable only to the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, subordinating the
constant nuclear war waged against fourth world peoples, revealing a form of capitalist domination focused on
destruction of the periphery.
Masahide Kato (professor of political science @university of hawaii) "Nuclear Globalism: Transversing Rockets,
Satellites and Nuclear War via the Strategic Gaze," Alternatives vol. 18; 1993 p. 339
Nuclear war has been… … a historical fact.

observation 2 - in a world that's full of shit and gasoline...


And, the rhetoric of nuclear globalism employs the techno-strategic gaze, rendering obsolete the notion of perspective,
creating an illusion of homogeneity. the absolutization of the strategic gaze makes possible capitalist domination over
the periphery
Masahide Kato (professor of political science @university of hawaii) "Nuclear Globalism: Transversing Rockets,
Satellites and Nuclear War via the Strategic Gaze," Alternatives vol. 18; 1993 p. 341
Historical contestations over… … illusion of homogeneity.

we'll isolate a few impacts -


Specifically, capitalism of late has become focused not upon incorporation of those in the periphery, but a complete
domination of it. Nuclear war has been waged since 1945 - the primary targets being the inhabitants of the periphery.
Masahide Kato (professor of political science @university of hawaii) "Nuclear Globalism: Transversing Rockets,
Satellites and Nuclear War via the Strategic Gaze," Alternatives vol. 18; 1993 p. 347-8
The vigorous invasion… … and Indigenous Nations.

Nuclear globalism constructs a nuclear fantasy bringing about the extinction of all life forms on earth, delegitimizing the
continuing oppression of the fourth world, blinding us to the nuclear violence being waged continually.
Masahide Kato (professor of political science @university of hawaii) "Nuclear Globalism: Transversing Rockets,
Satellites and Nuclear War via the Strategic Gaze," Alternatives vol. 18; 1993 p. 350-2
Nuclear criticism finds… …manifested in nuclear criticism.

These instances of nuclear war are, quite simply, genocidal acts of human sacrifice, with a disparate effect on the
indigenous peoples they target.
Jessica Barkas Threet, Testing the Bomb: Disparate Impacts on Indigenous Peoples in the American West, the
Marshall Islands, and in Kazakhstan 13 U. Balt. J. Envtl. L. 29 (2005).
Neither the Western Native Americans… … some as genocide.

Thus, the plan: The United States Federal Government should ratify the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty.

observation 3 - solvency
Ratification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty is an important step towards healing the injuries to the peoples and
cultures who we have tested on.
Jessica Barkas Threet, Testing the Bomb: Disparate Impacts on Indigenous Peoples in the American West, the
Marshall Islands, and in Kazakhstan 13 U. Balt. J. Envtl. L. 29 (2005)
The burden of assuring… … by nuclear weapons testing.
reform, vision, and strategy, are key to overcoming systemic forms of oppression. Our project requires critical reforms
Albert 99 (Michael, longtime activist, speaker, and writer, is co-editor of ZNet, and co-editor and co-founder of Z
Magazine.) Talking about a RevolutionSouth End Press, July, p. 1-9)
What achievements of the… … organizing are about.

Our ethic is a rejection of globalist technosubjectivity, and discursive movements which destroy third world
movements.
Masahide Kato (professor of political science @university of hawaii) "Nuclear Globalism: Transversing Rockets,
Satellites and Nuclear War via the Strategic Gaze," Alternatives vol. 18; 1993 p. 356-7
The dialectic… … "real" of the latter.

The sole focus on methodology, epistemology and ontology destroy the effectiveness of theory – only by refocusing
our discussions on practical policy matters can allow theory to resonate outside of the debate.

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Lepgold and Nincic 2001 [Joseph, associate professor of Government at Georgetown and Miroslav professor of
political science at UC-Davis, Beyond the Ivory Tower: International Relations Theory and the Issue of Policy
Relevance pg. 6-7]
This broad purpose covers… …outside the Ivory Tower.

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**DE-ALERT**
Arizona State Brasch/Brimhall (Dealert) [Logan]

Team: Aff v.
Tournament, Round # : Gonzaga, all prelims
vs:
Judge(s):

Plan text: The United States federal government should de-alert its nuclear weapons arsenal.

1ac cites:

1AC-Inherency
Contention One: Fingers on the Trigger
The US has thousands on nuclear weapons on hair trigger alert.
Wayman 2009 (Rick, Director of Programs at the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, Thousands of Nuclear Weapons Still
on Hair-Trigger Alert, Nuclear Age Peace Foundation,
http://www.wagingpeace.org/articles/2007/11/06_wayman_hair_trigger.php)
Several thousand nuclear weapons are currently AND all members of the human race.

Russia and China have weapons on High Alert Status


Steinbruner 2k9 [Professor John STEINBRUNER, Director, Center for International and Security Studies at Maryland,
University of Maryland; Chairman of the Board, Arms Control Association, “Reframing De-Alert” June 2009,
http://www.ewi.info/system/files/Steinbruner.pdf]
Institutionalized policy in the United States AND preemptive attack could not be completely decisive

Plan Text
Resolved: The United States federal government should de-alert its nuclear weapons arsenal.

1AC-Miscalculations-Russia
Observation 2: Miscalculations
Scenario 1: Russia
Maintaining this policy ensures Russia and the United States are constantly on the brink of nuclear war. The slightly
miscalculation can end the world in minutes
Blair 2K8 [Bruce, President of the World Security Institute and former Minuteman launch officer, February 27,
“Increasing Warning and Decision Time (‘De-Alerting’)” http://disarmament.nrpa.no/wp-
content/uploads/2008/02/Paper_Blair.pdf]
A high degree of vigilance suffuses AND less than one hour.

And, De-Alert is key to preventing accidental nuclear war with Russia


NAPF 9 (Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, “US Leadership for a Nuclear Weapons-Free World An Appeal to President
Obama,”http://www.wagingpeace.org/menu/action/urgent-actions/appeal_to_next_pres/moredetail.php. March
11,Accessed July 29, 2009)
About one third of the deployed AND aggressive and dangerous for all humanity.
Accidental launch/miscalculations leads to full-scale nuclear war.
Rosenberg 06 [staff writer“Experts Warn of Accidental Atomic War” http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?
file=/c/a/2006/10/06/MNGF9LJSMM1.DTL]
A Pentagon project to modify its AND nuclear strike on the United States.

There are Three Scenarios with Russia that leads to Nuclear War.
Giacomo 03 [Writer for Common Dreams. “Experts Fear US-Russia nuclear miscalculation”
http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0522-03.htm]
Nunn said the post-Cold AND based on incorrect or incomplete information.

US De-alert of nuclear weapons is a model for Russian de-alert


Krieger and Ong 2002 (David, a founder and president of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation and Carah Policy Analyst
at the Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, April, De-Alert, Nuclear Age Peace Foundation,
http://www.wagingpeace.org/articles/2002/04/00_krieger_de-alert.htm)

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The US and Russia have come AND by the nuclear weapons states unilaterally."

1AC-Miscalcuations-China
Scenario 2: China
Increased Nuclear Weapons in China increase the risk of an accidental launch,
NTI 2003 (Nuclear Threats Initative, China's Nuclear Weapon Development, Modernization and Testing,
http://www.nti.org/db/China/wnwmdat.htm)
Through these modernization efforts, China AND and the remaining warheads on SLBMs.

Chinese Nuclear Secrecy risks nuclear miscalculation


Burns 2009 (Robert, Associated Press National Security Writer, January 14, Bush Official Urges China to Lift Nuclear
Secrecy, http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/WireStory?id=6648475&page=1)
"The difficulty I see is AND has a much larger nuclear force.

An Accidental Nuclear launch will lead to a nuclear apocalypse by Russia, the US and China
Chomsky 2006 (Noam, Professor of American linguistics at MIT, philosopher, cognitive scientist, political activist,
author, and lecturer, Failed states: the abuse of power and the assault on democracy, page 14-15)
The probability of “apocalypse soonAND nuclear proliferators are even more acute.”

China wont De-Alert because of the United States alert Status. If the US de-alerts china will follow.
Ramdas 2000 (Admiral L. Former Chief of the Indian Navy, Nuclear Disarmament and South Asia,
http://www.ieer.org/latest/ramdas.html)
Finally, what can we do AND we have to keep at it.

De-alerting our forces prevent nuclear accidents or theft.


Blair 2k7 [Bruce G. Blair January/February 2007. Blair, a nuclear missile launch officer in the early 1970s, is president
of the World Security Institute in Washington,D.C. “Primed and Ready”. The Bulletin of Aromic Scientists. Volume 63,
Number 1. http://thebulletin.metapress.com/content/wl66350172162k87/fulltext.pdf
Why take these real risks for AND of nuclear security on both sides.

If US nuclear weapons were de-alerted all threats weather cyber or international would be solved
Blair and Samson 2008 (Bruce, President, World Security Institute, Victoria, Senior Analyst, Center for Defense
Information, Taking Nuclear Forces off Day to Day Alert, http://www.peaceactionme.org/taking-nuclear-forces-day-day-
alert)
Because of this legacy posture of AND missile defenses in Europe would decline.

1AC-Accidents-Cyber Terror
Contention Three: McVeigh in the Basement
Weapons on Hair Trigger Alert Status make it easier for terrorist to provoke a launch.
Fritz 2009 (Jason, International Commission on nuclear Non-proliferation and disarmament. July 24, Hacking Nuclear
Command and Control http://128.100.171.10/modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=2435)
In order to see how cyber AND takes to disseminate plans to nuclear forces

may expand the use of computers AND fail-deadly and autonomous systems.

Cyber terrorists can use a computer to hack into they system and cause the launch of a nuclear missile.
Fritz 2009 (Jason, International Commission on nuclear Non-proliferation and disarmament. July 24, Hacking Nuclear
Command and Control http://128.100.171.10/modules.php?op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=2435)
Cyber terrorists could cause incorrect information AND be readily found on the internet.

If a cyber terrorist obtained access to a nuke its destructive power would be magnified by their ability to enter
misinformation shutting down key infrastructures.
Fritz 2009 (Jason, Head of the International Commission on nuclear Non-proliferation and disarmament. July 24,
Hacking Nuclear Command and Control http://128.100.171.10/modules.php?
op=modload&name=News&file=article&sid=2435)
This research has shown that nuclear AND misinformation or shutting down key infrastructure.

A Cyber Terror attack would be Apocalyptic

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Chomsky 2006 (Noam, Professor of American linguistics at MIT, philosopher, cognitive scientist, political activist,
author, and lecturer, Failed states: the abuse of power and the assault on democracy, page 15-16)
Blair warns that “this perpetual AND an accident that could be apocalyptic.

De-alert solves risk from cyber-terrorism


Blair and Samson. 2008. “Taking Nuclear Forces Off Day-to-Day Alert.” Bruce Blair, President, World Security
Institute, and Victoria Samson, Senior Analyst, Center for Defense Information. http://www.peaceactionme.org/taking-
nuclear-forces-day-day-alert
The hair-trigger configuration of AND Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.

1AC-Solvency
Removing warheads from delivery vehicles is feasible and takes only days
Arjun Makhijani, October 1998. De-Alerting: A First Step, http://www.ieer.org/latest/de-alert.html. President of the
Institute for Energy and Environmental Research.
The surest way of preventing accidental AND depending on the specific circumstances).5

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California Gannon/Weiner (Dealert-RLOAD) [Logan]

New Cal De-Alert Adv

World War one was not an intentional war- all sides mobilized for war in the belief that if they were not the first army
ready on the battlefield that they were going to be the losing side- the problem with the hair-trigger alert during the
WWI was that when one side began the mobilization race it required the other side to reciprocate – increasing the risk
of accidental conflict when mobilization began and could not be halted
Kahn 69 “On Thermonuclear War” p 358-375
As Taylor says, World War … be really like that

Nuclear decision-makers are still dominated by conventional war-planning – possibility of accidental war ensures
escalation because nuclear consequences are not realized
Cullberg-Weston 1993 “Why We Canot rely on deciion makers in Times of Crisis” published in “Inadvertent Nuclear
War: The Implications of the Changing Global Order” p 117-132
Many researchers (Frank, 1986…acting in a nuclear world

Inherent narcissism in decision-makers makes accidental conflict dangerous – possibility of escalation and retaliatory
response increases
Cullberg-Weston Same Cite p 117-132
Basic psychological needs in leaders…occur as Bradley (1988) reports

Group decision-making renders all rationality arguments null- the only way to guarantee rational calculations is to
increase the amount of time leaders have to make a launch decision
Cullberg-Weston Same Cite p 117-132
It is generally recognized…the new nuclear powers

2AC AT: Agamben K/Framework

The “secret” workings of nuclear decisions creates an amoral space for “experts” to set policy- democratic involvement
of the public is necessary to challenge the legitimizing discourse of nuclear weapons
Taylor 7 “The means to Match Their Hatred: Nuclear Weapons, Rhetorical Democracy, and Presidential Discourse”
Presidential Studies Quarterly, vol 37 Iss 4 pg 667-692
First there is general…political fetish of weaponry

Overturning specific weapons policy invigorates citizen movements for disarm


Mian 9 “Beyond the Security Debate: The Moral and Legal Dimensions of Abolition in Abolishing Nuclear Weapons: A
Debate”
Framing abolition in moral…to formally democratic societies

High alert land based ICBMs serve no deterrence purpose for the US arsenal- only a risk they increase the chance of
miscalculated launch
Daalder 8 “The Logci of Zero” Foreign Affairs Vol 87 No 6
The united states also…no strategic sense today

Political strategies that address state netweorks are needed to remedy systemic violence and inequalities
Shaw 1 “The unfinished global revolution: intellectuals and the new politics of international relations”
While booth explicitly rejects…fashion a new agenda

Turn- Humanitarianism is the restriction on state violence not the cause- no internal link to their bare life impact
Heins 2005 German Law Journal Vol 6 No 5 “Giorgio Agamben and the Current state of Affairs”
His sweeping critique also…for international humanitarian law

Extending western global norms through peaceful state interaction is vital to integrate states into a global civil
community. The impact is nuclear war and genocide
Shaw 2001 Review of International Studies, 27, 3, October
The new politics of…and politics, are intertwined

AT: Fear K

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Fear is the driving factor behind every single effort to avoid nuclear war
Carrea 1990 Beyond 1995 ed. Pilat and Pendley
For millennia, humanity has…obscured the real problem.

Arms control strategies make nuclear fear productive and avoid cooption- key to preventing nuclear war and achieving
disarmament
Wittner 4 “The power of Protest”, online
Decades of struggle against the…before, it can do it again

Fear mobilizes people and gives meaning to life – Flight 93 proves


Greenspan 3 “An excerpt from healing through the Dark Emotions: The Wisdom of Grief, Fear and Despair by Miriam
Greenspan”
Fear is a very powerful…live together without fear

Fear of death prevents extinction- it creates a consciousness which preserves peace


Futterman 94 “Obscenity and peace: Meditations on the Bomb”
But the inhibitory effect…our future technological breakthroughs

Fear over extinction is a rational fear that incites action- prevents inevitable catastrophe and solves paralysis
Wink 1 “Apocalypse Now?” Christian Century
Positive apocalyptic by contrast…none of our business

Good fear of death is distinct from irrational fear – it allows us to reduce danger, live ethically, and prepare for a
peaceful death on our terms
Gyatso “Fear of Death” THarpa Publications 2003
Generally, our fear of…attain a deathless body

Discussions of Real fears solve their anxiety arg


Greenspan 3 “An excerpt from healing through the Dark Emotions: The Wisdom of Grief, Fear and Despair by Miriam
Greenspan”
While it would be…become epidemic in our time

Cal Gannon Weiner Aff Gonzaga

The United States federal government should move land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles to non-deployed
status.

ADVANTAGE 1 – UNITED STATES

SCENARIO 1 – ACCIDENTAL LAUNCH

Current US nuclear weapons are placed on high alert status – this increases the risk of glitches or tech malfunctions
causing accidental launch – guarantees retaliation and escalating war
Blair, President of the World Security Institute, ‘9 (Bruce, February, “Toward True Security”
www.ucsusa.org/global_security/nuclear_weapons/truesecurity.html)
While Russia retains the ability to ...the missing warheads for 36 hours.

Flawed early warning system makes accidental launch more likely – de-alerting key
Pikaev, Assistant State Duma Deputy, ‘1 (A.G. ARBATOV- Ph.D., Head of RAS IMEMO PMFC, State Duma Deputy,
Deputy Chairman of the State Duma Defense Committee, V.S. BELOUS- Ph.D., Leading Research Associate of the
Institute of International Economy and Foreign Relations (IMEMO) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor of
the Military Sciences Academy, Major General (Ret.), A.A. PIKAEV- Candidate of Political Sciences, Head of the RAS
IMEMO PMFC Non-Proliferation and Arms Reduction Center, Assistant State Duma Deputy, V.G. BARANOVSKY-
Ph.D., Deputy Director, RAS IMEMO, “De-alerting Russian and US nuclear weapons: A path to reducing nuclear
dangers” Institute of International Economy and Foreign Relations at the Russian Academy of Sciences,
http://www.ieer.org/russian/pubs/dlrtbk-e.html)
It seems that the launch-...preventive surprise strike by the adversary.

De-alerting eliminates the possibility of accidental launch by the United States

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Steinbruner, Director at CISS, ‘9 (John, Director at the Center for International and Security Studies and Chairman at
the Arms Control Association, June 21-23, “Reframing De-alert” Re-framing De-Alert: Decreasing the Operational
Readiness of Nuclear Weapons Systems in the U.S.-Russia Context, http://www.ewi.info/system/files/Steinbruner.pdf)
Most individuals not embedded in the ...standards of protection against unauthorized access.

Accidental launch causes World War 3


Pikaev, ‘1 (A.G. ARBATOV- Ph.D., Head of RAS IMEMO PMFC, State Duma Deputy, Deputy Chairman of the State
Duma Defense Committee, V.S. BELOUS- Ph.D., Leading Research Associate of the Institute of International
Economy and Foreign Relations (IMEMO) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor of the Military Sciences
Academy, Major General (Ret.), A.A. PIKAEV- Candidate of Political Sciences, Head of the RAS IMEMO PMFC Non-
Proliferation and Arms Reduction Center, Assistant State Duma Deputy, V.G. BARANOVSKY- Ph.D., Deputy Director,
RAS IMEMO, “De-alerting Russian and US nuclear weapons: A path to reducing nuclear dangers” Institute of
International Economy and Foreign Relations at the Russian Academy of Sciences,
http://www.ieer.org/russian/pubs/dlrtbk-e.html)
The capability of delivering a sudden ...an exchange of massive nuclear strikes.

SCENARIO 2 – MISCALCULATED LAUNCH

Top US officials have less than 30 seconds to decide whether the White House should be informed of a potential
attack – this increases the risk of miscalculation where we retaliate against a perceived threat that does not actually
exist
Blair, ‘4 (Bruce, “Aren’t Hair-Trigger Nuclear Missiles a Target for Terrorists?”
http://www.niemanwatchdog.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=ask_this.view&askthisid=007)
This anachronistic nuclear thinking has perpetuated ...real threat of unintentional Russian attack.

