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Pelajaran 1: Baluk (Staff)

Muzik ditulis pada lima garis selari dan empat ruang:

Garis ini dinamakan Baluk. Kita boleh merujuk pada garis dan ruang
menggunakan angka seperti di atas. Baluk sebenarnya tidak mempunyai angka
seperti yang gambarkan di atas.

Angka ditulis hanyalah untuk menampakkan ianya dikenalpasti bermula dari


garis paling bawah. Kita meletakkan not muzik dan tanda senyap (rehat) pada
baluk. Pada awal setiap baluk diletakkan suatu tanda muzik yang dinamakan
KLEF ( CLEF ).Klef menetapkan nama-nama not pada garis dan ruang.

1. Klef Trebel ( treble clef) :


2. Klef Bes (Bass Clef):
3. Garis dan ruang pada klef treble dan klef bes dihubungkan seperti

Semua skor muzik untuk piano ditulis pada baluk seperti ini.

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Buat pengamatan pada klef treble ini. Bagaimana ia ditulis?

i) Bermula dari satu titik di bahagian bawah buat garisan menghala ke


atas.

ii) Teruskan ke atas sehingga melepasi garis paling atas (beri sedikit
ruang)

iii) Buat lingkaran kecil ke kanan dan terus ke bawah merentasi garis ke 4
baluk :

iv) Teruskan melukis ke bawah dan buat lingkaran ke kanan dan biarkan
garis bawah lingkaran ini mencecah garis paling bawah seperti
berikut:

v) Lengkapkan suapya membentuk seperti rajah di bawah:

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Cubalah buat beberapa klef treble sebagai latihan :

Klef Bes lebih mudah dilukiskan:

i) Mulakan dengan satu titik pada garis ke 4 , naikkan ke atas agar


mencecah garis paling atas dan membengkok ke bawah :

ii) Teruskan ke bawah sehingga mencecah garis ke 2 dari bawah.

iii) Buat satu titik di bawah garis ke empat dan satu titik lagi di atas garis
ke 4 :

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Buat beberapa latihan :

Pelajaran 2: Notasi Muzik


Selepas mempelajari notasi langkah berikutnya ialah untuk menguasainya. Tidak
ada cara mudah atau jalan pintas untuk menguasai notasi. Penguasaan ini perlu
kerana ia menentukan panjang atau pendeknya sesuatu bunyi. Ia juga
menentukan tinggi atau rendahnya sesuatu bunyi. Berusahalah untuk
menguasainya.

Abjad A hingga G adalah asas menpelajari notasi muzik. Ia mengikut turutan


abjad ABC semasa menaik (accending).

Jika sesuatu bunyi itu lebih tinggi dari ‘G’ ia menggunakan ‘A’ semula.

Semasa bunyi menurun susunan abjad menjadi seperti berikut:

Apabila bunyi menurun bawah dari ‘A’ not ‘G’ digunakan semula.

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Berikut adalah turutan bunyi menggunakan klef bes dan klef trebel:

Skel di atas bermula dari not E menaik hingga 3 oktaf (octave) . Not kelapan
( Bermula not E hingga bertemu E dinamakan sebagai oktaf – Setiapkali bila
sesuatu not bertemu semula dengan not yang sama ketika menaik atau menurun
ia dinamakan senagai oktaf) .

Not ‘C’ pada baluk di atas ditulis pada garis leger. Garis leger adalah satu cara
untuk menulis not di luar baluk.Ia boleh berada di atas atau di bawah baluk.

Pelajaran 3: Kibod
Untuk memahami teori prinsip muzik kita perlu menguasai papan kibod.
Kedudukan papan kibod adalah seperti berikut:

Papan kibod terdiri dari gabungan warna putih dan hitam. Bila papan kibod piano
ditekan ia menyebabkan pemukul kecil yang dibalut dengan baldu akan
menyentuh dan memukul tali piano dan bunyi akan kedengaran. Papan ki hitam
akan membantu kita mengenalpasti bunyi piano. Papan ki hitam ini dihimpunkan
dalam kumpulan dua dan tiga berselang–selang.

Bunyi pada papan ki piano adalah seperti berikut:

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Pada bahagian tengah piano terdapat papan ki putih yang dinamakan “C


TENGAH”. Terdapat beberapa not C dan yang berada di tengah-tengah piano
adalah “C Tengah”.

Jeda (Jarak bunyi )yang paling dekat dinamakan “SEMITON”. Perhatikan mana-
mana not C (Papan Ki Putih) akan diikuti dengan kehadiran “C#” (Papan Ki
Hitam). Jeda bunyi dalam muzik adalah seperti berikut:

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Pelajaran 4: Nilai Not


Penggubah dan pencipta lagu memerlukan cara untuk memberitahu pemain atau
penyanyi mengenai panjang atau pendeknya sesuatu bunyi.

Ini not Semibrif (semibreve), panjang bunyinya 4 harkat.

Ini not Minim (Minim): panjang bunyinya 2 harkat.

Ini not Krocet (Crochet): panjang bunyinya 1 harkat.

Kita memerlukan 4 krocet untuk mendapat bunyi semibrif.

Ini pula not Kuaver (Quaver): Kita memerlukan 8 kuaver untuk mendapat bunyi
semibrif.

So eight eighths equals one whole. It also equals two halfs. It also ....

Lihat persamaan nilai not berikut:

Persamaan nilai not adalah seperti berikut:

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Ia kelihatan rumit . Mungkin penjelasan berikut boleh membantu:

2+ + +1=4
NOT BERTITIK

You know that in many time signatures a quarter note equals one beat. When
you add a dot to a note, you add half of its value to the note. What's half of
one? . If you add that to the quarter, you get a note that is 1 beats long (That
is assuming that the quarter note equals one beat. There are time signatures
where this is not the case- you'll learn more about that in Lessons 13 and 14)

A dotted quarter note looks like this: The dot makes the note half again as
long as a quarter note. (1 + ) = 1
Here is a dotted half note: It is one half note plus half of a half note (one
quarter). A dotted half note, therefore, is three quarter notes long. (2 + 1 = 3)

Lesson 5: Note Durations, Part 2


In the previous lesson you saw the relationships between different notes. For
example, you learned that four quarter notes equal one whole note. You learned
that two eighth notes equal one quarter note. You also learned that adding a dot
to a note increases its time duration by one half of the original note value. For
example, adding a dot to a quarter note results in a note that is the same length
as a quarter note and an eighth note tied together. A tie is a slur (curved line) that
joins two notes together so that they are played as one long note. So in the
following example, the quarter note tied to the eighth is the same as if the quarter
note had a dot after it, and the eighth note wasn't there at

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all:

You can see (and hear, if your browser has MIDI-playback capability) that the
two 'F's are played as one long note. A slur differs from a tie in that the slur is
applied to two notes of different pitch. A slur means to play all the notes within
the slur without rearticulating. On a wind instrument like flute, clarinet, trumpet,
etc., this means to play all slurred notes in one breath.

Adding a flag to a note makes a note half as long.

Remember the eighth note? Without the flag, it would look like a quarter note.
By adding the flag it becomes a note of half that value - an eighth note. By
adding another flag, it becomes half as long as an eighth note – emisemiquaver
:

It takes two sixteenth notes to equal one eighth note. It takes four sixteenth notes
to equal one quarter note. How many sixteenth notes does it take to make one
half note? Eight! One whole note? Sixteen!

Many times when two or more eighth notes are written side-by-side, the flag is
replaced with a beam: These two beamed eighths are exactly the same as if
the writer had written:

Same thing for sixteenths: is the same as: Using the beam in place of the
flags simply makes it look a little "tidier", and a little easier for a performer to
read. It also indicates beat duration, but we'll leave that for another lesson.

Concerning the direction of stems, it is important to know that sometimes stems


can point upward, as in the examples above: If the note is below the middle line
of the staff, the stem should point upward. But the stem should point downward if
the note is above the middle line of the staff:

If the note is on the middle line, the stem may point either upward or downward.

RESTS
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For every note, there is a corresponding rest of the same length. For example, in
many time signatures the whole note ( ) is a note that gets four beats. in cases

the whole rest also gets four beats: As you can see, it looks like a
small black rectangle that hangs from the fourth line. It hangs from that line no
matter which clef you use.

If the whole note gets four beats, the half note would get two beats, and so would

the half rest:

Here are the "rest" of the rests, using our example of the whole note/rest
getting four beats:

The crochet rest (1 beat):

The quaver rest ( beat):

The semiquaver rest ( beat):

Take a look at the following table. It shows the relationship between all of the
notes and rests that you will use for the next several lessons*. Again, this table
makes the assumption for now that the whole note gets 4 beats, which, as you
will see in later lessons, is not always the case:

NUMBER OF BEATS NOTE REST

0.5 (1/2)

0.25 (1/4)

Since the note and rest values are all related to each other, if one value changes,
they all change. For example, let us say that in a particular time signature the
quarter note is worth two beats.

Lesson 6: Measures

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Music is often divided up into units called measures or bars. Each measure has
a certain number of beats. The number of beats is determined by the time
signature. (Another word for time signature is meter). For example, some music
is written so that every measure has four beats, and that the crochet is the unit
that "gets the beat". In such a piece the time signature would be . We say "four
four" when we read this time signature. In time, the top '4' represents the
number of beats per bar: four. The bottom '4' tells us what kind of note gets the
beat. The bottom four means "quarter note".

In this lesson, we are only going to deal with three different time signatures:

and

There are things you will eventually need to know about all time signatures. For
example, you will eventually learn that the time signatures listed above are called
simple time signatures. But that's not necessary right now. All you need to know
is that in each of these particular time signatures:

-the top number tells us how many beats.


-the bottom number tells us what kind of note gets the beat.

(Lesson 13 will delve into time signatures to a greater degree, and you'll learn
about compound time signatures. Compound time signatures tell us the number
of beats in a bar, but not in a direct way. Don't worry about it for now!)

Take a look at the following piece of music:

This is a piece of music that has been written in time. That's obvious,
because of the time signature at the beginning of the piece! But let's say that the
composer "forgot" to put a time signature at the beginning. How would we be
able to know that the piece was in ? Well, if you count up the number of beats
in each bar, you would find that each bar has three beats, and that each beat is a
quarter note:

Bar1: 3 quarter notes = 3 beats.


Bar2: 4 eighth notes plus 1 quarter note = 3 beats.
Bar3: 1 half note plus 2 eighth notes = 3 beats.
Bar4: 1 dotted half note = 3 beats.

IMPORTANT: Take a look at bar 2 and observe how the

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semiquaver notes have been "beamed". The fact that two eighth
notes are beamed together shows that the beat unit is the
quarter note. In some music you will find four eighths beamed
together. That would mean that the half note would be the beat
unit. (Four eighths = one half-note).

It is necessary, in any given time signature, to make sure that each bar has the
same number of beats, and that the number of beats is the top number of the
time signature. If we were to take the example above and write the count of each
bar, it would look like this:

If you play a musical instrument, you are probably already familiar with "counting"
in this manner.

What if you were to get a piece of music in which the composer put the time
signature at the beginning, but "forgot" to draw in the bar lines:

The time signature is . So count two beats, then draw a bar line; then count
another two beats and draw another bar line. It should work out that every bar
gets two beats, because that is what means! Here's what it should look like
once you've drawn the lines in:

Bar 1: 2 eighths plus 1 quarter = 2 beats.


Bar 2: 4 sixteenths plus 1 quarter = 2 beats, etc.....

You can see that each bar gets 2 beats. The counts have been written in. Notice
that each beat gets a number (that's obvious!) In bar 1, the first eighth gets a "1".
The second eighth gets a "+" to indicate that it's in-between beats one and two.
In bar 2, the first sixteenth gets a "1". The next sixteenth gets an "e" (our way of
showing a note that is one sixteenth past the beat). The next sixteenth is a "+"
because it is one eighth past the beat. The fourth sixteenth gets a "a". (our way
of showing a note that is the fourth sixteenth past the beat.) This funny way of
showing the counts makes it easy to say the counts. For example, if you saw a

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bar of music in that had eight sixteenth notes, you would say the count like
this: "One -e- and - a Two -e- and - a". If you come across a piece of music in
which the eighth note gets the beat, then each eighth note gets a number, and
each sixteenth gets a "+":

Sometimes we have to write the counts into a bar that features syncopation.
Syncopation occurs when the normal rhythmic stresses in a bar are changed. For
example, normally in a piece of music written in one tends to be quite aware
of a "strong - weak - strong - weak" pulsing of the music. Click this play-bar to
hear what we mean: Now compare that to what you hear in this excerpt: You
can hear that the strong-weak pulses of the bar have been altered, giving some
rhythmic intensity to the music. You'll revisit the topic of syncopation in Lesson
13.

