Anda di halaman 1dari 616

C H A P T E R P

Prerequisites: Fundamentals of Algebra

Section P.1 The Real Number System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

Section P.2 Operations with Real Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

Section P.3 Properties of Real Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

Mid-Chapter Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

Section P.4 Algebraic Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

Section P.5 Constructing Algebraic Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

Review Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

Chapter Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
C H A P T E R P
Prerequisites: Fundamentals of Algebra
Section P.1 The Real Number System
Solutions to Odd-Numbered Exercises

1. H 210, 2 !5, 2 23, 2 14, 0, 58, 1, !3, 4, 2p, 6J 3. H 23.5, 2 !4, 2 12, 20.3, 0, 3, !5, 3p, 25.2J
(a) Natural numbers: H1, 4, 6J (a) Natural numbers: H3J
(b) Integers: H210, 0, 1, 4, 6J (b) Integers: H 2 !4, 0, 3J
(c) Rational numbers: H 210, 2 23, 2 14, 1, 4, 6J (c) Rational numbers: H 23.5, 2 !4, 2 2, 20.3, 0, 3, 25.2J
5 1
0, 8,

(d) Irrational numbers: H 2 !5, !3, 2pJ (d) Irrational numbers: H !5, 3pJ

5. H25, 24, 23, 22, 21, 0, 1, 2, 3J 7. H1, 3, 5, 7, 9J

9. (a) The point representing the real number 3 lies between 2 and 4.

3
0 1 2 3 4

5
(b) The point representing the real number 2 lies between 2 and 3.
5
2

0 1 2 3 4

7
(c) The point representing the real number 2 2 lies between 24 and 23.
7
2

4 3 2 1 0

(d) The point representing the real number 25.2 lies between 26 and 25.

5.2
6 5 4 3 2 1 0

11. a 5 21, b 5 3 13. a 5 2 92, b 5 22


9
21 < 3 2 2 < 22

15. 2 < 5 because 2 is to the left of 5 on the number line. 17. 10 > 4 because 10 is the right of 4 on the number line.

19. 27 < 22 because 27 is to the left of 22 on the number line.

21. 25 < 22 because 25 is to the left of 22 on the number line.

25. 2 58 < 1
23. 1
3 >
1
4 because 31 is to the right of 14 on the number line. 2 because 2 58 is to the left of 12 on the number line.

72
Section P.1 The Real Number System 73

27. 2 23 > 2 10 2 10
3 because 2 3 is to the right of 2 3 on the number line.

29. 2.75 < p because 2.75 is to the left of p on the number line.

31. Distance 5 10 2 4 5 6 33. Distance 5 7 2 s212d 5 7 1 12 5 19

35. Distance 5 18 2 s232d 5 18 1 32 5 50 37. Distance 5 0 2 s28d 5 0 1 8 5 8

39. Distance 5 35 2 0 5 35 41. Distance 5 s26d 2 s29d 5 s26d 1 9 5 3

| |
43. 10 5 10 | |
45. 2225 5 225 |
47. 2 285 5 285 | | |
49. 2 16 5 216

| |
51. 2 2 34 5 2 34 | |
53. 2 3.5 5 23.5 | |
55. 2 p 5 p

| | ||
57. 26 > 2 since 6 > 2. | | |
59. 47 > 227 since 47 > 27. |

| | |
61. 2 216.8 5 2 16.8 since 216.8 5 216.8. | 63. 2 34 > 2| | | | since
4
5
3
4 > 2 5.
4

65. Opposite: 234 67. Opposite: 160 69. Opposite:


3
71. Opposite: 2 54
11
Absolute value: 34 Absolute value: 160 Absolute value:
3
Absolute value:
5
11 4

73. Opposite: 24.7 ||


75. 7 5 7 | |
77. 25 5 5
Absolute value: 4.7 7 7 −5 5
8 4 0 4 8 −6 −4 −2 0 2 4 6

| |
79. 2 35 5 35 81. Opposite of 53 is 2 53. 83. Opposite of 24.25 is 4.25.
−4.25 4.25
3 3 − 53 5
3
5 5
−6 −4 −2 0 2 4 6
1 0 1 −2 −1 0 1 2

85. Opposite of 0.7 is 20.7. 87. x < 0 89. x ≥ 0

−0.7 0.7
−2 −1 0 1 2

2
91. 2 < z ≤ 10 93. p < $225 95. True 97. False. 3 is not an integer.

|
99. False. 3 1 s22d 5 1 Þ 5 5 3 1 22 | || | |
101. The set of integers includes the natural numbers, zero, and the negative integers.

103. Yes, the nonnegative real numbers include 0.

105. Place them on the real number line. The number on the right is greater.
74 Chapter P Prerequisites: Fundamentals of Algebra

Section P.2 Operations with Real Numbers

1. 13 1 32 5 45 3. 213 1 32 5 1s32 2 13d 5 19 5. 13 1 s232d 5 2 s32 2 13d 5 219

7. 27 2 15 5 27 1 s215d 9. 213 1 s28d 5 2 s13 1 8d 5 221


5 2 s7 1 15d 5 222

11. 4 2 16 1 s28d 5 4 1 s216d 1 s28d 13. 5.8 2 6.2 1 1.1 5 5.8 1 s26.2d 1 1.1
5 2 s16 2 4d 1 s28d 5 2 s6.2 2 5.8d 1 1.1
5 212 1 s28d 5 20.4 1 1.1
5 2 s12 1 8d 5 1s1.1 2 0.4d
5 220 5 0.7

3 7 317 3 1 321 3s2d 1s5d


15. 1 5
8 8 8
17. 2 5
4 4 4
19.
3
5
1
21 2
1 2 5 2
5s2d 2s5d
10 2 1 6 5
5 5 5 5 2
8 4 2 10 10
5 625
5 5
4 10
1
5
10

5 1 5 5s3d 1s6d 5s4d 3 3 23 59


21. 1 2 5 1 2 23. 5 1 7 5 1
8 4 6 8s3d 4s6d 6s4d 4 8 4 8
15 6 20 23s2d 59s1d
5 1 2 5 1
24 24 24 4s2d 8s1d
15 1 6 2 20 46 1 59
5 5
24 8
1 105 1
5 5 or 13
24 8 8

| |
25. 85 2 225 5 85 2 25 5 60 | |
27. 2 s211.325d 1 34.625 5 11.325 1 34.625
5 45.95

| |
29. 2 215.667 2 12.333 5 215.667 2 12.333 31. 4s5d 5 5 1 5 1 5 1 5
5 215.667 1 s212.333d
5 228.000
5 228

33. 3s24d 5 s24d 1 s24d 1 s24d 1 14 1 14 1 14 1 14 1 14 5 6s14 d


1
35. 4

37. s215d 1 s215d 1 s215d 1 s215d 5 4s215d 39. 5s26d 5 230

43. 26s12d 5 272 45. s2 8 ds2 5 d 5 2


5 4 1
41. s28ds26d 5 48
Section P.2 Operations with Real Numbers 75

47. 2 12
3 8
2 5
5
224 212
10
5
5
49. 12
1 1
2 6
5
1
12
51.
29 16
8 27 1 21122 5 298 ??92??38??21
1
52
3

218 248 63
53. 56 55. 5 23 57. 63 4 s27d 5 5 29
23 16 27

12132 4 12562 5 1213 4 2562 5 1213 ? 2652 5 52


4 8 4 25 5
59. 2 4
5 25
52
5
? 8
52
2
61.

63. 534 4 218 5 23 17 1 3 33 9


4 4 8 65. 48 4 32 5 8 4 2
5 23
4 ? 178 5 33
8 ? 29
5 46
17
11
5 12

12342 5 12342123421234212342
4
67. 43 5 s4ds4ds4d 69.

71. s20.8d6 5 s20.8ds20.8ds20.8ds20.8ds20.8ds20.8d 73. s27d 3 s27d 3 s27d 5 s27d3

75. s25ds25ds25ds25d 5 s25d4 77. 2 s7 3 7 3 7d 5 273 79. s22d4 5 s22ds22ds22ds22d


5 16

81. s22d3 5 s22ds22ds22d 83. 243 5 2 s4ds4ds4d 85. s45 d3 5 s45 ds45 ds45 d
64
5 28 5 264 5 125

87. 2 s2 12 d 5 2 s2 12 ds2 12 ds2 12 ds2 12 ds2 12 d


5
89. s0.3d3 5 s0.3ds0.3ds0.3d
5 2 s2 32 d
1
5 0.027
1
5 32

91. 5s20.4d3 5 5s20.4ds20.4ds20.4d 93. 16 2 6 2 10 5 s16 2 6d 2 10


5 5s20.064d 5 10 2 10
5 20.32 50

95. 24 2 5 ? 22 5 24 2 5 ? 4 97. 28 4 4 1 3 ? 5 5 s28 4 4d 1 s3 ? 5d


5 24 2 s5 ? 4d 5 7 1 15
5 24 2 20 5 22
54

99. 14 2 2s8 2 4d 5 14 2 2s4d 101. 45 1 3s16 4 4d 5 45 1 3s4d


5 14 2 8 5 45 1 12
56 5 57
76 Chapter P Prerequisites: Fundamentals of Algebra

103. 2 1 f8 2 s14 4 2dg 5 2 1 f8 2 7g 105. 52 2 2f9 2 s18 2 8dg 5 25 2 2f9 2 10g


5211 5 25 2 2f21g
53 5 25 1 2
5 27

817 15
|
107. 53 1 214 1 4 5 125 1 210| | | 109. 5
12 2 15 23
5 25
5 125 1 10
5 135

111.
42 2 5
275
16 2 5
27 113.
6 ? 22 2 12 5 6 ? 4 2 12
11 11 32 1 3 913
11 24 2 12
5 27 5
11 12
5127 12
5
12
5 26
51

115. 5.6f13 2 2.5s26.3dg 5 5.6f13 1 15.75g 117. 56 2 3s400d 5 15,625 2 1200 5 14,425
5 5.6f28.75g
5 161

500 500
119. 5 5 171.36448 < 171.36
s1.055d20 2.9177575

1 2 1 1
121. 1 1 1x1 51
4 9 10 3

Thus:

x512 114 1 92 1 101 1 312


45 1 40 1 18 1 60
512 1180
45
1
180 180 180 2
40
1
18
1
60
5121
180 2 5 1 2 180
163 180 163
5 2 5
17
180 180 180
.

123. $2618.68 1 $1236.45 2 $25.62 2 $455.00 2 $125.00 2 $715.95 5 $2533.56

125. (a)
Day Daily Gain or Loss
Tuesday 15
Wednesday 18
Thursday 25
Friday 116

(b) s15d 1 s18d 1 s25d 1 s116d 5 124 5 the sum of the daily gains and losses. The sum of the daily gains and losses
is equal to the difference of the value of the stock on Friday and the value of the stock on Monday. This sum could be
determined from the graph by $524 svalue on Fridayd 2 $500 svalue on Mondayd 5 $24.
Section P.2 Operations with Real Numbers 77

127. (a) $50s12ds18d 5 $10,800 129. l 5 5m, w 5 3m


A 5 lw
3 11 1 0.09
12 2 41 2
216 12
(b) 50 21 11 < 27,018.71558 < 27,018.72
0.09
A55 ? 3 5 15 square meters
The fund would have $27,018.72.

(c) 27,018.72 2 10,800 5 $16,218.72

131. b 5 8 cm, h 5 5 cm 133. V 5 l ? w ? h 5 14" ? 18" ? 42" 5 10,584 in3 4 1728 in3 5 6.125 ft3
A 5 12bh
A 5 12s8ds5d 5 20 square inches

135. (a) 20 3 3 1 18 5 20 3 21 5 420 137. True. A rational number is an integer divided by an


integer. The reciprocal of such a number is still an
Student incorrectly added the 3 and the 18 instead
integer divided by an integer, and thus, a rational
of multiplying the 20 and the 3 first. Order of
number.
operations must be followed.
20 3 3 1 18 5 60 1 18 5 78
(b) UPC of 07673720012 9
1. s0 1 6 1 3 1 2 1 0 1 2d 3 3 5 39
2. 7 1 7 1 7 1 0 1 1 5 22
3. 39 1 22 5 61
4. Next highest multiple of 10 5 70
70 2 61 5 9 which is the check digit
Yes, it checks.
(c) UPC of 04180048700 3
1. s0 1 1 1 0 1 4 1 7 1 0d 3 3 5 36
2. 4 1 8 1 0 1 8 1 0 5 20
3. 36 1 20 5 56
4. Next highest multiple of 10 5 60
60 2 56 5 4 which is not the check digit
No, it does not check.