Limited human cognition makes it psychologically impossible for leaders to act rationally – the rigged game of policy-
making ensures offensive action by the White House
Blair, ‘4 (Bruce-Professor of Security Studies at Yale University, February 16, “Keeping Presidents in the Nuclear Dark”
Center for Defense Information, http://www.cdi.org/blair/launch%E2%80%90on%E2%80%90warning.cfm)
Given the awesome responsibility and authority ...in order to alleviate this danger.

High alert land-based ICBMs serve no deterrence purpose for the US arsenal – only a risk they increase the chance of
miscalculated launch
Daalder, Senior Fellow at Brookings, ‘8 (Ivo Daalder and Jan Lodal-President of the Atlantic Council,
January/February, “The Logic Of Zero” Foreign Affairs, Vol 87 No 6)
The United States also needs to ...It makes no strategic sense today.

US ICBMs are first strike only – our current posture guarantees a thousand warheads launched at Russia in the event
of a perceived attack
Nyland, US Arms Control and Disarm Agency, ‘1 (Frederic, “Russian-American Nuclear Stability Issues: Opportunities
and Risks in the Twenty-First Century” published in ‘Deterrence and Nuclear Proliferation in the Twenty-First Century’
by Stephen Cimbala, p 79-98)
With regard to U.S...effect in an operational war plan.

The resulting miscalculated launch causes US-Russia war and extinction


Helfand, President of Physicians for Social Responsibility, ‘9 (Ira Helfand and John Pastore-Former President of
Physicians for Social Responsibility, “Take All Nukes Off Ready Alert Status” lexis)
PRESIDENT OBAMA and Russian President Medvedev ...our own, would become extinct.

SCENARIO 3 – UNAUTHORIZED LAUNCH

High alert weapons cause highest risk of terrorism


Blair, ‘3 (Bruce- President of the World Security Institute and Professor of Security Studies at Yale University, April 29,
“Hair-Trigger Missiles Risk Catastrophic Terrorism” Center for Defense Information, http://www.cdi.org/blair/hair-
trigger-dangers.cfm)
It behooves the former enemies to ...alert, before it's too late.

High alert makes the US vulnerable to tech espionage – prevents survivability and effective response to attack

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Blair, ‘8 (Bruce-Professor of Security Studies at Yale University, February 26-27, “Increasing Warning and Decision
Time (‘De-alerting’)” Achieving the Vision of a World Free of Nuclear Weapons International Conference on Nuclear
Disarmament, http://disarmament.nrpa.no/wp-content/uploads/2008/02/Paper_Blair.pdf)
There are a host of reasons .... (China is especially active.)

Terrorist attack with a stolen weapon kills millions and the economy
Bunn, Research Associate at Harvard, ‘3 (Mathew-Senior Research Associate in the Project on Managing the Atom at
Harvard’s JFK School of Government, “Controlling Nuclear Warheads and Materials: A Report Card and Action Plan”
http://www.nti.org/e_research/cnwm/overview/report.asp)
In short, once terrorists get ..., we cannot afford to wait.

ADVANTAGE 2 - RUSSIA

Likelihood of Russia misperceiving a US nuclear launch guarantees escalation – only scenario for Russia to attack the
United States is a miscalculation about US actions
Blair, ‘9 (Bruce-President of the World Security Institute, February, “Toward True Security”
www.ucsusa.org/global_security/nuclear_weapons/truesecurity.html)
The greatest nuclear dangers to the ...to an accidental or unauthorized attack.

Russia’s alert posture increases the risk of unintentional war – accidental launch, miscalculation, and unauthorized
launch are the highest risks
Paul, Professor of IR at McGill University, ‘5 (T.V, “The Risk of Nuclear War Does Not Belong to History” published in
‘The Waning of Major War: Theories and Debates’ by Raimo Vayryen, p 113-135)
Accidental wars The probability of accidental ...this time of a larger magnitude.

Unilaterally de-alerting causes Russian reciprocation – alleviates fears about first strike
Blair, ‘7 (Bruce, “Reykjavik Revisited Steps Toward a World Free of Nuclear Weapons, De-Alerting Strategic Forces”
http://www.hoover.org/publications/books/online/15766737.html)
De-alerting is feasible. ...and would thus not be recommended.

A small concession up front is the only way to ensure the success of future bilateral negotiations – plan reduces the
risk of Russian miscalculation and accidental launch
Civiak, Science Policy Research at CRS, ‘9 (Robert, Spring, “Towards a New US Nuclear Posture” Disarmament
Diplomacy, No 90, http://www.acronym.org.uk/dd/dd90/90us01.htm#en01)
As with reducing the number of ...other and from its delivery systems.

US de-alert reduces Russia’s incentive to keep its weapons on accident-prone posture – subs allows us to maintain
deterrence without posing a threat of accidental or unauthorized launch
Blair, ‘9 (Bruce-President of the World Security Institute, February, “Toward True Security”
www.ucsusa.org/global_security/nuclear_weapons/truesecurity.html)
2. The United States should ...United States would facilitate such measures.

US-Russia reciprocal de-alert prevents accidental nuclear war


Blair, ‘8 (Bruce, Victoria Samson-Senior Analyst at the Center for Defense Information, “Taking Nuclear Forces Off
Day-to-Day Alert” Peace Action Maine, http://www.peaceactionme.org/taking-nuclear-forces-day-day-alert)
This launch-ready posture—...as well as other nations’ systems.

Russian accidental launch has highest magnitude – worse conflict than intentional war
Blair, ‘1 (Bruce, June, “Toward True Security A US Nuclear Posture for the Next Decade” Center for Defense
Information, http://www.fas.org/ssp/docs/010600-posture.pdf)
While Russia retains the ability to ...large portion of Russia’s missile force.

ADVANTAGE 3 – CRISIS ESCALATION

Land-based ICBMs cause crisis instability – highest risk of accidental launch and lack of survivability ensures high alert
posture used to escalate a conflict
Brooks, Vice President of the Center for Naval Analysis, ‘1 (Linton-Commanding Officer of USS Whale and START I
Negotiator, Spring, “Arms Control and the Future Sub Force”
http://www.navy.mil/navydata/cno/n87/usw/issue_11/future_subforce.html)
Predictability is a familiar term; ..., they are highly effective weapons.

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Crisis instability most likely scenario for disrupting international peace – miscalculation makes it more likely
Shiels, Professor of Government at Mercy College, ’93 (Frederick, “Preventing the Ultimate Disaster: Misperception at
the Top” published in ‘Inadvertent Nuclear War: The Implications of the Changing Global Order’ by Hakan Wiberg, Ib
Damgaard Petersen, and Paul Smoker, p 133-148)
...they would not necessarily be used.

Nuclear taboo in the status quo prevents a nation from launching first but doesn’t stop them from retaliating –
accidents are the only scenario in which the taboo is broken
Paul, Professor of International Relations at McGill University, ‘5 (T.V, “The Risk of Nuclear War Does Not Belong to
History” published in ‘The Waning of Major War: Theories and Debates’ by Raimo Vayryen, p 113-135)
Risk of nuclear war during the ...as well as by terrorist groups.

Assume the worst-case scenario of accidental launch when comparing impacts – consequence is too catastrophic
Shiels, Professor of Government at Mercy College, ’93 (Frederick, “Preventing the Ultimate Disaster: Misperception at
the Top” published in ‘Inadvertent Nuclear War: The Implications of the Changing Global Order’ by Hakan Wiberg, Ib
Damgaard Petersen, and Paul Smoker, p 133-148)
The existence of an elaborate machinery ...to destroy our world within minutes.

2AC Obama Good Disadvantage

Bipartisan support for de-alerting our nuclear weapons


Blair et al, President World Security Institute, ‘8 (Bruce, Victoria Samson-Senior Analyst at the Center for Defense
Information, “Taking Nuclear Forces Off Day-to-Day Alert” Peace Action Maine, http://www.peaceactionme.org/taking-
nuclear-forces-day-day-alert)
There is a groundswell of support ...risks of accidental or unauthorized attacks.”

De-alert has congressional support


Blair et al, President of the World Security Institute, ’97 (Bruce Blair, Professor of Security Studies at Yale University,
Harold Feiveson, Professor of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University, and Frank von Hippel, Assistant
Director for National Security, November “Taking Nuclear Weapons Off Hair-Trigger Alert” Scientific American)
The chance of an accidental launch ...is seriously studying such an alteration.

Their evidence assumes Russia won’t reciprocate


Von Hippel, Prof Public and International Affairs at Princeton, ’98 (Frank, Chairman of the research arm of the
Federation of American Scientists, October 29-November 1, “De-alerting Nuclear Missiles” The Sixth ISODARCO
Beijing Seminar on Arms Control, http://www.nautilus.org/archives/library/security/papers/von_hippelISODARCO.PDF)
The Congress, whose Republican leadership ...and Soviet Armies and surface Navies.

Funding ICBM’s isn’t popular- deterioration proves


Thayer and Skypek- prof. at U of Minnesota- ‘9
Bradley A. Thayer (Assistant Professor of Political Science at the University of Minnesota, Duluth) &Thomas M.
Skypek (defense analyst), Spring 2009, Journal of International Security Affairs, Number 16, The Perilous Future of
U.S. Strategic Forces, http://www.securityaffairs.org/issues/2009/16/thayer&skypek.php
It is painfully clear that Washington’s ...American power in the years ahead.

No perception of ICBM changes- Cold War relics


John Clay- Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems- April 22, 2009, John Clay Addresses ICBM Conference,
http://www.northropgrumman.com/presentations/2009/042209-john-clay-future-of-the-us-icbm.html
I want to thank the conference ...element of this suddenly unfashionable subject.

Plan popular- Bush reductions and WSJ op-eds prove


Blair and Samson- World Security Institute and Center for Defense Info- ‘8
Bruce Blair and Victoria Samson, Taking Nuclear Forces Off Day-to-Day Alert, http://www.peaceactionme.org/taking-
nuclear-forces-day-day-alert, (2008 – last cite)
De-alerting U.S...risks of accidental or unauthorized attacks.”

De-alert saves money and fosters arms control- builds political capital

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James Kitfield, National Journal, Nov. 18, 2008, Obama Will Have Opening on Arms Initiatives, Expert Says, Global
Security Newswire, http://gsn.nti.org/gsn/nw_20081118_9029.php
Cirincione: Yes. I think ...would see the opposite of blowback.

Congressmen don’t have the expertise or time to care about the plan
Kristensen and Woolf- The Stanley Foundation- ‘7
November 13, Policy Dialogue Brief, US Nuclear Weapons Policy and Arms Control, Presenters: Hans Kristensen
(Director, Nuclear Information Project, Federation of American Scientists) and Amy Woolf (Specialist in National
Defense Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division, Congressional Research Service),
http://www.stanleyfoundation.org/publications/pdb/US_NukePDB508.pdf
Congressional interest in nuclear weapons is...are motivated by outside pressure groups.

2AC RLOAD Counterplan

Unilateral de-alert solves Russian reciprocation and is a stepping stone for further nuclear cooperation – negotiations
now get bogged down
Blair et al, President of the Center for Defense Information, ‘1 (Bruce, June, “Toward True Security A US Nuclear
Posture for the Next Decade” Center for Defense Information, http://www.fas.org/ssp/docs/010600-posture.pdf)
The United States should structure its ...to make it difficult to reverse.

US has to de-alert unilaterally – solves US credibility and causes Russian reciprocation


Schram ‘3 (Martin-, Avoiding Armageddon: our future, our choice, P. 108-109)
A Proposal for Unilateral U....suggestion for unilateral de-alerting.

2AC Deterrence DA

Cost of maintaining ICBMs means withdraw is inevitable


Richardson, Nonproliferation Division at Lawrence Livermore National Lab, ‘9 (Jeff, September/October, “Shifting from
a nuclear triad to a nuclear dyad” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists,
http://thebulletin.metapress.com/content/f36h7r5624w18035/fulltext.pdf)
There are fewer compelling reasons to ...but dwindling risk-mitigation argument.

Rapid nuclear response not needed for deterrence


Buchan et al, RAND Corporation, ‘3 (Glenn, “Future Roles of US Nuclear Forces: Implications for US Strategy” Rand
Project Air Force, http://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/2005/MR1231.pdf)
The effect of a delay in ...on a threat of nuclear retaliation.

Plan doesn’t sacrifice our nuclear deterrent – we need to lead by example


Richardson, Nonproliferation Division at Lawrence Livermore National Lab, ‘9 (Jeff, September/October, “Shifting from
a nuclear triad to a nuclear dyad” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists,
http://thebulletin.metapress.com/content/f36h7r5624w18035/fulltext.pdf)
In response to those who suggest ...their viewpoint, sufficient nuclear deterrence.

The threat of potential re-alerting deters nations from proliferating


Mazarr, Prof National Security at US National War College, ’95 (Michael, Autumn, “Virtual Nuclear Arsenals” Survival,
Vol 37 Issue 3, p 7, Proquest)
In the early phases of a ...arsenals could continue to do so.

Maintaining subs solves deterrence


Von Hippel, Prof Public and International Affairs at Princeton, ’98 (Frank, Chairman of the research arm of the
Federation of American Scientists, October 29-November 1, “De-alerting Nuclear Missiles” The Sixth ISODARCO
Beijing Seminar on Arms Control, http://www.nautilus.org/archives/library/security/papers/von_hippelISODARCO.PDF)
The answer to this question from ...should provide more than ample deterrence.

Conventional weapons solve deterrence


Ferguson et al, Professor of Security Studies at Georgetown University, ‘9 (William-Director of the Nuclear Policy
Project at the Federation of American Scientists, Brent Perry-Professor at Stanford University and Former Secretary of
Defense, Charles Scowcroft-Former National Security Advisor and President’s Advisory Committee on Arms Control,
April, “US Nuclear Weapons Policy” Council on Foreign Relations Task Force Report,
http://www.cfr.org/content/publications/attachments/Nuclear_Weapons_TFR62.pdf)

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During much of the Cold War...States from intervening on their territories.

US unilateral cuts boost public support for deterrence – European arsenals solve
Kamp, Head of the International Planning Staff at the Konrad Adenauer Stifung in Germany,’3 (Karl-Heinz, “NATO’s
Nuclear Future: A Rationale for NATO’s Deterrence Capabilities,” in NATO and European Security: Alliance Politics
from the End of the Cold War to the Age of Terrorism, eds. Moens, Cohen, and Sens)
Do NATO's European allies still regard ...cut its nonstrategic forces as well. 147-148

And restoring public support is critical to deterrence credibility


Kamp, Head of the International Planning Staff at the Konrad Adenauer Stifung in Germany,’3 (Karl-Heinz, “NATO’s
Nuclear Future: A Rationale for NATO’s Deterrence Capabilities,” in NATO and European Security: Alliance Politics
from the End of the Cold War to the Age of Terrorism, eds. Moens, Cohen, and Sens)
The concept of nuclear deterrence, ...the idea of total nuclear disarmament.

2AC Topicality Role/Mission

Our readiness posture is one of the roles of our nuclear weapons


Kimball Executive Director Strategic Deterrence Symposium US Strat Com ‘9
(Daryl G., July 29, ACA Director Addresses STRATCOM Deterrence Symposium, “What Are Nuclear Weapons For?
Reassessing and Reducing the Role of Nuclear Weapons in 21st Century U.S. Security Policy”, http://www.arms
control.org/print/3779)
Unfortunately, even after two post...suspected chemical or biological weapons threats.

Separating warheads reduces the role and saliency of our nuclear weapons
Blair, President of the World Security Institute, ‘8 (Bruce-Professor of Security Studies at Yale University, February 26-
27, “Increasing Warning and Decision Time (‘De-alerting’)” Achieving the Vision of a World Free of Nuclear Weapons
International Conference on Nuclear Disarmament, http://disarmament.nrpa.no/wp-
content/uploads/2008/02/Paper_Blair.pdf)
In phase three, which would ...a mistaken launch on false warning.

De-alerting and warhead separation decreases missions


Oelrich Security Studies Georgetown ‘8 (Ivan-, VP Strategic Security Programs Federation of American Scientists,
April, American Physical Society Forum on Physics & Society “What Are Nuclear Weapons For?”,
http://www.aps.org/units/fps/newsletters/200804/ oelrich.cfm)
The nuclear “posture” we ...certainly only in the double digits.

Placing weapons in the operational reserve means they are no longer part of the arsenal
NRDC ‘7 (Natural Resources Defense Council, Jan./Feb., Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, “U.S. nuclear forces”, Vol.
63 #1 http://thebulletin.metapress.com/content/91n36687821608un/fulltext.pdf)

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Emory Nikolic/Swenson (Dealert) [Logan]

Emory NS
GSU Aff Disclosure

Dealert 1AC
Contention One - War
U.S. forces are on high alert – it only takes a couple of minutes to launch
Blair 8 (Bruce, president of the World Security Institute, “Increasing Warning and Decision Time (‘De-Alerting’)”
International Conference on Nuclear Disarmament, Oslo Feb. 26 – 27, http://disarmament.nrpa.no/wp-
content/uploads/2008/02/Paper_ Blair.pdf)

Both the Kremlin and the White House … would be run in less than one hour.
Accidental conflict is inevitable—

Deteriorating early warning systems guarantee it –


UPI 8 (Andrei Kislyakov, political commentator for RIA Novosti, “Outside view: Nuke force plans,” July 14, Lexis)

This entails three things: … is constantly being postponed.

Hair trigger postures are staking humanity’s survival – cyberterrorists will spoof early warning systems or gain control
of nuclear weapons either through theft or command and control – unauthorized launch becomes a major possibility –
current threat reduction programs will fail
Blair 8 (James, president of the Center for Defense Information and World Security Institute, former senior fellow in
foreign policy for the Brookings Insittution and former Minuteman officer, baller, “De-alerting Strategic Forces,”
Reykjavik Revisited: Steps Toward a World Free of Nuclear Weapons, published by the Hoover Institute)
Beyond the familiar arguments … special training to learn them.
None of your take-outs apply – cyberterrorists can get around any US defense
Fritz, 09 – researcher for International Commission on Nuclear Nonproliferation and Disarmament, former Army officer
and consultant, and has a master of international relations at Bond University (Jason, “Hacking Nuclear Command and
Control,” July, http://www.icnnd.org/latest/ research/Jason_Fritz_Hacking_ NC2.pdf)

This paper will analyse the threat… command and control centres directly.

Nuclear terrorism independently guarantees extinction


Beres 87, Professor of Political Science and International Law at Purdue University [Louis René, Terrorism and Global
Security: The Nuclear Threat, p. 42-43]
Nuclear terrorism could even spark … bodies and imbecile imaginations.

