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Goniometry

Motion Tested/
Position/ normal Axis
endfeel
range Lateral greater
Shoulder flexion/ Firm Supine 0-180
tubercle
Shoulder Lateral greater
Supine  0-60
Extension/ Firm tubercle
Shoulder abduction/
Supine 0-180 Anterior acromion
Firm
Supine with arm
abducted and elbow
Shoulder Internal and flexed both to 90
Olecrannon process
External Rotation/ Firm degrees 
ER 0-90
IR 0-70
Lateral epicondyle of
Elbow flexion/ Soft Supine 0-150
the humerus
Lateral epicondyle of
Elbow extension/ Hard Supine 150-0
the humerus

Sitting, elbow flexed Laterally and


Forearm pronation/
90 degree, arm proximally to the
Hard or Firm
abducted at side 0-80 ulnar styloid process

Sitting, elbow flexed Medially and


Supination/ Firm 90 degree, arm proximal to the ulnar
abducted at side 0-80 styloid process

Pronation off the edge


Wrist Flexion/ Firm Triquetrium
of table 0-80

Wrist Extension/ Pronation off the edge


Triquetrium
of table 0-70

Firm
Wrist ulnar deviation/
Pronation 0-30 Dorsal side capitate
Firm
Wrist radial deviation/
Pronation 0-20 Dorsal side capitate
Hard
Thumb Flexion (CMC)/ Sitting/ supination 0-
Palmar CMC joint
Soft or Firm 15
Thumb Extension Sitting/ supination 0-
Palmar CMC joint
(CMC)/ Firm 20
Thumb Abduction Radial styloid
Neutral 0-70
(CMC)/ Firm process
Thumb Flexion (MCP)/ Dorsal side of 1st
Supination 0-50
Hard or Firm MCP joint
Thumb Extension Dorsal side of 1st
Supination 0
(MCP)/ Firm MCP joint
Thumb flexion (IP)/
Supination 0-80 IP joint
Firm
Thumb Extension (IP)/
Supination 0-20 IP joint
Firm
Digits 2-5 Flexion
Neutral 0-90 MCP joint
(MCP)/ Hard or Firm
Digit 2-5 Extension
Neutral 0-45 MCP joint
(MCP)/ Firm

Finger Abduction (MCP) Pronation MCP joint

Digit 2-5 Flexion (PIP)/


Neutral 0-100 Dorsal PIP joint
Hard
Digit 2-5 Extension
Neutral 0 Dorsal PIP joint
(PIP)/ Firm
Digits 2-5 Flexion (DIP)/
Neutral 0-90 Dorsal DIP joint
Firm
Digits 2-5 
Neutral 0 Dorsal DIP joint
Extension(DIP)/ Firm
Hip Flexion/ Soft Supine 0-120 Greater trochanter
Hip Extension/ Firm Prone 0-20 Greater trochanter
Hip Abduction/ Firm Supine 0-45 Same side ASIS
Hip Adduction/ Firm Supine 0-30 Same side ASIS

Hip internal rotation/ Short sitting


Anterior patella
Firm
0-45

Hip external rotation/ Short sitting


Anterior patella
Firm
0-45
Lateral epicondyle of
Knee Flexion/ Soft Supine 0-135
tibia
Supine; prop up ankle Lateral epicondyle of
Knee extension/ Firm
135-0 tibia
Short sitting knee
Ankle Dorsiflexion/ Firm Lateral malleolus
flexed 90 degrees 0-20
Ankle Plantarflexion/ Short sitting knee
Lateral malleolus
Firm flexed 90 degrees 0-50

Short sitting Anterior leg between


Inversion/ Firm
the malleoli

0-35
Short sitting Anterior leg between
Eversion/ Firm or Hard
the malleoli

0-15
Movable arm Stationary arm

Midline humerus Parallel to midline

Midline humerus Parallel to midline

Midline humerus Parallel to sternum

Lower arm Perpendicular to floor

Radial styloid Midline humerus

Radial styloid Midline humerus


Dorsal aspect of the
forearm just proximal
Anterior midline of the
to the styloid
humerus
processes of the
radius and ulna
Ventral aspect of the
forearm just proximal
Anterior midline of the
to the styloid
humerus
processes of the
radius and ulna
Midline 5th metacarpal Lateral midline ulna

Midline 5th metacarpal Lateral midline ulna

Dorsal midline of 3rd


Dorsal midline
metacarpal
Dorsal midline of 3rd
Dorsal midline
metacarpal
Anterior midline of  1st
Radial styloid process
metacarpal
Anterior midline of  1st
Radial styloid process
metacarpal
Lateral side of 2nd
Midline of 1st MCP joint
metacarpal

Proximal phalange metacarpal


Proximal phalange metacarpal

Distal phalange Proximal phalange

Distal phalange Proximal phalange

Midline proximal Dorsal midline 


phalange metacarpal
Midline proximal Dorsal midline 
phalange metacarpal
Midline proximal
Dorsal midline metacarpal
phalanx
Dorsal midline of distal Dorsal midline of proximal
phalange phalange
Dorsal midline of distal Dorsal midline of proximal
phalange phalange
Midline distal
Midline middle phalange
phalange
Midline distal
Midline middle phalange
phalange
Lateral epicondyle Midline trunk
Lateral epicondyle Midline trunk
Midline patella Other ASIS
Midline patella Other ASIS

Midline lower leg Perpendicular to floor

Midline lower leg Perpendicular to floor

Lateral malleolus Greater trochanter

Lateral malleolus Greater trochanter

Parallel to 5th
Fibular head
metatarsal
Parallel to 5th
Fibular head
metatarsal

Midline of 2nd
Tibial tuberosity
metatarsal
Midline of 2nd
Tibial tuberosity
metatarsal