Lesson 7: Small Intervals


An "interval" is the space between two notes. Shall I be obvious? A small
interval is a situation where there are two notes close together! There are three
small intervals to be dealt with in this lesson: semitone, whole tone, and tone-
plus-semitone.

SEMITONES:

We have already dealt with the semitone in lesson 3. Now you need to know
that there are two types of semitones. Both sound exactly the same, but they
are written differently. Take a look at this example:

Both of these semitones sound exactly the same. Play them on your instrument.
From your knowledge of semitones, you know that if you were to play both
examples on a musical instrument, you would play the same notes! In other
words, the point here is that G# and Ab are exactly the same pitch. But here's the
difference: we would say that in the first example, "G-sharp is a DIATONIC
semitone lower than A". In the second example, we would say "A-flat is a
CHROMATIC semitone lower than A".

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So there are two types of semitones: DIATONIC SEMITONES and CHROMATIC


SEMITONES. Here are quick definitions:

DIATONIC SEMITONE:
The smallest interval in our "western" music culture, in which the
two notes are spelled using different letter names. (A, G-sharp)
CHROMATIC SEMITONE:
The smallest interval in our "western" music culture, in which the
two notes are spelled using the same letter name. (A, A-flat)

Here are some more semitones, correctly labeled:

(You will learn in later lessons that a diatonic semitone is also called a minor
2nd)

WHOLE TONES

A whole tone equals the distance of two semitones. Looking at this view of a
piano keyboard, you can see two notes indicated by dots:

The 'G' and the 'A' are one whole tone away from each other due to the fact that
there is a note in between them: the G-sharp, or A-flat. This distance of two
semitones is called one whole tone.

To write whole tones, we begin by ensuring that they've been placed on the staff
correctly. Whole tones are written on the staff so that if one note is on a line,
the other must be on the space above or below it. If one note is written on a
space, the other must be on the line above or below it. However, just
because two notes are placed on a staff in this manner, don't automatically
assume they are whole tones. Take this interval, for example:

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The 'E' is on the line directly below the 'F'. But as you can see from the diagram
of the keyboard above, these two notes are only one semitone apart- there is no
black note in between them. The rule about placement of the notes on the staff is
only part of the procedure. You must now adjust the second note, if necessary. In
this case, you would add a sharp to the second note in order to make it a whole
tone higher:

There is one other place on the keyboard where there is no black note between
white notes: between 'B' and 'C'. So a whole tone above 'B' would be 'C#'.

Here's a quick definition:

WHOLE TONE
An interval which is the distance of 2 semitones.

Here are some written whole tones:

Notice that whole tones are written on adjacent lines or spaces. (You will learn in
later lessons that a whole tone is also known as a major 2nd.)

TONE-PLUS-SEMITONE

A tone-plus-semitone is the distance of three semitones. On paper, it must be


written so that if one note is on a line, the other note must be in the space
above or below it. If one note is in a space, the other note must be on a line
above or below it. And just as with the situation regarding whole tones, do not
assume that because you have placed the notes correctly on the staff that they
are automatically a tone-plus-semitone apart. You must then adjust the second
note so that the proper interval exists.

TONE-PLUS-SEMITONE

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An interval which is the distance of 3 semitones.

Here are some written tone-plus-semitones:

(You will learn in later lessons that a tone-plus-semitone is also known as an


augmented 2nd.)

Lesson 8: Major Scales


A scale is a series of notes that proceed up or down by step. ('Step' means by
tone or by semitone). A major scale proceeds by following a certain pattern of
tones and semitones. But we'll get to that in a moment. Make certain that you
fully understand the difference between tones and semitones. If you're still a little
rusty, go back to Lesson 7. Understanding scales depends on your knowledge
of tones and semitones. Please note that when we say 'tone', we mean 'whole
tone'.

We'll go through the process of writing a major scale step by step (no pun
intended), and you'll see that writing scales is actually a fairly simple process! I
would recommend getting a piece of staff paper and writing out the steps as you
see them demonstrated here for you. It will help you to clearly visualize the entire
process. We are going to write an F-major scale in the treble clef, ascending,
using quarter notes.

Writing an F-Major Scale in the treble


clef:
STEP 1:
Draw a treble clef on a staff. Then place an 'F' on the staff, the 'F' above middle
'C'.

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STEP 2:
Write a note on each line and space, ascending for one octave. Remember, any
note below the middle line 'B' should point its stem upward; any note above the
middle line 'B' should point its stem downward. The 'B' itself can go either way.

STEP 3:
You've now written a scale, but not necessarily a major scale. Major scales follow
a certain pattern of tones and semitones. Here is that all-important pattern:

Tone - Tone - Semitone - Tone - Tone - Tone - Semitone

We now have to examine the intervals between each and every note to see that
they conform to this pattern. If they don't, we can use accidentals (sharps and
flats) to make them conform.

We start by looking at the first two notes, 'F' and 'G'. What is the distance
between these two notes? It is a whole tone. Therefore, the first interval in the
pattern, 'Tone', is correct, and we can go on.

Now let's look at the 2nd and 3rd notes, the 'G' and 'A'. The distance between
these two notes is a whole tone, so that conforms to the second interval
requirement, tone. On we go!

Our next notes to examine are the 3rd and 4th notes, the 'A' and 'B'. This forms a
whole tone. But our major-scale pattern says that there should only be a
semitone between these two notes. No problem! We'll just lower the B to a B-
flat, and now it's a semitone.

Here's what we've got so far:

We show whole tones with a square bracket and semitones with a slur (curve).

Just keep going, checking each interval between all notes in the scale. You will
find that in this scale, the B-flat is the only accidental that we have to use. Here is
the complete correct F-major scale:

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An F-major scale, as you can see, has one flat. It is the only major scale that has
one flat. All the different major scales use their own set of accidentals. In the next
lesson, you'll learn how to make a proper key signature from the accidentals that
are used.

Make sure that you write your scale using the process mentioned above. Start
with one octave of notes, THEN make your adjustments if necessary.

Lesson 9: Key Signatures


We've all seen key signatures - they're the collection of sharps or flats at the
beginning of each staff. We also know what they mean. When we see the
following key signature...

...we know that every B, E and A will be flat, unless canceled out temporarily by
an accidental. In the previous lesson's test, you were asked to write an A-flat
major scale. If you did your job properly, it should have looked like this:

Remember, the square brackets represent whole tones, the rounded ones
represent semitones. Now how do we convert those accidentals to a key
signature?

Take a look at the scale and write down all of the accidentals you used. In the
case of the A-flat major scale above, you used: A-flat, E-flat, D-flat, and B-flat.
Now we need to know what order to write them down in a key signature. For that,
we have a nifty little rhyme:

Battle Ends And Down Goes Charles' Father

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The first letter of each word in this sentence tells us the order that the flats are
entered in a key signature: first the 'B', then the 'E', the 'A', and finally the 'D'. It
looks like this, in both clefs of the Grand Staff:

A key signature that uses all seven possible flats will look like this:

The neat thing about the "Battle - Ends..." rhyme is that reversing the order of the
rhyme gives us the order of sharps in a key signature:

Father - Charles - Goes - Down - And - Ends - Battle

A key signature that uses all seven possible sharps will look like this:

KEY SIGNATURE HINTS:

There are some little "tricks" that can help you know which major key belongs to

which key signature. Consider this key signature: You might think
this is a rather complicated one to start with, but in fact it's quite easy if you
remember this rhyme:

When sharps you see, the last is "ti".

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'Ti', of course, is the solfa name for the seventh note of the scale, the 'leading
tone'. (You'll learn more about these technical names in a later lesson.) The last
sharp indicated above is the B#. If that's the seventh note, we know that the next
note will be the key-note, and it will be one diatonic semitone higher. Therefore,
this key signature belongs to C#-major.

Consider this key signature: Now remember this little rhyme:

When flats there are, the last is 'fa'.

'Fa' is the solfa name for the fourth note of the scale. The last flat indicated above
is the F-flat. If that's the fourth note, we know that the key-note will be four notes
lower. Counting down in this key signature four notes, we hit 'C-flat'. Therefore,
this key signature belongs to C-flat major.

So here are the rhymes to remember:

THE ORDER OF Battle Ends And Down Goes Charles'


FLATS: Father
THE ORDER OF Father Charles Goes Down And Ends
SHARPS: Battle
'SHARP' Key Sig. Hint: When sharps you see, the last is 'ti'
'FLAT' Key Sig. Hint: When flats there are, the last is 'fa'.

PRE-QUIZ ASSIGNMENT:

Take a piece of 12-stave manuscript paper. Create 4 Grand Staffs, making four
measures per system. Then:

a) Write out all the key signatures that use sharps. Label each one.

b) Write out all the key signatures that use flats. Label each one.

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The first ones have been done for you:

C-major G-major

Lesson 10: Intervals


In Lesson 7, you learned how to name "small" intervals. These were intervals
that occupied the space of a "second" - the semitone, whole tone, and the tone-
plus-semitone. Now we are going to learn how to name intervals that are larger
than a second.

In fact, the method we use to name larger intervals actually applies to all
intervals, big or small. There are two components to the name of an interval:

The first component, in this case the letter 'P', tells us the quality of the interval.
The 'P' stands for 'perfect', but more on that a little later. The second component ,
the number, tells us the distance between the two notes. The number is very
easy to determine. Assigning a '1' to the bottom note and counting upward until
reaching the top note, you can see that the 'D' is five notes higher than the 'G'.
Therefore, the interval shown above is a 5th. So much for the easy part!

There are several different kinds, or qualities, of intervals. You have heard these
terms before in conversation with musicians: major this, diminished that, etc. But
how do we actually determine the quality of an interval?

For our purposes here, all intervals will fall into two main categories: the perfect
ones, and the non-perfect ones. Let's look at the perfect intervals first. There are
four intervals that can be described as being perfect: 1, 4, 5, and 8. For example,
we might say "perfect fifth" in describing a certain kind of fifth. Intervals that are
perfect have a certain sound that is variously described by musicians as "pure",
"hollow" or "bare". Click on the play-bar beside the interval above and listen to
the hollow sound produced by the Perfect 5th. The other intervals, 2, 3, 6, and 7,
are non-perfect ones. They are the ones described as being major or minor.
Depending on the number, these intervals will be described as either "harsh" (2
or 7) or "sweet" (3 or 6).

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Back to the perfect ones. If an interval is determined to be a fifth, like the one
above, we need to ask ourselves an important question in order to determine
what kind of fifth the interval is: "Is the top note in the major scale of the bottom
note?" If the answer is "yes", then the interval will be perfect - a "perfect fifth". If
you examine the example above, the question you would ask is "Is the top note
('D') found in a 'G' major scale? You know from the previous scale lesson that the
answer to that is "yes". Therefore, it is a perfect 5th.

But what if the answer was 'No"? What if instead of the above example, we had
one of the following:

or

Would the number of the interval be the same? Absolutely, because the top note
is still five notes above the bottom note. But are they still perfect intervals? Well,
ask yourself the question, "Is there a D# in a G-major scale?" No. "Is there a Db
in a G-major scale?" No. So they're not perfect - they're something different.

With the perfect intervals (1,4,5 or 8), there are three possibilities:

This diagram shows those three possibilities. If the answer to the question is
"yes", then the interval is perfect; this is why there is a rectangle drawn around
the word "perfect". If it is "too large" to be yes (such as is the case with the D#),
then the answer would be "Augmented 5th". That's because D# is one semitone
higher than 'D', and so we go to the next larger interval. If it is "too small" to be
yes (such as is the case with the Db), then the answer would be "Diminished
5th". That's because Db is one semitone lower than 'D', and so we go to the next
smaller interval. Easy!

Now consider the following interval:

What number would be placed under it? A '3', of course, because if you consider
the bottom note to be '1', and then count upward until reaching the top note, the
'A' would be three notes higher. But what kind of '3'?

This interval is a third, and so we know that it is not going to be a perfect interval.
It's going to be given a name like "major" or "minor, or something else. But you

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still have to ask the same question: "Is the top note ('A') in the major scale of the
bottom note ('F')"? you can see that the answer is "yes". But what does that
mean?