De-alerting is key – new climate studies prove US-Russia accidental nuke war causes the apocalypse
News Blaze 9 (Qualifications for Organizations Below “Organizations Worldwide Urge Obama, Medvedev: Take
Weapons Off Alert,” July 6, http://newsblaze.com/story/ 20090706130809zzzz.nb/ topstory.html)

In a letter faxed last week to Presidents … towards the abolition of nuclear weapons.

No other impact threatens human extinction – high magnitude impacts should come first despite low probability
Sandberg et al, 8 (Anders, James Martin Research Fellow at the Future of Humanity Institute at Oxford University,
PhD in computational neuroscience from Stockholm University and is a postdoctoral research assistant for the EU
Enhance project; Jason Matheny, PhD candidate in Health Policy and Management at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg
School of Public Health. He is also a special consultant to the Center for Biosecurity at the University of Pittsburgh
Medical Center and co-founder of New Harvest; and Milan Ćirković, senior research associate at the Astronomical
Observatory of Belgrade. He is also an assistant professor of physics at the University of Novi Sad in Serbia and
Montenegro ,“How can we reduce the risk of human extinction?,” Bulletin of Atomic Scientists,
http://www.thebulletin.org/ web-edition/features/how-can- we-reduce-the-risk-of-human- extinction)

In 1983, discussion of human extinction … reduce the risk of catastrophic accidents.

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Launch inhibitors and target downloading create a survivable force that maintains deterrence, boosts confidence and
solves the risk of accidental launch
Blair 8 – president of World Security Institute (Bruce, “De-alerting Strategic Forces,” in, Reykjavik Revisited: Steps
Toward a World Free of Nuclear Weapons (preliminary report) Edited by George P. Shultz, Sidney D. Drell and James
Goodby, http://media.hoover.org/ documents/Drell_Goodby_ Schultz_Reykjavik_Revisited_ 25.pdf)

This report evaluates several … cause a nuclear incident or actual firing.


Only the first 2 phases of Blair’s plan are necessary
Rosenbaum, 08 (Ron, Slate Magazine, “A Real Nuclear Option for the Nominees,” 5/9, lexis)

This cyber threat offers yet … from "inadvertently" destroying itself.


Lessened pressure will convince Russia to de-alert, but even without reciprocation, the plan will extend decision times
in Russian launch
Woolf 9 (Amy, Specialist in Nuclear Weapons Policy, Congressional Research Service, “Nuclear Force Posture and
Alert Rates: Issues and Options,” Presented at the seminar on Re-framing De-Alert: Decreasing the Operational
Readiness of Nuclear Weapons Systems in the US-Russia Context in Yverdon, Switzerland, June 21-23)

Concerns about inadvertent launch … remove its weapons from alert, too.
Finally, small conflicts won’t cause a large scale reconstitution of nuclear forces or escalate crisis instability
Blair 95 (Bruce, president of the World Security Institute and Center for Defense Information, former senior fellow for
the Brookings Institute in public and foreign policy, “Global Zero Alert for Nuclear Forces,” Brookings Occasional
Papers, pg. 100-8)

Transitional Stability. Scenarios requiring, … response by the on looking power.

Contention 2 – Strategic cooperation

Despite the NMD concession, the underlying pattern of relations is negative


AP 9 (Fred Weir, “Russia’s response to US missile shield shift,” September 17, http://features.csmonitor.com/
globalnews/2009/09/17/russias- response-to-us-missile- defense-shield-shift/

MOSCOW – President Barack Obama’s decision to shelve… unlikely to change in any basic way.”

This makes relations crises inevitable and eliminates the possibility of strategic cooperation – even if relations improve
in the short term
Arbatov and Dvorkin, 06 - * Scholar-in-Residence and Program Co-chair of Nuclear Nonproliferation at the Carnegie
Moscow Center and head of the Center for International Security at the Institute for International Economy and
International Relationships of the Russian Academy of Sciences AND senior researcher at the Center for International
Security at the Institute for World Economy and International Relations of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Alexei
and Vladimir, Beyond Nuclear Deterrence http://www.carnegieendowment. org/files/arbatov_intro.pdf)

Even when dramatic changes occur in … economic integration with the West.

Reducing tension in the nuclear relationship is the vital internal link to cooperation – this is vital to solving global
proliferation and the spread of cruise missiles
Blank, 09 - has served as the Strategic Studies Institute’s expert on the Soviet bloc and the post- Soviet world since
1989. Prior to that he was Associate Professor of Soviet Studies at the Center for Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and
Education, Maxwell Air Force Base (Stephen, “PROSPECTS FOR RUSSO-AMERICAN COOPERATION IN HALTING
NUCLEAR PROLIFERATION”, March, http://www. strategicstudiesinstitute. army.mil/pdffiles/PUB892.pdf

Therefore the urgency of bilateral … many other reasons for reviving this dialogue.

Cruise missile proliferation will allow even minor regional power to counterbalance US hegemony.
Nicholls 2000 [David J., Lt Colonel, USAF May, Cruise Missiles and Modern War Strategic and Technological
Implications, http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/ awcgate/cst/csat13.pdf]
The unavoidable conclusion is that … beginning of the twenty-first century.

US leadership prevents multiple scenarios for nuclear conflict – prefer it to all other alternatives

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Kagan 7 , Senior Associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace [Robert “End of Dreams, Return of
History” Policy Review http://www.hoover.org/ publications/policyreview/ 8552512.html#n10]

Finally, there is the United States… global involvement will provide an easier path.
Prolif risks nuclear war
Taylor ‘1 (Theodore, Chairman of NOVA, Former Nuclear Weapons Designer and Recipient of the US Atomic Energy
Commission’s 1965 Lawrence Memorial Award and former Deputy Dir. of Defense Nuclear Agency, “Proliferation of
Nuclear Weapons”, in “Breakthrough: Emerging New Thinking”, http://www-ee.stanford.edu/~
hellman/Breakthrough/book/ chapters/taylor.html)

Nuclear proliferation - be it among … into a global nuclear war.


Relations key to solve all global problems
Taylor 8 - Atlantic correspondent living in Moscow – Jeffrey, Medvedev Spoils the Party, November,
http://www.theatlantic.com/ doc/200811u/medvedev-obama

Like it or not, the United … future arm in arm.


Changing the nuclear relationship will make NATO expansion and missile defense palatable to Russia
Blank, 09 - has served as the Strategic Studies Institute’s expert on the Soviet bloc and the post- Soviet world since
1989. Prior to that he was Associate Professor of Soviet Studies at the Center for Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and
Education, Maxwell Air Force Base (Stephen, “PROSPECTS FOR RUSSO-AMERICAN COOPERATION IN HALTING
NUCLEAR PROLIFERATION”, March, http://www. strategicstudiesinstitute. army.mil/pdffiles/PUB892.pdf)

However, today’s world is rather different. … adversarial relationship with the United States.

Unilateral de-alerting will shift away from the perception of a U.S. first strike posture and induce Russian reciprocation
Blair, 08 – president of World Security Institute (Bruce, “De-alerting Strategic Forces,” in, Reykjavik Revisited: Steps
Toward a World Free of Nuclear Weapons (preliminary report) Edited by George P. Shultz, Sidney D. Drell and James
Goodby, http://media.hoover.org/ documents/Drell_Goodby_ Schultz_Reykjavik_Revisited_ 25.pdf)

De-alerting is feasible. Wholesale … would thus not be recommended.


Alert status has a crucial symbolic effect – the message the plan conveys about the likelihood of conflict will have a
moderating effect
Karas, 01 – Sandia National Labs (Thomas, “De-alerting and De-activating Strategic Nuclear Weapons,” April,
http://www.nti.org/e_research/ official_docs/labs/de_alt_act_ tnw.pdf

Note that not all forms of high alert … would convey the opposite message.

De-alerting will fundamentally transform the deterrent relationship with Russia


Blair, 08 – president of the World Security Institute (Bruce, “Increasing Warning and Decision Time (‘De-Alerting’)”
International Conference on Nuclear Disarmament, Oslo February 26 – 27 2008,
http://disarmament.nrpa.no/wp- content/uploads/2008/02/Paper_ Blair.pdf)

De-alerting even at the initial … standing down their launch-ready forces.

Plan: The United States federal government should detarget its strategic missile forces and adopt de-alerting
measures including missile safing and refraining from installing launch inverters.

GSU round 4**


AFF V. JMU HS
judge: Will Mosley-Jensen

tricks- Does not defend US will maintain de-alert if faced with a nuclear threat.

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Iowa Hunt/Petersen (Dealert) [Logan]

Iowa HP Aff- UNI

Iowa HP (Ryan Hunt & David Petersen) Dealert Aff

Contention One: Accidents

Scenario 1: US-Russia Arsenals

World remains tense and dangerous—flashpoints and high alert weapons are a bad mix

Parkinson, '8
(Stuart Parkinson Director -- Scientists for Global Responsibility, Autumn, http://www.sgr.org.uk/newsletters/NL36.pdf)

Tensions are again… to become more acute.

Both US and Russian weapons remain on high alert—an accidental nuclear war remains a high risk

Blair and Sampson ‘8


(Bruce Blair and Victoria Samson, president of world security institute and security analyst at CDI respectively, 2008
http://www.peaceactionme.org/taking-nuclear-forces-day-day-alert)

At the end…strike and nuclear war

US systems alone pose a risk

Podvig ‘6
(Pavel Podvig, physicist and dir. of security center at Stanford Science and Global Security 14 2006 “Reducing the
Risk…”)

The situation with… may be higher.

Russian and US safeguards and procedures are inadequate and declining—risk of a miscalculation or accident is high

Martin ‘8
(Matt Martin research analyst at Stanley foundation (nonpartisan think tank) 2008 p.
http://www.stanleyfoundation.org/articles.cfm?id=498)

It should be… to avoid an accidental nuclear war

Claims that we are no longer on “hair trigger” alert are false and vapid military proclamations—risk of an accident and
a strike is enormous. Only
de-alerting pulls us back from the brink

Blair ‘7
Bruce Blair, world policy institute fellow, 11/6/07 p. "A Rebuttal of the U.S. Statement on the Alert Status of U.S.
Nuclear Forces" http://www.cdi.org/program/document.cfm?
documentid=4135&programID=32&from_page=../friendlyversion/printversion.cfm

The statement by… launch and terrorist exploitation.

Scenario 2: Cyber Terror

Cyber ware fare penetrates nuclear control systems

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Blair ‘8
(Bruce G. Blair, 2008 [Senior Fellow in Foreign Policy Studies at the Brookings Institute, President of the Center for
Defense Information, Taking Nuclear Forces off day-to-day alert, Senior Fellow in Foreign Policy Studies at the
Brookings Institute, President of the Center for Defense Information Pg. 13
http://www.cdi.org/pdfs/2009NSNPbriefingbook.pdf)

A new concern has… cyber-penetration.

Hair trigger launch makes cyber warfare uniquely dangerous

Fritz ‘9
(Jason, BS (St. Cloud), MIR (bond), The International Commission on Nuclear Non-proliferation, "Hacking Nuclear
Command and Control"
http://74.125.95.132/search?
q=cache:_9fWutEK5tMJ:www.icnnd.org/latest/research/Jason_Fritz_Hacking_NC2.pdf+Hacking+Nuclear+Command+
and+Control&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us)

Nuclear command and control… and autonomous systems

Cyber warfare can create accidents and false positives easily

Fritz 9
(Jason, BS (St. Cloud), MIR (bond), The International Commission on Nuclear Non-proliferation, "Hacking Nuclear
Command and Control"
http://74.125.95.132/search?
q=cache:_9fWutEK5tMJ:www.icnnd.org/latest/research/Jason_Fritz_Hacking_NC2.pdf+Hacking+Nuclear+Command+
and+Control&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us)

Cyber terrorists could… found on the internet

Cyber terrorism risks starting an accidental nuclear war

Blair ‘8
(Bruce Blair, world policy institute founder and former missile soldier “Increasing Warning Time and Decisionmaking”
2008)

There are a host.. carries real risk.

Impacts:

1. Accidental launch between US or Russia leads to nuclear war

Blair ‘8
(Bruce-President of the World Security Institute, February, “Toward True Security”
www.ucsusa.org/global_security/nuclear_weapons/truesecurity.html Federation of American Scientists Natural
Resources Defense Council Union of Concerned Scientists February 2008)

While Russia retains… missing warheads for 36 hours.

2. High alert weapons create the best chance for extinction


Philips and Star ‘4
(Alan Phillips and Steven Starr, 2004 [Eliminate Launch on Warning, Phillips: Ph. D. with honours in physics at
Cambridge University, former Radar operator for the British Army, Starr: trained in nuclear engineering and works at a

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medical technologist in Columbia, MI, Nuclear Age Peace Foundation,


http://www.wagingpeace.org/articles/2004/09/00_phillips_eliminate-launch-warning.htm)
As long as… failure of that kind

3. Accidents and miscalculation outweigh other impacts

Stienbruner ‘8
(John Steinbruner, security studies professor at Maryland “Reframing DeAlert 2008)

Second, the continuous… for doing so.

Contention Two: Terrorism

De-alert signals multilateral efforts creating Russian co-operation

Gottemoeller ‘8
(Rose Gottemoeller Director, Carnegie Moscow Center October 2008 “Russian–American Security relations After
Georgia”
http://www.carnegieendowment.org/files/russia_us_security_relations_after_georgia.pdf)

In self-justification… in fact strengthening it.

US-Russian Co-operation prevents WMD terrorism

Hahn ‘9
(Gordon M. Hahn “U.S.-Russian Relations and the War against Jihadism” MAY 18, 2009
Gordon M. Hahn is a senior researcher, Monterey Terrorism Research and Education Program, and visiting assistant
professor, Graduate School of International Policy Studies, Monterey Institute of International Studies, California;
senior researcher, Center for Terrorism and Intelligence Studies A Century Foundation Report.
http://www.russiaotherpointsofview.com/2009/05/usrussian-relations-and-the-war-against-jihadism.html)

At the September 2008 World…U.S.-Russian security cooperation

US-Russia partnerships creates global effort against terrorism

Allison ‘4
(Allison, Graham Douglas Dillon Professor of Government and Director of the Belfer Center for Science and
International Affairs, JFK School of Government, Harvard University, How to Stop Nuclear Terror Foreign Affairs;
Jan/Feb2004, Vol. 83 Issue 1, p64-74, 11p, 2 bw)

AS THE PRECEDING DISCUSSION… would quickly follow.

Nuclear terrorism results in extinction.

Speice ‘6
(Patrick, JD 2006 College of William and Mary, 47 Wm and Mary L. Rev. 1427, lexis)

Organizations such as the Russian… a full-scale nuclear conflict

US Russia relations tenuous from launch on warning—de-alert fosters positive relations

Arbatov et al ‘6
(Alexei Arbatov, Head of the Center for International Security Center of the Institute for International Economy and
International Relationships of the Russian Academy of Sciences Vladimir Dvorkin, John Steinbruner, Rose
Gottemoeller Beyond “Nuclear Deterence: Transforming the US-Russia Equation”
WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 20, 2006 http://www.carnegieendowment.org/events/?fa=eventDetail&id=913&prog=zru)

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Alexei Arbatov: Given the current…between the US and Russia

PLAN: The United States federal government should eliminate launch-on-warning from the set of response options
available to nuclear decision-makers, and nuclear missiles in silos will be removed from external launch control. These
measures will be communicated to the Russian Federation.

Contention Three: Solvency

Implementing external controls and revised war plans buys time preventing accidents and miscalculation

Rosenbaum ‘8

(Ron Rosenbaum, Slate contributor and German historian, A Real Nuclear Option for the Nominees5/9/08 p.
http://www.slate.com/id/2191104/pagenum/all/)

His plan has four phases… Phases 1 and 2 could be

US De-alert leads to Russia reciprocation and further security guarantees in the future

Blair ‘8
(Bruce-President of the World Security Institute, February, “Toward True Security”
www.ucsusa.org/global_security/nuclear_weapons/truesecurity.html Federation of American Scientists Natural
Resources Defense Council Union of Concerned Scientists February 2008)

By revamping its deployment… that of a deliberate attack

Unconditional unilateral actions allow for a reduction in tensions

Maise ‘3
(Michelle Maiese, professor of polisci @ Emmanuel College, 2003
http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/confidence_building_measures/)

Confidence building measures… historic Camp David Accords a year later

Unilateral US action Leads to Russian reciprocation and Negotiations—solves any case turns

Mosher et al ‘3
David E. Mosher Principal analyst, National Security Division, Congressional Budget Office; Associate Physicist,
Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Lowell H. Schwartz, David R. Howell, Lynn E. Davis Beyond
the Nuclear Shadow: A Phased Approach for Improving Nuclear Safety and U.S-Russian Relations
http://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/MR1666/index.html 2003

Which of the 10 options examined…and long term

US Unilaterally De-alerting now creates future bilateral agreements with Russia

Civiak ‘9
(Robert Civiak, Science Policy Research at CRS, ‘9 (Robert, Spring, “Towards a New US Nuclear Posture”
Disarmament Diplomacy, No 90, http://www.acronym.org.uk/dd/dd90/90us01.htm#en01)

As with reducing the… Non-Proliferation Treaty

Unconditional unilateral is best—results in reciprocation and preserves relations

Power ‘9
(Jonathan Power, Khaleej Times London based foreign affairs commentator “On How Not to Press the Reset Button”,
3/16/09 p. l/n)

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Precise quid pro… mood remains good

De-alert doesn’t reduce our deterrent or anger our allies

Regehr ‘9
“Ernie Regehr, professor of peace and conflict studies @ U of Waterloo, 3/26/09 p. NATO’s Strategic Concept and the
Emerging Nuclear Abolition Imperative http://www.cigionline.org/blogs/2009/3/canada%E2%80%99s-unseemly-take-
de-alerting”

In explaining its action… a retaliatory strike

Re-alert is a risk in the status quo—plan reduces, not increase its probability

Blair ‘7
(Bruce Blair, cmon, he wrote lots of these cards already 2007 Rejakavik Revisited)

De-alerting could also… alleviate this danger.