139. False. If a negative number is raised to an odd power, 141. Yes. For example, s23d 1 s24d 5 27
the result will be negative.
27 < 23 and 27 < 24

143. If the numbers have like signs, the product or quotient 145. Evaluate additions and subtractions from left to right.
is positive.
6 2 5 2 2 5 s6 2 5d 2 2 not 6 2 s5 2 2d
If the numbers have unlike signs, the product or quotient
5122 623
is negative.
5 21 3

147. Only common factors (not terms) of the numerator and 149. The squaring of the four must be performed before
denominator can be canceled. multiplying by the three by order of operations.
3 ? 42 5 3 ? 16
5 48
78 Chapter P Prerequisites: Fundamentals of Algebra

Section P.3 Properties of Real Numbers

1. 3 1 s25d 5 25 1 3 3. 25 2 25 5 0 5. 6s210d 5 210s6d


Commutative Property of Addition Additive Inverse Property Commutative Property of
Multiplication

7. 7 ? 1 5 7 9. 25 1 35 5 35 1 25 11. 3 1 s12 2 9d 5 s3 1 12d 2 9


Multiplicative Identity Property Commutative Property of Addition Associative Property of Addition

13. s8 2 5ds10d 5 8 ? 10 2 5 ? 10 15. s10 1 8d 1 3 5 10 1 s8 1 3d 17. 5s2ad 5 s5 ? 2da


Distributive Property Associative Property of Addition Associative Property of
Multiplication

19. 1 ? s5td 5 5t 21. 3x 1 0 5 3x 23. 4 1 s3 2 xd 5 s4 1 3d 2 x


Multiplicative Identity Property Additive Identity Property Associative Property of Addition

25. 3s6 1 bd 5 3 ? 6 1 3 ? b 27. 6sx 1 3d 5 6 ? x 1 6 ? 3 29. 3s6yd 5 s3 ? 6dy


Distributive Property Distributive Property

31. 15s23d 5 s23d15 33. 5s6 1 zd 5 5 ? 6 1 5 ? z 35. 25 1 s2xd 5 s2xd 1 25

37. sx 1 8d ? 1 5 sx 1 8d 39. (a) Additive Inverse: 210 41. (a) Additive Inverse: 16
1
(b) Multiplicative Inverse: 1
10
(b) Multiplicative Inverse: 2
16

43. (a) Additive Inverse: 26z 45. (a) Additive Inverse: 2 sx 1 1d or 2x 2 1


1 1
(b) Multiplicative Inverse: (b) Multiplicative Inverse:
6z x11

47. sx 1 5d 2 3 5 x 1 s5 2 3d 49. 32 1 s4 1 yd 5 s32 1 4d 1 y 51. 3s4 ? 5d 5 s3 ? 4d5

53. 6s2yd 5 s6 ? 2d ? y 5 12y 55. 20s2 1 5d 5 20 ? 2 1 20 ? 5

57. 5s3x 2 4d 5 5 ? 3x 2 5 ? 4 or 5 ? 3x 1 5 ? 24 59. sx 1 6ds22d 5 x ? s22d 1 6 ? s22d

61. 26s2y 2 5d 5 26s2yd 1 s26ds25d 63. 3sx 1 5d 5 3x 1 15

65. 22sx 1 8d 5 22x 2 16 67. ac 5 bc, c Þ 0 Original equation


1 1
sacd 5 sbcd Multiplication Property of Equality
c c
1 1
scad 5 scbd Commutative Property of Multiplication
c c

11c ? c2a 5 11c ? c2b Associative Property of Multiplication

1?a51?b Multiplicative Inverse Property


a5b Multiplicative Identity Property
Section P.3 Properties of Real Numbers 79

69. x1553 Original Equation


sx 1 5d 1 s25d 5 3 1 s25d Addition Property of Equality
x 1 s5 1 s25dd 5 3 2 5 Associative Property of Addition
x 1 0 5 22 Additive Inverse Property
x 5 22 Additive Identity Property

71. 2x 2 5 5 6 Original equation


s2x 2 5d 1 5 5 6 1 5 Addition Property of Equality
2x 1 s25 1 5d 5 11 Associative Property of Addition
2x 1 0 5 11 Additive Inverse Property
2x 5 11 Additive Identity Property

2 s2xd 5 12s11d
1
Multiplication Property of Equality
s ? 2dx 5
1
2
11
2 Associative Property of Multiplication
1 ?x5 11
2 Multiplicative Inverse Property
11
x5 2 Multiplicative Identity Property

73. 16s1.75d 5 16s2 2 14 d 5 16s2d 2 16s14 d 75. 7s62d 5 7s60 1 2d


5 32 2 4 5 7s60d 1 7s2d
5 28 5 420 1 14
5 434

77. 9s6.98d 5 9s7 2 0.02d 79. asb 1 cd 5 ab 1 ac, Distributive Property


5 9s7d 2 9s0.02d
5 63 2 0.18
5 62.82

81. Use the graph to approximate the dividend paid in 1995. 83. Dividend per share 5 0.08t 1 0.21
According to the graph, the dividend paid in 1995 was
2000 dividend per share 5 0.08s10d 1 0.21 5 $1.01
approximately $0.60.

85. Given two real numbers a and b, the sum a plus b is the same as the sum b plus a.

1
87. The multiplicative inverse of a real number asa Þ 0d is the number . The product of a number and its multiplicative inverse is
a
1
the multiplicative identity 1. For example, 8 ? 5 1.
8

89. 0 ? a 5 0 is the Multiplicative Property of zero.


80 Chapter P Prerequisites: Fundamentals of Algebra

91. let a 5 1 & b 5 2 let a 5 1, b 5 2, c 5 3


a(bÞb(a a ( sb ( cd Þ sa ( bd ( c
1(2Þ2(1 1 ( s2 ( 3d Þ s1 ( 2d ( 3
2?112Þ2 ?211 2 ? 1 1 s2 ? 2 1 3d Þ s2 ? 1 1 2d ( 3
4Þ5 217Þ4(3
So, the Commutative Property is not true. 9Þ2?413
9Þ813
9 Þ 11
So, the Associative Property is not true.

Mid-Chapter Quiz for Chapter P

1. 24.5 > 26 2.
3
4 <
3
2

−6 −4.5 3 3
4 2
−7 −6 −5 −4
−1 0 1 2

|
3. 23.2 5 3.2 | | |
4. 2 5.75 5 25.75 | | |
5. 215 2 7 5 222 5 22 |

|
6. s210.5d 2 s26.75d 5 210.5 1 6.75 | | | 7. 32 1 s218d 5 14
5 |23.75| 5 3.75

3 7 3 1 7 10 5
8. 210 2 12 5 s210d 1 s212d 5 2 s10 1 12d 5 222 9. 1 5 5 5
4 4 4 4 2

11. s212ds24d 5 48 s24ds15d


12 542115
32 2
2 1 4 1
10. 2 2 5 2 12. 5
3 6 6 6 s5ds32d
21 3
421 3 1 s24ds15d 3
5 5 5 5 52
6 6 2 s5ds32d 8
1 8

12 232 5 12 23212 23212 232


3
7 5 7 6
13. 4 5
12 6 12
?5 14. 15. 3 2 22 1 25 4 5 5 3 2 4 1 25 4 5
1 532415
s7ds6d s7ds6d 7 s23ds23ds23d 27
5 5 5 5 52
s12ds5d s12ds5d 10 s2ds2ds2d 8 5 21 1 5
2
54

18 2 2s3 1 4d 18 2 2s7d
16. 5 17. (a) 8su 2 5d 5 8 ? u 2 8 ? 5 Distributive Property
62 2 s12 ? 2 1 10d 36 2 s24 1 10d
(b) 10x 2 10x 5 0 Additive Inverse Property
18 2 14
5
36 2 s34d
4
5
2
52
80 Chapter P Prerequisites: Fundamentals of Algebra

91. let a 5 1 & b 5 2 let a 5 1, b 5 2, c 5 3


a(bÞb(a a ( sb ( cd Þ sa ( bd ( c
1(2Þ2(1 1 ( s2 ( 3d Þ s1 ( 2d ( 3
2?112Þ2 ?211 2 ? 1 1 s2 ? 2 1 3d Þ s2 ? 1 1 2d ( 3
4Þ5 217Þ4(3
So, the Commutative Property is not true. 9Þ2?413
9Þ813
9 Þ 11
So, the Associative Property is not true.

Mid-Chapter Quiz for Chapter P

1. 24.5 > 26 2.
3
4 <
3
2

−6 −4.5 3 3
4 2
−7 −6 −5 −4
−1 0 1 2

|
3. 23.2 5 3.2 | | |
4. 2 5.75 5 25.75 | | |
5. 215 2 7 5 222 5 22 |

|
6. s210.5d 2 s26.75d 5 210.5 1 6.75 | | | 7. 32 1 s218d 5 14
5 |23.75| 5 3.75

3 7 3 1 7 10 5
8. 210 2 12 5 s210d 1 s212d 5 2 s10 1 12d 5 222 9. 1 5 5 5
4 4 4 4 2

11. s212ds24d 5 48 s24ds15d


12 542115
32 2
2 1 4 1
10. 2 2 5 2 12. 5
3 6 6 6 s5ds32d
21 3
421 3 1 s24ds15d 3
5 5 5 5 52
6 6 2 s5ds32d 8
1 8

12 232 5 12 23212 23212 232


3
7 5 7 6
13. 4 5
12 6 12
?5 14. 15. 3 2 22 1 25 4 5 5 3 2 4 1 25 4 5
1 532415
s7ds6d s7ds6d 7 s23ds23ds23d 27
5 5 5 5 52
s12ds5d s12ds5d 10 s2ds2ds2d 8 5 21 1 5
2
54

18 2 2s3 1 4d 18 2 2s7d
16. 5 17. (a) 8su 2 5d 5 8 ? u 2 8 ? 5 Distributive Property
62 2 s12 ? 2 1 10d 36 2 s24 1 10d
(b) 10x 2 10x 5 0 Additive Inverse Property
18 2 14
5
36 2 s34d
4
5
2
52
Section P.4 Algebraic Expressions 81

18. (a) s7 1 yd 2 z 5 7 1 sy 2 zd Associative Property of Addition


(b) 2x ? 1 5 2x Multiplicative Identity Property

19. 1522.76 2 328.37 2 65.99 2 50.00 1 413.88 5 $1492.28

20. s$30ds2ds12ds5d 5 $3600 21. 1 5 13 1 14 1 18 1 x


1 2 13 2 14 2 18 5 x
24 8 6 3
24 2 24 2 24 2 24 5x
7
24 5x
The sum of the parts of a circle is equal to 1.

Section P.4 Algebraic Expressions

1. Terms: 10x, 5 3. Terms: 23y2, 2y, 28 5. Terms: 4x2, 23y2, 25x, 2y

1 3 3
7. Terms: x2, 22.5x, 2 9. The coefficient of 5y3 is 5. 11. The coefficient of 2 t2 is 2 .
x 4 4

13. 4 2 3x 5 23x 1 4 illustrates the 15. 25s2xd 5 s25 ? 2dx illustrates the 17. 5sx 1 6d 5 5x 1 30
Commutative Property of Addition Associative Property of
Multiplication

19. 6x 1 6 5 6sx 1 1d 21. x3 ? x4 5 x ? x ? x ? x ? x ? x ? x

23. z2 ? z5 5 z ? z ? z ? z ? z ? z ? z 25. s25xds25xds25xds25xd 5 s25xd4

27. sx ? x ? xdsy ? y ? yd 5 x3y3 29. 223 ? 24 5 22314


5 227

31. x5 ? x7 ? x 5 x51711 5 x13 33. 33y4 ? y2 5 33y412 5 27y6

35. s24xd2 5 s24d2 ? x2 5 16x2 37. 24s2xd2 5 24s4x2d


5 216x2

39. s25z2d3 5 s25z2ds25z2ds25z2d 41. s2xyds3x2y3d 5 s2 ? 3d ? sx ? x2d ? sy ? y3d


5 s25 ? 25 ? 25dsz21212d 5 6 ? sx112d ? sy113d
5 2125z6 5 6x3y4

43. s5y2ds2y4ds2y3d 5 s5 ? 21 ? 2dsy21413d 45. 25z4s25zd4 5 25z4s625z4d


5 210y9 5 s25 ? 625dsz414d
5 23125z8
Section P.4 Algebraic Expressions 81

18. (a) s7 1 yd 2 z 5 7 1 sy 2 zd Associative Property of Addition


(b) 2x ? 1 5 2x Multiplicative Identity Property

19. 1522.76 2 328.37 2 65.99 2 50.00 1 413.88 5 $1492.28

20. s$30ds2ds12ds5d 5 $3600 21. 1 5 13 1 14 1 18 1 x


1 2 13 2 14 2 18 5 x
24 8 6 3
24 2 24 2 24 2 24 5x
7
24 5x
The sum of the parts of a circle is equal to 1.