With the non-perfect intervals (2,3,6 or 7), there are four possibilities:

Notice the rectangle drawn around the word "major". That is there to remind us
that if the answer to the question "Is the top note ('A') in the major scale of the
bottom note ('F')" is yes, then the interval is major. Indeed, the answer to the
question is yes, so the interval is a major 3rd. We can show that by writing
either '+3' or 'M3'. What if the interval were different - say, an 'F' on the bottom
and an 'Ab' on the top. That would be one semitone smaller than a major 3rd - it
would be a minor 3rd ('m3', or '-3'). Here, then, are the four possibilities with the
interval of a 3rd:

There are several things about this example that would actually require some in-
depth explanations (the double flat, for example!) Do not be concerned about
those issues at this point. Later lessons will deal with double flats (and double
sharps as well). For now, it is important that you realize that all four of the
intervals shown above are considered '3rds'. They are 3rds because the distance
from the lowest note to the highest note is 3, no matter what accidental is in front
of the note. But looking at those four intervals, if you ask yourself the question,
"Is the top note in the major scale of the bottom note?", the only interval for which
the answer is "yes" would be the one with the 'A' on top. Therefore, that's the
one we would call the major 3rd. From left to right, the four intervals are:
diminished 3rd, minor 3rd, major 3rd, and augmented 3rd.

What do you do if the bottom note is a note for which we don't have a major
scale? For example what about this one: We don't have a B-sharp major
scale. In this case, imagine in your mind that you just lowered both pitches by a
semitone. That would result in an E-flat on top and a B on the bottom. Then the
interval becomes easier to figure out: "Is there an E-flat in a B-major scale?" No,
there's an E-natural. E-flat makes this a diminished 4th. Then, raise both notes
the same amount to get back to the original notes. By raising both notes the
same amount, the interval stays the same size. And so the answer to the above
example is: Diminished 4th.

So to sum up, there are two steps to naming an interval. Here they are:

1) Starting with the number '1', count upward until you reach the top note.
Write that number down underneath the interval.
2) Ask yourself "Is the top note in the major scale of the bottom note?"

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IF YES: The interval will be PERFECT (if the number is 1,4,5 or 8), or
MAJOR (if the number is 2,3,6 or 7)

IF NO: It will be one of the other words as described above, taking into
consideration whether it is a [1,4,5 or 8], or [2,3,6 or 7]. For each semitone
smaller, go one word to the left of the word in the rectangle; for each
semitone larger, go one word to the right of the word in the rectangle.

Use the following guide for abbreviations:

- or 'm'Major: + or 'M'
Perfect:Minor: P
Augmented: Aug or 'X'
Diminished: dim or 'o'

When it comes to writing a note that is a certain interval above a given note, just
proceed in the manner described above: If you are given this: and told to write
a note a minor 6th above it, simply count up six notes (the bottom note is '1').
You'll get this: Then ask yourself the question, "Is there a 'G' in a B-flat major
scale?" The answer is "Yes", and so this is a major sixth. We want a minor sixth.
So what do we do? We lower the 'G' to a 'G-flat', and now the interval is a minor
6th:

If you are asked to write a note that is a certain interval below a given note, the
process is similar. Simply count down from the given note, starting on the
number of the interval. If you are given a 'G,' and told to write a note that is a
diminished fifth below it, start on that 'G' and count down from 5 until you reach 1.
You'll now be on the note 'C'. Ask yourself the question, 'Is there a 'G' in a 'C'
major scale"? The answer is "Yes", so this is a perfect fifth. We want to make the
interval smaller(to make it diminished), so we raise the 'C' to a 'C-sharp'. (In this
case, we raise the 'C', because the 'G' was the note you were given. Do not
change the given note.)

Here are several intervals all correctly labeled*. Study each one and be sure you
fully understand the process involved in naming intervals before doing the test.

Remember to follow the two steps:

1) Start on 1, and count upward until you reach the top note.
2) Ask yourself, "Is the top note in the major scale of the bottom note?"

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*Two of the intervals shown above, Aug.4 and dim.5, are also known by the term
"tritone". Historically, the tritone was known as the "interval of the devil"; its
position between the perfect 4th and perfect 5th made it quite difficult to sing in
tune.

Lesson 11: Inverting Intervals


In the previous lesson you learned how to write intervals, and how to identify
given intervals. In this lesson, you will learn how to invert them.

To invert an interval simply means to "flip it". In other words, once an interval has
been inverted, the note that used to be on the bottom is now on the top. The note
that used to be on the top is now on the bottom. As you can see, this is not going
to be a difficult lesson!

Consider this interval:

It's the one we started with in the previous lesson. As you know, it's called a
perfect 5th because counting up from the lower note until we reach the upper
note results in the number '5'. And the answer to "Is the upper note in the major
scale of the bottom note?" is "Yes", meaning perfect. If this is all still foggy to you,
you should review Lesson 10.

Now to invert it. The process is simple: whatever used to be on the bottom
becomes the top. So depending on if you moved the lower note up an octave, or
the upper note down an octave, you get one of these:

Both of the examples above have a 'D' on the bottom and a 'G' on the top, and so
there are two correct, acceptable answers.

When you invert an interval, the name of the interval must change. You can go
through the exact same procedure that you used to name intervals in the
previous lesson: count upward from bottom to top: that gives us a '4'. "Is the
upper note in the major scale for the bottom note?" Yes, there is a 'G' in a D-
major scale, so the answer is "Perfect 4th". But there's an easier way to name
inverted intervals, if you know the name of the original interval. Check out the
following table:

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2it becomes:7When
1 it becomes: 8
you invert:
When you invert:When
3 it becomes: 6
you invert:
When you invert: 4 it becomes: 5
When you invert: 5 it becomes: 4
When you invert: 6 it becomes: 3
When you invert: 7 it becomes: 2
When you invert: 8 it becomes: 1
QUALITY
When you invert: Perfect it stays: Perfect
When you invert: Major it becomes: Minor
When you invert: Minor it becomes: Major
When you invert: Diminished it becomes: Augmented
When you invert: Augmented it becomes: Diminished

Notice that when you invert an interval, simply take the original interval, subtract
it from 9, and you'll get it's inversion. For example, If you want to invert a 6th,
subtract it from 9 and the answer is a 3rd. (9-6=3)*.

It's tables like this that can make you sound like a genius! It's so easy to learn
and commit to memory that you can say to your friends, "Name an interval, and
I'll name its inversion it in two seconds or less". They say, "Diminished 6th", and
you immediately reply "Augmented 3rd!" No problem!

Lesson 12: Minor Scales


Please do not do this lesson unless you fully understand the construction of a
major scale.

Take a look at this scale:

This is an F-major scale in which the accidental (B-flat) has been used in place of
a key signature. Each note of the scale has been numbered. As you can see, we
call the final note '1' because it is simply a repeat of the first note of the scale
('F'). Write this scale on a piece of manuscript paper.

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Each note of a scale has a so-called "Technical Name" associated with it. A
technical name is a word that identifies the note, and we often speak of the
"function" of the note by using a technical name. Here they are:

Note Number (degree of scale): Technical name:


1 TONIC
2 SUPERTONIC
3 MEDIANT
4 SUBDOMINANT
5 DOMINANT
6 SUBMEDIANT
7 LEADING TONE

In lesson 9, you learned how to write key signatures. Every major scale has its
own particular key signature, and we can identify major scales by referring to that
key signature. For instance, if I say, "I'm thinking of a major scale that has one
flat," you know that I am thinking of an F-major scale. That's because F-major is
the only major scale that has one flat. Now, here's a new bit of information: There
is also a MINOR SCALE that has that same key signature. For every possible
key signature, there is one major scale and one minor scale that use that
signature. We say that the two scales are related, because they use the same
key signature. Let's discover which minor scale is related to F-major.

Look at the F-major scale that you've written down. Find the sixth note. (The
submediant). That note is 'D'. On the next line below your major scale, draw a
treble clef, and write that note 'D':

Now draw a scale, starting on the 'D', and proceed upwards for one octave.
Remember to use a flat in front of the 'B', because we're going to use the
same key signature as F-major:

You've just created a D-minor scale! The D-minor scale is called the relative
minor of F-major. It is called the relative minor because it is related to F-major.
How is it related? It uses the same key signature. Both F-major and D-minor use
one flat as their key signature. Here's what a D-minor scale looks like with a key
signature:

So to find the relative minor of a major scale, find the sixth note of the major.
That note is the note upon which the relative minor would be built.

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The type of minor scale you just learned to write is called a natural minor scale.
Sometimes you see them referred to as "Pure minor". There are two other types
of minor scales you need to learn: the harmonic minor and melodic minor.

HARMONIC MINOR:
To form a harmonic minor scale, take the natural minor, and raise the seventh
note. To change the D-minor scale above into a harmonic minor scale, we would
raise the seventh note, the 'C' to become a 'C#'. Here it is:

MELODIC MINOR:
To form a melodic minor scale, take the natural minor, raise the sixth AND
seventh note on the way up, and put them back to their "natural" state
going down. Because the melodic minor looks different going up than it does
going down, you must write a melodic minor ascending and descending. Here is
a D-Melodic minor scale:

IMPORTANT:
You should play these, and all, examples in this course. It is not enough to have
an intellectual understanding of musical concepts. Music lives in the ears, and
you must take the time to play each example and become familiar with them.

Determining Key Signatures of Minor Keys

Now you should know how to take a major scale, find the note upon which the
relative minor scale will be constructed, and write the three forms of that minor
scale. But what if you're simply told "Write a B-minor scale"? How do you
determine the key signature?

If you don't know the key signature, it will help to find the relative major. As you
know, a minor scale and its relative major will share the same key signature. In
the case of B-minor, you know that 'B' is the sixth note of some major scale.
Simply go up a whole tone, plus a diatonic semitone. That will get you the
relative major. So a whole tone plus a diatonic semitone above 'B' is 'D'. D-major
will use the same key signature as B-minor. If you've done your Scale Reference
Sheet, you will already know that D-major has a key signature of two sharps.
Same thing for B-minor!

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Lesson 13: Time Signatures


(Meters)

Writers of music have a


convenient way of putting
music into "sections" or
"compartments" that make it
visually easy to follow. The
compartments have been
discussed before... we call
them "measures" or "bars".
Take a look at most printed
music, and you'll see this very
clearly. Measures are
separated from each other by
"bar lines". You'll also notice
at the beginning of each
piece of music a time
signature. Simply stated, a
time signature consists of two
numbers, one being written
above the other, to indicate
how many beats are in each
bar. This is stated directly,
with simple time signatures (
for one), or indirectly, with
compound time signatures (
for example). Our first task
is to discover the differences
between simple and
compound time.

SIMPLE TIME SIGNATURES


Simple time signatures tell us
two things immediately:
1)HOW MANY beats are in
each bar, and 2) What kind of
note gets the beat. Study the
following:

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You can see that the time


signature is . The time
signature tells us two things:
a) The '2' tells us that there
are 2 beats in every bar, and
b) the '4' tells us that each
beat is one quarter note long.
Simple! (Guess that's why
they call it a simple time
signature.) Also, notice in bar
2 that the eighth notes have
been beamed together in
groups of two. That's
because two eighth notes
together are one quarter note
in length. The writer is
showing us that the quarter
note "gets the beat." Here's
the same excerpt with the
beats shown above the
music:

If we were to count along with


the excerpt as it is played, we
would say "1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 2,"
etc.

The subdivision or
breakdown of a beat is its
number of components. In
simple time signatures, each
beat can be "subdivided" into
two parts. Here is the same
excerpt with the subdivision,
or breakdown, shown
underneath:

This excerpt shows four


things that describe all

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simple time signatures:

1
)
T
h
e
b
e
a
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a
c
h
b
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a
t
i
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s
u
b

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d
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i
v
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3
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(
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it
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'
3
'
o
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t
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4
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S
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l

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e
ti
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.

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(i
.
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.,

m
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)

COMPOUND TIME
SIGNATURES:
Unlike simple time signatures,
compound time signatures do
not directly show us the

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number of beats per bar.


Instead, they show us the
number of breakdown
notes per bar.

Study the following:

In this excerpt, we can see


that the writer has beamed
the first three eighth notes
together. The writer is
showing that the first three
eighths form one beat; that's
why they were beamed
together. We therefore need
to take the eighth notes and
"condense" them to discover
what the beat is. Condensing
the three eighths down to one
note gives us a dotted
quarter. (1 8th plus 1 8th plus
1 8th equals 1 dotted quarter
note.) In other words, the
beat in a bar of music is the
dotted quarter. You can see
that by going through the two
bars of the excerpt, it is
possible to apply dotted
quarter note beats. Here's
what it looks like:

Just like with simple time


signatures, we can break
down each beat into beat
subdivisions. However,
though simple time beats
break down into two parts,
compound time beats break
down into three parts:

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You can see that each bar


has SIX breakdown notes.
The breakdown notes are
EIGHTH notes. Therefore,
the time signature is .

So, here are the four things


that describe compound
time signatures:

1) The beat is a dotted note.


2) Each beat is subdivided
into three components.
3) The top number is evenly
divisible by '3'. (Except for
time signatures with a '3' on
top!*)
4) Compound time signatures
show the number of
breakdown notes in every
bar. (i.e., means six eighth-
note subdivisions in every
bar.)