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Kansas Petersen/Wilkins (Dealert) [Logan]

Harvard Rd 5
North Korea Advantage
US engaging North Korea now, but it will fail
Bloomberg 9/30
A top U.S. diplomat said…commit to abandoning nuclear weapons

Scenario 1—Arms Race

Failure of North Korea to give up their nuclear weapons ensures a fast regional arms race and Asian economic
collapse
Jackson 7/6/9
“Obama’s nuclear plan could prevent Asian arms race,” examiner
From an East Asian security perspective…arms race described above

Regional arms race goes nuclear


Cirincione 2k
“The Asian Nuclear Reaction Chain,” Foreign Policy, Spring
The blocks would fall quickest…use of a nuclear weapon since 1945

Asian recession goes global—causes millions to die and wars everywhere


Lopez 98
“Towards global recession,” Business World, Lexis
The current regional recession in Asia…away from the global recession

Growth prevents conflicts that lead to nuclear war


Friedberg and Schoenfeld 8
“The Dangers of a Diminised America,” 10/21, WSJ, Proquest
Pressures to cut defense spending…internal travails with external adventures

Plan solves—North Korean officials have explicitly linked denuclearization to US first use
Jee-ho 9/30
“North says nuclear negotiation ball in US court,” Joong Ang Daily
North Korea has thrown the ball…from the DPRK will go,” he said

Even if the US isn’t the sole reason for North Korean proliferation, the plan makes anti-proliferation efforts credible
Schwartz 8
“U.S. Security Strategy: Empowering Kim Jong-Il?” Lexis (Law Review)
North Korea has long proclaimed that its…global norm of non-proliferation

Scenario 2—War

High risk of war with North Korea now—multiple warrants


MacDonald 9
“Danger Zone,” Maclean’s 122 no29/30 22-4 Ag 3-10
Two months earlier, Yonhap, South…any point in the past two decades

It would cause extinction


Africa News 99
Oct 25, Lexis
If there is one place today where the…normalizing relations with North Korea

Most likely scenario for great power war


Stares 9
2/3, CFR
Why should we care? As a nuclear…uncoordinated actions is considerable

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The plan solves—it de-escalates tensions and prevents nuclear war


Makhijani 3
3/4, ieer.org/op-eds/radio/4nkorea.html
As the world’s attention is focused….North Korea but for all countries

Asian wars will go global


Emmott 8
“Power Rises in the East,” June 4, The Australian, Lexis
The rise of Asia is not just…danger if the relationship goes wrong

High risk of conflict in Asial—several emerging powers


Armacost and Roy 8
“America’s Role in Asia 2008,” asiafoundation.oeg
Despite this, the region needs…to become a “moral normal nation”

Kentucky Rd. 1
Pre-empton Advantage
The list of first use missions is expanding. It creates multiple scenarios for nuclear preemption
Butfoy ‘8
Senior Lecturer in International Relations @ Monash University, Melbourne, Australia [Andy Butfoy, “Washington's
Apparent Readiness to Start Nuclear War,” Survival | vol. 50 no. 5 | October–November 2008 | pp. 115–140]
A study of the opinions of non-US nationals ... policy than perhaps its proponents intend.

This collapses the nuclear firebreak without improving our deterrence – this makes nuclear war possible
Huntley ‘6
Huntley 06 - Program Director of the Simons Centre for Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Research @ University of
British Columbia. [WADE L. HUNTLEY (Former Professor of security studies @ Hiroshima Peace Institute and Director
of the Global Peace and Security Program @ Nautilus Institute for Security and Sustainable Development), “Threats all
the way down: US strategic initiatives in a unipolar world,” Review of International Studies (2006), 32, 49–67]
However, the Bush Administration’s approach ... significant practical and ethical consequences.

And, merely maintaing the option creates escalating expectations that makes use inevitable under minor
circumstances.
Gerson ‘7
Joseph, Director of Programs of the American Friends Service Committee's New England Regional Office, Peace
News, 8/16, “The Obama-Clinton Nuclear Madness”, http://www.peacenews.info/news/article/406]
I was in Hiroshima, participating in ..., further increased the dangers of nuclear war.

This perception extends globally- the US is perceived as always about to launch, baiting smaller nuclear powers to
break the taboo first.
Glaser & Fetter ‘5
Professor of Public Policy w/ a focus on security and defense policy @ University of Chicago & Professor of Public
Policy w/ a focus on nuclear arms control and nonproliferation @ University of Maryland. [Charles L. Glaser (Deputy
Dean of the Irving B. Harris Graduate School of Public Policy Studies at the University of Chicago) & Steve Fetter
(Dean of the School of Public Policy at the University of Maryland), “Counterforce Revisited: Assessing the Nuclear
Posture Review's New Missions,” International Security 30.2 (2005) 84-126Project Muse]
A state with vulnerable nuclear ... damage the United States’ international reputation.

Any of these scenarios would result in extinction- must have defense to any potential aggressor to win impact D.
Lopez ‘8
[Bernardo V., “UPSHOT; Nuclear psywar”, Business World, 7/18, Lexis]
With the proliferation of nuclear missiles ... the essence of the war without winners.

And, it causes cascading wars, even if the initial attack doesn’t escalate.
Blair ‘2
Bruce G. Blair, President of the Center for Defense Information & former launch officer in the Strategic Air Command,
2002
Nuclear Time Warp, http://www.cdi.org/nuclear/time-warp-pr.cfm
Even more dangerously counter-productive ... the nuclear fuse in many regional confrontations.

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An NFU specifically resolves any risk of the impact.


Peng and Rong ‘9
Peng and Rong yu, Peng Guangqian is editor-in-chief of Strategic Sciences and has long been engaged in research
on military strategy and international affairs. Rong Yu is a Ph. D. candidate at the Institute of International Strategy and
Development, School of Public Policy and Management, Tsinghua University, China Security, Vol. 5 No. 1 Winter
2009, pp. 78-87, World Security Institute, http://www.washingtonobserver.org/pdfs/Peng_and_Rong.pdf
In crisis situations, both first-use and NFU policies are highly ... power of wars will be under control.

Nothing else can effectively resolve inevitable global nuclear conflicts.


Grossman ‘7
Jerome, the Chairman Emeritus of the Council for a Livable World in Washington, Washington Post Writers Group.
“U.S. should promise no first use of nukes”, 6/15, http://www.cjonline.com/stories/061507/opi_177295240.shtml
When American military officials and ... by declaring a "No First Use" policy.

This also includes the modeling and solvency part of the prolif advantage.

Commitment Trap Add-on


(A) Deterrence collapse inevitable- plan solves perception of necessary retalation.
Sagan in ‘9
Scott D. Sagan, Professor of Political Science and Director of the Center for International Security and Cooperation at
Stanford University, “The Case for No First Use,” June 5, 2009, Routledge, International Institute for Strategic Studies
Advocates of calculated ambiguity maintain ... nuclear retaliation in the event deterrence fails.

(B) Only retalation would escalate


Speice 6
Speice, Patrick F., Jr. "Negligence and nuclear nonproliferation: eliminating the current liability barrier to bilateral U.S.-
Russian nonproliferation assistance programs." William and Mary Law Review 47.4 (Feb 2006): 1427(59). Expanded
Academic ASAP.
The potential consequences of the unchecked spread ... and escalate to the use of nuclear weapons. (53)

ASAT Add-on
(A) Absent ending conventional first use ASAT pre-emption is inevitable, leads to US-China escalation.
Martel and Yoshihara ‘3
The Washington Quarterly, 26.4 (2003) 19-35 http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/washington_quarterly/v026/26.4martel.html
Strategists in the United States and in China ... given that many states depend on satellites for their economic well-
being.

(B) US will escalate with nukes


Barry ‘8
John, Newsweek, Military Section, “It's time for the United States to push for limits to what China and other countries
can do in earth orbit,” http://www.newsweek.com/id/160107, September 21, 2008
Conflict with China is unlikely ... one would not rule out even a nuclear response if those interests were attacked."

PGS Add-on/PGS DA Answers


The plan solves war with North Korea – it de-escalates tensions and prevents escalation
Makhijani 3
Arjun. President of IEER, holds a Ph.D. in engineering (specialization: nuclear fusion) from the University of California
at Berkeley. He has produced many studies and articles on nuclear fuel cycle related issues, including weapons
production, testing, and nuclear waste, over the past twenty years. 3/4/3. http://www.ieer.org/op-
eds/radio/4nkorea.html.
As the world's attention is focused on Iraq ... not only for North Korea but for all countries.

NFU leads to conventional strike posture


Stanley Foundation 8
“US Nuclear Weapons Doctrine: Can We Adopt No First Use?” Policy Dialogue Brief, April 4, 2008.
Throughout the Cold War, the United States ... need a mission for weapons they already have.

Conventional upgrades key to US military leadership


Horowitz and Shalmon 9

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Michael C. Horowitz and Dan A. Shalmon, Professor of Political Science @ University of Pennsylvania & Senior
Analyst @ Lincoln Group, LLC. “The Future of War and American Military Strategy,” Orbis, Spring 2009.
Hedging will be the optimal strategy for the U.S. ... generation, but also for the next, as well.

CGS key to prevent erosion of US power projection and credibility


Ochmanek and Schwartz 8
David Ochmanek (Foreign Service of the United States (80 to 85), An officer in the United States Air Force (73 to 78)
and Master of Public Affairs degree from Princeton University) & Lowell H. Schwartz (Ph.D. candidate in War Studies
@ King's College London and M.A. in international affairs @ Johns Hopkins University), The Challenge of Nuclear-
armed Regional Adversaries, 2008
None of the analysis laid out here suggests ... they would have dangerous escalatory potential.

Hegemony solves wars across the globe


Kagan 7
Robert. (Senior transatlantic fellow at the German Marshall Fund), “End of Dreams, Return of History,” Policy Review,
August & September 2007, http://www.hoover.org/publications/policyreview/8552512.html
The jostling for status and influence among these ... involvement will provide an easier path.

GSU Rd. 3 Vs. Fullerton RS


The US's policy of holding potential detonation of its nuclear arsenal over the world is like holding a gun to someone's
head- it is a way for the US to force the world to comply with its wishes. This forces countries to prepare for war or bow
to the US.
Ellsberg 9/11
Daniel. Senior Fellow of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation. 9/11/9. http://www. bloomingtonalternative.com/
node/10137.
In the United States … reasoning in doing so.

The squo treats implicit threats of nuclear war as something to trade in negotiations, a bargaining chip. The US says
"we won't strike you if you give us what we ask for"- our pledge not to make these threats delegitimizes
instrumentalization of nuclear weapons. This solves violence of the squo's coercive threats.
Dolar '3
Professor Department of Philosophy @ University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, Senior Research Fellow, "The Power of the
Invisible," http://static.kiberpipa.org/~break/old/dolar.htm
This leads us to the simple conclusion...it moulds our behavior in its very non-completion.

Our status quo policy of threatening first strikes is like an extortionist that sells protection insurance to a local store to
keep the extorionist from destroying the store. We force people into accepting security gaurentees of protection from
nuclear strieks in exchange for utter submission to US security paradigms. This instrumentalizes other nations.
Tilly in '85
Charles Tilly, Prof of Social Science @ Columbia, "Bringing the State Back In," 1985, p. 170-171
In contemporary American parlance,...the government has organized a protection racket.

And, even though the US would not use its nuclear weapons, the implict threat is enough. It militarizes our relations
with the world and depoliticizes nuclear war as a constant spectacle from which all should flee. Thus, the US
simultaneously inflates the value of nukes and asks for others to give up their freedom for their future.
Dolar '3
Professor Department of Philosophy @ University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, Senior Research Fellow, "The Power of the
Invisible," http://static.kiberpipa.org/~break/old/dolar.htm
To make a step further...explicit form of a threat.

Specifically, implicit threats are the worst, they push violent language underground and make the discursive violence
the US employs invisible.
Dolar '3
Professor Department of Philosophy @ University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, Senior Research Fellow, "The Power of the
Invisible," http://static.kiberpipa.org/~break/old/dolar.htm
The threat works at its best...an immaterial, a virtual existence.

And, this process of instrumentalizing implied threats makes war depoliticized and necessary- it becomes self-fulfilling-
we must manufacture threats to force others to seek our protection, but they only need our protection because we
made up the danger. The aff ends this vicious cycle.

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Dabashi in '7
Hamid, http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2007/831/focus.htm, 2007
Once again the drums of war are roaring...that we must learn how to respond.

And, failure to reject the ontology of traditional instrumentalization makes you complicit in perpetuation of a state of
warfare.
Bilgin in '5
Pinar, Woodrow Wilson Center Fellow, Assistant Prof of IR @ Bilken U in Turkey, "Regional Security in the Middle
East: A Critical Perspective," p. 164
Then, given the ways in which...perpetuating regional insecurity in the Middle East.

And, the affirmative rejects an instrumental ontology that allows the exploitation of threats of warfare reducing humans
to calculable objects within the logic of a state of war. (Don't endorse gendered language).
Burke in '7
Anthony Burke, Senior Lecturer in Politics and IR @UNSW, "Ontologies of War: Violence, Existence and Reason,"
2007
Heidegger's insights into this phenomenon...strategy as 'the power to hurt.'

This ontology is worse than our nuclear threats.


Zimmerman in '93
Michael, Prof of Philosophy @ Tulane, "Contesting Earth's Future: Radical Ecology and Postmodernity," Pg. 119-120,
1993
Heidegger asserted that human self-assertion...lessened because they were never "disclosed" by humanity.

Plan: The United States federal government should ban first use of its nuclear arsenal.

The role of the ballot is to endorse a political strategy for civic engagement of nuclear institutions.
McClean '1
David, Lecturer in Philosophy @ Molloy College, 2001
Leftist American culture critics might put their...disrespect for the so-called "managerial class."

The undisclosed nature of nuclear policy allows "experts" to control decisions- encouraging citizen envolvement is key
to challenging the discourse.
Taylor '7
Bryan, associate professor in Comms @ U. Colorado-Boulder, "The Means to Match Their Hatred: Nuclear Weapons,
Rhetorical Democracy and Presidential Discourse," Presidential Studies Quarterly, vol. 37, Iss 4, pg 667-692
First, there is general agreement...in fueling the political fetish of weaponry.

Specific policy perscriptions are key- leaving the alterantive in the hands of (the agent) is not enough.
Martin in '90
Brain, http://www.uow.edu.au/~bmartin/pubs/90uw/uw00.html
In looking at structures such as bureaucracy or...reject them, and take action.

Public engagement on nuclear issues is key to hold policymakers accountable.


Stimson Center '1
"Beyond Deterrence: A Global Approach to Reducing Nuclear Dangers"
Ironically, a full decade out since the end...who act with political impunity.

Debates by researchers of nuclear policy are critical to shaping the way the government acts- failure to do so resutls in
secret changes in posture by the government.
Gabel '5
Josiane, Research assistant @ CSIS, Washington Quarterly, 28:1, Winter 2004-2005
The literature on the role of nuclear weapons since the end of the Cold War...help inform and advatnace this debate.

Rejection of predictions ensures bureaucratic norms and regidity.


Fitzsimmons '6
Michael, defense analyst in Washington DC, "The Problem of Uncertainty in Strategic Planning," December 1, 2006,
Survival, Vol. 48, Issue 4
Another well-publicised instance where...planning rather than flexibility.

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2AC F/W Cards


Citizen advocacy for government action is a necessary step- it is key to avoid apathy and solve extinction.
Krieger '7
David, Prez Nukclear Age Peace Foundation
U.S. citizens have a critical role...depends on what we do now.

State-centric views of the topic are key to emancipatory politics- the K fails without engaging the state.
Shaw '1
Martin, Professor of IR @ U. Sussex, Review of International Studies, October 2001,
http://www.martinshaw.org/unfinished.pdf
The mistakes in this passage are also...begun to fashion a new agenda.

Freire's utopianism dooms the political allies that are necessary to overcome oppression.
Stanley '72
"Literacy," Paulo Freire
Utopianism is a problem in Freire's thought...would turn out to be in short supply.

Lack of tackling specific forms of oppression makes freire's alternative fail.


Bugbee and Elias 75/76
"Reflections on Griffith, Freire and Beyond," Literacy Discussion
One can hope that Freire will choose to address himself...and all others as oppressors.

And, our argument is empirically true- Freire conceeded his alternative has never worked.
MacEion '72
"Conscientization for the Masses," National Catholic Reporter
For years I have been...he admitted that neither has he.

Standpoint epistemology and social location arguments fetishize an impossible authentic identity.
Rolin in '6
Kristina, "The Bias Paradox in Feminist Standpoint Epistemology," Episteme: A Journal of Social Epistemology, 2006
For a long time feminist standpoint...specify a context of epistemic justification.

GSU Aff Disclosure


Contention 1 – No Disads
Contention 1 is no disads

Size and role


Loukianova 9
Anya. James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. 8/19/9. http://www.nti.org/e_research/
e3_nuclear_posture_review_ debate.html.

In August 2009, … U.S. security guarantees.

Arms control now – START, CTBT, FMCT


Marlowe 9
Lara Marlowe, Irish Times, 7-7-2009, “Nuclear-free world,” http://www.irishtimes.com/ newspaper/world/2009/0707/
1224250171705.html.

Despite continuing tensions … progress until now.


Plan
The United States federal government should adopt a nuclear no first use policy for state and non-state actors. We can
clarify.
Contention 2 – Proliferation
Contention 2 is proliferation

The world is on the brink of breakout proliferation that will lead to nuclear use – new strategies are key to solve
Wirjawan 9
Gita. Chairman of Ancora International. 6/25/9. Jakarta Post. http://www.thejakartapost.com/ news/2009/06/24/a-
global- nuclear-disorder.html.

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The world is edging … that fragile peace.

2 links
A) Security – even if we don’t detonate these weapons against a state, the policy of first use is akin to holding a gun to
someone’s head – it is the impetus for proliferation
Ellsberg 9/11
Daniel. Senior Fellow of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation. 9/11/9. http://www. bloomingtonalternative.com/
node/10137.

Later in 1990, … the rest of the world).

B) Prestige – the policy of first use inscribes military value to nuclear weapons, that reinforces the prestige of the bomb
Mendelsohn 99
Jack Mendelsohn, vice president and executive director of the Lawyers Alliance for World Security (LAWS) in
Washington, DC, is former deputy director of the Arms Control Association, “NATO’s Nuclear Weapons: The Rationale
for ‘No First Use,’” 1999, Arms Control Association,__http://www.armscontrol.org/ print/520__

The United States affirms … own nuclear arsenals.

Proliferation will be fast – multiple reasons


Utgoff 2
Victor A., Deputy Director of Strategy, Forces, and Resources Division, Institute for Defense Analyses, “Proliferation,
Missile Defence and American Ambitions,” Survival, v. 44 n. 2, Summer 2002, p. 86-87.

As proliferation continues, … overcome all restraint.

Leads to miscalc and nuclear use


Drell and Goodby 8
Sidney (professor of physics emeritus at Stanford University and a senior fellow at Stanford’s Hoover Institution) and
James (a former U.S. ambassador, is currently a research fellow at the Hoover Institution and a nonresident senior
fellow at the Brookings Institution). Summer 2008. The Washington Quarterly. “The Reality: A Goal of a World without
Nuclear Weapons Is Essential.” Muse.

Being caught in … a nuclear exchange.

You should err aff on this risk calculus – we only have to right in one instance
Knopf 2
Jeffrey, Department of National Security Affairs at Naval Postgraduate School, Security Studies, “Recasting the
Proliferation Optimism-Pessimism Debate”, Oct. 2002.