Section P.4 Algebraic Expressions

1. Terms: 10x, 5 3. Terms: 23y2, 2y, 28 5. Terms: 4x2, 23y2, 25x, 2y

1 3 3
7. Terms: x2, 22.5x, 2 9. The coefficient of 5y3 is 5. 11. The coefficient of 2 t2 is 2 .
x 4 4

13. 4 2 3x 5 23x 1 4 illustrates the 15. 25s2xd 5 s25 ? 2dx illustrates the 17. 5sx 1 6d 5 5x 1 30
Commutative Property of Addition Associative Property of
Multiplication

19. 6x 1 6 5 6sx 1 1d 21. x3 ? x4 5 x ? x ? x ? x ? x ? x ? x

23. z2 ? z5 5 z ? z ? z ? z ? z ? z ? z 25. s25xds25xds25xds25xd 5 s25xd4

27. sx ? x ? xdsy ? y ? yd 5 x3y3 29. 223 ? 24 5 22314


5 227

31. x5 ? x7 ? x 5 x51711 5 x13 33. 33y4 ? y2 5 33y412 5 27y6

35. s24xd2 5 s24d2 ? x2 5 16x2 37. 24s2xd2 5 24s4x2d


5 216x2

39. s25z2d3 5 s25z2ds25z2ds25z2d 41. s2xyds3x2y3d 5 s2 ? 3d ? sx ? x2d ? sy ? y3d


5 s25 ? 25 ? 25dsz21212d 5 6 ? sx112d ? sy113d
5 2125z6 5 6x3y4

43. s5y2ds2y4ds2y3d 5 s5 ? 21 ? 2dsy21413d 45. 25z4s25zd4 5 25z4s625z4d


5 210y9 5 s25 ? 625dsz414d
5 23125z8
82 Chapter P Prerequisites: Fundamentals of Algebra

47. s22a2d3s28ad 5 s28a6ds28ad 49. s3uvd2s26u3vd 5 s32u2v2ds26u3vd


5 s28 ? 28dsa611d 5 s32 ? 26d ? su2 ? u3d ? sv2 ? vd
5 64a7 5 s9 ? 26d ? su213d ? sv211d
5 254u5v3

51. sxnd4 5 xn ? 4 5 x 4n 53. xn11 ? x3 5 xn1113 5 xn14

55. 3x 1 4x 5 s3 1 4dx 5 7x 57. 9y 2 5y 1 4y 5 s9 2 5 1 4dy 5 8y

59. 3x 2 2y 1 5x 1 20y 5 s3x 1 5xd 1 s22y 1 20yd 61. 7x2 2 2x 2 x2 5 7x2 2 x2 2 2x


5 s3 1 5dx 1 s22 1 20dy 5 s7 2 1dx2 2 2x
5 8x 1 18y 5 6x2 2 2x

63. 23z4 1 6z 2 z 1 8 1 z4 5 23z4 1 z4 1 6z 2 z 1 8 65. 2uv 1 5u2v2 2 uv 2 suvd2 5 s2uv 2 uvd 1 s5u2v2 2 u2v2d
5 s23 1 1dz4 1 s6 2 1dz 1 8 5 s2 2 1duv 1 s5 2 1du2v2
5 22z4 1 5z 1 8 5 uv 1 4u2v2

67. 4s2x2 1 x 2 3d 5 8x2 1 4x 2 12 69. 23s6y2 2 y 2 2d 5 218y2 1 3y 1 6

71. 10sx 2 3d 1 2x 2 5 5 10x 2 30 1 2x 2 5 73. 23s3y 2 1d 1 2sy 2 5d 5 29y 1 3 1 2y 2 10


5 s10x 1 2xd 1 s230 2 5d 5 29y 1 2y 1 3 2 10
5 s10 1 2dx 1 s230 2 5d 5 s29 1 2dy 2 7
5 12x 2 35 5 27y 2 7

75. 23sy2 2 2d 1 y2sy 1 3d 5 23y2 1 6 1 y3 1 3y2 77. y2sy 1 1d 1 ysy2 1 1d 5 y3 1 y2 1 y3 1 y


5 s23 1 3dy2 1 6 1 y3 5 sy3 1 y3d 1 sy2d 1 syd
5 6 1 y3 5 2y3 1 y2 1 y

79. 3f2x 2 4sx 2 8dg 5 3f2x 2 4x 1 32g 81. 8x 1 3xf10 2 4s3 2 xdg 5 8x 1 3xf10 2 12 1 4xg
5 3f22x 1 32g 5 8x 1 3xf22 1 4xg
5 26x 1 96 5 8x 2 6x 1 12x2
5 2x 1 12x2

83. 2f3sb 2 5d 2 sb2 1 b 1 3dg 5 2f3b 2 15 2 b2 2 b 2 3g


5 6b 2 30 2 2b2 2 2b 2 6
5 s22b2d 1 s6b 2 2bd 1 s230 2 6d
5 22b2 1 4b 2 36
Section P.4 Algebraic Expressions 83

85. 2xs5x2d 2 4x3sx 1 15d 5 10x3 2 4x4 2 60x3 87. (a) Substitution: 5 2 3s23 d
5 2 s10 2 60dx3 2 4x4 Value of expression: 3
5 24x4 2 50x3 (b) Substitution: 5 2 3s5d
Value of expression: 210

0
89. (a) Substitution: 10 2 4s21d2 91. (a) Substitution:
02 1 1
Value of expression: 10 2 4 5 6
(b) Substitution: 10 2 4s2 d
1 2 Value of expression: 0

Value of expression: 10 2 4s4 d 5 10 2 1 5 9


1
3
(b) Substitution:
32 1 1
3
Value of expression:
10

93. (a) Substitution: 3s1d 1 2s5d


Value of expression: 13
(b) Substitution: 3s26d 1 2s29d
Value of expression: 236

95. (a) Substitution: 22 2 s2ds21d 1 s21d2 5 4 2 s22d 1 1


57
Value of expression: 7
(b) Substitution: s23d2 2 s23ds22d 1 s22d2 5 9 2 6 1 4
57
Value of expression: 7

| | ||
97. (a) Substitution: 5 2 2 5 3 5 3 99. (a) Substitution: 40s514 d
Value of expression: 3 Value of expression: 210

| | |
(b) Substitution: 22 2 s22d 5 22 1 2 5 0 5 0 | || (b) Substitution: 35s4d
Value of expression: 0 Value of expression: 140

101. A 5 12bsb 2 3d 103. A 5 lw

2 s15ds15 2 3d
1
A5 b−3 A 5 s2x 1 3dx

2 s15ds12d
1
5 A 5 2x2 1 3x
5 90 b

105. Graphically, the sales in 1995 is approximately $2800 107. Graphically, the median sale price in 1995 is
million. approximately $134 thousand.
Let t 5 5. Let t 5 5.
Sales 5 193.89s5d 1 1830.89 Sale price 5 5.9s5d 1 106.0
5 969.45 1 1830.89 5 29.5 1 106.0
5 $2800.34 5 $135.5 thousand
84 Chapter P Prerequisites: Fundamentals of Algebra

Area of Area of
109. Total area 52 ? 12 ?
trapezoid triangle

3 2 ? hsb 4 3 2 ? b ? h4
1 1
Area 5 1 1 b2d 1 2

Area 5 12s60 1 40d 1 20 ? 12


5 12s100d 1 240
5 1200 1 240
5 1440 square feet

111. (d) s0 1 3 1 1 1 2 1 6 1 7d3 1 s4 1 8 1 9 1 3 1 ad


(e) 81 1 a, the next-highest multiple of 10 will be 90.
90 2 s81 1 ad 5 4 92a54 a55
90 2 81 2 a 5 4 2a 5 25 No. The work shows the only possible answer.

113. To combine like terms add (or subtract) their respective coefficients and attach the common variable factor.
Example: 5x4 2 3x4 5 s5 2 3dx4 5 2x4

115. The Distributive Property is used to simplify 5x 1 3x as follows: 5x 1 3x 5 s5 1 3dx 5 8x.

x12 7
117. It is not possible to evaluate when x 5 5 and y 5 3 because is undefined.
y23 0

Section P.5 Constructing Algebraic Expressions

1. The sum of 8 and a number n is translated into the 3. The sum of 12 and twice a number n is translated into
algebraic expression 8 1 n. the algebraic expression 12 1 2n.

5. Six less than a number n is translated into the algebraic 7. Four times a number n minus 3 is translated into the
expression n 2 6. algebraic expression 4n 2 3.

9. One-third of a number n is translated into the algebraic 11. The quotient of a number x and 6 is translated into the
1 x
expression n. algebraic expression .
3 6

13. Eight times the ratio of N and 5 is translated into the 15. The number c is quadrupled and the product is increased
N by 10 is translated into the algebraic expression 4c 1 10.
algebraic expression 8 ? .
5

17. Thirty percent of the list price L is translated into the 19. The sum of a number and 5 divided by 10 is translated
algebraic expression 0.30L. n15
into the algebraic expression .
10

21. The absolute value of the difference between a number 23. The product of three and the square of a number decreased
|
and 5 is translated into the algebraic expression n 2 5 . | by 4 is translated into the algebraic expression 3x2 2 4.
84 Chapter P Prerequisites: Fundamentals of Algebra

Area of Area of
109. Total area 52 ? 12 ?
trapezoid triangle

3 2 ? hsb 4 3 2 ? b ? h4
1 1
Area 5 1 1 b2d 1 2

Area 5 12s60 1 40d 1 20 ? 12


5 12s100d 1 240
5 1200 1 240
5 1440 square feet

111. (d) s0 1 3 1 1 1 2 1 6 1 7d3 1 s4 1 8 1 9 1 3 1 ad


(e) 81 1 a, the next-highest multiple of 10 will be 90.
90 2 s81 1 ad 5 4 92a54 a55
90 2 81 2 a 5 4 2a 5 25 No. The work shows the only possible answer.

113. To combine like terms add (or subtract) their respective coefficients and attach the common variable factor.
Example: 5x4 2 3x4 5 s5 2 3dx4 5 2x4

115. The Distributive Property is used to simplify 5x 1 3x as follows: 5x 1 3x 5 s5 1 3dx 5 8x.

x12 7
117. It is not possible to evaluate when x 5 5 and y 5 3 because is undefined.
y23 0

Section P.5 Constructing Algebraic Expressions

1. The sum of 8 and a number n is translated into the 3. The sum of 12 and twice a number n is translated into
algebraic expression 8 1 n. the algebraic expression 12 1 2n.

5. Six less than a number n is translated into the algebraic 7. Four times a number n minus 3 is translated into the
expression n 2 6. algebraic expression 4n 2 3.

9. One-third of a number n is translated into the algebraic 11. The quotient of a number x and 6 is translated into the
1 x
expression n. algebraic expression .
3 6

13. Eight times the ratio of N and 5 is translated into the 15. The number c is quadrupled and the product is increased
N by 10 is translated into the algebraic expression 4c 1 10.
algebraic expression 8 ? .
5

17. Thirty percent of the list price L is translated into the 19. The sum of a number and 5 divided by 10 is translated
algebraic expression 0.30L. n15
into the algebraic expression .
10

21. The absolute value of the difference between a number 23. The product of three and the square of a number decreased
|
and 5 is translated into the algebraic expression n 2 5 . | by 4 is translated into the algebraic expression 3x2 2 4.
Section P.5 Constructing Algebraic Expressions 85

25. A verbal description of t 2 2 is a number decreased by 2. 27. A verbal description of y 1 50 is the sum of a number
and 50.

29. A verbal description of 3x 1 2 is the sum of three times a 31. A verbal description of
z
is the ratio of a number
number and two. 2
to two.

33. A verbal description of 45x is four-fifths of a number. 35. A verbal description of 8sx 2 5d is eight times the
difference of a number and five.

x 1 10
37. A verbal description of is the sum of a number 39. A verbal description of xsx 1 7d is some number times the
3
sum of the same number and seven.
and ten, divided by three.

41. Verbal Description: The amount of money (in dollars) represented by n quarters
Label: n 5 number of quarters
Algebraic Description: 0.25n 5 amount of money (in dollars)

43. Verbal Description: The amount of money (in dollars) represented by m dimes
Label: m 5 number of dimes
m
Algebraic Description:
10

45. Verbal Description: The amount of money (in cents) represented by m nickels and n dimes
Label: m 5 number of dimes
n 5 number of dimes
Algebraic Description: 5m 1 10n

47. Verbal Description: The distance traveled in t hours at an average speed of 55 miles per hour
Label: t 5 number of hours
Algebraic Description: 55t

49. Verbal Description: The time to travel 100 miles at an average speed of r miles per hour
Label: r 5 average speed
100
Algebraic Description:
r

51. Verbal Description: The amount of antifreeze in a cooling system containing y gallons of coolant that is 45% antifreeze
Label: y 5 number of gallons
Algebraic Description: 0.45y

53. Verbal Description: The amount of wage tax due for a taxable income of I dollars that is taxed at the rate of 1.25%
Label: I 5 number of dollars
Algebraic Description: 0.0125I
86 Chapter P Prerequisites: Fundamentals of Algebra

55. Verbal Description: The sale price of a coat that has a list price of L dollars if the sale is a “20% off” sale
Label: L 5 number of dollars
Algebraic Description: 0.80L

57. Verbal Description: The total hourly wage for an employee when the base pay is $8.25 per hour plus 60 cents for each of
q units producted per hour
Label: q 5 number of units produced
Algebraic Description: 8.25 1 0.60q

59. Verbal Description: The sum of a number n and three times the number
Label: n 5 the number
3n 5 three times the number
Algebraic Description: n 1 3n 5 4n

61. Verbal Description: The sum of two consecutive odd integers, the first of which is 2n 1 1.
Labels: 2n 1 1 5 first odd integer
2n 1 3 5 second odd integer
Algebraic Description: s2n 1 1d 1 s2n 1 3d 5 4n 1 4

63. Verbal Description: The product of two consecutive even integers, divided by 4

Labels: 2n 5 first even integer


2n 1 2 5 second even integer
2ns2n 1 2d 4nsn 1 1d
Algebraic Description: 5
4 4
5 nsn 1 1d

65. Area 5 side ? side 67. Area 5 2sbasedsheightd


1
69. Perimeter 5 2s2wd 1 2swd 5 4w 1 2w 5 6w
5s?s 2 sbds0.75bd ? w 5 2w2
1
5 Area 5 2w
5 s2 5 0.375b2

71. Perimeter 5 3 1 2x 1 6 1 x 1 3 1 x 5 4x 1 12 73. l ? sl 2 6d 5 area of billiard table

Area 5 sx ? 3d 1 s3 ? 2xd 5 3x 1 6x 5 9x The unit of measure for the area is feet2 or square feet.

75. 77. The third row difference for the algebraic expression
n 0 1 2 3 4 5 an 1 b would be a.
5n 2 3 23 2 7 12 17 22

Differences 5 5 5 5 5

79. The phrase reduced by implies subtraction. 81. 4x is the equivalent to (a) x multiplied by 4 and (c) the
product of x and 4.