There! Armed with that


knowledge, you should be
able to say what time
signature the following
excerpt is in:

So let's study it. Look at bar


1. Notice that the eighth notes
are beamed together in
groups of two. Each one of
those eighth note pairs can
"condense down" to form one
quarter note. Looks like the
quarter note may be the beat
unit in this excerpt. Can we
apply a quarter note beat

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pattern to the whole excerpt?


Absolutely! This is what it
would look like:

So since applying quarter


notes as a beat unit seems to
work, we can tell that this is a
simple time signature:

The beat is an un-dotted


note.
Each beat will subdivide into
two components. (One
quarter note subdivides into
two eighth notes.).

And since we know that it is


simple time, the actual
signature should be the
number of beats per bar. ( ,
or C):

Lets try another one:

Look at how the eighth notes


have been beamed. Notice, in
particular, the last group of
notes at the end of the first
bar. The dotted eighth,
sixteenth, and eighth note
have all been beamed
together. If we condense
those three notes down, we
get one note which is a dotted
quarter in length. It appears
that perhaps the dotted

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quarter will be the beat unit in


this excerpt. Let's see if we
can apply a dotted quarter
beat to the entire excerpt.
The eighth rest and two
eighth notes at the beginning
would certainly be explained
in terms of a dotted quarter
beat. That leaves the quarter
note and eighth note in the
middle, and that, too, can fit
into the dotted quarter beat
pattern. Here's the first bar,
with lines drawn around each
beat:

The lines are there to help


you see the beat groups
clearly.

When you look at the rest of


the excerpt, you can see that
the second bar also fits the
dotted quarter beat pattern:
the two sixteenths plus two
eight rests add up to equal
one dotted quarter; obviously
the dotted quarter in the
middle is easy; and the six
sixteenths at the end
condense down to form a
dotted quarter.

So how do we assign this


excerpt a time signature? The
beat is a dotted note, so this
is compound time. Therefore,
the numbers of the time
signature will reflect the
number of breakdown
notes in each bar. As this is
compound, the beat breaks
down into three parts:

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How many breakdown notes


in each bar? Nine. What kind
of notes are the breakdown
notes? Eighth notes.
Therefore, the time signature
is .

SYNCOPATION

From time to time in music


you will notice occasions
where the weak part of a
beat, or the notes between
beats, are given special
emphasis. This accenting of
weak beats is called
syncopation. It is a very
common technique for
composers to use, to
heighten rhythmic energy and
drive. Here is an example of a
syncopated passage:

I would recommend going


over this lesson slowly
several times, to make sure
you understand it completely
before doing the quiz.
1Technical name: TONIC

Lesson 14:
Time
Signatures-
Measure

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Completion
At this point, you should be
familiar enough with time
signatures as to be able to
identify them easily; you
should be able to place the
beats above an excerpt, and
to properly indicate the
subdivision underneath. If you
feel you need a refresher on
this, please re-read Lesson
13.

Take a look at the following


example:

The task here is to fill in the


blank space in the middle of
the bar with the appropriate
rests. How do we do that?

STEP 1: Determine if the


time signature is SIMPLE or
COMPOUND.
Is the top number evenly
divisible by three? No. So this
is a simple time signature.
Therefore this time signature
is telling us that there are two
beats per bar, and the
quarter note is the beat
unit. So we can go ahead
and put the beats in:

Notice that the first beat lines


up with the first note in the
bar. The last given note is an
eighth note, which is only half
of one beat long. Therefore
we place the second quarter

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beat before that note.

STEP 2: Write the beat


subdivision (breakdown).
Now that we know where the
beats are, we can go ahead
and write in the subdivision.
As this is simple time, each
beat will break down into
two components (eighth
notes):

As you can see, it is easy to


line up the eighth notes with
the quarter-note beats.

STEP 3: Fill in the rests.


IMPORTANT: COMPLETE
THE BEATS THAT HAVE
BEEN STARTED FIRST.
In this case, the excerpt is
only two beats long, and each
beat has been started. The
first note is a sixteenth note.
The basic rule is to complete
the subdivision component
first. So what would it take to
complete the first eighth note
subdivision? Answer: one
sixteenth rest:

Now, what will complete the


rest of the beat? Answer: One
eighth rest:

The first beat has now been


completed. Now look at the
last beat. The one eighth note
that you see is the last thing
in the bar. What will it take to

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complete that bar? Just put


an eighth rest in front of the
note. Here is the correct
answer:

Can you combine the two


eighth rests in the middle of
the bar and put a quarter rest
instead? No. You have to
leave the two eighth rests,
because they each belong to
different beats.

Can you combine the


sixteenth rest and the eighth
rest in the first beat?
Technically, no, although
more and more we see
publishers doing this sort of
thing. The rule is this:

If the rests are at the END


of a beat, they should not
be combined (like the
above example).

If the rests are at the


START of a beat, they can
be combined, like this
example:

Now consider this example:

Is it simple or compound
time? The answer is
compound, because the top
number is divisible by
three. Therefore, the time

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signature is telling us the


number of breakdown notes
in each bar. Write them in:

(Because it's compound, I


know that the eighth note
breakdown will be beamed
in groups of three.) Now
that the breakdown is written,
I can go ahead and place the
beats. Each beat is three
eighth-notes long, as you can
see. What one note is three
eighth notes long? Answer: A
dotted quarter-note:

Notice that the last dotted-


quarter beat of the bar is
placed just before the group
of four sixteenths in the
excerpt. That's because the
four sixteenths do not make
up an entire beat. The four
sixteenths make up one
quarter note, and in this time
signature the beat is a dotted
quarter-note long. Therefore,
the third beat actually begins
somewhere before the
sixteenths happen.

Just like with the previous


example, you begin by
completing the beats that are
partially given. The first beat
so far has one sixteenth note
in it. So we complete the first
breakdown note by adding a
sixteenth rest:

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We then continue by placing


a rest for each breakdown
note in the first beat:

Now the first beat is


complete. We don't combine
these rests, because they
finish the beat. Now we
move to the final beat in the
bar. The sixteenth notes take
up two of the three eighth
notes in the beat. So all we
need to do is place an eighth
rest in front of them, and we
will have completed that beat:

So we have now completed


the first and the third beat in
the bar. The only thing left is
to place a rest for the second
beat . The beat is a dotted
quarter note, so we will place
a dotted quarter rest:

Lesson 15:
Tonic and
Dominant
Triads
As you know, every scale
degree has a technical
name. They have been listed
before, but here they are

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again:

Note Number:
2 SUPERTONIC
3 MEDIANT
4 SUBDOMINANT
5 DOMINANT
6 SUBMEDIANT
7 LEADING TONE

When we speak of a note in a scale, we can refer to it by its number- 'G' is note
number 1 of a G-major scale- or by its technical name- 'G' is the tonic note in a
G-major scale. A technical name not only identifies a note, but can also give us
information as to the function of a note within a scale. Further, we can build
chords on all of the various notes in a scale, and identify those chords by the
technical name. (i.e., a tonic chord)

In this lesson, we are only going to deal with tonic and dominant chords. This is
because tonic and dominant chords form the basic backbone of much of what we
call 'tonal music'. First we need to learn a couple of important definitions:

The simultaneous sounding of three or more


Chord:
notes.
A three-note chord in which one note is identified
Triad: as the root, another as the 3rd and the other as
the 5th.

A chord can be any three or more notes played together, but a triad has a
particular structure. If we are in the key of A-major, this would be the tonic note:
If we build a triad on top of this note, according to the definition of a triad given
above, it would look like this: This is a three-note chord in which the bottom
note is acting as the root, the middle one is the 3rd, and the top note is the 5th.
Any chord with this structure (root-3rd-5th) is called a triad. The numbers 3rd and
5th refer to the intervals above the root. Those notes can appear in any order in
the triad, but this lesson will deal with triads where the root is on the bottom.

We say that the triad shown above, built on the note 'A', is a tonic triad because
it has been built on the tonic note of the key we're in- A-major. It is traditional to
indicate the triad by using a Roman numeral. Since we have just built a triad on
the first note of the scale, we place the Roman numeral for '1' underneath it:

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The procedure we just followed to create a tonic triad is the same for any key.
Here are several keys, with tonic triads:

(It is traditional in most schools of theory to indicate major triads with an upper-
case 'I', and minor triads with a lower-case 'i'.) These are tonic triads because
they are chords built on the tonic note. They are triads because the structure of
the chord is 1-3-5. (Root-3rd-5th)

Dominant triads are built in similar fashion as tonic triads. In other words, simply
go to the dominant note of the scale, and build a 1-3-5 triad. Let's take a good
look at the structure of a dominant triad. Note this one, in D-major::

We put the number ' V ' underneath it because it is a triad that has been built on
the fifth note of the scale. Further, it is called a dominant triad, because the fifth
note is the dominant note. In a dominant triad, there is always that leading tone,
the middle note, that "wants" to move up to the tonic. That's what gives dominant
chords their important place in traditional harmony: they help define the tonic
chord in that manner.

IMPORTANT: Dominant triads must always be major, no matter what key you
write them in. Take a look again at the V-chord above. You will see that the
bottom note is the dominant note of the key. The middle note is the leading tone
of the key. (i.e., C# is the leading tone in D-major.) This is important. Dominant
chords must always have the leading tone present. But look at this V-chord in
A-minor: A leading tone is always a semitone, but you can see that the
leading tone in this triad (the middle note) is a whole tone away from 'A'. So we
have to raise the 'G' to become 'G#': The simple way to remember this is to
remember this rule: "All dominant chords must be major. If you are in a minor
key, you must raise the third (middle) of the chord to make it major." The G# is
called an accidental. An accidental is a sharp or flat symbol placed in the music
that does not normally belong to the given key.

Here are some more dominant triads, in various keys:

The V-chords in the minor keys above had their middle notes (the 3rd) raised by
using an accidental in order to create a leading tone to the tonic. For example,
the 2nd chord has an E# because E# is a leading tone for the tonic (F#).

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The quiz for this lesson mainly requires you to be able to build triads on either the
tonic note or the dominant. The most important thing to remember is that if
you are building dominant triads, they must always be major (in order to
have a leading tone present).

Lesson 16: Key Identification


At this point, you probably feel quite comfortable with key signatures, and major
and minor scales. The focus of this lesson is to be able to examine a musical
excerpt and be able to tell what key it is in. We do this by looking at the key
signature, if present, and/or accidentals throughout the excerpt.

Have you ever wondered what puts a certain piece of music in a certain key? We
can take a look at this excerpt...

... and we can determine the key right away. First, we determine key by what
accidentals are used, not necessarily by the first or final note of the excerpt.
In this excerpt, the only accidental used is b-flat. Just as with our major scales
that we did in Lesson 8, we can place a key signature at the beginning of this
excerpt of one flat, the b-flat:

Note that in written music, the key signature appears before the time signature.
An easy way to remember this is to remember that the letter 'k' ("key") comes
before the letter 't' ("time signature"). You know from Lesson 12 that each key
signature has two possibilities: a major key and a minor key*. For example, you
will remember from that lesson that a key signature of one flat gives us F-major
or D-minor. So how do we know which key this excerpt is in?

The note that most strongly defines the key we are in is the leading tone. The
leading tone points to the tonic note. You learned this in the previous lesson
when you learned why dominant chords must be major: so that there is a
leading tone to the tonic. So in order for an excerpt to be in a certain key, there
must exist a leading tone to the key. If this excerpt were in F-major, we would
want to see the note 'E', particularly followed closely by an 'F', because that
would indicate a leading tone followed by the tonic. Let's look at the excerpt and
see if we have 'E' and 'F' in reasonably close proximity:

Yes, there are two instances in this excerpt where 'E' is followed by 'F'. But
before we assume we are in F-major, we have to check out the possibility of this

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excerpt being in D-minor. The notes 'E' and 'F' also exist in D-minor, so just
because we see them does not mean that we are certainly in F-major. We need
to now check for the existence of a leading tone in D-minor. What is the leading
tone in a D-minor scale? Answer: 'C#'. A quick check of the excerpt tells us that
there are no C#'s. In order for this excerpt to be in D-minor, we need a C#
leading tone somewhere. We don't have it - we have C-natural. So this excerpt is
most certainly in F-major. In fact, it would make this process shorter to check the
minor key possibility first, because we would have been able to determine
right away that there was no leading tone to D-minor present.

Now that was a rather wordy paragraph, and I'd recommend that you reread it
carefully before going on.

[NOTE: Why don't we say that the excerpt is possibly in D-minor, using the
natural minor scale? The natural minor would not require the raised leading
tone. The reason is that the natural minor scale is actually a mode, (the Aeolian
Mode). It is indeed possible for an excerpt to be in the Aeolian Mode, but the
melody would have to center on 'D', and definitely end on 'D'. I've written more
on this point at the bottom of this page which I'd recommend you read. For now it
is best to accept that even though we teach natural minor, the excerpts you see
in this lesson will require the raised leading tone in order to be said to be in a
minor key.]