DEVELOPING AND testing theories … to run the experiment.”24

Additionally, this is the most dangerous form of proliferation – US policy encourages modeling that ensures first strikes
Ellsberg 9/11
Daniel. Senior Fellow of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation. 9/11/9. http://www. bloomingtonalternative.com/
node/10137.

In the United States … reasoning in doing so.

This leads to Russian, Israeli and North Korean aggression


Hitchens 3
Theresa, Vice President, Center for Defense Information Presented at a conference on U.S. NUCLEAR POLICY AND
COUNTERPROLIFERATION http://www.cdi.org/nuclear/ counterproliferation- conference.cfm

The goal of the … it's own nuclear aggression?

Russian aggression against Chechnya goes nuclear


Pandita 1

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Dr. K.N., obtained his M.A. in Persian from the Panjab U and Ph.D. in Iranian from Teheran U, He served as a long
time as professor in the Persian Department and the Centre of Central Asian Studies @ the Jammu and Kashmir U,
__http://www.kashmir- information.com/KNPandita/ article9.html__.

This decision of the … or in the Caucasus?

Israel-Iran conflict leads to worldwar 3


Ivashov 7
Leonid, analyst at the Strategic Culture Foundation, 4/21, Iran: the Threat of a Nuclear War, http://www.megachip.info/
modules.php?name=Sections&op= viewarticle&artid=3871

What might cause … nightmarish than WWII.

High risk escalation


Kam 7
Ephraim, A Nuclear Iran, Deputy Head @ Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies, http://www.tau.ac.il/jcss/
memoranda/memo88.pdf

The statements by … risk do not yet exist.

North Korean war leads to extinction


Africa News 99
October 25, LN.

If there is one … relations with North Korea.

Deterrence theory doesn’t apply in this world of nuclear weapons


Kreiger and Ong 2
David and Carah, “No First Use,” president and director of publications research at the Nuclear Age Peace
Foundation, April 2002.

The fact that the … with a weapon of mass destruction.

The plan reshapes doctrines globally – ensures first strike is an illegitimate use of nuclear weapons
Sagan 9
Scott D. Sagan, Professor of Political Science and Director of the Center for International Security and Cooperation at
Stanford University, “The Case for No First Use,” June 5, 2009, Routledge, International Institute for Strategic Studies

Nuclear declaratory policy … or potential nuclear-weapons acquisition.

Finally, you should view negative arguments with skepticism – they exaggerate the benefits of deterrence and the
costs of a no first use policy
Sagan 9
Scott D. Sagan, Professor of Political Science and Director of the Center for International Security and Cooperation at
Stanford University, “The Case for No First Use,” June 5, 2009, Routledge, International Institute for Strategic Studies.

Is the threat of … event that deterrence fails’.


Contention 3 – India
Contention 3 is India

First, India and Pakistan are on the brink of conflict in the status quo
Bhatt 9
Sheela Bhatt, India Abroad, “Pakistan Simmers Again; India, world, Feel the Heat,” March 20, 2009, Vol. 39, Issue 25,
pg. A20

However, Zardari's policies … same - more terrorism.

India will model a US no first use pledge – it’s key to preventing escalation
Sagan 9

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Scott D. Sagan, Professor of Political Science and Director of the Center for International Security and Cooperation at
Stanford University, “The Case for No First Use,” June 5, 2009, Routledge, International Institute for Strategic Studies

The best example … in the opposite direction.

US first use policy influences Indian strategists to broaden the role and size of its nuclear arsenal – this causes
Pakistani nuclear expansion
Koshy 9
Ninan, Fellow Harvard Law , 6/4/9. “Maximizing minimum nuclear deterrence”, http://www.atimes.com/atimes/
South_Asia/KF04Df03.html.

The new Indian Minister … we are witnessing now.

That causes offensive systems to be emphasized – leads to instability


Khan 9
Feroz Hassan, Fellow Woodrow Wilson Center , PAKISTAN’S PERSPECTIVE ON THE GLOBAL ELIMINATION OF
NUCLEAR WEAPONS, March, http://www.stimson.org/pub. cfm?ID=798.

India’s strategic modernization … perceives from India.

Offensive doctrinal shifts guarantee a nuclear exchange – deterrence will fail


Kapur 8
(S. Paul.-, National Security Affairs Naval Postgraduate School, International Security, “Ten Years of Instability in a
Nuclear South Asia...”, Fall Lexis) __http://iis-db.stanford.edu/ pubs/22297/isec.2008.33.2.pdf__.

As noted above, nuclear … in a largely rational manner.

Extinction
Washington Times 1
July 8, LN.

The most dangerous … Material/Cut-off Convention.

GSU Round 1
versus Harvard JP
Aff—NFU Prolif, S. Asia
Neg—Weaponitis, Defense of Last Resort, Allied Prolif Da, Healthcare Good Politics
AT Allied Prolif DA
Plan solves allied prolif – inevitable now
Sagan 9
Scott D. Sagan, Professor of Political Science and Director of the Center for International Security and Cooperation at
Stanford University, “The Case for No First Use,” June 5, 2009, Routledge, International Institute for Strategic Studies
Given the current superiority…changes in declaratory policy.

1AR
Allied prolif now—NMD cut killed confidence in the umbrella, guarantees nuclear tipping point for our allies
David 9.18
[Jack, deputy assistant secretary of defense for combating weapons of mass destruction from 2004-2006, WallStreet
Journal, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204518504574419173653298610.html?
mod=googlenews_wsj]
The "smarter" missile-defense system …ability to protect them.

Missile defense decision guarantees allied proliferation through Europe, Japan and the Middle East now
David 9.18
[Jack, deputy assistant secretary of defense for combating weapons of mass destruction from 2004-2006, WallStreet
Journal, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204518504574419173653298610.html?
mod=googlenews_wsj]
Start with Japan. Tokyo has … Iran on its own.

Obama’s pledges already triggered the link

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Halloran 9
Richard. 5/27/9. http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/editorials/archives/2009/05/27/2003444613.
In addition, Japanese noted … Japan’s nuclear defense.

No Japan nuclearization – multiple constraints


Chanlett-Avery and Nikitin 9
Emma (specialist in Asian affairs) and Mary Beth (analyist in nonproliferation). “Japan’s nuclear future: policy debate,
prospects, and US interests.” Congressional Research Service. 2/19/9. Online.
This paper examines the … approach is analyzed.

Japanese nuclearization doesn’t trigger proliferation


White 8
Hugh. Visiting Fellow at the Lowy Institute for International Policy and Professor of Strategic Studies at the Australian
National University. 7/17/8. http://www.lowyinterpreter.org/post/2008/07/A-nuclear-Japan-The-least-bad-option.aspx.
Second, more specifically, … because Japan had them?

No link
Fukuyama and Umbeyashi 9
“Japan ready for ‘no nukes’.” Google.
In fact, there are signs…Japan is ready.

AT DLR
Only a risk of a solvency deficit – no real threat
Stanley Foundation 8
Stanley Foundation, US Nuclear Review project, Reported by Maxims News Service, 8/22/08, “The Stanley
Foundation: A New Look at No First Use of Nuclear Weapons,”
http://www.maximsnews.com/news20080822stanleyfdtnnuclearfirststrikedoctrine10808221601.htm.
Some conference participants questioned…mating warheads to missiles.

CP is squo
Stanley Foundation 8
Stanley Foundation, US Nuclear Review project, Reported by Maxims News Service, 8/22/08, “The Stanley
Foundation: A New Look at No First Use of Nuclear Weapons,”
http://www.maximsnews.com/news20080822stanleyfdtnnuclearfirststrikedoctrine10808221601.htm.
Some participants were not sure that NFU…in extenuating circumstances.

Only escalation in the CP


Bernstein et al 82
www.nybooks.com/articles/6489
Draper is right to be skeptical …Europe means nuclear war.

Politics 2AC
Healthcare won’t pass
Lightman 9-17-09 www.miamiherald.com/news/politics/AP/story/1238775.hmtl
“little consensus”

Healthcare derailed by future controversy


Hornick 9-8-09 edition.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/09/08/congress.priorities
“possibility of taking up a second stimulus plan”

Snowe’s key—will vote against


Goldstein 9-16-09 http://primebuzz.kcstar.com/?q=node/19962
“Democrats aren’t even certain to get everyone with a “D” after their name”

Afghanistan hurts capital


Dimascio 9-16-09 www.politico.com/news/stories/0909/27202.html
“drop-off couldn’t come at a worse time for Obama”

Congress only cares about numbers of nukes—not doctrine

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Amy Woolf ‘7 Nonproliferation Review 14 (3)


“divided jurisdiction over nuclear weapons policy”

Winners win
Plan is a win
Cirincione ‘8 http://lostintransition.nationaljournal.com/2008/11/arms-control.php
“represent an early political victory”

Key to agenda
Johnathan Singer ‘9 www.mydd.com/story/2009/3/3/191825/0428
“political capital can be regenerated”

Public o/w military


Steinbruner and Gallagher ‘8 www.armscontrol.org/print/2615
“evoke broad public approval despite the resistance they might encounter in their security bureaucracies”

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Missouri State Frederick/Gilmore (Dealert) [Logan]

Missouri State FG

GSU Aff Disclosure


The START process makes De-alerting inevitable in the future but is too slow to solve our impacts – de-alerting now is
key

Bruce Blair (President, world security institute) September 1999 “Back from the Brink - Interview - Dr. Bruce Blair”
http://www.argumentations.com/Argumentations/StoryDetail_595.aspx

Does de-alerting fit neatly….. this immediate problem.

Also, the US has already de-alerted a large fraction of its forces

Pavel Podvig (researcher at the Center for International Security and Cooperation at Stanford University) May 2006
“Reducing the Risk of an Accidental Launch” http://iis-db.stanford.edu/pubs/21283/14_2-3__Podvig.pdf

As a practical step, the….. by de-alerting measures

And, recently Obama and Medvedev agreed to de-alert 200 warheads

Pasadena Weekly August 5, 2009 “Defusing a global threat”


http://www.pasadenaweekly.com/cms/story/detail/defusing_a_global_threat/7565/

Negotiate a new treaty with Russia….. still poised to launch.

De-mating is they surest way to solve

Arjun Makhijani (President of IEER, holds a Ph.D. in engineering) October 1998 “De-Alerting: A First Step”
http://www.ieer.org/latest/de-alert.html

The surest way of…. capable of carrying them.

Keeping subs on ‘modified alert’ solves – doesn’t decrease survivability at all

Frank von Hippel (a professor of public and international affairs at Princeton) November 1998 “De-alerting Nuclear
Missiles” http://www.nautilus.org/archives/library/security/papers/von_hippelISODARCO.PDF

SLBMs. U.S. Trident submarines…. the forces were de-alerted.

Plan is key to give Russia political cover to take their weapons off of alert

Bruce Blair et al (President, World Security Institute) February 2008 “toward True Security Ten Steps the Next
President Should Take to Transform U.S. Nuclear Weapons Policy”
http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/nwgs/toward-true-security.pdf

While Russia’s deployed…. intercept Russia’s remaining missiles.

Hold all of their evidence to a higher standard in the context of de-alerting

Federation of American Scientists November 2007 “A Rebuttal to Brown and Deutch Op-Ed in the Wall Street Journal”
Online

Arguments justifying the continuing…. prohibition on nuclear weapons.

This reverses presumption

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Sam Nunn ( ) July 2004 “A Safer Form of Deterrence and Security Proliferation Brief”
http://www.wagingpeace.org/articles/2004/07/07_nunn_safer-deterrence.htm

The presidents should then…. in the United States

Advantage 1 is Accidental Launch

The threat of miscalculation and accidents is extremely high now – false alarms happen multiple times daily with very
limited time to assess. This makes rational deliberation impossible

Bruce Blair (President, World Security Institute) February 2008 “Increasing Warning and Decision Time (‘De-Alerting’)”
http://disarmament.nrpa.no/wp-content/uploads/2008/02/Paper_Blair.pdf

A high degree of vigilance…. less than one hour

US military command and control structure rigs the decision-making process to make massive retaliation a near
certainty

Bruce Blair (president, World Security Institute) February 2004 “Keeping Presidents in the Nuclear Dark”
http://www.cdi.org/blair/launch‐on‐warning.cfm

Given the awesome responsibility… ducks for very long

Russia is about to deploy missiles with multiple warheads making pushing Russia even closer to the trigger

Bruce Blair et al (President, World Security Institute) February 2008 “toward True Security Ten Steps the Next
President Should Take to Transform U.S. Nuclear Weapons Policy”
http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/nwgs/toward-true-security.pdf

With the demise of… as on their numbers

Extremely frequent hacking and Cyber-terror attacks make accidental launch inevitable without de-alerting

Bruce Blair (President, World Security Institute) February 2008 “Increasing Warning and Decision Time (‘De-Alerting’)”
http://disarmament.nrpa.no/wp-content/uploads/2008/02/Paper_Blair.pdf

There are a host of reasons…. signals carries real risk

This avoids all your generic defense and ensures escalation – Cyberterrorists have empirically made attempts to hack
our submarines

Jason Fritz (Director of New Media Learning & Development and editor of the Office of Information Technology) May
2009 “Hacking Nuclear Command and Control” http://www.icnnd.org/latest/research/Jason_Fritz_Hacking_NC2.pdf

This paper will analyse the… control centres directly.

Multiple factors make accidental launch more likely than in the Cold War

The Washington Office (public policy information and advocacy office of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian
Church) August 2008 “Launch on Warning and the Nuclear Hair Trigger”
http://www.pcusa.org/washington/issuenet/gs-001211.htm

Accordingly, within just a few… planes had been launched.

The threshold for our impact is pretty low – it only takes one mishap or computer glitch to cause escalation

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Allan Phillips (retired physician who did radar research for the British army during WWII) and Steven Starr (trained in
nuclear engineering, works as a medical technologist in Columbia, Missouri) 2004 “Eliminate Launch on Warning”
http://www.scienceforpeace.ca/0409-eliminate-launch-on-warning

One of the most likely… This is inexcusably dangerous.

Accidental launch from high alert weapons causes extinction

Ira Helfand and John Pastore (both past presidents of Physicians for Social Responsibility) March 31, 2009, “U.S.-
Russia nuclear war still a threat”, http://www.projo.com/opinion/contributors/content/CT_pastoreline_03-31-
09_EODSCAO_v15.bbdf23.html

President Obama and Russian… remains in place today.

Our impact is the fastest and most important – dealerting is key to solve global nuclear incineration that could occur in
a matter of minutes

Douglas Mattern (a Silicon Valley engineer, is president of the Association of World Citizens) at least 2005 (latest cited
work) “A Critical Time in Human History - Escalating Nuclear Disarmament”
http://www.worldcitizens.org/criticaltime.html

In his article "Apocalypse Now… until the goal is reached.

Our internal link is the only plausible scenario for full scale nuclear war – keeping missiles on alert is the only way for
global nuclear war to happen

Bruce Blair (President, World Security Institute) June 2000 “Trapped in the Nuclear Math”
http://www.cdi.org/issues/proliferation/blairnytimes6.12.00.html

Getting to below 2,000… country other than Russia.

Advantage 2 is Indo-Pak

There is tension in South Asia now and there will be inevitably. Both countries are ramping up their nuclear capabilities

Zia Mian (physicist with the Program on Science and Global Security at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and
International Affairs at Princeton University) July 27, 2009 “Pushing South Asia Toward the Brink”
http://www.fpif.org/fpiftxt/6295

The contradictions and… India as prisoners of war.

South Asia will model US-Russian high alert posture in the future – plan is key to prevent Indo-pak hair trigger status
and solve an inevitable war

Zia Mian (a Pakistani physicist on the research staff of Princeton University) R. Rajaraman (a professor of physics at
the Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi) and Frank von Hippel (a professor of public and international affairs at
Princeton) August 2002 “U.S.-Russian Lessons for South Asia” http://www.fpif.org/pdf/gac/0208nukelessons.pdf

The current South Asian… Down that path lies disaster

Accidents are uniquely likely now - India just bought their first early warning system and Pakistan will follow soon

Dr. Ajey Lele (a New Delhi based defence analyst at the Society for the Study of Peace and Conflict) June 9, 2009
“Induction of Airborne Warning System: Revolutionizing Indian Air Force” http://sspconline.org/article_details.asp?
artid=art185

On 27 May 2009… sovereign state at its own will!

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De-alerting prevents Indo-pak war

Morton Mintz ((a former chair of the Fund for Investigative Journalism and a former Washington Post reporter)
February 2001 “Two Minutes to Launch” http://www.prospect.org/cs/articles?article=two_minutes_to_launch

By creating an international… hair-trigger-alert procedures.

Impact is extinction

The Washington Times July 08, 2001

The most dangerous place… Material/Cut-off Convention.

Advantage 3 is Prolif

Wildfire proliferation is inevitable now because of US hair trigger alert status – it sends a very potent signal that the US
isn’t serious about elimination of nuclear weapons

Bhuwan Thapaliya (Nepal-based economist, author, analyst, and journalist. He serves as an Associate Editor of The
Global Politician) October 2005 “America's Catastrophic Nuclear Administration”
http://www.globalpolitician.com/21289-nuclear

The hyper destructive power… a further catastrophic dilemma.

And, Proliferation will snowball.

Utgoff, 2002 (Victor A., Deputy Director of the Strategy, Forces, and Resources Division of the Institute for Defense
Analyses. In 1998–99, he established the Advanced Systems and Concepts Office, former senior member of the
National Security Council Staff, International Institute for Strategic Studies, Survival, “Proliferation, Missile Defence and
American Ambitions”)

As proliferation continues… that already has them.

Here’s reverse causal evidence - this visible form of de-alerting sends a key signal that Cold War intentions are gone.
Academics agree that this is key

Amy F. Woolf (Specialist in Nuclear Weapons Policy, Congressional Research Service) June 2009 “Nuclear Force
Posture and Alert Rates: Issues and Options” http://www.ewi.info/system/files/Woolf.pdf

During the Cold War… in the right direction.

Plan is key to international coalition that exerts crucial pressure and creates an international norm that deters potential
proliferators

Sam Nunn (Co-Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Nuclear Threat Initiative, former US senator) 2007 ““The
Mountaintop: A World Free of Nuclear Weapons” http://www.nti.org/c_press/speech_samnunn_cfr07.pdf

Recently, former President… a nuclear weapon.

This signal spills over into other proliferation issues - Full de-alerting is key to solving a multitude of internal links to
proliferation

Bruce Blair (President, World Security Institute) 2000 “Nuclear Dealerting: A Solution to Proliferation Problems”
http://www.cdi.org/dm/2000/issue3/dealerting.html

When President Clinton announced… beset the nuclear universe.

De-alerting solves conflict escalation – aff solves your terminal impacts

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Thomas H. Karas (Advanced Concepts Group Sandia National Laboratories) April 2001 “De-alerting and De-activating
Strategic Nuclear Weapons” http://www.nti.org/e_research/official_docs/labs/de_alt_act_tnw.pdf

On the other hand.. it might slow the pace

The impact is extinction

Stuart Taylor (Senior Writer with the National Journal and editor at Newsweek) 2002 Legal Times, 9-16-2002]

The truth is, no matter… nuclear attack by others.