83. Using a specific case may make it easier to see the form of the expression for the general case.
Review Exercises for Chapter P 87

Review Exercises for Chapter P

1. 25 < 3 3. 2 85 < 2 25

−6 −4 −2 0 2 4 − 85 − 25

−3 −2 −1 0 1

|
5. d 5 9 2 s22d | |
7. d 5 213.5 2 s26.2d | | |
9. 25 5 5
5 |11| 5 |213.5 1 6.2|
5 11 5 |27.3|
5 7.3

|
11. 2 27.2 5 27.2 | 13. 15 1 s24d 5 11 15. 340 2 115 1 5 5 230

4 7
17. 263.5 1 21.7 5 241.8 19. 21 1 21 5 11
21 21. 2 56 1 1 5 2 56 1 66 5 16

23. 834 2 658 5 35 25. 27 ? 4 5 228


53 70 53 17
4 2 8 5 8 2 8 5 8 27. 120s25ds7d 5 24200

3 22 26 21 256 7 7 7 30
29.
8
? 15
5
120
5
20
31.
24
5 14 33. 2
15
42 52
30 15
? 27 5 2

35. s26d3 5 s26ds26ds26d 5 2216 37. 242 5 21 ? 4 ? 4 5 216 39. 2 s2 12 d 5 21 ? s2 12 ds2 12 ds2 12 d 5 18

41. 120 2 s52 ? 4d 5 120 2 s25 ? 4d 43. 8 1 3f62 2 2s7 2 4dg 5 8 1 3f36 2 2s3dg
5 120 2 100 5 8 1 3f36 2 6g
5 20 5 8 1 3f30g
5 8 1 90
5 98

45. Additive Inverse Property justifies 13 2 13 5 0. 47. Distributive Property justifies 7s9 1 3d 5 7 ? 9 1 7 ? 3.

49. Associative Property of Addition justifies 51. su 2 vds2d 5 2su 2 vd illustrates the Commutative
5 1 s4 2 yd 5 s5 1 4d 2 y. Property of Multiplication.

53. 8sx 2 yd 5 8 ? x 2 8 ? y illustrates the Distributive 55. 2 s2u 1 3vd 5 u 2 3v


Property.

57. 2ys3y 2 10d 5 23y2 1 10y 59. x2 ? x3 ? x 5 x21311 5 x6

61. sxyds23x2y3d 5 23 ? x112 ? y113 63. s5abds25a3d 5 125a4b


5 23x3y4
88 Chapter P Prerequisites: Fundamentals of Algebra

65. 7x 2 2x 5 s7 2 2dx 67. 3u 2 2v 1 7v 2 3u 5 s3u 2 3ud 1 s22v 1 7vd


5 5x 5 5v

69. 5sx 2 4d 1 10 5 5x 2 20 1 10 71. 3x 2 sy 2 2xd 5 3x 2 y 1 2x


5 5x 2 10 5 5x 2 y

73. 3fb 1 5sb 2 adg 5 3fb 1 5b 2 5ag 75. (a) x 5 3


5 3b 1 15b 2 15a Substitute: 32 2 2s3d 2 3
5 18b 2 15a Value of expression: 0
(b) x 5 0
Substitute: s0d2 2 2s0d 2 3
Value of expression: 23

77. 200 2 3n 79. n2 1 49 81. The sum of twice a number and


seven

83. The difference of a number and five, all divided by four 85. 0.18I 5 tax on I dollars at 18%

87. l ? sl 2 5d 5 area of rectangle with length l and width sl 2 5d

89. Combined expenditures 5 12.1 1 10.8 1 38.6 1 9.2 1 40.3 5 $111.0

91. Difference between the airports with the greatest and smallest passenger volumes
5 30.8 2 15.2
5 15.6 million

93. Airports from greatest to smallest volume:


Passengers (in millions)

40
1. Atlanta/Hartsfield 30.8 30

2. Chicago/O’Hare 30.5 20

10
3. Dallas/Ft. Worth 26.6
Atlanta
Chicago

Los Angeles
Denver
San Francisco

4. Los Angeles 22.7


Dallas

5. Denver 15.2
6. San Francisco 15.2
Chapter Test for Chapter P 89

Chapter Test for Chapter P

1. (a) 2 52 > 2 23 | | |
2. d 5 26.2 2 5.7 5 11.9 |
2
(b) 23 > 2 32

3. 214 1 9 2 15 5 s214 1 9d 2 15 1 s2 76 d 5 46 1 s2 76 d 5 2 36 5 2 12
2
4. 3

5 25 2 15
5 220

5. 22s225 2 150d 5 22s75d 5 2150 6. s23ds4ds25d 5 s212ds25d


5 60

7. s2 16 ds2 218 d 5 16 ? 158 5 274


5
4 15 5
8 5 18
7
8 18

227 42 2 6 16 2 6
12 532
3
9. 5 10. 1 13 5 1 13
125 5 5
10
5 1 13
5
5 2 1 13
5 15

11. (a) s23 ? 5d ? 6 5 23s5 ? 6d demonstrates the 12. 5s2x 2 3d 5 5s2xd 2 5s3d
Associative Property of Multiplication.
1
(b) 3y ? 5 1 demonstrates the Multiplicative
3y
Inverse Property.

13. s3x2yds2xyd2 5 s3x2ydsx2y2d 5 3x4y3 14. 3x2 2 2x 2 5x2 1 7x 2 1 5 22x2 1 5x 2 1

15. as5a 2 4d 2 2s2a2 2 2ad 5 5a2 2 4a 2 4a2 1 4a 16. 4t 2 f3t 2 s10t 1 7dg 5 4t 2 f3t 2 10t 2 7g
5a
2 5 4t 2 f27t 2 7g
5 4t 1 7t 1 7
5 11t 1 7

17. Evaluating an expression means to substitute numerical values for each of the variables in the expression and then to simplify
according to the rules for order of operations.

(a) x 5 21 ⇒ 4 2 s21 1 1d2 (b) x 5 3 ⇒ 4 2 s3 1 1d2


4 2 s0d2 4 2 s4d2
4 4 2 16
212
90 Chapter P Prerequisites: Fundamentals of Algebra

18. “The product of a number n and 5 is decreased by 8” is 19. Perimeter 5 2sld 1 2s0.6ld 5 2l 1 1.2l 5 3.2l
translated into the algebraic expression 5n 2 8.
Area 5 ls0.6ld 5 0.6l2

20. Verbal Description: The sum of two consecutive even integers, the first of which is 2n.
Labels: 2n 5 first even integer
2n 1 2 5 second even integer
Algebraic Description: 2n 1 s2n 1 2d 5 4n 1 2

21. Verbal model: 9 ? Length of each piece 5 Total length


Equation: 9 ? n 5 144
n 5 16 feet

22. Verbal model: Volume of 1 cord 5 Length ? Width ? Height


Equation: V54?4 ?8
V 5 128 cubic feet
Verbal model: Volume of 5 cords 55 ? Volume of 1 cord
Equation: V55 ? 128
5 640 cubic feet
C H A P T E R 1
Linear Equations and Inequalities

Section 1.1 Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

Section 1.2 Linear Equations and Problem Solving . . . . . . . . . . . 99

Section 1.3 Business and Scientific Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

Mid-Chapter Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

Section 1.4 Linear Inequalities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

Section 1.5 Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities . . . . . . . . 122

Review Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

Chapter Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135


C H A P T E R 1
Linear Equations and Inequalities
Section 1.1 Linear Equations
Solutions to Odd-Numbered Exercises

1. (a) x50 (b) x53 3. (a) x54 (b) x 5 24


? ? ? ?
3s0d 2 7 5 2 3s3d 2 7 5 2 4 1 8 5 3s4d 24 1 8 5 3s24d
27 Þ 2 92752 12 5 12 4 Þ 212
No Yes
252 No
Yes

5. (a) x 5 211 (b) x55


? ?
3s211d 1 3 5 2s211 2 4d 3s5d 1 3 5 2s5 2 4d
233 1 3 5 2s215d 15 1 3 5 2s1d
230 5 230
18 Þ 2
Yes
No

7. (a) x 5 24 (b) x 5 12 9. 3sx 2 1d 5 3x Original equation


? ?
4 s24d
1
4 s12d
1
53 53 3x 2 3 5 3x Distributive Property
21 Þ 3 353 3x 2 3 2 3x 5 3x 2 3x Subtract 3x from both sides.
No
Yes 23 5 0 Simplify.

No solution since 23 Þ 0.

11. 5sx 1 3d 5 2x 1 3sx 1 5d Original equation 13. 3x 1 4 5 10 is linear since variable has exponent 1.
5x 1 15 5 2x 1 3x 1 15 Distributive Property

5x 1 15 5 5x 1 15 Combine like terms.

Identity since both sides equal.

4
15. 2 3 5 5 is not linear since variable has exponent 21 17. 3x 1 15 5 0 Original equation
x
not 1. 3x 1 15 2 15 5 0 2 15 Subtract 15 from both sides.

3x 5 215 Combine like terms.

3x 215
5 Divide both sides by 3.
3 3
x 5 25 Simplify.

92
Section 1.1 Linear Equations 93

19. 22x 1 5 5 12 Original equation ?


21. x2350 Check: 3 2 3 5 0
22x 1 5 2 5 5 12 2 5 Subtract 5 from both sides.
x23135013 050
22x 5 7 Combine like terms.
x53
22x 7
5 Divide both sides by 22.
22 22
7
x52 Simplify.
2

? ?
23. 3x 5 12 Check: 3s4d 5 12 25. 26y 5 4.2 Check: 26s20.7d 5 4.2
3x 12 12 5 12 26y 4.2 4.2 5 4.2
5 5
3 3 26 26
x54 y 5 20.7

27. 6x 1 4 5 0 Check: 29. 22u 1 5 5 7 Check:


?
6x 1 4 2 4 5 0 2 4 22u 1 5 2 5 5 7 2 5 22s21d 1 5 5 7

6x 5 24
1 2
6 2
2
3
1450
?
22u 5 2 21557
?
?
24 1 4 5 0 757
6x 24 22u 2
5 5
6 6 050 22 22
4 u 5 21
x52
6
2
x52
3

31. 4x 2 7 5 211 Check: 33. 23x 2 4 5 42 Check:


? ?
4x 2 7 1 7 5 211 1 7 4s21d 2 7 5 211 23x 2 4 1 4 5 42 1 4 23s2d 2 4 5 42
? ?
4x 5 24 24 2 7 5 211 23x 5 46 46 2 4 5 42
4x 24 211 5 211 23x 46 42 5 42
5 5
4 4 23 23
x 5 21 x52

35. 3t 1 8 5 22 Check:
3t 1 8 2 8 5 22 2 8
3t 5 210
1
3 2
10
32 ?
1 8 5 22
?
210 1 8 5 22
3t 210
5
3 3 22 5 22
10
t52
3
94 Chapter 1 Linear Equations and Inequalities

37. 8 2 5t 5 20 1 t Check:
?
8 2 5t 1 5t 5 20 1 t 1 5t 8 2 5s22d 5 20 1 s22d
?
8 5 20 1 6t 8 1 10 5 18
8 2 20 5 20 1 6t 2 20 18 5 18
212 5 6t
212 6t
5
6 6
22 5 t

39. 4x 2 5 5 2x 2 1 Check: 41. 7 2 8x 5 13x Check:


?
4x 2 2x 2 5 5 2x 2 2x 2 1 4s2d 2 5 5 2s2d 2 1 7 2 8x 1 8x 5 13x 1 8x
?
728 1132 5? 131132
2x 2 5 5 21 8255421 7 5 21x
8 ? 13
2x 2 5 1 5 5 21 1 5 353 7 21x 72 5
5 3 3
21 21
2x 5 4
21 8 ? 13
1 2 5
2x 4 5x 3 3 3
5 3
2 2
13 13
5
x52 3 3

43. 4y 2 3 5 4y 45. 28t 5 216t Check:


?
4y 2 3 1 3 5 4y 1 3 28t 1 16t 5 216t 1 16t 28s0d 5 216s0d
4y 5 4y 1 3 8t 5 0 050
4y 2 4y 5 4y 1 3 2 4y 8t 0
5
8 8
053
t50
0Þ3
No solution

47. 29y 2 4 5 29y


29y 1 9y 2 4 5 29y 1 9y
24 5 0
24 Þ 0
No solution

49. 8sx 2 8d 5 24 Check: 51. 24st 1 2d 5 0 Check:


? ?
8x 2 64 5 24 8s11 2 8d 5 24 24t 2 8 5 0 24fs22d 1 2g 5 0
? ?
8x 2 64 1 64 5 24 1 64 8s3d 5 24 24t 2 8 1 8 5 0 1 8 24f0g 5 0
8x 5 88 24 5 24 24t 5 8 050
8x 88 24t 8
5 5
8 8 24 24
x 5 11 t 5 22
Section 1.1 Linear Equations 95

53. 3sx 2 4d 5 7x 1 6 Check:


3x 2 12 5 7x 1 6
3x 2 7x 2 12 5 7x 2 7x 1 6
1 9
2
? 9
3 2 24 57 2 16
2 2 1 2
24x 2 12 5 6 1 9 8 ? 63 12
3 2 2
2 2
52 1
2 2 2
24x 2 12 1 12 5 6 1 12
24x 5 18 1
3 2
2 2
17 ? 51
52
2
24x 18 51 51
5 2 52
24 24 2 2
9
x52
2

55. 8x 2 3sx 2 2d 5 12 Check: 57. 5 2 s2y 2 4d 5 15 Check:


?
8x 2 3x 1 6 5 12 5 2 2y 1 4 5 15 5 2 f2s23d 2 4g 5 15
5x 1 6 5 12
8 1652 2 3165 2 22 5? 12 22y 1 9 5 15
?
5 2 f26 2 4g 5 15
5x 1 6 2 6 5 12 2 6
48
5
6 10 ?
23 2
5 5 1
5 12 2 22y 1 9 2 9 5 15 2 9
?
5 2 f210g 5 15
?
5x 5 6 22y 5 6 5 1 10 5 15
5x 6
5
48
5
4 ?
2 3 2 5 12
5 1 2 22y
5
6 15 5 15
5 5 22 22
48 12 ?
1 5 12
6 5 5 y 5 23
x5
5
60 ?
5 12
5
12 5 12

59. 12sx 1 3d 5 7sx 1 3d Check:


?
12x 1 36 5 7x 1 21 12fs23d 1 3g 5 7fs23d 1 3g
?
12x 1 36 2 7x 5 7x 1 21 2 7x 12f0g 5 7f0g
5x 1 36 5 21 050
5x 1 36 2 36 5 21 2 36
5x 5 215
5x 215
5
5 5
x 5 23

Check:
61. 2sx 1 7d 2 9 5 5sx 2 4d
2x 1 14 2 9 5 5x 2 20 2 1253 1 72 2 9 5? 51253 2 42
2x 1 5 5 5x 2 20
2x 1 5 2 2x 5 5x 2 20 2 2x 2 1253 1 2132 2 9 5? 51253 2 1232
5 5 3x 2 20
5 1 20 5 3x 2 20 1 20
2 14632 2 9 5? 511332
25 5 3x 92 27 ? 65
2 5
25 3x 3 3 3
5
3 3 65 65
5
25 3 3
5x
3
96 Chapter 1 Linear Equations and Inequalities

u 2 3
63. 5 10 Check: 65. t2 5 Check:
5 5 2
50 ? 19 2 ? 3
5 10 2 5
5 12
u
5
5 s10d5 5 10 t 2 1 2
5
5 2 12
3
2
10 10 5 2
10 5 10 19 4 ? 15
u 5 50 10t 2 4 5 15 2 5
10 10 10
10t 2 4 1 4 5 15 1 4
15 15
5
10t 5 19 10 10
10t 19
5
10 10
19
t5
10

t t 8x x
67. 2 51 Check: 69. 2 5 23 Check:
5 2 5 4
2 10 2 10
10 1 t
2
t
25 s1d10
3
5
2
2
3 ?
51
20 1 8x
2
x
2
5 s23d20 51
8 20
2
92 1 20 ?
2 2
4 9 1
5 23 2
5 2 5 4
10 10 ? 32 5 ?
2t 2 5t 5 10 1 51 4s8xd 2 5x 5 260 2 1 5 23
215 6 9 9
23t 5 10 32x 2 5x 5 260
2 5 ? 27 ?
2 1 51 2 5 23
23t 10 3 3 27x 5 260 9
5
23 23
3 ? 27x 260 23 5 23
51 5
10 3 27 27
t5
23
151 20
x52
9

1 1
71. x115 x24 Check:
3 12
1 ? 1
s220d 1 1 5 s220d 2 4
12 113 x 1 12 5 1121 x 2 4212 3 12
220 3 ? 220
4x 1 12 5 x 2 48 1 5 24
3 3 12
4x 1 12 2 x 5 x 2 48 2 x
217 ? 25 12
5 2
3x 1 12 5 248 3 3 3
3x 1 12 2 12 5 248 2 12 17 17
2 52
3 3
3x 5 260
3x 260
5
3 3
x 5 220
Section 1.1 Linear Equations 97

25 2 4u 5u 1 12 Check:
73. 5 16
25 2 4s2 31 d ? 5s2 31 d 1 12
3 4 8 8
5 16
125 23 4u2 5 15u 14 12 1 6212
3 4
12 32 40
25 1 31 ? 2 31 1 12
5 16
4s25 2 4ud 5 3s5u 1 12d 1 72 3 4

100 2 16u 5 15u 1 36 1 72 25 32 ? 210


1 5 1316
3 93 31
100 2 16u 5 15u 1 108
775 32 ? 210 93 186
100 2 16u 1 16u 5 15u 1 108 1 16u 1 5 1 1
93 93 31 31 31
100 5 31u 1 108 807 ? 269
5
100 2 108 5 31u 1 108 2 108 93 31

28 5 31u 269 269


5
31 31
28 31u
5
31 31
8
2 5u
31

75. 0.3x 1 1.5 5 8.4 Check: 77. 1.2sx 2 3d 5 10.8 Check:


? ?
10s0.3x 1 1.5d 5 s8.4d10 0.3s23d 1 1.5 5 8.4 1.2x 2 3.6 5 10.8 1.2s12 2 3d 5 10.8
? ?
3x 1 15 5 84 6.9 1 1.5 5 8.4 10s1.2x 2 3.6d 5 s10.8d10 1.2s9d 5 10.8
3x 1 15 2 15 5 84 2 15 8.4 5 8.4 12x 2 36 5 108 10.8 5 10.8
3x 5 69 12x 2 36 1 36 5 108 1 36
3x 69 12x 5 144
5
3 3
12x 144
5
x 5 23 12 12
x 5 12

2 1
79. s2x 2 4d 5 sx 1 3d 2 4 Check:
3 2

312 4 1 2
2 1 ? 1 1
24 5 13 24
3 4 3 4
2 1 2
6 s2x 2 4d 5 sx 1 3d 2 4 6 3 5 2 5
3 2
4s2x 2 4d 5 3sx 1 3d 2 24 1
3 5 5
5
2 5 2
2 2 20 ? 1 1 15
2 1
5
24 1 2
8x 2 16 5 3x 1 9 2 24
8x 2 16 5 3x 2 15 1
3 5
5 2
2 18 ? 1 16
2
2 5
24 1 2
8x 2 3x 2 16 5 3x 2 3x 2 15 12 ? 8 20
2 5 2
5 5 5
5x 2 16 5 215
12 12
5x 2 16 1 16 5 215 1 16 2 52
5 5
5x 5 1
5x 1
5
5 5
1
x5
5
98 Chapter 1 Linear Equations and Inequalities

Verbal First Second Verbal First even Second even


81. 1 5 251 83. 1 5 166
Model: integer integer Model: integer integer

Labels: n 5 first integer Labels: n 5 first even integer


n 1 1 5 second integer n 1 2 5 second even integer
Equation: n 1 sn 1 1d 5 251 Equation: n 1 sn 1 2d 5 166
2n 1 1 5 251 2n 1 2 5 166
2n 1 1 2 1 5 251 2 1 2n 1 2 2 2 5 166 2 2
2n 5 250 2n 5 164
2n 250 2n 164
5 5
2 2 2 2
n 5 125 n 5 82
n 1 1 5 126 n 1 2 5 84

Verbal Number
85. 162 1 32 ? 5 210 87. The fountain reaches its maximum height when the veloc-
Model: of hours
ity of the stream of water is zero.

Label: n 5 number of hours for the repair 0 5 48 2 32t

Equation: 162 1 32n 5 210 0 1 32t 5 48 2 32t 1 32t

162 2 162 1 32n 5 210 2 162 32t 5 48

32n 5 48 32t 48
5
32 32
32n 48
5 3
32 32 t5 seconds 5 1.5 seconds
2
3
n5
2
The repairs took 1.5 hours to complete.

t t
89. 1 51
10 15
3t 2t
1 51
30 30
5t
51
30
t
51
6

6 16t 2 5 6s1d
t 5 6 hours

91. (a)
t 1 1.5 2 3 4 5

Width 300 240 200 150 120 100

Length 300 360 400 450 480 500

Area 90,000 86,400 80,000 67,500 57,600 50,000

—CONTINUED—
Section 1.2 Linear Equations and Problem Solving 99

91. (a) —CONTINUED—


If t 5 1: 1200 5 2w 1 2w If t 5 1.5: 1200 5 2w 1 2s1.5wd If t 5 2: 1200 5 2w 1 2s2wd
1200 5 4w 1200 5 5w 1200 5 6w
300 5 w 240 5 w 200 5 w
300 5 l 360 5 l 400 5 l
If t 5 3: 1200 5 2w 1 2s3wd If t 5 4: 1200 5 2w 1 2s4wd If t 5 5: 1200 5 2w 1 2s5wd
1200 5 8w 1200 5 10w 1200 5 12w
150 5 w 120 5 w 100 5 w
450 5 l 480 5 l 500 5 l
(b) Since the length is t times the width and the perimeter is fixed, as t gets larger, the length gets larger and the area gets
smaller. The maximum area occurs when the length and width are equal.

93. 5500 5 207t 1 4962 95. A conditional equation is an equation whose solution set
is not the entire set of real numbers. An identity is an
5500 2 4962 5 207t 1 4962 2 4962
equation whose solution set is all real numbers.
538 5 207t
538 207t
5
207 207
2.6 < t
From the graph, 1993 is the year in which expenditures
reached $5500.

97. Evaluating an expression means finding its value when its variables are replaced by real numbers. Solving an equation means
finding all values of the variable for which the equation is true.

99. Equivalent equations have the same solution set. For example, 3x 1 4 5 10 and 3x 2 6 5 0 are equivalent.

101. False. Multiplying both sides of an equation by zero does not yield an equivalent equation.

Section 1.2 Linear Equations and Problem Solving

Verbal Verbal Annual Amount of


1. Model: Number 1 30 5 82 3. Model: 5 26 ? 1 Bonus
salary each paycheck
Label: Number 5 x Labels: Annual salary 5 30,500
Equation: x 1 30 5 82 Amount of each paycheck 5 x
x 1 30 2 30 5 82 2 30 Bonus 5 2300

x 5 52 Equation: 30,500 5 26x 1 2300


30,500 2 2300 5 26x 1 2300 2 2300
28,200 5 26x
28,200 26x
5
26 26
$1084.62 5 x
Section 1.2 Linear Equations and Problem Solving 99

91. (a) —CONTINUED—


If t 5 1: 1200 5 2w 1 2w If t 5 1.5: 1200 5 2w 1 2s1.5wd If t 5 2: 1200 5 2w 1 2s2wd
1200 5 4w 1200 5 5w 1200 5 6w
300 5 w 240 5 w 200 5 w
300 5 l 360 5 l 400 5 l
If t 5 3: 1200 5 2w 1 2s3wd If t 5 4: 1200 5 2w 1 2s4wd If t 5 5: 1200 5 2w 1 2s5wd
1200 5 8w 1200 5 10w 1200 5 12w
150 5 w 120 5 w 100 5 w
450 5 l 480 5 l 500 5 l
(b) Since the length is t times the width and the perimeter is fixed, as t gets larger, the length gets larger and the area gets
smaller. The maximum area occurs when the length and width are equal.

93. 5500 5 207t 1 4962 95. A conditional equation is an equation whose solution set
is not the entire set of real numbers. An identity is an
5500 2 4962 5 207t 1 4962 2 4962
equation whose solution set is all real numbers.
538 5 207t
538 207t
5
207 207
2.6 < t
From the graph, 1993 is the year in which expenditures
reached $5500.

97. Evaluating an expression means finding its value when its variables are replaced by real numbers. Solving an equation means
finding all values of the variable for which the equation is true.

99. Equivalent equations have the same solution set. For example, 3x 1 4 5 10 and 3x 2 6 5 0 are equivalent.

101. False. Multiplying both sides of an equation by zero does not yield an equivalent equation.

Section 1.2 Linear Equations and Problem Solving

Verbal Verbal Annual Amount of


1. Model: Number 1 30 5 82 3. Model: 5 26 ? 1 Bonus
salary each paycheck
Label: Number 5 x Labels: Annual salary 5 30,500
Equation: x 1 30 5 82 Amount of each paycheck 5 x
x 1 30 2 30 5 82 2 30 Bonus 5 2300

x 5 52 Equation: 30,500 5 26x 1 2300


30,500 2 2300 5 26x 1 2300 2 2300
28,200 5 26x
28,200 26x
5
26 26
$1084.62 5 x
100 Chapter 1 Linear Equations and Inequalities

5. Percent: 30% 7. Percent: 7.5% 9. Percent: 12.5%


Parts out of 100: 30 Parts out of 100: 7.5 Parts out of 100: 12.5
Decimal: 0.30 Decimal: 0.075 Decimal: 0.125
30 3 75 3 1
Fraction: 100 5 10 Fraction: 1000 5 40 Fraction: 8

Verbal Compared Base Verbal Compared Base


11.
Model: number
5 Percent ? number
13.
Model: number
5 Percent ? number

Labels: Compared number 5 a Labels: Compared number 5 a


Percent 5 p Percent 5 p
Base number 5 b Base number 5 b
Equation: a5p?b Equation: a5p?b
a 5 s0.35ds250d a 5 s0.085ds816d
a 5 87.5 a 5 69.36

Verbal Compared Base Verbal Compared Base


15.
Model: number
5 Percent ? number
17.
Model: number
5 Percent ? number

Labels: Compared number 5 a Labels: Compared number 5 a


Percent 5 p Percent 5 p
Base number 5 b Base number 5 b
Equation: a5p?b Equation: a5p?b
a 5 s0.004ds150,000d 84 5 s0.24dsbd
a 5 600 84
5b
0.24
350 5 b

