Anda di halaman 1dari 2

Sergio Salas

Name ________________________________________________________ Date _______________________


AP Biology Ch 10 - Guide Questions – Photosynthesis G. Toyos
Key concepts:
• photosynthesis is the way in which energy and carbon enter food webs
• conversion of light energy into chemical energy
• carbon fixation
• cyclic biochemical pathway
• electron transport chain and chemiosmosis
• evolutionary modifications to increase fitness

Learning objectives:

The Process that Feeds the Biosphere


1. Distinguish between autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition.
a. An autotroph is an organism that can sustain itself and receive the required nutrients through its
own system; self feeders; produce organic molecules from CO2, these are producers, plants
i. Photoautotrophs or chemoautotrophs
b. A heterotroph is one that needs some outside source of nutrients; obtain organic molecules by
consuming others, known as consumers
2. Describe the structure of a chloroplast, listing all membranes and compartments.
a. 2 membranes enclosing a dense fluid calles stroma, in stroma there are thylakoid disks which
enclose a different fluid, some connected others alone, chlorophyll inside thylakoid space which
is where pigment is; stomata are pores to allow exchange
3. Write a summary equation for photosynthesis.
a. 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy → C6H12O6 + 6O2
4. In general terms, explain the role of redox reactions in photosynthesis.
a. Reactants are 6CO2 and 12 H2O and products are C6H12O6 6H2O 6O2
b. Water is needed to provide electrons for the reaction

The Pathways of Photosynthesis


5. Describe the two main stages of photosynthesis in general terms.
a. Light phase – light is taken in and prepared for ATP synthesis
b. Calvin cycle – ATP produced
6. Explain how carotenoids protect the cell from damage by light.
a. Usually yellow or orange and absorbs those wavelength that chlorophyll cannot, and this helps
broaden then spectrum of light that can be taken.
7. List the wavelengths of light that are most effective for photosynthesis.
a. Chlorophyll absorbs red and violet-blue light while transmitting and reflecting green light
8. Explain what happens when a solution of chlorophyll a absorbs photons. Explain what happens when
chlorophyll a in an intact chloroplast absorbs photons.
a. Chlorophyll a absorbs photons and reacts by fluorescing in the red-orange part of the spectrum
and gives off heat
9. List the components of a photosystem and explain the function of each component.
a. A photosystem is a light capturing unit located in the thylakoid membrane of the choloroplast or
in the membrane of some prokaryotes, consisting of a reaction centar complex surrounded by
numerous light harvesting complexes. There is I and II
b. Reaction center complex is a bunch of proteins that associate with a chlorophyll molrculr to
trigger light reactions

____ Due 2/28


Sergio Salas
10. Trace the movement of electrons in linear electron flow. Trace the movement of electrons in cyclic
electron flow.
a. Linear flows from H2O to NADP+
b. Cyclic is in photosystem I
11. Explain the function(s) of linear electron flow. Explain the function(s) of cyclic electron flow.
a. Linear electron flow is a route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that
involves photosystems I and II and produces ATP, NADPH, and O2.
b. Cyclic electron flow is a route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that
involves only photosystem I and produced ATP but not NADPH or O2
12. Describe the similarities and differences in chemiosmosis between oxidative phosphorylation in
mitochondria and photophosphorylation in chloroplasts.
a. Chloroplasts and mitochondria both generate ATP by chemiosmosis. Some electron carriers such
as cytochromes are similar in chloroplasts and mitochondria. ATP synthase is also similar in
these two. In mitochondria, the high energy electrons dropped down the transport chain are
extracted from organic molecule, while in chloroplasts, this source of electrons is water.
Chloroplasts do not need food to make ATP. Mitochondria use chemiosmosis to transfer
chemical energy from food molecules to ATP, whereas chloroplasts transform light energy into
chemical energy in ATP
13. State the function of each of the three phases of the Calvin cycle.
a. Phase I: Carbon fixation. Here, each CO2 molecule is attached to five carbon sugar named
ribulose biphosphate, which is catalyzed by rubisco. The product is a 6 carvon intermediate that
will split in half to form 2 molecules of 3 phosphoglycerate (3GP)
b. Phase 2: Reduction. Each of those 3GP’s receives another phosphate group from ATP. Then, a
pair of electrons comes from NADPH reduces it to make G3P. It recycles the molecules after one
exits in order to regenerate 3 molecules of RuBP
c. Phase 3: regeneration of the CO2 acceptor RuBP. Carbon skeletons of 5 molecules of G3P are
rearranged by the last steps of the Calvin cycle into 3 molecules of RuBP. The cycle spends 3
more ATP and the RuBP is again prepared to receive CO2 and continue the cycle
14. Describe the role of ATP and NADPH in the Calvin cycle.
a. It needs 9 molecules of ATP and 6 of NADPH to produce one G3P molecule. Light reactions
regenerate these 2.

Alternative Mechanisms of Carbon Fixation


15. Describe what happens to rubisco when O2 concentration is much higher than CO2 concentration.
a. Rubisco can bind O2 in place of CO2 to the Calvin cycle. This entire process is called
photorespiration because it occurs in the light and consumes O2 while producing CO2.
16. Describe the major consequences of photorespiration. Explain why it is thought to be an evolutionary
relict.
a. It generates no ATP and no sugar. It decreases the photosynthetic output by siphoning organic
material from the Calvin cycle and releasing CO2 that would otherwise be fixed. It is
“evolutionary baggage” because long ago there was less O2 and more CO2 than today
17. Describe two important photosynthetic adaptations that minimize photorespiration.
a. C4 plants minimize the cost of photorespiration by incorporating CO2 into 4 carbon compounds
in mesophyll cells. This releases CO2 for the Calvin cycle. Also, CAM plants open their stomata
at night, incorporating CO2 into organic acids, which are also stored in mesophyll cells.
18. List the possible fates of photosynthetic products.
a. It is responsible for the presence of oxygen in our atmosphere. Carbohydrate, organic material,
respiratory fuel, sugars, cellulose and lots of other things.

____ Due 3/1