And, rapid proliferation is uniquely bad – preemption, biological weapons.

Utgoff, 2002 (Victor A., Deputy Director of the Strategy, Forces, and Resources Division of the Institute for Defense
Analyses. In 1998–99, he established the Advanced Systems and Concepts Office, former senior member of the
National Security Council Staff, International Institute for Strategic Studies, Survival, “Proliferation, Missile Defence and
American Ambitions”)

Many readers are probably… as biological weapons.

Deterrence does not check escalation – history and human nature.

Utgoff, 2002 (Victor A., Deputy Director of the Strategy, Forces, and Resources Division of the Institute for Defense
Analyses. In 1998–99, he established the Advanced Systems and Concepts Office, former senior member of the
National Security Council Staff, International Institute for Strategic Studies, Survival, “Proliferation, Missile Defence and
American Ambitions”)

We can almost hear the kinds of words… iolence are readily accessible.

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Missour State Foley/Kearney (Dealert) [Logan]

Missouri State FK

Various versions:
Plan: The United States Federal Government should de-alert its nuclear weapons arsenal by de-mating nuclear
warheads from intercontinental ballistic missiles and placing submarines on modified alert.

Plan: Wake Forest should relax about the plan text, which was in the original email.

GSU Aff Disclosure


*1AC No Disads (1)*

Contention One: No Disads

Slow de-alerting inevitable now but doing plan now key

Bruce Blair (President, world security institute) September 1999 “Back from the Brink - Interview - Dr. Bruce Blair”
http://www.argumentations.com/Argumentations/StoryDetail_595.aspx

Does de-alerting fit neatly AND de-alerting to address this immediate problem.

The US has already de-alerted a large fraction of its forces

Pavel Podvig (researcher at the Center for International Security and Cooperation at Stanford University) May 2006
“Reducing the Risk of an Accidental Launch” http://iis-db.stanford.edu/pubs/21283/14_2-3Podvig.pdf

As a practical step, the AND be seriously affected by de-alerting measures

Plus, in 1991 both the US and Russia unilaterally de-alerted ALL of our bombers, hundreds of missiles, and ten
submarines

TFF (Transnational Foundation for Peace and Future Research) March 2009 “On how not to press the re-set button”
http://www.transnational.org/Columns_Power/2009/10.ResetButton.html

Two great presidents were responsible AND their launch keys taken away from them

And, recently Obama and Medvedev announced to de-alert 200 warheads

Pasadena Weekly August 5, 2009 “Defusing a global threat”


http://www.pasadenaweekly.com/cms/story/detail/defusing_a_global_threat/7565/

Negotiate a new treaty with Russia AND which each nation is still poised to launch.

*1AC Solvency (1)*

Contention Two: Solvency

De-mating key to completely eliminate risk of accidental launch and solves conflict escalation

Douglas Mattern (a Silicon Valley engineer, is president of the Association of World Citizens) 2001 “The Time of the
Nuclear Nightmare Must Have a Stop” http://www.commondreams.org/views01/0810-06.htm

The highest priority in our world AND could be reloaded on the missiles

Modified alert solves – doesn’t decrease survivability

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Frank von Hippel (a professor of public and international affairs at Princeton) November 1998 “De-alerting Nuclear
Missiles” http://www.nautilus.org/archives/library/security/papers/von_hippelISODARCO.PDF

SLBMs. U.S. Trident submarines AND option would have to be abandoned if the forces were de-alerted.

*1AC Solvency (2)*

Only reducing operational readiness of high alert weapons solves extinction – plan is key

John Hallam (Nuclear campaigner and editor Nuclear Flashpoints) June 2009 “Commonsense Measures to Avoid An
Accidental Apocalypse” http://pndnsw.org.au/articles/features/91-commonsense-measures-to-avoid-an-accidental-
apocalypse.html

Nuclear weapons Operating Status or Operational Readiness AND. This presents a vital opportunity that must be
seized

Plan is key to give Russia political cover to take their weapons off of alert

Bruce Blair et al (President, World Security Institute) February 2008 “toward True Security Ten Steps the Next
President Should Take to Transform U.S. Nuclear Weapons Policy”
http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/nwgs/toward-true-security.pdf

While Russia’s deployed arsenal will AND intercept Russia’s remaining missiles.

*1AC Solvency (3)*

Hold all of their evidence to a higher standard in the context of de-alerting

Federation of American Scientists November 2007 “A Rebuttal to Brown and Deutch Op-Ed in the Wall Street Journal”
Online

Arguments justifying the continuing AND every effort to move toward a global prohibition on nuclear weapons.

This reverses presumption

Sam Nunn ( ) July 2004 “A Safer Form of Deterrence and Security Proliferation Brief”
http://www.wagingpeace.org/articles/2004/07/07_nunn_safer-deterrence.htm

The presidents should then jointly adopt an approach and a timetable to get the job done and challenge other nuclear
nations to follow this lead. If the defense establishments AND in Russia and in the United States

Accidents Adv

*1AC Accidental Launch Advantage (1)*

Advantage is Accidental Launch

The threat of miscalculation and accidents is extremely high now – false alarms happen multiple times daily with very
limited time to assess. This makes rational deliberation impossible

Bruce Blair (President, World Security Institute) February 2008 “Increasing Warning and Decision Time (‘De-Alerting’)”
http://disarmament.nrpa.no/wp-content/uploads/2008/02/Paper_Blair.pdf

A high degree of vigilance suffuses the AND essential course would be run in less than one hour.

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*1AC Accidental Launch Adv (2)*

US military command and control structure rigs the decision-making process to make massive retaliation a near
certainty

Bruce Blair (president, World Security Institute) February 2004 “Keeping Presidents in the Nuclear Dark”
http://www.cdi.org/blair/launch-on-warning.cfm

Given the awesome responsibility and AND that U.S. missiles did not remain sitting ducks for very long

*1AC Accidental Launch (3)*

Now is the key time – we’ll isolate several specific internal links

First - Russia is about to mount multiple warheads on ICBMs pushing Russia even closer to the trigger

Bruce Blair et al (President, World Security Institute) February 2008 “toward True Security Ten Steps the Next
President Should Take to Transform U.S. Nuclear Weapons Policy”
http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/nwgs/toward-true-security.pdf

With the demise of START II And on their operational status as on their numbers

Second - Extremely frequent hacking and Cyber-terror attacks make accidental launch inevitable

Bruce Blair (President, World Security Institute) February 2008 “Increasing Warning and Decision Time (‘De-Alerting’)”
http://disarmament.nrpa.no/wp-content/uploads/2008/02/Paper_Blair.pdf

There are a host of reasons why AND of computer signals carries real risk.

*1AC Accidental Launch Adv (4)*

This avoids all your generic defense and ensures escalation – Cyberterrorists have empirically made attempts to hack
our submarines

Jason Fritz (Director of New Media Learning & Development and editor of the Office of Information Technology) May
2009 “Hacking Nuclear Command and Control” http://www.icnnd.org/latest/research/Jason_Fritz_Hacking_NC2.pdf

This paper will analyse the threat of cyber terrorism AND need for compromising command and control centres
directly.

*1AC Accidental Launch Adv (5)*

Third is Russia – multiple factors make accidental launch more likely than in the Cold War

The Washington Office (public policy information and advocacy office of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian
Church) August 2008 “Launch on Warning and the Nuclear Hair Trigger”
http://www.pcusa.org/washington/issuenet/gs-001211.htm

Accordingly, within just a few minutes AND after Air Force planes had been launched.

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*1AC Accidental Launch Adv (6)*

Fourth is simple human error and boredom

Lloyd J. Dumas (Professor of political economy at the University of Texas at Dallas) 2004 “Waking up to the Real
Threats to Security in the Post-Cold War World” http://www.slmk.org/main/artiklar/Human_Factor.pdf

According to a 1998 study by the U.S. General AND does not solve the human reliability problem.

*1AC Accidental Launch Adv (7)*

The threshold for our impact is pretty low – it only takes one mishap cause escalation

Allan Phillips (retired physician who did radar research for the British army during WWII) and Steven Starr (trained in
nuclear engineering, works as a medical technologist in Columbia, Missouri) 2004 “Eliminate Launch on Warning”
http://www.scienceforpeace.ca/0409-eliminate-launch-on-warning

One of the most likely causes AND . This is inexcusably dangerous.

Extinction

Ira Helfand and John Pastore (both past presidents of Physicians for Social Responsibility) March 31, 2009, “U.S.-
Russia nuclear war still a threat”, http://www.projo.com/opinion/contributors/content/CT_pastoreline_03-31-
09_EODSCAO_v15.bbdf23.html

President Obama and Russian President AND weapons that existed in 1995 remains in place today.

*1AC Accidental Launch Adv (8)*

This is the most probable scenario

John Hallam (Nuclear campaigner and editor Nuclear Flashpoints) June 2009 “Commonsense Measures to Avoid An
Accidental Apocalypse” http://pndnsw.org.au/articles/features/91-commonsense-measures-to-avoid-an-accidental-
apocalypse.html

Even in the case of the ‘rogue AND have been very, very, high.

Our impact is the fastest and most important – dealerting is key to solve global nuclear incineration that could occur in
a matter of minutes – we have been lucky up until now

Douglas Mattern (a Silicon Valley engineer, is president of the Association of World Citizens) at least 2005 (latest cited
work) “A Critical Time in Human History - Escalating Nuclear Disarmament”
http://www.worldcitizens.org/criticaltime.html

In his article "Apocalypse Now" published AND the struggle continuously until the goal is reached.

*1AC Accidental Launch Adv (9)*

De-alerting solves conflict escalation – aff solves your terminal impacts

Thomas H. Karas (Advanced Concepts Group Sandia National Laboratories) April 2001 “De-alerting and De-activating
Strategic Nuclear Weapons” http://www.nti.org/e_research/official_docs/labs/de_alt_act_tnw.pdf

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On the other hand, it seems AND, but it might slow the pace

India/Pakistan Adv

*1AC India Pakistan Adv (1)*

There is tension in South Asia now - both countries are ramping up their nuclear capabilities

Zia Mian (physicist with the Program on Science and Global Security at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and
International Affairs at Princeton University) July 27, 2009 “Pushing South Asia Toward the Brink”
http://www.fpif.org/fpiftxt/6295

The contradictions and confusions AND, with India's help, and 90,000 Pakistani soldiers captured by India as prisoners
of war.

*1AC India-Pakistan Adv (2)*

South Asia nuclear alert is inevitable without US de-alerting – plan sends a key signal

Zia Mian (a Pakistani physicist on the research staff of Princeton University) R. Rajaraman (a professor of physics at
the Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi) and Frank von Hippel (a professor of public and international affairs at
Princeton) August 2002 “U.S.-Russian Lessons for South Asia” http://www.fpif.org/pdf/gac/0208nukelessons.pdf

The current South Asian crisis AND Down that path lies disaster

*1AC India-Pakistan Adv (3)*

Accidents are uniquely likely now – new early warning systems

Dr. Ajey Lele (a New Delhi based defence analyst at the Society for the Study of Peace and Conflict) June 9, 2009
“Induction of Airborne Warning System: Revolutionizing Indian Air Force” http://sspconline.org/article_details.asp?
artid=art185

On 27 May 2009 Indian AND their sovereign state at its own will!

De-alerting prevents Indo-pak war

Morton Mintz ((a former chair of the Fund for Investigative Journalism and a former Washington Post reporter)
February 2001 “Two Minutes to Launch” http://www.prospect.org/cs/articles?article=two_minutes_to_launch

By creating an international AND -alert procedures.

*1AC India-Pakistan Adv (4)*

Extinction

Parveen Chopra (writer for Tai Kazi – a Pakistani News Agency) April 2008 “India-Pakistan nuclear war would spell
global calamity: study” http://www.naitazi.com/2008/04/08/india-pakistan-nuclear-war-would-spell-global-calamity-
study/

A brief nuclear war between AND n, thus polluting the food chain.

Nunn-Lugar Adv

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*1AC Nunn-Lugar Adv (1)*

Advantage is Nunn-Lugar

Physical de-mating is key to ensure nunn-lugar success – otherwise theft is inevitable – Hair trigger alert is the Achilles
heel of nuclear security

Bruce Blair (President, World Security Institute) 2007 “Primed and Ready” EBSCO

Since the inception of the Cooperative AND unauthorized or inadvertent missile launch.

Plan is key to prevent complete program collapse

Bruce Blair (President, World Security Institute) February 2008 “Increasing Warning and Decision Time (‘De-Alerting’)”
http://disarmament.nrpa.no/wp-content/uploads/2008/02/Paper_Blair.pdf

The simple fact that AND combat-ready forces is ended

*1AC Nunn-Lugar Adv (3)*

And now is key - Russia recently imposed massive restrictions on CTR programs because of a lack of equal access for
inspections and monitoring

Richard Weitz (a Hudson Institute senior fellow and a World Politics Review senior editor) August 4, 2009 “Global
Insights: Opportunities and Challenges Await New DTRA Director” http://www.worldpoliticsreview.com/article.aspx?
id=4158

Since the enactment of AND certain Russian WMD sites.

De-alerting key to create momentum for a robust verification regime that solves Russian suspicion

Bruce Blair (president, World Security Initiative) March 1998 “Hearings on The Changing Strategic Landscape of
Nuclear Policy” http://www.brookings.edu/testimony/1998/0331defense_blair.aspx

* It would project, over the long run, AND fear that covert stockpiles exist.

*Nunn-Lugar Adv (4)*

This ensures a window of observation into the US reduction process – solves a key impediment

Joseph Cirincione (the Director for Non-Proliferation at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace) 2001
“Senator Richard Lugar on Threat Reduction and Defense”
http://www.carnegieendowment.org/publications/index.cfm?fa=view&id=721&prog=zgp&proj=znpp&zoom_highlight=
%22nunn-lugar%22

I am convinced that Nunn-Lugar AND under an arms control regime.


Even failed terrorist attacks risk global escalatory conflict culminating in extinction

Mohamed Sid-Ahmed (staff writer, Al-Ahram) September 1, 2004 issue number 705, “Extinction!”,
http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2004/705/op5.htm

We have reached a point AND the whole planet, we will all be losers.

Russian politics Adv

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Advantage is Russian Politics

Recent missile defense concession by the US gives Medvedev a political win now – but his recently softened position
on Iran has made Russian elites uniquely cautious towards any concessions to the West
George Bovt (Russian journalist and commentator who served as editor-in-chief of Profil (a Russian weekly magazine)
and Business Week Russia from 2004 to 2007) September 30, 2009 “Where do the “concessions” to the US end for
Medvedev?” http://www.eu-russiacentre.org/our-publications/column/concessions-medvedev.html
Of course, President AND Russian economy and society.

Internal political stability is dependent on this posture of maintaining macho posturing against the West to divert
attention from internal economic crises
Lilia Shevtsova (senior associate at the Carnegie Moscow Centre) October 2008 “Russıan Roulette”
http://www.carnegieendowment.org/files/theworldtoday.pdf
The war between Russia and Georgia AND state before it collapses and Russia repeats the end of the Soviet Union.

Massive nuclear concessions are inevitable now – Russia can’t sustain current deployments – they are looking to
disguise weakness through reciprocal nuclear reductions
The Telegraph July 6, 2009 “Russia has little bargaining power in negotiations with Barack Obama”
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/russia/5758792/Russia-has-little-bargaining-power-in-negotiations-
with-Barack-Obama.html
Instead, Mr Medvedev leads AND perfectly capable of maintaining this arsenal.

Plan provides the cover Russia needs to save face


Bruce Blair et al (President, World Security Institute) February 2008 “toward True Security Ten Steps the Next
President Should Take to Transform U.S. Nuclear Weapons Policy”
http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/nwgs/toward-true-security.pdf
While Russia’s deployed AND Russia’s remaining missiles.

Biden’s recent comments ensure that any unilateral concession by Russia on security issues will be pinned directly on
their economy – political cover is critical to solve backlash
Daniel Larison (a Ph.D. student at the University of Chicago and Contributing Editor to The American Conservative)
July 25, 2009 “Reset” Means Obedience” http://www.amconmag.com/larison/2009/07/25/reset-means-obedience/
What may be most remarkable about AND was never the administration’s goal.

Internal Russian crisis causes global armageddon


Bruce Blair (President, World Security Initiative) 1998 “Avoiding Nuclear Anarchy: Containing the Threat of Loose
Russian Nuclear Weapons and Fissile Material” http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2751/is_n52/ai_20852430/?
tag=content;col1
Whereas the principal aim of American AND current military weakness increases their susceptibility to fear and panic.

Crisis stability Adv

*1AC Crisis Stability Advantage*

Adv __ is crisis escalation

International crises are inevitable – they can happen at any time


Ward Wilson (former Fellow at the Robert Kennedy Memorial Foundation) 2006 “Rationale for a study of City
Annihilations,” http://wardhayeswilson.squarespace.com/city_annihilation/
One of the characteristics of AND about risk and rationality

This makes breakneck re-alerting inevitable – de-alerting key to solve


Bruce Blair (president of World Security Institute) 2008 “De-alerting Strategic Forces,” in, Reykjavik Revisited: Steps
Toward a World Free of Nuclear Weapons (preliminary report) Edited by George P. Shultz, Sidney D. Drell and James
Goodby, http://media.hoover.org/documents/Drell_Goodby_Schultz_Reykjavik_Revisited_25.pdf
De-alerting could also strengthen crisis AND to alleviate this danger.

De-alerting sends a key signal that eases international tensions – squo reversal signals incrased willingness to use
nukes

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Thomas H. Karas (Advanced Concepts Group Sandia National Laboratories) April 2001 “De-alerting and De-activating
Strategic Nuclear Weapons” http://www.nti.org/e_research/official_docs/labs/de_alt_act_tnw.pdf
At the same time, most AND important role for them.

We’ll isolate several internal links to escalation


First – Nuclear signaling - Surging alert levels uniquely lead to miscalculations during crises that cause rapid
escalatory nuclear conflicts
Stephen J. Cimbala (professor of political science at Penn State University) 1999 “Nuclear Crisis Management and
Information Warfare” Parameters
Crisis management, including AND of the other's beliefs about what the first side will do.[21]

Second – command authority - Rapid escalation in alert levels causes decentralized command authority – makes
uncontrollable escalation inevitable
Scott Sagan (professor of political science and co-director of Stanford's Center for International Security and
Cooperation) 1990 “Nuclear Alerts and Crisis Management” in “Nuclear diplomacy and crisis management: an
International security reader” p. 191-3
A “NO-ALERTS” POLICY? It would AND steps might lead to uncontrolled escalation.