Verbal Compared Base Verbal Compared Base


19.
Model: number
5 Percent ? number
21.
Model: number
5 Percent ? number

Labels: Compared number 5 a Labels: Compared number 5 a


Percent 5 p Percent 5 p
Base number 5 b Base number 5 b
Equation: a5p?b Equation: a5p?b
42 5 s0.105dsbd 96 5 s0.008dsbd
42 96
5b 5b
0.105 0.008
400 5 b 12,000 5 b
Section 1.2 Linear Equations and Problem Solving 101

Verbal Compared Base Verbal Compared Base


23.
Model: number
5 Percent ? number
25.
Model: number
5 Percent ? number

Labels: Compared number 5 a Labels: Compared number 5 a


Percent 5 p Percent 5 p
Base number 5 b Base number 5 b
Equation: a5p?b Equation: a5p?b
1650 5 s pds5000d 2100 5 s pds1200d
1650 2100
5000 5p 1200 5p
3313% 5p 175% 5 p

120 meters 12 2 36 inches 36 3 40 milliliters 0.04 liter


27. 5 5 29. 5 5 31. 5
180 meters 18 3 48 inches 48 4 1 liter 1
4 1
5 5
100 25

5 pounds 80 ounces 10 x 2 t 3
33. 5 5 35. 5 37. 5
24 ounces 24 ounces 3 6 3 4 2
2 3
x56 ?3 t54?
2
x54 t56

5 t y y22 y11 y21


39. 5 41. 5 43. 5
4 6 6 4 10 6
5 4y 5 6s y 2 2d 6s y 1 1d 5 10s y 2 1d
t5
4
?6
4y 5 6y 2 12 6y 1 6 5 10y 2 10
15 1
t5 5 7 5 7.5 12 5 2y 16 5 4y
2 2
65y 45y

Verbal Total Verbal Students Total


45.
Model:
Freshmen 5 Percent ? 47.
Model: failing test
5 Percent ? students
enrollment
Labels: Freshmen 5 a Labels: Students failing test 5 a
Percent 5 p Percent 5 p
Total enrollment 5 b Total students 5 b
Equation: a5p?b Equation: a5p?b
a 5 s0.38ds3000d a 5 s1 2 0.95ds40d
a 5 1140 a 5 s0.05ds40d
a52
102 Chapter 1 Linear Equations and Inequalities

Verbal Number Number of Verbal Cost of


49.
Model:
5 Percent ? 51.
Model:
Tip 5 Percent ? meal
laid off employees

Labels: Number laid off 5 a Labels: Tip 5 a


Percent 5 p Percent 5 p
Number of employees 5 b Cost of meal 5 b

Equation: a5p?b Equation: 10 2 8.45 5 p ? 8.45

25 5 s pds160d 1.55 5 p ? 8.45


25 1.55 p ? 8.45
5p 5
160 8.45 8.45

15.625% 5 p 0.18 < p


18% < p

Verbal Price of Verbal Defective Total


53.
Model:
Commission 5 Percent ? 55.
Model:
5 Percent ? parts
home parts

Labels: Commission 5 a Labels: Defective parts 5 a


Percent 5 p Percent 5 p
Price of home 5 b Total parts 5 b
Equation: 12,250 5 p ? 175,000 Equation: a5p?b
12,250 p ? 175,000 3 5 s0.015dsbd
5
175,000 175,000
3
0.07 5 p 5b
0.015
7% 5 p 200 5 b total parts

Verbal Area of Area of Verbal Area of Area of


57. (a)
Model: larger floor
5 Percent ? smaller floor
(b)
Model: smaller floor
5 Percent ? larger floor

Labels: Area of larger floor 5 a Labels: Area of smaller floor 5 a


Percent 5 p Percent 5 p
Area of smaller floor 5 b Area of larger floor 5 b
Equation: a5p?b Equation: a5p?b
320 5 s pds180d 180 5 s pds320d
320 ps180d 180 ps320d
5 5
180 180 320 320
1.7778 < p 0.5625 < p
177.78% < p 56.25% < p
Section 1.2 Linear Equations and Problem Solving 103

Verbal County’s Total


59.
Model: population
5 Percent ? population

Labels: County's population 5 a


Percent 5 p
Total population 5 b
Equation: a5p?b
Monroe: Spring: Washington:
457,500 5 ps1,483,700d 258,700 5 ps1,483,700d 89,100 5 ps1,483,700d
457,500 258,700 89,100
5p 5p 5p
1,483,700 1,483,700 1,483,700
0.3084 < p 0.1744 < p 0.0601 < p
30.84% < p 17.44% < p 6.01% < p

West: Howard: Clark:


189,400 5 ps1,483,700d 167,700 5 ps1,483,700d 321,300 5 ps1,483,700d
189,400 167,700 321,300
5p 5p 5p
1,483,700 1,483,700 1,483,700
0.1277 < p 0.1130 < p 0.2166 < p
12.77% < p 11.30% < p 21.66% < p

61. Using the bar graph, the decrease in the per capita consumption of beef from 1980 to 1995 is approximately 8 pounds. The
approximate percent decrease is:

Verbal Amount of Beef consumption


Model: decrease
5 Percent ? in 1980

Labels: Amount of decrease 5 a


Percent 5 p
Beef consumption in 1980 5 b
Equation: a5p ?b
8 5 p ? 70
8
70 5 p < 11%

Verbal Total number of pounds Number of pounds of pork Number of


63. Model: of pork consumed
5
consumed per capita
? persons

Equation: x 5 47 ? 250,000,000
x < 11,750 million pounds

Tax 12.50 125 1 Expanded volume 425 cu cm 85


65. 5 5 5 67. 5 5
Pay 625 6250 50 Compressed volume 20 cu cm 4

Area 1 ps4d2 16p 4 Total price 0.95 90


69. 5 5 5 71. 5 5 5 $0.0475 per ounce
Area 2 ps6d2 36p 9 Total units 20 2000
104 Chapter 1 Linear Equations and Inequalities

Total price 1.69 169 2.32


73. 5 5 5 $0.0845 per ounce 75. (a) Unit price 5 5 $0.16 per ounce
Total units 20 2000 14.5
0.99
(b) Unit price 5 5 $0.18 per ounce
5.5
1
The 142-ounce bag is a better buy.

1.69 x 4
77. (a) Unit price 5 5 $0.4225 per ounce 79. Proportion: 5
4 7 5.5
2.39 4
(b) Unit price 5 5 $0.3983 per ounce x57?
6 5.5
1
The 6-ounce tube is a better buy. x 5 511

x 2 h 6
81. Proportion: 5 83. Proportion: 5
6 4 86 11

x56
2
?4 h5
6 ? 86
11
x53 516
h5
11
h < 46.9 feet

5 x Verbal Tax Tax


85. Proportion: 5 87. 5
105 360 Model: Assessed value Assessed value
5 ? 360 x 1650
x5 Proportion: 5
105 160,000 110,000
1800 1650
x5
105
x 5 160,000 ? 110,000
x < 17.1 gallons x 5 $2400 taxes

Verbal Defective units Defective units


89. 5
Model: Total units Total units

x 1
Proportion: 5
200,000 75
1
x 5 200,000 ?
75
x 5 2667 defective units

91. Percent means parts out of 100. 93. No, 12 % Þ 50%.


0.5% 5 0.005
50% 5 0.5

95. No. It is necessary to know one of the following: the total 97. Mathematical modeling is using mathematics to solve
number of students in the class, the number of boys in problems that occur in real-life situations. For examples
the class, or the number of girls in the class. review the real-life problems in the exercise set.
Section 1.3 Business and Scientific Problems 105

Section 1.3 Business and Scientific Problems

Verbal Selling Verbal Selling


1. Model: 5 Cost 1 Markup 3. Model: 5 Cost 1 Markup
price price

Labels: Selling price 5 64.33 Labels: Selling price 5 250.80


Cost 5 45.97 Cost 5 x
Markup 5 x Markup 5 98.80
Equation: 64.33 5 45.97 1 x Equation: 250.80 5 x 1 98.80
x 5 64.33 2 45.97 250.80 2 98.80 5 x
x 5 $18.36 $152.00 5 x

Verbal Markup Verbal Markup


Model: Markup 5 rate ? Cost Model: Markup 5 rate ? Cost

Labels: Markup 5 18.36 Labels: Markup 5 98.80


Markup rate 5 x Markup rate 5 x
Cost 5 45.97 Cost 5 152.00
Equation: 18.36 5 x ? 45.97 Equation: 98.80 5 x ? 152.00
18.36 98.80
5x 5x
45.97 152.00
40% 5 x 65% 5 x

Verbal Selling Verbal Markup


5. Model: price
5 Cost 1 Markup 7. Model: Markup 5 rate ? Cost

Labels: Selling price 5 26,922.50 Labels: Markup 5 x


Cost 5 x Markup rate 5 85.2%
Markup 5 4672.50 Cost 5 225.00
Equation: 26,922.50 5 x 1 4672.50 Equation: x 5 85.2% ? 225.00
26,922.50 2 4672.50 5 x x 5 $191.70
$22,250.00 5 x
Verbal Selling
Model: 5 Cost 1 Markup
price
Verbal Markup
Model: Markup 5 rate ? Cost
Labels: Selling price 5 x
Labels: Markup 5 4672.50 Cost 5 225.00
Markup rate 5 x Markup 5 191.70
Cost 5 22,250.00 Equation: x 5 225.00 1 191.70
Equation: 4672.50 5 x ? 22,250.00 x 5 $416.70
4672.50
5x
22,250.00
21% 5 x
106 Chapter 1 Linear Equations and Inequalities

Verbal Sale List Verbal Sale List


9. 5 2 Discount 11. 5 2 Discount
Model: price price Model: price price

Labels: Sale price 5 25.74 Labels: Sale price 5 x


List price 5 49.95 List price 5 300.00
Discount 5 x Discount 5 189.00
Equation: 25.74 5 49.95 2 x Equation: x 5 300.00 2 189.00
x 5 49.95 2 25.74 x 5 $111.00
x 5 $24.21
Verbal Discount List
Model:
Discount 5
rate
? price
Verbal Discount List
Model:
Discount 5
rate
? price Labels: Discount 5 189.00
Labels: Discount 5 24.21 Discount rate 5 x
Discount rate 5 x List price 5 300.00
List price 5 49.95 Equation: 189.00 5 x ? 300.00
Equation: 24.21 5 x ? 49.95 189.00
5x
300.00
24.21
5x
49.95 63% 5 x
48.5% < x

Verbal Discount List Verbal Sale List


13.
Model:
Discount 5
rate
? price
15.
Model: price
5
price
2 Discount

Labels: Discount 5 x Labels: Sale price 5 893.10


Discount rate 5 65% List price 5 x
List price 5 95.00 Discount 5 251.90
Equation: x 5 65% ? 95.00 Equation: 893.10 5 x 2 251.90
x 5 $61.75 893.10 1 251.90 5 x
$1145.00 5 x
Verbal Sale List
5 2 Discount
Model: price price
Verbal Discount List
Model:
Discount 5
rate
?
Labels: Sale price 5 x price
List price 5 95.00 Labels: Discount 5 251.90
Discount 5 61.75 Discount rate 5 x
Equation: x 5 95.00 2 61.75 List price 5 1145.00
x 5 $33.25 Equation: 251.90 5 x ? 1145.00
251.90
5x
1145.005
22% 5 x
Section 1.3 Business and Scientific Problems 107

Verbal Selling Verbal Selling


17. Model: 5 Cost 1 Markup 19. Model: 5 Cost 1 Markup
price price

Labels: Selling price 5 85 Labels: Selling price 5 25


Cost 5 62.95 Cost 5 15
Markup 5 x Markup 5 x
Equation: 85 5 62.95 1 x Equation: 25 5 15 1 x
x 5 85 2 62.95 10 5 x
x 5 $22.05
Verbal Markup
Model: Markup 5 rate ? Cost

Labels: Markup 5 10
Markup rate 5 x
Cost 5 15
Equation: 10 5 x ? 15
10
15 5x
66 23 % 5x

Verbal Sale List Verbal Sale List


21. 5 2 Discount 23. 5 2 Discount
Model: price price Model: price price

Labels: Sale price 5 50 Labels: Sale price 5 16


List price 5 75 List price 5 20
Discount 5 x Discount 5 x
Equation: 50 5 75 2 x Equation: 16 5 20 2 x
x 5 75 2 50 x 5 20 2 16
x 5 $25 x 5 $4

Verbal Discount List


Model:
Discount 5
rate
? price

Labels: Discount 5 4
Discount rate 5 x
List price 5 20
Equation: 4 5 x ? 20
4
20 5x
20% 5 x

Verbal Total Cost of Cost of


25. Model: 5 1
cost first minute additional minutes
Labels: Total cost 5 5.15
Cost of first minute 5 0.75
Cost of additional minutes 5 0.55x
Equation: 5.15 5 0.75 1 0.55x
4.40 5 0.55x
85x
Length of call 5 9 minutes
—CONTINUED—
108 Chapter 1 Linear Equations and Inequalities

25. —CONTINUED—

Verbal Discount List Verbal Selling List


Model:
Discount 5
rate
? price Model: price
5
price
2 Discount

Labels: Discount 5 x Labels: Selling price 5 x


Discount rate 5 60% List price 5 5.15
List price 5 5.15 Discount 5 3.09
Equation: x 5 60% ? 5.15 Equation: x 5 5.15 2 3.09
x 5 $3.09 x 5 $2.06