Let's see what key this excerpt is in:

First step: make a list of the accidentals used: G# and F#. Can we put those in
an order to make a key signature? Well, a key signature with two sharps would
be F# and C#. So these two accidentals don't make a key signature right away.
What if we consider that the F# is the key signature, and the G# is some other
accidental. A key signature with one sharp would be either G-major (and the G#
doesn't make any immediate sense) or E-minor (again the G# doesn't make any
sense).

So that doesn't seem to be a possibility. We have one more option to consider.


Any time you see two accidentals one tone away from each other (F# and G#), it
could be a melodic minor situation. In melodic minor, the 6th and 7th tones are
raised. (The 6th and 7th tones are one tone away from each other.) If the F# and
G# were the raised 6th and 7th tones, that would mean that the key we would be
considering would be A-minor. You know that A-minor has no sharps or flats.

If F# and G# have been raised from their normally natural state, that would
mean that this excerpt is in a key that has no sharps or flats. We now know that

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this excerpt is in A-minor, because of the presence of the leading tone to A-minor
(G#).

Here's another example:

In this excerpt we have been given a key signature of two sharps. So we know
that it is either in D-major or B-minor. Let's check first for the presence of a
leading tone in the minor- an A#. Yes we have one. But you may be surprised
when I tell you that even though we have an A#, the key is probably D-major!
Here is the reason why: The A# in this case is acting as a passing tone between
A and B. It doesn't have a leading note function- it's simply ornamenting the line.
And the proof is that in the next bar we see an A-natural. If the writer of this
excerpt were to give us something other than an A-natural in the last bar, it would
sound to our ears like B-minor. But the A-natural cancels out the leading tone to
B-minor. The last bar emphasizes D-major through the use of the C# leading
tone.

Here are some musical excerpts. The key for each one has been given. Look
each one over, and be certain that you understand the reasons for each key
designation:

1) A-major:

2) C-minor:

3) F-minor:

4) E-major:

5) B-flat major:

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Modes:

* If your browser has a MIDI plugin, click on the play arrow to listen to a
harmonization of these next three melodies. They are almost identical. The first
one is in C-major, and the second melody is simply a transposition of the melody
into the minor. Places where tonic chords would work are labeled with a "T", and
places where dominant chords would work are labeled with a "D". You can hear
how the raised leading tone in the second one (the b-naturals) cause the tonic
chords to be strongly expected. The third excerpt is that same minor key melody,
but without the raised leading tones. You can hear that the dominant chords lack
the strong drive to move toward the tonic. In fact, this melody cannot be said to
truly be in C-minor, as it is lacking the dominant chord. Without any leading tones
we could say that the third melody is in E-flat major. However, later lessons will
deal with modes, and you will learn that we have another way of classifying
melodies that seem to center around a certain note ('C', for example,) but are not
based on traditional tonic-dominant harmony. The third excerpt will actually be
seen to be in either C-Aeolian or C-Dorian. But that's a topic for another lesson!

1) Key: C-major:

2) Key: C-minor (with raised leading tones):

3) No raised leading tones:

We have more to learn first before delving into the world of modal melodies. For
now, let us assume that on the quiz for this lesson, melodies will either be major
or minor.

Lesson 17: Chords and Roman


Numerals
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We studied all about tonic and dominant triads in Lesson 15. You learned that a
triad is a three-note chord in which there exists a root, 3rd and 5th. Here is a 'C'
triad, made up of three notes, a 'C', 'E' and 'G':

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In this triad, the bottom note is the root (1), the middle note is the 3rd, and the top
note is the 5th. We know this to be true because if we start on the bottom note
and start counting upward from 1, the 'E' in the middle would be '3', and the 'G'
on the top would be '5'.

If we look at the structure of this triad, we would see that it is a major triad. Here
is why: In each triad there are two intervals to consider:

1- The outer interval


2- The bottom interval

The outer interval is a 5th: if you start on 'C' and count upward until you hit the
'G', you will have counted to 5. What kind of 5th is it? Ask yourself that question,
"Is the upper note in the major scale of the bottom note? (Is there a 'G' in a 'C-
major' scale?) The answer is yes, so this is a perfect 5th. Now for the bottom
interval. This interval is a 3rd. If you start on 'C' and count upward until you hit the
'E', you will have counted to 3. What kind of 3rd is it? ("Is there an 'E' in a 'C-
major' scale? The answer is yes) This is a major 3rd. So now we have
determined that this triad is comprised of a major third on the bottom, with the
outer interval being a perfect fifth. This makes it a major triad:

Hear the perfect 5th: Hear the major 3rd: Hear them together:

Although we dealt only with tonic and dominant triads in Lesson 15, we can
actually build triads on any note of a scale. Here is a C-major scale:

We can build triads on every one of these notes, using the notes of the scale as
the root of each triad. Here's what it looks like:

Now we need to examine each triad to determine whether they are major, minor,
or something else. We already know that the first triad, built on 'C', is major.
That's why there is a '+' underneath it.

Let's take a look at the second triad, the one built on 'D': Again, the outer
interval is a 5th, and it is a Perfect 5th (Yes, there is an 'A' in a D-major scale).
The bottom interval is a 3rd, but it is a minor 3rd (No, there is no 'F' in a D-major
scale. There is an 'F#', and so this interval is actually a minor 3rd.) This triad is a

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minor triad. Minor triads have a minor 3rd on the bottom, with an outer
interval of a Perfect 5th:

If you keep going through the major scale and examining the triads that are built
on each scale tone, you will see that except for the triad built on the 7th note (the
'B' in a C-major scale), they are all either major or minor triads. Here's what we
come up with (Major chords are indicated with a '+' sign, minor chords with a '-'
sign):

Now for that triad built on the 7th note. It has an outer interval of a 5th, but you
can see that it is actually a diminished 5th (No there is no 'F' in a B-major
scale... there's an 'F#', so this 5th is diminished). The bottom interval is a 3rd,
and a quick examination will tell you that it is a minor 3rd. Any triad which
consists of an outer interval of a diminished 5th and a bottom interval of a
minor 3rd is called a diminished triad:

A diminished triad is different from a minor triad by the fact that a diminished
chord has an outer interval of a diminished 5th: the minor triad has a perfect
5th.

Here is an important table of information. Study it carefully:

When building triads on a major scale:


• I-chords are ALWAYS MAJOR
• ii-chords are ALWAYS MINOR
• iii-chords are ALWAYS MINOR
• IV-chords are ALWAYS MAJOR
• V-chords are ALWAYS MAJOR
• vi-chords are ALWAYS MINOR

• vii-chords are ALWAYS DIMINISHED

IDENTIFYING CHORDS BY USING ROMAN NUMERALS

We can use Roman Numerals to describe all of these triads. We did this in
Lesson 15 when dealing with tonic and dominant chords. For example, in the
triads shown above, the note 'C' is the first note of the C-major scale. Therefore,

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we assign the number '1' to that chord. When describing chords using numbers,
it is traditional to use Roman Numerals. It is also traditional to use upper-case
letters for major and augmented chords, and lower-case letters for minor and
diminished chords. Here are the triads of a C-major scale, properly numbered:

Now you can see that we can identify triads by their Roman Numeral. In C-major,
the C-major chord is a I-chord. The D-minor chord is a ii-chord. The E-minor
chord is a iii-chord, etc. Which chord is the vi-chord? Answer: the A-minor chord.
This process works, of course, in any key. The vi-chord in F-major is a d-minor
chord. The iii-chord in D-flat major is an F-minor chord, etc.

IDENTIFYING CHORDS BY USING TECHNICAL NAMES

As you know, each scale degree, whether we are dealing with major or minor,
has a technical name associated with it. We can apply these technical names to
the triads that are built on them. For example, the first note of a scale is the tonic
note. If we build a triad on the tonic note, it is called a tonic triad. You already
know that from Lesson 15. The supertonic note is the second degree of the
scale. The triad built on the supertonic note can be called the supertonic triad,
and so on. Here is the subdominant triad of G-flat major: The submediant
triad of C-major: The supertonic triad of F-major: Simple, isn't it?!

There is one other type of triad, which will show up in the building of triads on the
notes of harmonic minor scales. It is the augmented triad. An augmented triad
consists of an augmented 5th as an outer interval, and a major 3rd as a
bottom interval. Here is one:

So here are the four types of triads, in a nutshell:

WHAT IT
TYPE OF
DESCRIPTION: SOUNDS
TRIAD:
LIKE:
Outside interval is a Perfect 5th;
MAJOR:
bottom interval is a Major 3rd
Outside interval is Outside interval is a Perfect 5th;
a Diminished 5th; bottom interval is a Minor 3rd
bottom interval is

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a Minor
3rdMINOR:
PROGRESSIONPerfect Outside interval is an Augmented 5th;
Authentic Cadence bottom interval is a Major 3rd.
(PAC)V-I, where both
chords are in root
position, and the
soprano ends on the
tonic.Look at the last
example. In the second
bar, the triplets occupy
the same space that two
eighth notes would
normally occupy. Now
look at the excerpt
below. It shows a triplet,
but it's made up of
quarter notes, not
eighth notes:You know
that simple time
signatures tell us the
number of beats in each
bar. For example, in
the '2' tells us that there
are two beats in each
bar, and the '4' tells us
that the beat unit is the
quarter note. You also
know that each beat can
subdivide into two
smaller units. Here's a
sample of music in :
AUGMENTED:DIMINI
SHED:

If you apply the rule


above (triplets
occupy the same
space that two
notes of that value
would normally
occupy), you would
conclude correctly
that the quarter note
triplet is two beats
long. That's because
two quarter notes
equal two beats.

What about other

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"odd" groupings"?
Odd groupings (not
triplets) are called
"tuplets". Look at the
first example below.
What makes it "odd"
(a tuplet) is that
there are five
sixteenths where
you'd expect to find
four. Now look at the
next example, in .
What makes the pair
of eighths a tuplet is
that there are two
notes where you'd
expect to find three.
Easy! Just
remember to write
the number above
the grouping, as
shown. (It doesn't
matter if you use a
bracket or a slur -
both are
acceptable.)

Ex.1

Ex.2

Filling In the
Missing Tuplet

Completing a bar
with a tuplet figure
simply requires
following a short
series of steps.
Consider the
following example:

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Here are the steps


we go through to
figure out the basic
time value of the six
notes we need:

1- What is the
duration of the
missing beat?
(Answer in this
case: one quarter
note)
2- The required
tuplet is a group of
six (look at the
example). What
standard grouping of
notes is larger than
six in common time
( )? Seven? No.
Eight? Yes! What
group of eight fits?
Thirty-second notes,
of course.
3- Cut the answer
(thirty-second notes)
in half: sixteenths.
That's the value of
your tuplet! Here it
is:

We can use those


same steps to
figuring out tuplets
in compound time,
by eliminating the
final step. Look at
this example:

Let's go through the


steps: What is the
duration of the

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missing tuplet? It is
one dotted quarter-
note long. What
standard grouping of
notes is larger? 3
eighths. So the
tuplet will be made
up of 2 eighths. (We
don't do step 3:
that's just for simple
time)

The truth of the


matter is that
publishers of music
will ultimately put
any time value they
wish, and the
discrepancies
abound for
compound time!
Their reasoning
would be: Anyone
can tell that the
empty spot is one
dotted quarter (in
the case of the
sample above), so
just play the two
notes evenly across
the beat - it doesn't
really matter what
kind they are.
Sometimes you'll
see, for example, a
'9'-figure, using
sixteenths, and then
you'll see the same
figure in another
score using thirty-
seconds.

Here are some bars


of music that use
tuplets. Study them

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carefully before
trying the quiz for
this lesson.

Lesson
20: Key
Transp
osition
In Lesson 18, we
learned how to
transpose music up
or down one octave,
sometimes into
another clef. In this
lesson, we will learn
how to transpose
music up or down
into another key.

Take a look at the


following short
excerpt:

It is in G-major. We
know this because
there is one sharp in
the key signature,
and there are no D-
sharps to indicate a
leading tone to E-
minor. (If this is not
clear, re-read
Lesson 16 (Key

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Identification)

Play the melody


above several times.
Now, try listening to
this version:

You will notice that


although it starts on
a different pitch, it
somehow sounds
"the same" as the
previous melody.
This melody has
been transposed
into a new key, F-
major. Here is what
it looks like:

There are several


ways to transpose
melodies, and it is
recommended that
you become familiar
with all of them, and
use one method to
check against the
other. The following
three methods will
assume that you
have been given the
original key, and the
key that you will be
transposing the
melody to. Let's use
these methods to
transpose our
melody from G-
major to F-major.