No offense – signal of resolve is drowned out by domestic political backlash – compounds mixed signal –
independently collapses the economy
Scott Sagan (professor of political science and co-director of Stanford's Center for International Security and
Cooperation) 1990 “Nuclear Alerts and Crisis Management” in “Nuclear diplomacy and crisis management: an
International security reader” p. 191-7
The third point that the AND for escalation or deescalation.’°3

Extinction
T.E. Bearden (LTC U.S. Army (ret) Director of Association of Distinguished American Scientists and Fellow Emeritus,
Alpha Foundation’s Institute for Advanced Study) 2000 “The Unnecessary Energy Crisis: How to Solve It Quickly”, 6-
24-2k, http://www.seaspower.com/EnergyCrisis-Bearden.htm
History bears out that AND for many decades

Plan leads to strict international norms against nuclear alert that solves crisis instability and escalation – re-alerting
post-plan either won’t happen or will be stable – key to prevent global nuclear war
Bruce Blair (president, World Security Institute) 1997 “Command, Control, and Warning for Virtual Arsenals” in Mazaar
‘Nuclear Weapons in a Transformed World” p. 62-71
After reviewing the U.S. nuclear posture, the AND harmony with improved political relations.

Unilateral US de-alerting spills over and lead to deeper de-alerting measures over time – dramatically improves global
nuclear safety
David E. Mosher, Lowell H. Schwartz, David R. Howell, and Lynn E. Davis, BEYOND THE NUCLEAR SHADOW: A
PHASED APPROACH FOR IMPROVING NUCLEAR SAFETY AND U.S.-RUSSIAN RELATIONS, 2003, RAND
Corporation p. 141.
The initiative would begin AND militaries will have to work closely together to achieve success.

Most probable scenario


Franklin Shiels (Professor of Government at Mercy College) 1993 “Preventing the Ultimate Disaster: Misperception at
the Top” published in ‘Inadvertent Nuclear War: The Implications of the Changing Global Order’ by Hakan Wiberg, Ib
Damgaard Petersen, and Paul Smoker, p 135-6
Some recent strategic AND before the Austrian archduke’s assassination.
none

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Northwestern Gregg/Lee (Dealert-RLOAD) [Logan]

Northwestern GL

Nwstrn Gregg-Lee aff vs. Idaho State Copenhaver & Weedon

Gonzaga Round 3
Judge: Vega, Matt ==

Obama overtures won’t solve—breeding resentment and increasing the potential for crises
Brij Khindaria, 7/25/2009 [International Columnist on International Politics for The Moderate Voice, Obama and Biden
are seeing a new “cool war” with Russia, http://themoderatevoice.com/40689/obama-and-biden-are-seeding-a-
new-“cool-war”-with-russia/]
"Even as he asserts his desire to reset relations with Russia in a positive direction, President Barack Obama is "
AND
"and gas, so Obama will not be able to easily unite Europeans to confront Russia’s political ambitions."

These crisis conditions exacerbate the potential for accidents—stress and short decision time make launch inevitable,
even with faulty or questionable data
A. G. Arbatov, et. Al, 2001 [V. S. Delous, A.A. Pikaev, V. G. Baranovsky, Institute of International Economy and
Foreign Relations at the the Russian Academy of Sciences, De-Alerting Russian and US nuclear weapons: A path to
reducing nuclear dangers, http://www.ieer.org/russian/pubs/dlrtbk-e.html]
"Experts in the area of complex systems notice a deep correlation between the probability of occurrence of "
AND
"active inventory."

There is no “ride-out” option under Launch on Warning—any perceived strike will be responded to with nuclear
retaliation
Bruce G. Blair, 2004 [Ph. D, Center for Defense Information President, Keeping Presidents in the Nuclear Dark,
http://www.cdi.org/blair/launch-on-warning.cfm]
"What is misleading about the briefing is that the president’s supporting command system is not actually geared to "
AND
"very long."

Glitches exacerbate the potential for accidents


A. G. Arbatov, et. Al, 2001 [V. S. Delous, A.A. Pikaev, V. G. Baranovsky, Institute of International Economy and
Foreign Relations at the the Russian Academy of Sciences, De-Alerting Russian and US nuclear weapons: A path to
reducing nuclear dangers, http://www.ieer.org/russian/pubs/dlrtbk-e.html]
"As historical experience demonstrates, the highest potential danger of an accidental nuclear conflict lies in the "
AND
"false alarms of an incoming nuclear missile attack by the adversary."

These accidents quickly escalate into full-scale war


Morton Mintz, 2001 [former chair of the Fund for Investigative Journalism and a former Washington Post reporter, The
American Prospect, Two Minutes to Launch, http://www.prospect.org/cs/articles?article=two_minutes_to_launch]
"Hair-trigger alert means this: The missiles carrying those warheads are armed and fueled at all times. Two "
AND
"all of us," explains Bruce Blair. "It would be, basically, a nuclear war by checklist, by rote.""

Modern weaponry coupled with Launch on Warning increases potential for escalation
A. G. Arbatov, et. Al, 2001 [V. S. Delous, A.A. Pikaev, V. G. Baranovsky, Institute of International Economy and
Foreign Relations at the the Russian Academy of Sciences, De-Alerting Russian and US nuclear weapons: A path to
reducing nuclear dangers, http://www.ieer.org/russian/pubs/dlrtbk-e.html]

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"An accidental launch of an intercontinental missile, from land or from sea, or a detonation of a nuclear "
AND
"the launch of all weapons which are maintained on alert, in an exchange of massive nuclear strikes."

Rationality goes out the window after a perceived launch—quickly escalates


A. G. Arbatov, et. Al, 2001 [V. S. Delous, A.A. Pikaev, V. G. Baranovsky, Institute of International Economy and
Foreign Relations at the the Russian Academy of Sciences, De-Alerting Russian and US nuclear weapons: A path to
reducing nuclear dangers, http://www.ieer.org/russian/pubs/dlrtbk-e.html]
"Such instability causes a situation in which, as Professor Paul Braken correctly stated, "no one wants war, but "
AND
"from many failures and false alarms in the early missile warning systems."

Launch on Warning guarantees extinction


Alan Phillips and Steven Starr, 2004 [Eliminate Launch on Warning, Phillips: Ph. D. with honours in physics at
Cambridge University, former Radar operator for the British Army, Starr: trained in nuclear engineering and works at a
medical technologist in Columbia, MI, Nuclear Age Peace Foundation,
http://www.wagingpeace.org/articles/2004/09/00_phillips_eliminate-launch-warning.htm]
"As long as the United States and Russia retain their arsenals of nuclear-armed intercontinental ballistic missiles, "
AND
"that kind."

This is the most likely scenario for war


Dr. Alan Phillips, 2003 [Ph. D. with honours in physics at Cambridge University, former Radar operator for the British
Army, Interview, http://www.web.net/~cnanw/nolowinterview.htm]
"At the present time, I think an accidental war is far more likely than an intentional one. An intentional one could
happen I "
AND
"happened already."

Accidental war is the most probable scenario for US-Russia nuclear war
FAS et al, Federation of American Scientists, Natural Resources Defense Council, and Union of Concerned Scientists,
2008
Toward True Security, http://www.fas.org/press/_docs/Toward%20True%20Security%202008%20.pdf
"By revamping its deployment practices so it could no longer launch its nuclear forces promptly, the United States
would reduce Russia’s incentive to "
AND
"prevent the United States from retaliating with its surviving nuclear weapons."

Extinction
Bostrom 02 (Dr. Nick Bostrom, Dr. & Professor of Philosophy and Global Studies at Yale, 3/8/02, “Existential Risks:
Analyzing Human Extinction Scenarios and Related Hazards,” http://www.transhumanist.com/volume9/risks.html)
"With the exception of a species-destroying comet or asteroid impact (an extremely rare occurrence), there "
AND
"encounter in the 21st century."

Abandoning Launch on Warning solves the risk of accidental warfare with Russia
Dr. Alan Phillips, 2002 [Ph. D. with honours in physics at Cambridge University, former Radar operator for the British
Army, No Launch on Warning, http://www.wagingpeace.org/articles/2002/05/00_phillips_no-launch.htm]
"If Russia and the US were actually to abandon the option of launching on warning, even while they retained "
AND
"does not even depend on the other side knowing that the change has been made."

Russian posture is irrelevant—plan dramatically reduces chance of accidents


Dr. Alan Phillips, 2003 [Ph. D. with honours in physics at Cambridge University, former Radar operator for the British
Army, An Introduction to No Launch on Warning, http://www.web.net/~cnanw/nolowinterview.htm]

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Q9: Why do you say that reciprocity with "No Launch on Warning" is not important?
"Because not responding to a false alarm does not put that side at any disadvantage. If one side is at "no "
AND
"would be halved because the risk on the Russian side may be greater."

Contention II: Politics of Vulnerability


Violence is inevitably part of the human condition—making ourselves vulnerable in the face of that violence is the only
way to build effective relationships with each other
Katherine Mills, 2002 [Professor of Philosophy at University of South Wales in Sydney, Australia, Normative Violence,
Vulnerability, and Responsibility, http://differences.dukejournals.org/cgi/reprint/18/2/133.pdf]
"In contrast, Butler moves toward a conception of responsibil- ity that is founded not only on our mutual "
AND
"under- standing of ethics would necessitate letting go of at least some dimensions of the account of subjectivation."

The vulnerability to death accepted by the plan is the only true ethical gesture—allows us to recognize shared
vulnerability and build relationships with the Other
John Milbank, 1999 [Francis Gall Professor of Philosophical Theology at the University of Virginia, The Ethics of Self-
Sacrifice, http://www.leaderu.com/ftissues/ft9903/articles/milbank.html]
"Secondly, they hold that death, far from being complicit with evil as religious traditions have often taken it to "
AND
"self–interest."

The plan suspends the reaction to violence by making immediate retaliation impossible—allows reflection on shared
vulnerability and a meaningful relationship with violence and the Other
Fiona Jenkins, 2007 [Senior Lecturer in Philosophy at the Australian National University, Toward a Nonviolent Ethic:
Reponse to Catherine Mills, http://differences.dukejournals.org/cgi/reprint/18/2/157.pdf]
"What might it mean,” Judith Butler asks in the context of a reflection on responsibility, “to undergo "
AND
"essential to what is (not) done in refusing a reciprocal gesture of returning injury."

The plan’s suspension of response inculcates an ethic of nonviolence and mutual vulnerability in US foreign policy
Judith Butler, 2003 [Maxine Elliot professor in the Departments of Rhetoric and Comparative Literature at University of
California, Berkeley, Interview, http://www.believermag.com/issues/200305/?read=interview_butler]
"JS: If revenge becomes cyclical because one strike leads to another ad infinitum, one way to stop the cycle "
AND
"There, we got to gender pretty quickly, didn’t we?"

Answers to Security/Raisch K
Role of the ballot is to indorse a political strat of civic engagement with nuclear institutions
Mcclean 1 “leftist American culture” and “philosophers and culture critics”

Public engagement in nuclear issues holds policymakers accountable


Stimson 1 “nuclear dangers are more clear” and to reduce nuclear dangers”

Academia key
Shaw 9 web bas
“higher education must educate” and “behind in preparing our best and brightest”

Specific demands and institutuional engagement solves righ-wing takeover


Hogan 94 the nuclear freeze campaign p30-1
“further narrowing the agenda” and “house freeze resolution”

Turns and outweighs – boggs p 250-1


“but it is a very deceptive” and “ muddling-through theories”

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Public engagement in nuc issues holds policymakers accountable


Stimson 1
“nuclear dangers are more” and “to reduce nuclear dangers”

Students must debate nuclear policy – next generations experts solve extinction
Shaw 9 “higher education must educate” and higher education institutions”

Informed citizenry’s crucial to disarm debates


Hogan 94
P162 “ideological bias” and journalists regarded themselves”

Reducing the threat of nuclear war’s key to engage the public and challenge the state – the al’t extinction
Beres 94 lexis LR
“educating people to the truth” and “international cooperation”

Combining realism with ethical prohibitions agains the use of nuc weapons solves their impacts and prevents war
Sagan 4
“leaders of states behave in a highly” and nature of their actions”

Linking disarm to security builds momentum for global zero


Perkovich 9
“in any debate, there is a tendency” and “Washington must lead”

Strategic analysis of security issues fosters responsible use of force – the alt’s unrestrained military intervention
Betts 97 Project muse
“a specter is haunting strategic studies” and “disjoining political and military logic”

Nwstrn Gregg-Lee aff vs. UNLV Bato-Meneses

Gonzaga Round 1
Judge: Mckeehan, Grant ==

Sub encroachment proves the possibility for miscalculation—Russia is posturing and U.S. warning systems are
unreliable
Caspar Weinberger, Jr., 8/12/2009 [1968 graduate of Harvard College, former telivision writer, and served in both
California Gov and President Reagan’s administrations, ‘The Russians are Coming, the Russians are Coming,’ Yet
Again, http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=33101]
Are the Russians coming to ...
serious thought to a first strike.

Obama overtures won’t solve—breeding resentment and increasing the potential for crises
Brij Khindaria, 7/25/2009 [International Columnist on International Politics for The Moderate Voice, Obama and Biden
are seeing a new “cool war” with Russia, http://themoderatevoice.com/40689/obama-and-biden-are-seeding-a-
new-“cool-war”-with-russia/]
Even as he asserts his ...
to confront Russia’s political ambitions.

These crisis conditions exacerbate the potential for accidents—stress and short decision time make launch inevitable,
even with faulty or questionable data
A. G. Arbatov, et. Al, 2001 [V. S. Delous, A.A. Pikaev, V. G. Baranovsky, Institute of International Economy and
Foreign Relations at the the Russian Academy of Sciences, De-Alerting Russian and US nuclear weapons: A path to
reducing nuclear dangers, http://www.ieer.org/russian/pubs/dlrtbk-e.html]
Experts in the area of ...
which are retained in active inventory.

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There is no “ride-out” option under Launch on Warning—any perceived strike will be responded to with nuclear
retaliation
Bruce G. Blair, 2004 [Ph. D, Center for Defense Information President, Keeping Presidents in the Nuclear Dark,
http://www.cdi.org/blair/launch-on-warning.cfm]
What is misleading about the briefing is that the …
U.S. missiles did not remain sitting ducks for very long.

The arsenal is still maintained on high alert


Washington Post, 2007 [U.S. official is faulted for nuclear weapons claim, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-
dyn/content/article/2007/10/31/AR2007103102801.html]
Speaking at an Oct. 9 U.N. conference, Christina Rocca, …
some of it is an evasion, and some of it is just an outright lie."

Terrorists will target early warning systems


Bruce G. Blair, 2008 [Senior Fellow in Foreign Policy Studies at the Brookings Institute, President of the Center for
Defense Information, Taking Nuclear Forces off day-to-day alert, Senior Fellow in Foreign Policy Studies at the
Brookings Institute, President of the Center for Defense Information]
A new concern has arisen about nuclear command and control: ….leaps of faith in an era of increasingly sophisticated
cyber-penetration.

They’ll hire experts


Fritz 9 [Jason, BS (St. Cloud), MIR (bond), The International Commission on Nuclear Non-proliferation, "Hacking
Nuclear Command and Control"]
Cyber terrorists may not ... Indian Mujahedeen (Rahman 2008, Denning 1999).

Launch on warning makes these attacks successful


Fritz 9 [Jason, BS (St. Cloud), MIR (bond), The International Commission on Nuclear Non-proliferation, "Hacking
Nuclear Command and Control"]
Nuclear command and control has inherent weaknesses in …. lead to the introduction of fail-deadly and autonomous
systems.

Early warning systems aren’t airlocked—provides easy access


Fritz 9 [Jason, BS (St. Cloud), MIR (bond), The International Commission on Nuclear Non-proliferation, "Hacking
Nuclear Command and Control"]
Cyber terrorists could cause incorrect ... be readily found on the internet.

Glitches exacerbate the potential for accidents


A. G. Arbatov, et. Al, 2001 [V. S. Delous, A.A. Pikaev, V. G. Baranovsky, Institute of International Economy and
Foreign Relations at the the Russian Academy of Sciences, De-Alerting Russian and US nuclear weapons: A path to
reducing nuclear dangers, http://www.ieer.org/russian/pubs/dlrtbk-e.html]
As historical experience …. of an incoming nuclear missile attack by the adversary.

These accidents quickly escalate into full-scale war


Morton Mintz, 2001 [former chair of the Fund for Investigative Journalism and a former Washington Post reporter, The
American Prospect, Two Minutes to Launch, http://www.prospect.org/cs/articles?article=two_minutes_to_launch]
Hair-trigger alert means ... by checklist, by rote."

War games prove escalation


PR Newswire 4/29/98
An 'accidental' nuclear attack would ... to Forrow and his colleagues.

Modern weaponry coupled with Launch on Warning increases potential for escalation
A. G. Arbatov, et. Al, 2001 [V. S. Delous, A.A. Pikaev, V. G. Baranovsky, Institute of International Economy and
Foreign Relations at the the Russian Academy of Sciences, De-Alerting Russian and US nuclear weapons: A path to
reducing nuclear dangers, http://www.ieer.org/russian/pubs/dlrtbk-e.html]
An accidental launch of an ... exchange of massive nuclear strikes.

Rationality goes out the window after a perceived launch—quickly escalates

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A. G. Arbatov, et. Al, 2001 [V. S. Delous, A.A. Pikaev, V. G. Baranovsky, Institute of International Economy and
Foreign Relations at the the Russian Academy of Sciences, De-Alerting Russian and US nuclear weapons: A path to
reducing nuclear dangers, http://www.ieer.org/russian/pubs/dlrtbk-e.html]
Such instability causes a situation ... the early missile warning systems.

Launch on Warning guarantees extinction


Alan Phillips and Steven Starr, 2004 [Eliminate Launch on Warning, Phillips: Ph. D. with honours in physics at
Cambridge University, former Radar operator for the British Army, Starr: trained in nuclear engineering and works at a
medical technologist in Columbia, MI, Nuclear Age Peace Foundation,
http://www.wagingpeace.org/articles/2004/09/00_phillips_eliminate-launch-warning.htm]
As long as the United States and Russia retain their arsenals …. system to make it safer after one failure of that kind.

This is the most likely scenario for war


Dr. Alan Phillips, 2003 [Ph. D. with honours in physics at Cambridge University, former Radar operator for the British
Army, Interview, http://www.web.net/~cnanw/nolowinterview.htm]
At the present time, ... that it hasn't happened already.

Accidental war is the most probable scenario for US-Russia nuclear war
FAS et al, Federation of American Scientists, Natural Resources Defense Council, and Union of Concerned Scientists,
2008
Toward True Security, http://www.fas.org/press/_docs/Toward%20True%20Security%202008%20.pdf
By revamping its deployment practices ... with its surviving nuclear weapons

Extinction
Metta Spencer 2005 [Emeritus Professor of sociology at the University of Toronto and Coordinator of Peace and
Conflict Studies, Instead of Launch on Warming… http://metta-spencer.blogspot.com/2005/12/instead-of-launching-on-
warming.html]
Compare the outcome of the two options…. I vote for RLOAD.