Verbal Selling Verbal Sales Sales


27. Model: Cost 1 Markup 5
price
29. Model: tax 5 tax rate ? Cost

Labels: Cost 5 x Labels: Sales tax 5 x


Markup 5 0.10x Sales tax rate 5 6%
Selling price 5 59.565 Cost 5 4450
(Each tire costs $19.855, so three tires cost Equation: x 5 6% ? 4450
$59.565.)
x 5 $267
Equation: x 1 0.10x 5 59.565
1.10x 5 59.565 Verbal Total Sales
Model: bill 5 Cost 1 tax
x 5 $54.15
Labels: Total bill 5 x
Cost 5 4450
Sales tax 5 267
Equation: x 5 4450 1 267
x 5 $4717

Verbal Amount Total


Model: financed 5 bill 2 Down payment

Labels: Amount financed 5 x


Total bill 5 4717
Down payment 5 1000
Equation: x 5 4717 2 1000
x 5 $3717

Verbal Total Bill for Bill for Verbal Total Bill for Bill for
bill 5 parts 1 labor bill 5 parts 1 labor
31. Model: 33. Model:

Labels: Total bill 5 216.37 Labels: Total bill 5 380


Bill for parts 5 136.37 Bill for parts 5 275
Bill for labor 5 32x Bill for labor 5 35x
Number of hours of labor 5 x Number of hours of labor 5 x
Equation: 216.37 5 136.37 1 32x Equation: 380 5 1275 1 35x
80 5 32x 105 5 35x
105
80
32 5x 35 5x
2.5 hours 5 x 3 hours 5 x
Section 1.3 Business and Scientific Problems 109

Verbal Amount of Amount of Amount of Verbal Amount of Amount of Amount of


35. Model: 1 5 37. Model: 1 5
solution 1 solution 2 final solution solution 1 solution 2 final solution

Labels: Percent of solution 1 5 20% Labels: Percent of solution 1 5 15%


Gallons of solution 1 5 x Quarts of solution 1 5 x
Percent of solution 2 5 60% Percent of solution 2 5 60%
Gallons of solution 2 5 100 2 x Quarts of solution 2 5 24 2 x
Percent of final solution 5 40% Percent of final solution 5 45%
Gallons of final solution 5 100 Quarts of final solution 5 24
Equation: 0.20x 1 0.60s100 2 xd 5 0.40s100d Equation: 0.15x 1 0.60s24 2 xd 5 0.45s24d
0.20x 1 60 2 0.60x 5 40 0.15x 1 14.4 2 0.60x 5 10.8
20.40x 5 220 20.45x 5 23.6
x 5 50 gallons at 20% x 5 8 quarts at 15%
100 2 x 5 50 gallons at 60% 24 2 x 5 16 quarts at 60%

Verbal Cost of Cost of Cost of final Verbal Total Adult Children


39. Model: 1 5 41. 5 1
seed 1 seed 2 seed mix Model: sales sales sales
Labels: Number of pounds of seed 1 5 x Labels: Total sales 5 2200
Cost per pound of seed 1 5 12 Number of adult tickets 5 3x
Number of pounds of seed 2 5 100 2 x Price of adult tickets 5 6
Cost per pound of seed 2 5 20 Number of children tickets 5 x
Number of pounds of final seed mix 5 100 Price of children tickets 5 4
Cost per pound of final seed mix 5 14 Equation: 2200 5 6s3xd 1 4x
Equation: 12x 1 20s100 2 xd 5 14s100d 2200 5 18x 1 4x
12x 1 2000 2 20x 5 1400 2200 5 22x
28x 5 2600 100 children tickets 5 x
x 5 75 pounds at $12 per pound
100 2 x 5 25 pounds at $20 per pound

Original Some Final


Verbal
43. antifreeze 2 antifreeze 1 Pure 5 antifreeze
Model: antifreeze
solution solution solution

Labels: Number of gallons of original antifreeze 5 5


Percent of antifreeze in original mix 5 40%
Number of gallons antifreeze withdrawn 5 x
Number of gallons of pure antifreeze 5 x
Percent of pure antifreeze 5 100%
Number of gallons of final solution 5 5
Percent of antifreeze in final solution 5 50%
Equation: 0.40s5d 2 0.40x 1 1.00x 5 0.50s5d
2 2 0.40x 1 1.00x 5 2.5
0.60x 5 0.5
x 5 56 gallon
110 Chapter 1 Linear Equations and Inequalities

Verbal Verbal
45.
Model:
Distance 5 Rate ? Time 47.
Model:
Distance 5 Rate ? Time

Labels: Distance 5 d Labels: Distance 5 1000


Rate 5 650 Rate 5 110
Time 5 3.5 Time 5 t
Equation: d 5 650 ? 3.5 Equation: 1000 5 110 ? t
1000
d 5 2275 miles 110 5t
100
11 hour 5 t

Verbal Verbal
49.
Model:
Distance 5 Rate ? Time 51.
Model:
Distance 5 Rate ? Time

Labels: Distance 5 1000 Labels: Distance 5 30


Rate 5 r Rate 5 12
Time 5 32 Time 5 x
3 Equation: 30 5 12x
Equation: 1000 5 r ?
2
30
5x
1000 12
5r
3y2
2.5 hours 5 x
2000
ftysec 5 r
3

Verbal Verbal
53.
Model:
Distance 5 Rate ? Time 55.
Model:
Distance 5 Rate ? Time

Labels: Distance 5 x Labels: Distance 5 5000


Rates 5 480 and 600 Rate 5 17,000
Time 5 43 Time 5 t
Equation: x 5 480s43 d 1 600s43 d Equation: 5000 5 17,000 ? t
5000
x 5 1440 miles 17,000 5t
5
17 hour 5 t
17.65 minutes < t

Verbal
57.
Model:
Distance 5 Rate ? Time 59. (a) Printer’s rate 5 8 pages per minute

Labels: Distance 5 317 (b) Shop’s rate 5 30 units in 8 hours


30
Rate for first part of trip 5 58 5 8 units per hour
Time for first part of trip 5 x 5
15
4 units per hour
Rate for second part of trip 5 52
Time for second part of trip 5 534 2 x
Equation: 58x 5 58 ? x s1st part of tripd
52s 534 2 xd 5 52 ? s534 2 xd s2nd part of tripd
317 5 58x 1 52s534 2 xd
317 5 58x 1 299 2 52x
18 5 6x
3 hours 5 x s1st part of trip at 58 mphd
24 hours 5 54 2 x s2nd part of trip at 52 mphd
3 3
Section 1.3 Business and Scientific Problems 111

61. (a) Your rate 5 13 job per hour


1
Friend’s rate 5 4 job per hour
Verbal Work Work done Work done
(b) 5 1
Model: done by you by friend

Labels: Work done 5 1


1
Your rate 5 3
Your time 5 t
Friend’s rate 5 14
Friend’s time 5 t

Equation: 15 1132std 1 1142std


15 113 1 412t
15 1127 2t
1
5t
7y12
5 12
1 hours 5 hours 5 t
7 7

1
63. E 5 IR 65. S 5 L 2 rL 67. h 5 48t 1 at 2
2
E S 5 Ls1 2 rd
5R 1
I h 2 48t 5 at 2
S 2
5L
12r
2sh 2 48td 5 at 2
2h 2 96t 5 at 2
2h 2 96t
5a
t2

69. Common formula: V 5 lwh 71. Common formula: V 5 p r 2h


Equation: V 5 3 ? 4 ?2 Equation: V 5 p s312 d 12
2

V 5 24 cubic units V 5 147p


V < 461.8 cubic centimeters

Verbal Verbal
73.
Model: Perimeter 5 2 Width 1 2 Height 75. Model: Perimeter 5 Side 1 Side 1 Side

Labels: Perimeter 5 3 Equation: 129 5 x 1 x 1 x


Height 5 x 129 5 3x
Width 5 0.62x
43 5 x 43 cm 43 cm
Equation: 3 5 2s0.62xd 1 2sxd
x 5 43 centimeters
3 5 1.24x 1 2x
3 5 3.24x 43 cm

0.926 feet < x


112 Chapter 1 Linear Equations and Inequalities

Verbal Verbal
77. Model: Interest 5 Principal ? Rate ? Time 79. Model: Interest 5 Principal ? Rate ? Time

Labels: Interest 5 I Labels: Interest 5 500


Principal 5 5000 Principal 5 P
Rate 5 9.5% Rate 5 7%
Time 5 6 Time 5 2
Equation: I 5 s5000ds0.095ds6d Equation: 500 5 sPds0.07ds2d
I 5 $2850 500 5 Ps0.14d
500
5P
0.14
$3571.43 < P

Verbal
81. Model: Interest 5 Principal ? Rate ? Time 83. (a) y 5 9.24 1 0.307t, 0 ≤ t ≤ 7
From the graph, 1993 was the year when the average
Labels: Interest 5 3500
hourly wage was $10.15.
Principal at 10% 5 x
10.15 5 9.24 1 0.307t
Principal at 8% 5 40,000 2 x
Time 5 1 0.91 5 0.307t

Equation: 3500 5 0.10x 1 0.08s40,000 2 xd 2.9641 < t

3500 5 0.10x 1 3200 2 0.08x 3<t

300 5 0.02x Yes, the result would be the same, 1993.

300 (b) The average annual hourly raise for bus drivers during
5x this 8-year period is $0.307. Determine the average
0.02
hourly wage for each year using the model. The differ-
$15,000 5 x ence between each two consecutive years is $0.307.

85. The bus drivers’ average salaries were increasing at a 87. Markup is the difference between the cost a retailer pays
greater annual rate at $0.307 compared to $0.209 for the for a product and the price at which the retailer sells the
cafeteria workers. product. Markup rate is the percent increase of the
markup.

89. If it takes you t hours to complete a task, you can com- 91. No, it quadruples. The area of a square of side s is s2. If
plete 1yt of the task in 1 hour. the length of the sides is 2s, the area is s2sd2 5 4s2.

Mid-Chapter Quiz for Chapter 1

1. 4x 1 3 5 11 Check: 2. 23sz 2 2d 5 0 Check:


? ?
4x 1 3 2 3 5 11 2 3 4s2d 1 3 5 11 23sz 2 2d 0 23s2 2 2d 5 0
5
4x 5 8
? 23 23 ?
8 1 3 5 11 23s0d 5 0
z2250
4x 8 11 5 11 050
5
4 4 z22125012
x52 z52
112 Chapter 1 Linear Equations and Inequalities

Verbal Verbal
77. Model: Interest 5 Principal ? Rate ? Time 79. Model: Interest 5 Principal ? Rate ? Time

Labels: Interest 5 I Labels: Interest 5 500


Principal 5 5000 Principal 5 P
Rate 5 9.5% Rate 5 7%
Time 5 6 Time 5 2
Equation: I 5 s5000ds0.095ds6d Equation: 500 5 sPds0.07ds2d
I 5 $2850 500 5 Ps0.14d
500
5P
0.14
$3571.43 < P

Verbal
81. Model: Interest 5 Principal ? Rate ? Time 83. (a) y 5 9.24 1 0.307t, 0 ≤ t ≤ 7
From the graph, 1993 was the year when the average
Labels: Interest 5 3500
hourly wage was $10.15.
Principal at 10% 5 x
10.15 5 9.24 1 0.307t
Principal at 8% 5 40,000 2 x
Time 5 1 0.91 5 0.307t

Equation: 3500 5 0.10x 1 0.08s40,000 2 xd 2.9641 < t

3500 5 0.10x 1 3200 2 0.08x 3<t

300 5 0.02x Yes, the result would be the same, 1993.

300 (b) The average annual hourly raise for bus drivers during
5x this 8-year period is $0.307. Determine the average
0.02
hourly wage for each year using the model. The differ-
$15,000 5 x ence between each two consecutive years is $0.307.

85. The bus drivers’ average salaries were increasing at a 87. Markup is the difference between the cost a retailer pays
greater annual rate at $0.307 compared to $0.209 for the for a product and the price at which the retailer sells the
cafeteria workers. product. Markup rate is the percent increase of the
markup.

89. If it takes you t hours to complete a task, you can com- 91. No, it quadruples. The area of a square of side s is s2. If
plete 1yt of the task in 1 hour. the length of the sides is 2s, the area is s2sd2 5 4s2.