The first step to


using any of the
following three

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methods is to place
the clef, time
signature, and the
new key signature
on a staff, like this:

METHOD 1.
Transposing by
Scale Degree
(Technical Name)

When transposing a
melody into a new
key, the scale
degrees, or
technical names,
will remain the
same. In other
words, if the melody
begins on the tonic
in the original key, it
will begin on the
tonic of the new key.
If it ends on the
submediant in the
original key, it will
end on the
submediant of the
new key, and so on.
In the first example
above, the melody
begins on the
mediant (3rd
degree) of the
original key, G-
major. Therefore,
the new melody will
begin on the
mediant (3rd
degree) of the new
key, F-major:

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You can then go


through the entire
G-major version of
the excerpt,
determine the
technical name
(scale degree) of
each note, and write
the same degree in
the new F-major
version.

Here is another way


to do it:

METHOD 2.
Transposing by
Harmonic Interval

You know that the


original key is G-
major and the new
key is F-major. Now
determine the
interval between
those two notes:
From your
knowledge of
intervals, you know
that the 'F' is a
major 2nd lower
than the 'G'.
Therefore all the
notes in the new
melody will be a
major second lower
than the original G-
major melody:

3. Transposing by
Melodic Interval

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Take the original


melody and
determine the
intervals between
each successive
note of the melody:

Then determine the


first note of your
new, transposed
melody. Do this by
using Method 1
(Technical name).
Once you have
determined that 'A'
is your starting note,
apply the intervals of
the original melody
to the new melody,
like this:

Transposing
melodies where
the key is vague or
the melody is
atonal.

As stated before, it
is advisable to use
all three methods
throughout the
transposing
process, checking
one against the
other. This is
especially true when
dealing with
accidentals, or in
situations where the

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melody is atonal.
An atonal melody is
a melody in which
there is no tonal
centre, and the
music is not in any
particular key. Study
this rather
complicated excerpt:

You might think that


since the key
signature has no
sharps or flats, it is
therefore in C-major
or A-minor. But this
melody has many
accidentals that
cannot be explained
by either of those
keys. Therefore we
would be correct to
say that the melody
is probably atonal. If
you listen to the
excerpt, you will see
that it does not
seem to centre on
any key. So how do
we transpose it?

Obviously, if the key


of the melody is
irrelevant, we would
not likely be asked
to transpose it to a
particular key: we
would likely be
asked to transpose
it by a certain
interval. Let's
transpose it up a
major 3rd. Our first

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note will be a major


third above 'A',
which is 'C-sharp':

We can proceed in
this manner,
transposing every
note up a major
third. Don't forget to
check your progress
using the other
methods discussed
in this lesson. For
example, using
Method 3 (melodic
intervals) we know
that the second note
in this excerpt is a
minor 3rd higher
than the first note.
Therefore, in our
new transposed
melody, the first
note will be C#, and
the second note will
be 'E', and so on.

The third note in the


excerpt is E-flat. We
can transpose it
correctly by either:
Method 2
(harmonic
interval)- writing the
note that is a major
3rd higher ('G'); or
Method 3 (melodic
interval)- writing the
note that is a major
6th lower than the
previous note. Here
is the melody,
correctly transposed

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a major 3rd higher:

Lesson
20: Key
Transp
osition
In Lesson 18, we
learned how to
transpose music up
or down one octave,
sometimes into
another clef. In this
lesson, we will learn
how to transpose
music up or down
into another key.

Take a look at the


following short
excerpt:

It is in G-major. We
know this because
there is one sharp in
the key signature,
and there are no D-
sharps to indicate a
leading tone to E-
minor. (If this is not
clear, re-read
Lesson 16 (Key
Identification)

Play the melody

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above several times.


Now, try listening to
this version:

You will notice that


although it starts on
a different pitch, it
somehow sounds
"the same" as the
previous melody.
This melody has
been transposed
into a new key, F-
major. Here is what
it looks like:

There are several


ways to transpose
melodies, and it is
recommended that
you become familiar
with all of them, and
use one method to
check against the
other. The following
three methods will
assume that you
have been given the
original key, and the
key that you will be
transposing the
melody to. Let's use
these methods to
transpose our
melody from G-
major to F-major.

The first step to


using any of the
following three
methods is to place
the clef, time
signature, and the

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new key signature


on a staff, like this:

METHOD 1.
Transposing by
Scale Degree
(Technical Name)

When transposing a
melody into a new
key, the scale
degrees, or
technical names,
will remain the
same. In other
words, if the melody
begins on the tonic
in the original key, it
will begin on the
tonic of the new key.
If it ends on the
submediant in the
original key, it will
end on the
submediant of the
new key, and so on.
In the first example
above, the melody
begins on the
mediant (3rd
degree) of the
original key, G-
major. Therefore,
the new melody will
begin on the
mediant (3rd
degree) of the new
key, F-major:

You can then go

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through the entire


G-major version of
the excerpt,
determine the
technical name
(scale degree) of
each note, and write
the same degree in
the new F-major
version.

Here is another way


to do it:

METHOD 2.
Transposing by
Harmonic Interval

You know that the


original key is G-
major and the new
key is F-major. Now
determine the
interval between
those two notes:
From your
knowledge of
intervals, you know
that the 'F' is a
major 2nd lower
than the 'G'.
Therefore all the
notes in the new
melody will be a
major second lower
than the original G-
major melody:

3. Transposing by
Melodic Interval

Take the original


melody and

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determine the
intervals between
each successive
note of the melody:

Then determine the


first note of your
new, transposed
melody. Do this by
using Method 1
(Technical name).
Once you have
determined that 'A'
is your starting note,
apply the intervals of
the original melody
to the new melody,
like this:

Transposing
melodies where
the key is vague or
the melody is
atonal.

As stated before, it
is advisable to use
all three methods
throughout the
transposing
process, checking
one against the
other. This is
especially true when
dealing with
accidentals, or in
situations where the
melody is atonal.
An atonal melody is

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a melody in which
there is no tonal
centre, and the
music is not in any
particular key. Study
this rather
complicated excerpt:

You might think that


since the key
signature has no
sharps or flats, it is
therefore in C-major
or A-minor. But this
melody has many
accidentals that
cannot be explained
by either of those
keys. Therefore we
would be correct to
say that the melody
is probably atonal. If
you listen to the
excerpt, you will see
that it does not
seem to centre on
any key. So how do
we transpose it?

Obviously, if the key


of the melody is
irrelevant, we would
not likely be asked
to transpose it to a
particular key: we
would likely be
asked to transpose
it by a certain
interval. Let's
transpose it up a
major 3rd. Our first
note will be a major
third above 'A',

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which is 'C-sharp':
We can proceed in
this manner,
transposing every
note up a major
third. Don't forget to
check your progress
using the other
methods discussed
in this lesson. For
example, using
Method 3 (melodic
intervals) we know
that the second note
in this excerpt is a
minor 3rd higher
than the first note.
Therefore, in our
new transposed
melody, the first
note will be C#, and
the second note will
be 'E', and so on.

The third note in the


excerpt is E-flat. We
can transpose it
correctly by either:
Method 2
(harmonic
interval)- writing the
note that is a major
3rd higher ('G'); or
Method 3 (melodic
interval)- writing the
note that is a major
6th lower than the
previous note. Here
is the melody,
correctly transposed
a major 3rd higher:

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Lesson
21:
Triad
Inversi
ons
Let's review a little
of what we learned
about triads in some
previous lessons. In
Lesson 15 you
learned that a triad
is a three-note chord
in which there is a
root, a third and a
fifth. In Lesson 17
you learned about
four different kinds
of triads: major,
minor, augmented
and diminished. You
should at this point
have a clear
understanding of the
structure of triads. If
you don't, go back
and reread those
lessons before
continuing with this
lesson.

In all of the triads


you have seen so
far, the root has
been on the bottom,
the third in the
middle, and the fifth
on top, like this one:

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This triad happens


to be a C-major
triad. We say that
the triad is in ROOT
POSITION, because
the root is on the
bottom. If we are in
C-major, we would
give this triad a
Roman numeral 'I'.
That's because 'C' is
the first note in a C-
major scale.
Building a triad on
the first note of a
scale gives us a I-
chord. A I-chord in
C-major has a 'C',
'E' and 'G.

We can show
exactly how the
notes are ordered in
a triad by indicating
the intervals above
the bass (bottom)
note. For example,
in the triad above,
and indeed with all
triads in root
position, there is a
note three notes
above the bass, and
a note five notes
above the bass.
Therefore, to be
technically precise,
we could call this
triad:

The '5' indicates the

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'G' which is the


interval of a 5th
above the bottom
note. The '3'
indicates the 'E'
which is the interval
of a 3rd above the
bottom note.
However, for root
position chords,the
common practice is
to just use the
Roman numeral. If
you see a chord with
a Roman numeral
and no small
"Arabic" numbers
after it, it is a root
position chord. So
the chord above
could be
represented by just
using the Roman
numeral:

Here are triads built


on the notes of a C-
major scale, all in
root position. We
know they are root
position because: 1)
there are no small
Arabic numbers
after the Roman
numeral; and 2) the
chord is made up of
a root, 3rd and 5th
with the root on the
bottom:

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Remember, we use
upper-case Roman
numerals to indicate
major and
augmented triads,
and lower-case
letters to indicate
minor and
diminished.

It is possible to
"reposition" the
chords above so
that the root is no
longer on the
bottom. For
example, you could
write each one of
the chords above in
such a way that the
3rd of each chord is
on the bottom:

The Roman numeral


will stay the same
for each chord,
because the
components of each
chord (1,3,5) are still
present. It's just that
now they are in a
different order. So
how do we indicate
this kind of triad,
where the same
notes exist as for
root position chords
(1-3-5), but that the
3rd is on the
bottom? If you count
upward from the

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bottom note, you will


discover that the
other notes are a
3rd and a 6th above
it:

Such chords are


called 1st inversion
chords. It is
traditional with 1st
inversion chords to
drop the little '3'
after the Roman
numeral, and just
use the '6'. So the
triads shown above
would be labeled
like this:

It is also possible to
rearrange root
position triads so
that the 5th is on the
bottom:

We use the same


Roman numerals as
before, to label
these triads. The
first triad is made up
of a C, E and G, and
so it gets a Roman
numeral 'I', and so
on. If you count
upward from the
bottom note, you will
find that the other
notes are a 4th and

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a 6th above it:

Such chords are


called 2nd
inversion chords.
All of the triads of a
C-major scale would
be labeled like this:

Let's sum up what


we've learned in this
lesson so far:

• A Root
position
triad is a
triad in which
the root is on
the bottom. It
is labeled
with a Roman
numeral, with
no Arabic
numbers after
it. Ex:
• A 1st
inversion
triad is a
triad in which
the 3rd is on
the bottom. It
is labeled
with a Roman
numeral, and
a small '6'
after it. Ex:

• A 2nd
inversion
triad is a

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triad in which
the 5th is on
the bottom. It
is labeled
with a Roman
numeral, and
a small '6'
and '4' after
it. Ex:


Here are
some triads
properly
analyzed.
Study each
one, and be
certain that
you
understand
how each
one has been
analyzed
before trying
the quiz:

• Notice that in
the final
example the
V-chord has
been made
major by
raising the
3rd. All
dominant
chords must
be major.


Two more
points about
inversions: All
of the
examples
above have
used close

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spacing.
That means
that all of the
tones are
within an
octave of
each other.
But it is
possible to
spread out
the notes into
different
octaves
(open
spacing).
Also, you will
be required to
analyze triads
in which
some of the
tones appear
more than
once in the
triad.Look at
these triads-
they are all
2nd inversion
triads:

• They are all I-
chords
because they
all have a C,
E and G.
They are all
6-4 chords
(2nd
inversion)
because they
all have the
5th (g) as
their lowest
note. Easy!

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• Lesso
n 22:
Caden
ces
A cadence is a
resting of a musical
phrase. Phrases
may rest briefly,
such as in the
middle of a melody,
or more
permanently, such
as at the end of a
melody. Our task in
this lesson will be to
study these
cadences, and to be
able to identify and
write them.

Take a look at this


melody, which has
been harmonized
with some basic
chords:

If you play the


melody, you can
hear that there is a
brief pause in bar 4
(the first arrow), and
a more permanent-
sounding conclusion
in bar 8 (the 2nd
arrow). The pause in
bar 4 is not the sort
of pause that we
would want to end
the melody on; we

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can hear that it


wants to continue.
The end of the
melody has a more
"final" sound. Those
two spots in the
music are called
cadences.

The two types of


cadences
demonstrated by the
example above are
the half cadence
(the one in bar 4),
and the authentic
cadence (the one at
the end). Let's look
at authentic
cadences first.