Solvency:
Abandoning Launch on Warning solves the risk of accidental warfare with Russia—maintains deterrence and potential
for retaliation
Dr. Alan Phillips, 2002 [Ph. D. with honours in physics at Cambridge University, former Radar operator for the British
Army, No Launch on Warning, http://www.wagingpeace.org/articles/2002/05/00_phillips_no-launch.htm]
If Russia and the US were actually... that the change has been made.

Retaliatory Launch Only After Detonation maintains retaliatory launch capabilities


Dr. Alan Phillips, 2003 [Ph. D. with honours in physics at Cambridge University, former Radar operator for the British
Army, Interview, http://www.web.net/~cnanw/nolowinterview.htm]
Q7. Is "RLOAD easier to implement... Therefore deterrence is not significantly affected.

Russian posture is irrelevant—plan dramatically reduces chance of accidents


Dr. Alan Phillips, 2003 [Ph. D. with honours in physics at Cambridge University, former Radar operator for the British
Army, An Introduction to No Launch on Warning, http://www.web.net/~cnanw/nolowinterview.htm]
Q9: Why do you …risk on the Russian side may be greater.

Plan solves deterrence—maintains retaliatory capabilities


Dr. Alan Phillips, 2002 [Ph. D. with honours in physics at Cambridge University, former Radar operator for the British
Army, No Launch on Warning, http://www.wagingpeace.org/articles/2002/05/00_phillips_no-launch.htm]
There can be few grounds ... started by accident or by intention.

Altering the Op Plan solves


NDRC, 2001 [National Resource Defense Council, Exposing the U.S. Nuclear War Plan,
http://www.nrdc.org/nuclear/nwarplan.asp]
The war plan looms large ... of STRATCOM, General George Butler.

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Plan: The United States Strategic Command should amend Operations Plan 8010 to include a ‘Retaliatory Launch
Only After Detonation’ policy in the event of a suspected nuclear attack on the United States.

GSU Aff Disclosure


Same as Gonzaga

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Oklahoma Abbas/Defilippis (Dealert-RLOAD) [Logan]

Oklahoma AD - Aff

Kentucky 1AC

PLAN: The United States President should issue an executive order that requires the United States to not launch a
nuclear retaliatory strike without prior confirmation of detonation in the United States.

The United States maintains a system of ‘Launch on Warning’ which means the US will launch purely on detection
rather than an actual detonation.
Rosenbaum ’09 [Ron, spectator columnist for Slate Magazine and author of critically acclaimed books, Aug 21, “Will
the Pentagon Thwart Obama’s Dream of Zero?” http://www.slate.com/id/2225817/]
But Obama's got to make like a commander… de facto launch on warning.

The prospects for miscalculation are high – Russia is posturing and US systems are suspect. Weinberger ’09 [Caspar,
writer and lecturer that served in Reagan’s administrations, Aug 12, “The Russians are Coming, the Russians are
Coming, Yet Again,” http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=33101]
Are the Russians coming to… thought to a first strike.

And, the scrapping of missile defense only made matters worse. Varner ’09 [Bill, UN Reporter for Bloomberg, Sep 21,
“Obama Displays Cold War Mindset, Russian Envoy Says,” http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?
pid=20601103&sid=aOCMsh7RomfE]
President Barack Obama’s explanation… of the decision in our eyes.”

These conditions exacerbate the potential for accidents – stress and short decision time make launch inevitable.
Arbatov et al ’01 [A.G., V.S. Belous, A.A. Pikaev, V.G. Baranovsky, Institute of International Economy and Foreign
Relations Russian Academy of Sciences, “De-alerting Russian and US nuclear weapons: A path to reducing nuclear
dangers,” http://www.ieer.org/russian/pubs/dlrtbk-e.html]
Experts in the area… hand dramatically increases.

Glitches exacerbate the potential for accidents. Arbatov et al ’01 [A.G., V.S. Belous, A.A. Pikaev, V.G. Baranovsky,
Institute of International Economy and Foreign Relations Russian Academy of Sciences, “De-alerting Russian and US
nuclear weapons: A path to reducing nuclear dangers,” http://www.ieer.org/russian/pubs/dlrtbk-e.html]
As historical experience demonstrates… nuclear missile attack by the adversary.

Accidents will quickly escalate into full-scale war ending in extinction. Mintz ’01 [Michael, former chair of the Fund for
Investigative Journalism and a former Washington Post reporter, Feb 26, “Two Minutes to Launch,”
http://www.prospect.org/cs/articles?article=two_minutes_to_launch]
Hair-trigger alert means… by checklist, by rote."

Modern weaponry guarantees escalation. Arbatov et al ’01 [A.G., V.S. Belous, A.A. Pikaev, V.G. Baranovsky, Institute
of International Economy and Foreign Relations Russian Academy of Sciences, “De-alerting Russian and US nuclear
weapons: A path to reducing nuclear dangers,” http://www.ieer.org/russian/pubs/dlrtbk-e.html]
An accidental launch… massive nuclear strikes.

And irrationality ensures this escalation is quick. Arbatov et al ’01 [A.G., V.S. Belous, A.A. Pikaev, V.G. Baranovsky,
Institute of International Economy and Foreign Relations Russian Academy of Sciences, “De-alerting Russian and US
nuclear weapons: A path to reducing nuclear dangers,” http://www.ieer.org/russian/pubs/dlrtbk-e.html]
Such instability causes… alarms in the early missile warning systems.

Launch-on-warning ensures extinction – it makes accidental nuclear war inevitable. Phillips & Starr ’07 [Dr. Alan
(Physicist who did research for the British army during World War II) & Steven (Nuclear engineering expert and senior
scientist for social responsibility, international network of engineers and scientists against proliferation, Jan 8, “Change
Launch on Warning Policy,” http://www.worldfederalistscanada.org/rload/Replace_LoW_Policy_8Jan.pdf]
As long as the United States… it is inexcusably dangerous.

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And there is no ride-out option under Launch-on-Warning – any perceived strike will be responded to with nuclear
retaliation. Blair ’04 [Bruce, PhD and President of the CDI, Feb 16, “Keeping Presidents in the Nuclear Dark,”
http://www.cdi.org/blair/launch-on-warning.cfm]
What is misleading about… for very long.

Accidental war is the most probable scenario for US-Russian nuclear war. FAS ’08 [Federation of American Scientists,
Natural Resources Defense Council, and Union of Concerned Scientists, Feb, “Toward True Security,”
http://www.fas.org/press/_docs/Toward%20True%20Security%202008%20.pdf]
By revamping its deployment practices… its surviving nuclear weapons.

Russian posture is irrelevant – the plan dramatically reduces the chance of accidents. Phillips ’03 [Dr. Alan, Physicist
who did research for the British army during World War II, “An Introduction to No Launch on Warning,”
http://www.web.net/~cnanw/nolowinterview.htm]
Why do you say that reciprocity… Russian side may be greater.

The only plausible scenario for attack is based on false warning. Blair et al ’98 [Bruce, PhD and president of the World
Security Institute, Lachlan Forrow, M.D., Ira Helfand, M.D., George Lewis, Ph.D., Theodore Postol, Ph.D., Victor Sidel,
M.D., Barry S. Levy, M.D., Herbert Abrams, M.D., and Christine Cassel, M.D. , Apr 30, “Accidental Nuclear War — A
Post–Cold War Assessment,” http://iis-db.stanford.edu/pubs/20625/acciden_nuke_war.pdf]
A particular danger stems… launch-on-warning protocols.

Inadvertent nuclear war is the most probable scenario for escalating nuclear conflict – mathematically, the
accumulation of small probabilities makes the concept of Launch-on-Warning more dangerous than a try at Russian
roulette. Phillips ’09 [Dr. Alan, Physicist who did research for the British army during World War II, “20 Mishaps that
might have started accidental nuclear war,” http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-issues/nuclear-
weapons/issues/accidents/20-mishaps-maybe-caused-nuclear-war.htm]
Ever since the two adversaries… been less than 50:50.

And, each year the risk of miscalculation increases by 1-2% – there’s a 50% chance right now that a security event
could be misperceived and cause extinction. Phillips & Starr ’07 [Dr. Alan (Physicist who did research for the British
army during World War II) & Steven (Nuclear engineering expert and senior scientist for social responsibility,
international network of engineers and scientists against proliferation, Jan 8, “Change Launch on Warning Policy,”
http://www.worldfederalistscanada.org/rload/Replace_LoW_Policy_8Jan.pdf]
It is very dangerous to allow… civilization, by a mere accident.

Abandoning Launch-on-Warning solves the risk of accidental war with Russia. Phillips ’02 [Dr. Alan, Physicist who did
research for the British army during World War II, “No Launch on Warning,”
http://www.ploughshares.ca/libraries/WorkingPapers/wp021.html]

If Russia and the US were… change has been made.

RLOAD would be quick and easy to implement. Phillips ’03 [Dr. Alan, Physicist who did research for the British army
during World War II, “An Introduction to No Launch on Warning,” http://www.web.net/~cnanw/nolowinterview.htm]
How easy would it be… done in way less than a year.
Hotlines can’t solve accidental launch. Phillips ’03 [Dr. Alan, Physicist who did research for the British army during
World War II, “An Introduction to No Launch on Warning,” http://www.web.net/~cnanw/nolowinterview.htm]
They have the "hot line" to resolve… enemy confused.

Obama is pushing the CTBT in the Senate now. Kelly 9/21 [Lorelei, director of the New Strategic Security Initiative
project, “To Stop Nuclear Proliferation, Washington Must Lead by Example,”
http://www.indybay.org/newsitems/2009/09/21/18622647.php]
On Sept. 24, the United Nations… votes for ratification difficult.

Obama already rejected the nuclear posture review because it didn’t include deep enough cuts – any disad is
inevitable. Borger 9/23 [Julian, Global Security Blog for Guardian, “Obama pledges radical cuts in nuclear arsenal,”
http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/julian-borger-global-security-blog/2009/sep/23/obama-nuclear-unitednations]
On Monday, The Guardian… ratified. These are strong words.

Contention One: Inherency

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Current U.S. nuclear policy is based on a concept called “Launch on Warning.” This means that the U.S. will retaliate
to a perceived enemy missile before that missile detonates on U.S. soil. Incontrovertible evidence points to the fact
that the military will dictate presidential decision-making in times of stress to rely on Launch on Warning. This
drastically increases the probability of an accidental nuclear war based on false alarms. Our early detection systems
are faulty, susceptible to malfunction and mistakes—we’re literally playing Russian roulette every day with the world.
Blair 4 [president of the World Security Institute, expert on U.S. and Russian security policies, specializing in nuclear
forces and command-control systems. Testified before Congress and has taught security studies as a visiting
professor at Yale and Princeton universities. Awarded a MacArthur Fellowship Prize for his work and leadership on de-
alerting nuclear forces. Dr. Blair earned a Ph.D. in operations research at Yale University in 1984. He received his B.S.
in communications from the University of Illinois in 1970.
Bruce G. Blair, Ph.D., CDI President, Feb 16, “Keeping Presidents in the Nuclear Dark, Episode #2: The SIOP Option
that Wasn’t”, http://www.cdi.org/blair/ launch-on-warning.cfm]
Presidents were innocent …. of the nuclear footballs beware.

Contention 2: Consequences are vast


Inadvertent nuclear war is the most probable scenario for escalating nuclear war. Mathematically, the accumulation of
small probabilities makes the concept of launch on warning more dangerous then a try at Russian roulette.
Philips, 2009 [Alan F, 20 Mishaps That Might Have Started Accidental Nuclear War, http://www.nuclearfiles.org/
menu/key-issues/nuclear- weapons/issues/accidents/20- mishaps-maybe-caused-nuclear- war.htm, NuclearFiles.org,
M.D.]
Ever since the … less than 50:50.

false alarms are frequent makes probabilities of accidental war exponentially explode. nuclear war has almost broken
out multiple times-- each year we delay the probability of human extinction increases by 1%. This year alone we have
a 1/3 probability of being wiped out by accident.
Phillips 2 [Alan F., “No Launch on Warning”, Dr. Alan Phillips graduated with honours in physics at Cambridge
University in 1941. He spent the rest of World War II doing radar research for the British Army. specialized in the
treatment of cancer by radiation. http://www.ploughshares.ca/ libraries/WorkingPapers/wp021. html]
To get an idea of how … pose a threat to Russia."20
This Launch on Warning policy makes accidental nuclear war inevitable – responsibility for unintended extinction
would rest solely on the feet of this policy.
Phillips and Starr 7 [Dr. Alan Phillips- physicist and physician who did radar research for the British army during World
War II. Steven Starr- Nuclear Engineering Expert, Senior Scientist, Physicians for Social Responsibility, International
Network of Engineers and Scientists Against Proliferation (INESAP) and Physicians for Global Survival ,Jan 8, 2007,
“Change Launch On Warning Policy”, Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies at MIPT,
http://www. worldfederalistscanada.org/ rload/Replace_LoW_Policy_8Jan. pdf]
As long as the United States …, and they are generally believed to be continuing their LoW policies. If this is the case,
it is inexcusably dangerous.

Here’s more risk calculus—each year the risk of miscalculation increases by 1-2%; there’s a 50% chance right now
that a security event could be misperceived and could cause human extinction
Phillips and Starr 7 [Dr. Alan Phillips- physicist and physician who did radar research for the British army during World
War II. Steven Starr- Nuclear Engineering Expert, Senior Scientist, Physicians for Social Responsibility, International
Network of Engineers and Scientists Against Proliferation (INESAP) and Physicians for Global Survival
Jan 8, 2007, “Change Launch On Warning Policy”, Center for Arms Control,http://www. worldfederalistscanada.org/
rload/Replace_LoW_Policy_8Jan. pdf]

It is very dangerous …, by a mere accident.

It gets worse; not only can pure accident exploit L-o-W’s problems, one also has to factor in the possibility of
individuals or state-sponsored terrorists faking it on purpose—multiple declassified files proves it happens on a regular
basis. Continued hair-trigger alert will catalyze a global nuclear war that will destroy all life on Earth.
Starr 8 [Steven- Nuclear Engineering Expert, Senior Scientist, Physicians for Social Responsibility, International
Network of Engineers and Scientists Against Proliferation (INESAP) and Physicians for Global Survival, Autumn 2008,
“High-alert nuclear weapons: the Forgotten Danger”, Scientists for Global Responsibility, http://www.nucleardarkness.
org/include/nucleardarkness/ files/high-alert_nuclear_ weapons_the_forgotten_danger. pdf ]
On January 24, 1995, …, global nuclear environmental treaty.

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Triggering our early warning systems intentionally is the new most likely form of cyber-nuclear-terrorism. The
combined possibility of intentional and unintentional triggering of our early warning systems makes the L-o-W policy
the most probable scenario for extinction in the status quo.
Mullison 2009 [August 27!, Kevin, Cyber Terrorists Trigger Nuclear Bombs?, Hackers Can Launch Early Warning ID
Networks, http://www.orato.com/world- affairs/cyber-terrorists- trigger-nuclear-bombs - Reporting on facts from ICNND]
Terrorist weapons …Barack Obama has said that, "America's computer systems will be a national security priority."

Contention Three: Why RLOAD?


RLOAD, or Retaliatory Launch ONLY after Detonation, can with one pen stroke immediately remove the danger of
accidental war because of early warning systems, intuitively, because we only retaliate after the REAL bomb blows up.
Phillips and Starr 7 [Dr. Alan Phillips- physicist and physician who did radar research for the British army during World
War II. Steven Starr- Nuclear Engineering Expert, Senior Scientist, Physicians for Social Responsibility, International
Network of Engineers and Scientists Against Proliferation (INESAP) and Physicians for Global Survival, Jan 8, 2007,
“Change Launch On Warning Policy”, Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies at MIPT,
http://www. worldfederalistscanada.org/ rload/Replace_LoW_Policy_8Jan. pdf]

Retaliatory Launch Only After Detonation (RLOAD) … We believe he would be under great pressure to do so.4

Removing the Launch-on-Warning doctrine prevents miscalculation-- instantly eliminates 90% of current potential
nuclear wars between the U.S. and Russia that would occur due to false alarms. The actual political procedure it
outlined in this card.
Phillips 3 [February 3rd, “No Launch on Warning, by Alan F. Phillips, M.D.”, Dr. Alan Phillips graduated with honors in
physics at Cambridge University in 1941. He spent the rest of World War II doing radar research for the British Army.
After the war he qualified in medicine at Edinburgh University and specialized in the treatment of cancer by radiation.
He retired in 1984. His retirement activities have included the study of nuclear armaments and the risks of accidental
nuclear warhttp:www.web.net/~cnanw/ nolaunch.htm]
A very simple change can be mad…It does not depend on the other side knowing that the change has been made.

The plan uses an executive order, is instantly effective, done in secret, doesn’t decrease deterrence, and instantly
decreases the risk of nuclear miscalculation.

Phillips 3 [February 3rd, “No Launch on Warning, by Alan F. Phillips, M.D.”, Dr. Alan Phillips graduated with honors in
physics at Cambridge University in 1941. He spent the rest of World War II doing radar research for the British Army.
After the war he qualified in medicine at Edinburgh University and specialized in the treatment of cancer by radiation.
He retired in 1984. His retirement activities have included the study of nuclear armaments and the risks of accidental
nuclear warhttp:www.web.net/~cnanw/ nolaunch.htm]
Compared with real de-alerting that introduces a … weapons from their arsenals.
Replacing L-O-W doesn’t effect deterrence—first strike can’t disarm retaliatory capacity, EMP is ineffective against
military, and the other side doesn’t know about the plan because it is done in secret.
Phillips 2 [Alan F., “No Launch on Warning”, Dr. Alan Phillips graduated with honours in physics at Cambridge
University in 1941. He spent the rest of World War II doing radar research for the British Army. After the war he
qualified in medicine at Edinburgh University and specialized in the treatment of cancer by radiation. He retired in
1984. His retirement activities have included the study of nuclear armaments and the risks of accidental nuclear
war,http://www.ploughshares.ca/ libraries/WorkingPapers/wp021. html]
There can be few grounds for objection…whether started by accident or by intention.

RLOAD reduces the probability of a nuclear accident


Phillips and Starr 7, Dr. Alan Phillips- physicist and physician who did radar research for the British army during World
War II. Steven Starr- Nuclear Engineering Expert, Senior Scientist, Physicians for Social Responsibility, International
Network of Engineers and Scientists Against Proliferation (INESAP) and Physicians for Global Survival, Jan 8, 2007,
“Change Launch On Warning Policy”, Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies at MIPT,http://www.
worldfederalistscanada.org/ rload/Replace_LoW_Policy_8Jan. pdf]
De-alerting compared with RLOAD… detonation had been detected; and there would be no launch.

Finally, RLOAD doesn’t require multilateral verification—a unilateral decision can be done in secrecy so that other
countrie