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ENGINEERING MATERIAL HANDOUT

“ Minggu 2. Struktur dan Ikatan atom

a. Struktur Atom dan Konsep Dasar Model Atom


b. Konfigurasi Elektron dan Tabel Priodik Atom-
atom
c. Ikatan Atom Zat Padat
d. Ikatan Ion
e. Ikatan Kovalen
f. Ikatan Logam

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“Atom
Merupakan bagian terkecil dari unsur yang
menentukan jenis dari material karena sifatnya.

3 subatomic particle:

a.Protons
b.Neutrons
c.Electrons

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“Model atom
Sampai sekarang masih dianggab atom
sebagai inti yang sangat kecil (Ф10-14m)
yang dikelilingi awan electron sehingga
diameter atom menjadi 10-10m
Inti terdiri dari proton dan neutron

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“ Massa dan muatan subatom

Particle Massa (grams) Muatan (coulombs)

Proton 1.673x10-24 +1.602x10-19

Neutron 1.675x10-24 0

Electron 9.109x10-28 -1.602x10-19

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“Nomor Atom / Z
Adalah jumlah proton dalam atom dan juga
menunjukkan jumlah electron dalam keadaan netral.
Setiap unsur berbeda nomor atom dengan karakteristik
berbeda pula.

“Massa Atom /A
Adalah jumlah proton dan netron dalam atom

“Massa Atom relatif


Adalah massa dari elemen dengan jumlah atom 6,023 x
1023. (Bilangan Avogadro).

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Atom carbon mempunyai 6 proton dan 6


neutron dipakai sebagai acuan untuk
massa atom.
1 amu /atomic mass unit didefinisikan
sebagai 1/12 massa atom carbon yang
mempunyai massa 12 unit.

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Atomic Illustrations

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Atomic Illustrations

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“ Perpindahan tingkat energi electron mengelilingi atom
memancarkan radiasi electromagnetic yang disebut photon.
Perubahan energi ΔE nya didefinisikan oleh persamaan
Planck’s

ΔE = h.ν
h = konstanta planck’s 6,63 x 10 -34 J.s
c = λ.ν = 3.00 x 10 8 m atau kecepatan cahaya
λ = Panjang gelombang
Sehingga
ΔE = h.c/ λ dalam satuan eV /electron Volt

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Electron emisi atau absorbsi

Pustaka: Principle Material Science and Engineering by William F Smith

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Tabel Priodik

Pustaka: Principle Material Science and Engineering by William F Smith

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Ionization Energy of Hydrogen Electron

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“ Orbit elektron mengelilingi atom sangat komplek. Bisa berbentuk bulat,


ellips. Sehingga posisi elektron secara pasti sulit ditentukan.
Penggambaran paling mudah tentang posisi elektron adalah sebagai
awan elektron yang menyelubungi inti atom. Jari-jari r dianggab sebagai
posisi elektron paling mungkin. r = 0.05 nm

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Quantum Numbers

1. Principle Quantum Numbers / n = 1 to 7


2. Subsidiary Quantum Numbers / l = 0,1,2,3
or s,p,d,f
3. The Magnetic Quantum Numbers ml = -l to
+l and 0
4. Electron Spin Quantum Numbers +1/2 and
-1/2

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“ Electron Configuration in Atom

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Maximum Number of electron for each


principle atomic shell (Pauli Principle =
2n2)
ex: 2 for 1st PQN, 8 for 2nd PQN, 18 for 3th
PQN, and for next 32, 50, 72, 98.

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Relative Atomic Radii in nm

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Noble Gas
The Most Stable and Least Reactive of All Element are The Noble
Gas
The exception of Helium with has a 1s2 electron configuration, the
outermost shell of all the other noble gas (Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn)
has an s2p6 electron configuration (Inactive / stable configuration).
Electropositive and Electronegative Elements
Electropositive element are metallic in nature and give up electrons
in chemical reaction to produce positive ion / cations. The number
of electrons give up Æ Positive Oxidation number. Group 1A and
2A in Priodic table
Electronegative element are nonmetallic in nature and accept
electrons in chemical reaction to produce negative ion / Anion. The
number of electrons give up Æ Positive Oxidation number.
Group 6A and 7A in Priodic table
Some elements of group 4A to 7A have dual behaviorÆ C, Si, Gr,
P etc
Figure 2.8 shows oxidation number of elements

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Oxidation Number of Element


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Electronegativity
The Degree of an atom to attract electron to itself
Scale from 0 to 4.1
The electropositive elements have low electronegativity degree
The electronegative elements have high electronegativity degree

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Atomic Bonding
Chemical bonding between atoms occurs since
there is a net decrease in the potential
energy of atom in the bonded state. Atom in
bonded state more stable energy than when
it are unbonded
Two group of atomic bonding:
1. Primary atomic bonds / strong bonds Æ
Ionic Bonds, Covalent Bonds, Metallic
Bonds
2. Secondary Bonds / weak bondsÆ
Permanent Dipole Bonds, Fluctuating
Dipole Bonds

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Ionic Bonds
Form between highly electropositive or metallic and
highly electronegative elements or non metallic. The
atoms convert to ion with reduce or increase atomic
radius.

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Interionic force
a.Attractive force
b.Repulsive force
The equilibrium occur if attractive force equal to repulsive force with
distance ao
Fnet = Fatt + F rep
Fatt = -(Z1 Z2 e2)/(4π Єo a2)
Z1 Z2 Æ Number electron removed or added
e Æ Electron charge
a ÆInterionic Separation distance
Єo Æ Permittivity of free space 8.85 X 10-12 C2/(N.m2)

F rep = - n b/ an+1

b and n are constant

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Interionic Force

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Interionic Energy

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Covalent Bonds
Form between low electropositive and low
electronegative elements. The Atoms share their outer s
and p electron with other atoms so that each atom
attains the noble-gas electron configuration
Covalent bonding of Hydrogen Covalent bonding of Others

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Covalent Bond Energies and Lengths

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Covalent Bonded Molecule example

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Metallic Bonds

A third primary type of atomic bonding is metallic bonding


which occurs in solid metal. The atoms are packed
relatively close together in a systematic pattern or
Crystalline. The atoms are so close together so the outer
valence electron are attracted to numerous neighbors. This
condition forms the low density electron charge cloud or
electron gas. The electron are weakly bonded to positive
ion core and easy to move. It is called free electron and
support for high thermal and electric conductivity of the
metal

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Metallic bonds

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Bond energy equilibrium for metal

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