AUTHENTIC
CADENCE

An authentic
cadence requires
two things:

1) The resting of a
musical phrase, and
2) a chord
progression of V-I.

The melody above


ends on a V-I chord
progression, and it
also rests (after all,
it IS the end of the
melody!) So it is an
authentic cadence.
It is similar to a
period in written
languages. There

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are two types of


authentic cadences:

PERFECT Authentic
Cadence:
A Perfect Authentic
Cadence (PAC)
requires that the V-
chord and the I-
chord are both root-
position chords, with
the topmost voice
(soprano) ending on
the tonic note. Here
are some PAC's:

Notice that the V-


chords in the minor
keys have been
altered to be major.
Notice also that the
soprano voice
moves to finish on
the tonic, and the
bass voice moves
either up a 4th, or
down a 5th. That's
because PACs must
feature root position
chords- NO
INVERSIONS
ALLOWED!

IMPERFECT
Authentic Cadence:
An Imperfect
Authentic Cadence
(IAC) is a V-I
progression, but
allows for
inversions, or
permits the soprano
voice to finish on a

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note other than the


tonic. Here are
some IACs. Try to
figure out what
makes them IAC,
and not PAC:

In the F-major
cadence, the fact
that the first chord is
an inversion (V6)
makes it IAC. In the
A-major cadence,
the soprano ends on
the mediant, not the
tonic. In the Bb-
major cadence, the
V-chord is an
inversion. In the last
example, the
soprano voice ends
on the 5th of the
chord, not the tonic.

HALF
CADENCE

A half cadence (HC)


requires two things:

1) The resting of a
musical phrase, and
2) A chord
progression that
ends on a V-chord.

A half cadence is
similar to a comma
or semicolon in
written languages.
In the melody at the

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beginning of this
lesson the half
cadence occurs in
bar 4. Play it again
and notice that,
although it rests, it
fneeds to go on; it
needs something
more.

Here's a little ditty


that features a half
cadence in the
middle and a perfect
authentic cadence
at the end:

Much of the time, a


half cadence
features the
progression I-V, but
it can be "anything" -
V. Here are some
half cadences:

PLAGAL
CADENCE

A plagal cadence
(PC) is a
progression that
ends IV-I. It is often
referred to as the
"Amen" cadence,
because it sounds
like the "amen" that
is sung at the end of
many hymns. Here
is a progression that
features a plagal

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cadence at the end:

NOTE: Here is an
interesting point you
may want to ponder.
In the example
above, the
progression V-I that
you can see at the
end of bar 1 into bar
2 can be thought of
as the actual
cadence, and the
IV-I at the end as
merely a "tag", or
phrase extension,
intended only to
stretch out the
ending a little
longer. What do
you think?

Here are some


plagal cadences:

SUMMARY

Here is a table with


the various
cadences:

TYPE OF
CADENCE

Notice that we've


placed the quarter
notes across the
top, and eighth

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notes along the


bottom, to show
where the beats and
subdivided beats
are.

In the example
above, the first note
of the bar is a
quarter note. Let's
change the melody,
so that the first beat
of the bar is divided
into two even eighth
notes, as shown
here:

We can divide that


beat into four even
parts easily by using
four sixteenth notes
(The pitches used in
these examples are
unimportant; the
focus of this lesson
is on the rhythms.) :

So what do we do if
we want to divide
the beat into three
even parts? Do we
have a note value
that accomplishes
this?

Yes we do. It's


called a triplet, and
it looks like this:

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The first three notes


of the bar are
grouped together,
using a slur or
bracket, with a
number '3'. The '3'
indicates that the
three notes are to
be spread evenly
across the beat so
that the three notes
are equal in length.
Here is another
example of music
that uses a triplet:

In music where the


quarter note gets
the beat (as in , or
common time,)
triplets that take up
one beat are called
eighth note
triplets.. They are
written to occupy the
space that two
eighth notes would
occupy. That's the
important rule to
remember about
triplets:

Triplets occupy the


same space that
two notes of that
value would
normally occupy.

Here are the triads


built on a major
scale, with their
technical names
above, and the

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Roman Numerals
below:

(In one school of


thought it is
customary to place
a small 'o' after the
'vii' to indicate that
the triad is
'diminished'.
Similarly, some
musicians place a
"+" after an
augmented triad.
This course will not
require any such
indication. You will
be required,
however, to indicate
the quality of a triad
with such symbols
as an exercise, as
a way of indicating
that you understand
the structure and
quality of a triad.)

Just like with the


major scale, you can
build triads on every
note of the minor
scale. This is what it
would look like,
building triads on an
A-minor scale
(harmonic form):

Armed with your


knowledge of triads,
and how to
determine quality

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(major minor,
augmented
diminished), place
the Roman Numeral
underneath each
triad shown above.
Then indicate the
quality of each triad
by placing a "+" for
major, "-" for minor,
"o" for diminished,
or "X" for
augmented
underneath each
Roman Numeral.

The quiz for this


lesson requires you
to be able to do the
following:

• Define the
following:
major triad,
minor triad,
augmented
triad,
diminished
triad.
• Determine
the quality of
an interval by
examining
the outer
interval and
the lower
interval.
• Assign a
Roman
Numeral to a
triad.

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• Lesso
n
18:Oc
tave
Trans
positi
on
To transpose music
means to change
the pitch of each
note without
changing the
relationships
between the notes.
This usually means
changing the key.
However, in this
lesson, we will study
transposition by
one octave.
Transposing a
melody up or down
by one octave will
not change the key.
(Key transposition
will be studied in a
later lesson.) Look
at the following
melody:

The first note of this


melody is 'F'. If we
count upward eight
notes (one octave),
we reach 'F' again.

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Because you
studied Lesson 16
(Key
Identification), you
know that this
excerpt is in F-
major. When
transposing a
melody up one
octave, the key
stays the same (in
this example, F-
major).

All of the note


names stay the
same, but they are
now an octave
higher. Therefore,
all of the pitch
relationships stay
the same: the
highest note in this
melody is 'G' (the
supertonic note); the
lowest note is 'C'
(the dominant note),
etc.

Here is the same


melody transposed
down one octave:

As you can see, it


doesn't fit on the
treble clef too well: it
is now too low. The
performer would be
required to read
several leger lines.

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Although this is
allowable, it is better
to change to the
bass clef:

Now it fits on the


staff better. It's at
the same starting
pitch as the previous
example:

When asked to
transpose music up
or down by one
octave, there are
some things you will
want to keep in
mind:

• Make sure to
check the
stem
direction:
unbeamed
notes above
the middle
line have
stems down,
unbeamed
notes below
the middle
line have
stems up. For
beamed
notes, find
the note in
the beamed
group that is
the furthest
away from
the middle

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line; the
stems should
go in the
direction
appropriate
for that note.
• If you know
the
instrument
that the
transposed
melody will
be played on,
make certain
to use the
proper clef,
and ensure
that the notes
are within the
range of that
instrument.
(This is
beyond the
scope of
music theory,
but it is an
issue for
music
composers
and
arrangers.)

• Here are
some
melodies and
their octave
transpositions
. Study them
carefully:
• i) G-minor,
treble clef.
Transpos
ed up one
octave:

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• ii) A-major,
treble
clef. Tran
sposed
down one
octave:


• iii) D-major,
bass
clef:
Transposed
up one
octave into
the treble
clef:


• iv) B-flat
major, treble
clef:
Transposed
down into
the bass
clef:

• Lesso
n 19:
Triplet
s, and
Other
"Tuple
ts"
You will need a solid
grounding in time
signatures to do this

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lesson. You may


want to re-read
Lesson 13.

SPECIAL NOTE:

Figuring out how to


write triplets and
other "tuplets" (odd
groupings of notes)
can be an exercise
in futility! Beyond
triplets, there does
not seem to be a
hard and fast
agreement from
editor to editor on
how tuplets should
look in any given
situation:

From The Concise


Oxford Dictionary
of Music, 3rd ed.
(Michael
Kennedy), p.322:

"Various other
combinations are
possible, and it is
hardly possible to
list them or to lay
down rules. When
an irregular
combination
occurs the
performer should
observe the other
notes of the
measure, and he
will quickly realize
into what fraction
of the measure the

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irregular grouping
is to be fitted."

That being the case,


this lesson is
designed to give the
music student a set
of guidelines for
writing tuplets that
will work in most
situations. Take it all
with a grain of salt,
and after you do this
lesson, go have a
nice long, hot bath!
Any chord to V-I, where one
V (but of the chords
commonly I- is in inversion,
V)Plagal or the soprano
Cadence does not end
(PC)IV-I on the tonic.
Imperfect
Authentic
Cadence (IAC)

Occas
iona
lly, a
V-
chor
d
will
cad
enc

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e on
som
ethi
ng
othe
r
than
a I-
chor
d. In
suc
h
case
s,
the
resu
lting
cad
enc
e is
kno
wn

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as a
dece
ptive
, or
inter
rupt
ed
cad
enc
e.
Mos
t
dec
epti
ve
cad
enc
es
follo
w
the
prog

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ress
ion
V-vi,
sinc
e vi
wor
ks
as a
relat
ively
gLe
sso
n
23-
Mod
es
A mode is a
type of scale.
You've
already
learned to
write major
and minor
scales in
previous
lessons.
Music based
on major and

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minor scales
came into
common
usage in the
early 1600s,
and of course
we have been
using them
ever since.
Before the
1600s,
composers
wrote in what
were called
modes.
There was a
resurgence of
interest in
modes toward
the end of the
19th century,
with
composers
like Debussy.
Modal
melodies can
be very
beautiful, and
their study is
certainly
worthwhile!
Such study of
modes can
get quite in-
depth, and is
a fascinating
field.
However, for
our purposes
here as a
rudimentary
music theory
course, we
shall only
delve into

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their basic
construction
so that we
can identify
and write
them.

The first and


perhaps most
important
thing to
remember
about modes
is: A mode is
distinguished
by the pattern
of tones and
semitones,
not by the
actual pitches
used.

Take a look at
this C-major
scale, starting
on a middle C
and
proceeding
upward for
one octave:

The tones
and
semitones
have been
indicated, and
you can tell
by that tone-
semitone
pattern that
this is indeed
a C-major

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scale.

What if you
were to take
this same C-
major scale,
but instead of
starting on a
'C', started on
a 'D' and
proceeded
upward for
one octave. It
would look
like this:

It still has the


pattern of
tones and
semitones
that belong to
C-major; it's
just that the
scale now
starts and
ends on a 'D'
instead of a
'C'. We call
this scale the
dorian mode.
We say that
the note 'D' is
the key note,
or final, of the
mode. A
scale that
runs from
what appears
to be the
second
degree
(supertonic)
up to the

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second
degree an
octave higher
is said to be
in the dorian
mode.

We can start
a scale on all
the different
notes of our
C-major scale
above. For
example, if
we write a
scale from the
mediant to
the mediant,
we get the
phrygian
mode:

(The tone-
semitone
pattern is still
that of the C-
major scale.)

Subdominan
t to
subdominant
gives us the
lydian mode:

Dominant to
dominant
produces the
mixolydian
mode:

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Submediant
to submediant
produces the
aeolian
mode:

And leading
tone to
leading tone
makes the
locrian
mode:

Incidentally,
when you
write a major
scale from the
tonic note up
to the tonic
note, you are
also forming a
mode, called
the ionian
mode! So
something in
C-major could
technically be
said to be in
C-ionian,
though we
more often
than not
simply call it
'C-major'.

The examples
above are all
modes based
on a key

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signature of
no sharps, no
flats. These
are all
transposable
into any key
signature:

What mode is
this? We see
a key
signature of
A-major
(three sharps)
where the
scale runs
from the
mediant note
to the
mediant note
one octave
higher. That
means it is
the phrygian
mode.
Simple!

You
remember in
Lesson 16
that we
determined
keys by
identifying the
key signature.
Now we need
to expand
that idea a
little. Though
key signature
helps to
determine
key, we need
to examine
the melody

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closely and
see its
construction
and direction.
The following
excerpt, on
first glance,
looks like it
could be G-
major,
because
there is a key
signature of
one sharp,
and there are
no leading
tones (D#) to
make E-minor
(the relative
minor) a
possibility:

But, in fact,
this is in the
aeolian
mode. Here
is the
procedure to
arrive at that
determination
:

1- One sharp
in the key
signature
makes it
either:

• G-
major
• E-
minor
• One of

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the
seven
modes
• 2- It
can't
be E-
minor,
becaus
e that
would
require
the
presen
ce of
D# to
create
the
leading
tone
that's
necess
ary to
empha
size E
as a
tonic.
• 3- It
could
be G-
major,
but
look at
the
melodi
c
shape:
there is
much
that
points
to 'E'
as a
signific
ant
note,
rather

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than
'G'.
The
openin
g
interval
of 'E' to
'B'
(perfec
t 5th)
solidifi
es 'E'
as an
import
ant
note.
The
first
three
notes
of bar
3 are
memb
ers of
a triad
built on
E. The
shape
of the
melody
at the
end
"pulls
the
ear"
toward
'E', and
indeed
'E' is
the
final
note.
So
even
though
we

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know it
cannot
be E-
minor,
there is
much
eviden
ce that
'E' is
some
sort of
"tonic".
It is in
such
cases
that we
need
to
examin
e the
possibi
lity of
the use
of a
mode.
'E' is
the
sixth
note of
the G-
major
scale,
and
the
mode
based
on the
sixth
note is
the
aeolian
mode.
Theref
ore,
this
excerpt

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is in E-
aeolian
.


Exami
ne the
followi
ng
excerpt
s. They
have
been
analyz
ed
accordi
ng to
mode.
Be
certain
that
you
unders
tand
the
reason
s for
each
mode
choice
before
trying
the
quiz for
this
lesson:




• Explan
ations:
The
first
excerpt
is in E-

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flat
Lydian.
This is
becaus
e the
key
signatu
re is
that of
B-flat
major,
but the
note
'E-flat'
seems
to be
very
import
ant:

• It starts
and
ends
on E-
flat.
• Each
beat
(except
for the
first
beat of
the last
bar)
starts
with a
note
from
an E-
flat
triad.
• E-flat
is the
4th
note of
the B-
flat

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scale;
therefo
re, this
is in
the
Lydian
mode,
which
is the
mode
based
on the
4th
note of
a
major
scale.
• Each
of the
other
exampl
es are
in their
respect
ive
modes
for
similar
reason
s.
• As
stated
before,
this
lesson
is
simply
a
rudime
ntary
introdu
ction to
modes.
The
questio
n of

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whethe
r an
excerpt
is
major,
minor
or
modal
can be
very
interest
ing and
compli
cated,
but in
this
lesson
we are
focusin
g on
modes
in their
"purest
" state.

• Le
ss
on
24-
Ot
her
Cle
fs
A clef is a
symbol
placed at the
beginning of a
musical staff

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that indicates
the pitch of
the notes on
that staff. The
two most
common clefs
are the treble
clef: and
bass clef: .
The treble
clef is also
called the G-
clef, because
it originated
hundreds of
years ago as
a stylized
letter 'G'. The
letter 'G'
evolved into
the scroll-like
sign that we
know as the
treble clef.
The bass
clef's other
name is the
F-clef,
because it
started out as
a letter 'F'
sitting on a
staff,
eventually
modifying into
today's bass
clef.

There is
another clef,
called a C-
clef. It looks
like this:

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The C-clef is
written so that
it is centered
on a line.
Wherever
the C-clef is
centered,
that line is
considered
to be the
note 'Middle
C'.
Depending on
the line upon
which it is
placed, this
clef gets a
different
name:

ALTO
CLEF:
In this case,
the clef has
been
centered on
the middle
line. So here
is Middle C,
written in this
clef:

The alto clef


is used by
violas in an
orchestra.
Here is a C-
major scale,
in the treble
clef:

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Here is that
same scale,
written in the
alto clef:

As with the
treble and
bass clefs,
you can use
leger lines to
extend the
staff upward
and/or
downward.

TENOR
CLEF:
As you can
see, the clef
has been
placed so that
it is centered
on the 4th
line. That
means the
4th line is
middle C.
Here is the C-
major scale
above, written
in the tenor
clef:

There is
another tenor
clef,
commonly
called the

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"vocal tenor
clef": You
only usually
see this clef
in vocal
music. Music
written in the
vocal tenor
clef should be
read as if it is
in treble clef,
then sung
one octave
lower. (Read
more about
octave
transposition
in Lesson
18.) Used by
tenor voice
(hence the
name!) Here
is the same
C-major
scale, written
in the vocal
tenor clef:

NEUTRA
L CLEF:
All musical
staves require
a clef of some
sort. Even
unpitched
percussion
music uses a
clef. It's called
a neutral
clef, and
looks like

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this: With
the neutral
clef, no
pitches are
indicated,
because this
clef is used
by
instruments
that produce
no specific
pitch: snare
drum, bass
drum, tom
toms, etc.
The staff also
looks a little
unusual: it is
obviously a
staff for two
different
percussion
instruments,
one with a
high sound,
the other with
a low sound.
This 2-line
staff, with the
neutral clef at
the beginning
would be
ideal for two
different sizes
of tom toms.
No specific
pitches are
indicated
when the
neutral clef is
used, so you
would never
be asked to
transpose
something

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from a neutral
clef into
another clef!

KEY
SIGNATURE
S IN THE
ALTO,
TENOR AND
VOCAL
TENOR
CLEFS
Key
signatures will
be placed
differently on
each of these
clefs. Here is
each clef with
a key
signature of

seven sharps
and seven
flats correctly
placed.

Lesso
n
25-

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Scor
e
For
mat
s
A musical
score is a
copy of a
piece of
music that
shows all of
the
instrumental
parts
together,
giving a view
of the entire
piece.
Conductors
often work
from scores,
because they
are able to
see
everyone's
part at the
same time.
There are
different kinds
of score that
are quite
common. For
example, a
close score,
also called
short score
or
condensed
score, is a

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score that has


two or more
instrumental
or vocal parts
on each staff.
(The three
names close,
short, and
condensed
are
synonymous,
and can be
used
interchangea
bly.) The two-
stave format
is a
commonly
used short
score type,
and looks
very much
like a piano
score.
('Stave' is the
plural form of
the word
'staff') When
using two
staves, the
top staff uses
the treble clef
and the
bottom staff
uses the bass
clef, unless
the
instruments
being written
for are all of
one or the
other clef:

Notice that
each staff of

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the short
score has
notes that
have their
stems
pointing
upward, and
notes with
stems
pointing
downward.
The stem
direction
seems to
break the rule
that notes
above the
middle line
must point
their stem
downward,
and notes
below the
middle line
must point
their stem
upward. In
two-stave
short score,
the
understandin
g is that in the
top staff,
notes with
stems upward
are to be
sung or
played by the
soprano
voice(s) (or
instruments)
and notes
with the
stems
downward are

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to be sung or
played by the
alto voice(s)
(or
instruments).

In the bottom
staff, notes
with the
stems
pointing
upward are to
be sung or
played by the
tenor voice(s)
(or
instruments)
and notes
with the
stems
downward are
to be sung or
played by the
bass voice(s)
(or
instruments).
It is much
more
common for
voices to
perform from
a score like
this rather
than
instruments.
Instrumentalis
ts prefer to
see simply
their own part
on the page.
Vocalists rely
more on
seeing their
notes in
relation to the

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other existing
parts- it
makes it a
little easier to
sing in tune.

It is possible
to have more
than two
staves in a
short or close
score. If you
are writing,
just as an
example, for
a full
orchestra, but
wish to
conserve
space, you
may choose
to use a short
score format
of, let's say,
four staves:
first staff for

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the general
tonality of the
piece quickly
using this
type of score.

The main
disadvantage
in using close
score for
orchestra is
that it
becomes
rather difficult
to narrow
down which
instrument is
playing which
notes. So if
you detect
problems in a
rehearsal
situation, it
can be a
frustrating
trying to
determine
which
instrument is
at fault. Often,
publishers will
choose to
provide both
a full score
(see below)
and a short
score with
each
orchestral or
concert band
publication.

This is very
useful,
because it

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allows the
conductor to
work from a
full score in
rehearsals,
then provide
the option of
switching to a
short score
for
performance.
The short
score usually
will require
less frequent
page turns,
because
more music
can be fit onto
one page. As
you can see,
you also have
to be a bit
"creative" with
your use of
stem
directions if
you have
three or more
parts on a
staff! And
because
several
instruments
are on one
staff, it is not
possible to
show the
proper
transposition
of a
transposing
instrument
such as
Clarinet or

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Bb-trumpet.

For fairly

straightforwar
d music, a
short score is
ideal- it
shows
everyone's
part in a
concise
format. But it
is sometimes
desirable to
show each
part on its
own staff.
Let's go back
to the excerpt
at the
beginning of
this lesson.
Since it was
intended for
four players,
a score
showing each
part on its

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own staff
would require
four staves. A
score that
shows each
part on its
own staff is
called open
score or full
score. (The
two terms
open and full
are
synonymous,
and can be
used
interchangea
bly.) There
are many
different types
of open
score,
depending on
the number
and type of
instruments
for which you
are writing.
For example,
here is the
excerpt given
above,
rewritten in
open score
for string
quartet:

You can see


that all of the
notes of the
short score
excerpt have
been given
their own
staff,
according to

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stem
direction. In
the top staff
of the short
score, the
stems up
have been
given to Violin
I, and stems
down to Violin
II. The viola
(an
instrument
shaped like a
violin, but
slightly bigger
and tuned a
perfect 5th
lower) gets
the notes that
were the
stems up
notes of the
bass staff of
the short
score. The
cello is given
the stems
down notes.
With the open
score format,
the conductor
can see each
player's part
clearly,
because each
part is on its
own staff.

If the excerpt
was intended
for voices, a
modern
vocal score,
also called

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modern
choral score
is frequently
used. Here it
is:

It looks like
the string
quartet
score,
except that
the tenor line
has been
given a
"vocal tenor
clef", a clef
that looks
like a treble
clef with an '8'
beneath it.
You will have
seen this
before, in
Lesson 24,
and it means
to sing the
notes an
octave lower
than treble
clef.

There are
many, many
types of both
close and
open scores,
and so it is
not feasible to
list them all.
This lesson is
simply
intended to
give you an

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idea of how
the various
score formats
work. The
quiz for this
lesson will
require you to
transcribe
music from
one score
format to
another. Here
are the
formats you
will be
required to
know:

SHORT
(CLOSE)
SCORE:

FULL
(OPEN)
SCORE for
String
Quartet:

FULL
(OPEN)

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SCORE for
Choir:

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Lesso
n
26-
Sec
ond
ary
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Half Cadence
(HC)

You have now seen how a ii-chord can be modified to resemble a V-chord. This
same process of making minor chords major can be done to any of the naturally-
occuring minor chords in any key, major or minor. We know that in a major key
a iii-chord is minor. If we make it major, our ears tell us that a leading tone has
been created, and we are therefore creating a secondary dominant.

Here is a iii-chord in Bb-major: As you can see, it is a minor triad. Here is that
same triad, modified so that it is now major: The note 'F' has been raised to
'F#'. Our ears hear that the purpose of this raising is to create a leading tone. If
'F#' is acting as a leading tone, to which note is it leading? 'F#' is a leading tone
to 'G'. In our key (Bb-major), a G-chord would be a vi-chord. So the D-major
chord is acting as a dominant of the vi-chord. We would label that chord: V/vi and
call it "five of six". Here are two progressions, one using a iii-chord, the other
using a V/vi in its place:

Do you hear that changing the ii-chord to a V/vi, by making it major, increases
the chords "desire" to move to the vi-chord?

There is one other naturally-occuring minor chord that we can change to a


secondary dominant: the vi-chord. By making a vi-chord major, we create a
secondary dominant to the ii-chord:

It is of course quite possible to create secondary dominants in minor keys.


Simply take any chord that naturally occurs as something other than major, make
it major, and you will have created a secondary dominant. Here is an example:

In the first example, the i-chord leads quite nicely to the iv-chord. However, by
changing it to be a major chord (raising the third), you create a secondary
dominant, a chord that even moreso wants to resolve to the iv-chord. The second
example takes the ii-chord and makes it major creating a secondary dominant
V/V.

SUMMARY

We have seen that we can take the three naturally-occuring minor chords from a
major key - the ii-chord, iii-chord, and vi-chord- and create secondary dominant
chords by simply making them major. We can do the same changes in chords

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Bahasa Muzik - ZAG

from a minor key. Our ear hears them as behaving like dominant chords because
we hear the raised third degree that wants to move to the root of the chord a 4th
higher or fifth lower, just like dominant chords do. When we change the structure
of a chord in this manner, the name of the chord must change. To call something
a ii-chord means that the root of the chord is based on the second degree of the
scale and that it is minor. By making it major, it cannot be a ii-chord anymore.
Some people are tempted to simply call it a II-chord (i.e., they use upper-case for
the number) but this is not correct. It must be renamed in the manner shown in
this lesson.

Before taking the quiz for this lesson, try the following quick exercise. Rewrite
each bar in the blank bar beside it, changing the chords shown with an arrow into
a secondary dominant triad. Give the Roman Numeral Analysis for each chord.

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