Mid-Chapter Quiz for Chapter 1

1. 4x 1 3 5 11 Check: 2. 23sz 2 2d 5 0 Check:


? ?
4x 1 3 2 3 5 11 2 3 4s2d 1 3 5 11 23sz 2 2d 0 23s2 2 2d 5 0
5
4x 5 8
? 23 23 ?
8 1 3 5 11 23s0d 5 0
z2250
4x 8 11 5 11 050
5
4 4 z22125012
x52 z52
Mid-Chapter Quiz for Chapter 1 113

3. 2s y 1 3d 5 18 2 4y Check: 4. 5t 1 7 5 7st 1 1d 2 2t
?
2y 1 6 5 18 2 4y 2s2 1 3d 5 18 2 4s2d 5t 1 7 5 7t 1 7 2 2t
?
2y 1 4y 1 6 5 18 2 4y 1 4y 2s5d 5 18 2 8 5t 1 7 5 5t 1 7
6y 1 6 2 6 5 18 2 6 10 5 10 Identity
6y 5 12
6y 12
5
6 6
y52

1 3 u u
5. x165 x21 Check: 6. 1 51 Check:
4 2 4 3

1 2 1 2
1 28 ? 3 28 12 12
165 21 ?
1
1 3
2 1 2 1
u u
2 1 51
7 7
4 x16 54 x21 4 5 2 5 12 1 5 12s1d 4 3
4 2 4 3
7 30 ? 42 5 3 4 ?
x 1 24 5 6x 2 4 1 5 2 3u 1 4u 5 12 1 51
5 5 5 5 7 7
x 2 x 1 24 5 6x 2 4 2 x 7u 5 12
37 37 7 ?
5 51
24 5 5x 2 4 5 5 7u 12 7
5
7 7
24 1 4 5 5x 2 4 1 4 151
12
28 5 5x u5
7
28 5x
5
5 5
28
5x
5

42x 5
7. 155 Check: 8. 0.2x 1 0.3 5 1.5 Check:
5 2
42 33 ?
2 ? 5 10s0.2x 1 0.3d 5 10s1.5d 0.2s6d 1 0.3 5 1.5
42x 155
10
51 1 5 5 10
5
2 2 12 5
8
2
2x 1 3 5 15
?
1.2 1 0.3 5 1.5
2 33 ? 5
2s4 2 xd 1 50 5 25
2 2
155 2x 1 3 2 3 5 15 2 3 1.5 5 1.5
5 2
8 2 2x 1 50 5 25 2x 5 12
25 1 ? 5
22x 1 58 5 25
2
2
?51552 2x 12
5
2 2
22x 1 58 2 58 5 25 2 58 5 10 ? 5
2 1 5
2 2 2 x56
22x 5 233
5 5
22x 233 5
5 2 2
22 22
33
x5
2
114 Chapter 1 Linear Equations and Inequalities

11 5
9. 3x 1 5 10. 0.42x 1 6 5 5.25x 2 0.80
12 16
0.42x 1 6 2 5.25x 5 5.25x 2 0.80 2 5.25x
11 11 5 11
3x 1 2 5 2
12 12 16 12 24.83x 1 6 5 20.80
15 44 24.83x 1 6 2 6 5 20.80 2 6
3x 5 2
48 48 24.83x 5 26.80
29
3x 5 2 24.83x 26.80
48 5
24.83 24.83
3x 29
52 43 x < 1.41
3 48
29 1
x52
48
?3
29
x52 < 20.20
144

Verbal Compared Base


45
11. 0.45 is 45 hundredths so 0.45 5 100 9
which reduces to 20 12. Model:
number
5 Percent ? number
and since percent means hundredths, 0.45 5 45%.
Labels: Compared number 5 a
Percent 5 p
Base number 5 b
Equation: a5p?b
500 5 s2.50dsbd
500
5b
2.50
200 5 b

Total price 2.35 235 Verbal Defective units Defective units


13. 5 5 < $0.1958 per ounce 14. 5
Total units 12 1200 Model: Total units Total units

x 1
Proportion: 5
600,000 300
1
x 5 600,000 ?
300
x 5 2000 defective units

15. Store computer:


Verbal Discount List Verbal Selling List
Model:
Discount 5
rate
? price Model: price
5
price
2 Discount

Labels: Discount 5 x Labels: Selling price 5 x


Discount rate 5 0.25 List price 5 1750
List price 5 1750 Discount 5 437.50
Equation: x 5 s0.25ds1750d Equation: x 5 1750 2 437.50
x 5 $437.50 x 5 $1312.50
—CONTINUED—
Mid-Chapter Quiz for Chapter 1 115

15. —CONTINUED—
Mail-order catalog computer
Verbal Selling List
5 1 Shipping
Model: price price

Labels: Selling price 5 x


List price 5 1250
Shipping 5 24.95
Equation: x 5 1250 1 24.95
x 5 $1274.95
The mail-order catalog computer is the better buy.

Verbal Total Regular Overtime Verbal Amount of Amount of Amount of


16. Model: 5 1 17. Model: 1 5
wages wages wages solution 1 solution 2 final solution

Labels: Total wages 5 616 Labels: Percent of solution 1 5 25%


Regular wages 5 40s12.25d Gallons of solution 1 5 x
Overtime wages 5 xs18d Percent of solution 2 5 50%
Number of hours 5 x Gallons of solution 2 5 50 2 x
Percent of final solution 5 30%
Equation: 616 5 40s12.25d 1 xs18d
Gallons of final solution 5 50
616 5 490 1 18x
Equation: 0.25x 1 0.50s50 2 xd 5 0.30s50d
126 5 18x
0.25x 1 25 2 0.50x 5 15
7 hours 5 x
25 2 0.25x 5 15
20.25x 5 210
x 5 40 gallons at 25%
50 2 x 5 10 gallons at 50%

Verbal
18.
Model:
Distance 5 Rate ? Time

Labels: Distance 5 500


Rate of first part 5 62
Time for first part 5 x
Rate of second part 5 46
Time for second part 5 6 2 x
Equation: 300 5 62x 1 46s6 2 xd
300 5 62x 1 276 2 46x
24 5 16x
1.5 hours 5 x sfirst part of trip at 62 mphd
4.5 hours 5 6 2 x ssecond part of trip at 46 mphd
116 Chapter 1 Linear Equations and Inequalities

Verbal Work Portion done Portion done by


5
by first person 1 second person
19.
Model: done

Labels: Work done 5 1


Rate of first person 5 16
Rate of second person 5 18
Time for both 5 t
Equation: 1 5 s16 dstd 1 s18 dstd
1 5 s16 1 18 dstd
1 5 s14
48 dstd
24
3.43 hours < 7 5 48
14 5 t

20. Perimeter of square I 5 20 Perimeter of square II 5 32


4s 5 20 4s 5 32
s55 s58
Length of side of square III 5 5 1 8 Area 5 s2
5 13 5 132
5 169 square inches

Section 1.4 Linear Inequalities

(c) 7s52 d 2 10 > 0 (d) 7s2 d 2 10 > 0


1
1. (a) 7s3d 2 10 > 0 (b) 7s22d 2 10 > 0
7
21 2 10 > 0 214 2 10 > 0 35
2 2 10 > 0 2 2 10 > 0
7
11 > 0 224 > 0 35
2 2 20
2 > 0 2 2 20
2 > 0
13
Yes No 15
2 > 0 22 > 0
Yes No

10 1 5 415 015 26 1 5
3. (a) 0 < < 2 (b) 0 < < 2 (c) 0 < < 2 (d) 0 < < 2
6 6 6 6
15 9 5 21
0 < < 2 0 < < 2 0 < < 2 0 < < 2
6 6 6 6
3 3 Yes No
0 < 2 < 2 0 < 1 < 2
6 6
No Yes

5. Matches graph (d). 7. Matches graph (a). 9. Matches graph (f).


4 −4 4 −1 2
x x x

0 1 2 3 4 5 −6 −4 −2 0 2 4 6 −2 −1 0 1 2

11. Matches graph (a). 13. Matches graph (d). 15. x ≤ 2


−1 1 −2 1 x
x x −2 −1 0 1 2 3
−2 −1 0 1 2 −2 −1 0 1 2
Section 1.4 Linear Inequalities 117

17. x > 3.5 19. 25 < x ≤ 3 21. 4 > x ≥ 1

3.5 −5 3 x
x x 0 1 2 3 4 5
0 1 2 3 4 5 −6 −4 −2 0 2 4

23.
3
≥ x > 0 25. x < 25 or x ≥ 21 27. x ≤ 3 or x > 7
2

3 −5 −1 3 7
2 x x
x −8 −6 −4 −2 0 2 0 2 4 6 8
−1 0 1 2 3

29. 5 2 13 x > 8 31. x24 ≥ 0 33. x17 ≤ 9


23s5 2 13 xd < s8d 2 3 x2414 ≥ 014 x1727 ≤ 927
215 1 x < 224 x ≥ 4 x ≤ 2
x
x
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0 1 2 3

3
35. 2x < 8 37. 29x ≥ 36 39. 2 x < 26
4
2x 8 29x 36
< ≤ 4 3 4
2 2 29 29 2
3
? 24x > 26 ? 23
x < 4 x ≤ 24
x > 8
x x
−2 0 2 4 6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 x
0 2 4 6 8 10

41. 5 2 x ≤ 22 43. 2x 2 5 > 9 45. 5 2 3x < 7


5 2 x 2 5 ≤ 22 2 5 2x 2 5 1 5 > 9 1 5 5 2 3x 2 5 < 7 2 5
2x ≤ 27 2x > 14 23x < 2
21 ?x ≥ 27 ? 21 2x 14
>
23x
>
2
2 2 23 23
x ≥ 7
x > 7 2
x > 2
x 3
5 6 7 8 9 x
2
5 6 7 8 9
3
x
2 1 0 1

47. 3x 2 11 > 2x 1 7 49. 23x 1 7 < 8x 2 13


3x 2 11 1 x > 2x 1 7 1 x 23x 2 8x 1 7 < 8x 2 8x 2 13
4x 2 11 > 7 211x 1 7 < 213
4x 2 11 1 11 > 7 1 11 211x 1 7 2 7 < 213 2 7
4x > 18 211x < 220 20
11
4x 18 211x 220 x
> 9 > 0 1 2 3
4 4 2 211 211
x
0 2 4 6
9 20
x > x >
2 11
118 Chapter 1 Linear Equations and Inequalities

x x x24 x
51. > 22 53. 13 ≤
4 2 3 8

4 14x 2 > 12 2 2x 24 8
3
24 1x 23 4 1 32 ≤ 18x 224
x
x > 8 2 2x 0 1 2 3 8sx 2 4d 1 72 ≤ 3x x
−12 −10 −8 −6 −4 −2 0
x 1 2x > 8 2 2 1 2x 8x 2 32 1 72 ≤ 3x
3x > 8 8x 1 40 ≤ 3x
3x 8 8x 2 3x 1 40 ≤ 3x 2 3x
>
3 3
5x 1 40 ≤ 0
8
x > 5x 1 40 2 40 ≤ 0 2 40
3
5x ≤ 240
5x 40
≤ 2
5 5
x ≤ 28

3x 2x
55. 24 < 23 57. 0 < 2x 2 5 < 9
5 3
0 1 5 < 2x 2 5 1 5 < 9 1 5
15 13x5 2 42 < 12x3 2 3215 5 < 2x < 14
9x 2 60 < 10x 2 45 5 2x 14
< <
2 2 2
9x 2 10x 2 60 < 10x 2 45 2 10x
5
2x 2 60 < 245 < x < 7
2
2x 2 60 1 60 < 245 1 60
5
2 7
2x < 15 −15 x
x 0 2 4 6 8
x > 215 −20 −16 −12 −8 −4 0

x
59. 8 < 6 2 2x ≤ 12 61. 21 < 2 < 1
6
8 2 6 < 6 2 6 2 2x ≤ 12 2 6
2 < 22x ≤ 6 x
s26ds21d > s26d 2 1 6x 2 > s26ds1d
−4 −3 −2 −1 0
2 22x 6 6 > x > 26
> ≥
22 22 22
−6 6
21 > x ≥ 23 x
−8 −4 0 4 8
23 ≤ x < 21

2x 2 3 x24
63. 23 < < 3 3 9 65. 1 > > 22
2 2 2 23
x
26 < 2x 2 3 < 6 2 0 2 4 6 23 < x 2 4 < 6
26 1 3 < 2x 2 3 1 3 < 6 1 3 23 1 4 < x 2 4 1 4 < 6 1 4
23 < 2x < 9 1 < x < 10
23 2x 9 1 10
< < x
2 2 2
0 3 6 9 12
3 9
2 < x <
2 2
Section 1.4 Linear Inequalities 119

67. 2x 2 4 ≤ 4 and 2x 1 8 > 6 x


−2 −1 0 1 2 3 4 5
2x 2 4 1 4 ≤ 4 1 4 and 2x 1 8 2 8 > 6 2 8
2x ≤ 8 and 2x > 22
2x 8 2x 22
≤ and >
2 2 2 2
x ≤ 4 and x > 21
21 < x ≤ 4

69. 7 1 4x < 25 1 x and 2x 1 10 ≤ 22 x


−10 −8 −6 −4 −2 0 2
7 1 4x 2 x < 25 1 x 2 x and 2x 1 10 2 10 ≤ 22 2 10
7 1 3x < 25 and 2x ≤ 212
2x 212
7 2 7 1 3x < 25 2 7 and ≤
2 2
3x < 212 and x ≤ 26
3x 212
<
3 3
x < 24 and x ≤ 26
x ≤ 26

x 5
71. 62 > 1 or x26 ≥ 4 x
2 4 7 8 9 10 11

x 5
6262 > 126 or x2616 ≥ 416
2 4
x 5
2 > 25 or x ≥ 10
2 4

1 2x 2 < s25ds22d
22 2 or 1 2
4 5
5 4
x ≥ s10d

x < 10 or x ≥ 8
2` < x < `

5 3
73. 7x 1 11 < 3 1 4x or x21 ≥ 92 x − 83 5
2 2 2
x
5 3 3 3 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2 3 4
7x 2 4x 1 11 < 3 1 4x 2 4x or x1 x21 ≥ 92 x1 x
2 2 2 2
3x 1 11 < 3 or 4x 2 1 ≥ 9
3x 1 11 2 11 < 3 2 11 or 4x 2 1 1 1 ≥ 9 1 1
3x < 28 or 4x ≥ 10
3x 8 4x 10
< 2 or ≥
3 3 4 4
8 5
x < 2 or x ≥
3 2
120 Chapter 1 Linear Equations and Inequalities

75. 23s y 1 10d ≥ 4s y 1 10d 77. 24 ≤ 2 2 3sx 1 2d < 11


23y 2 30 ≥ 4y 1 40 24 ≤ 2 2 3x 2 6 < 11
3y 2 3y 2 30 ≥ 3y 1 4y 1 40 24 ≤ 4 2 3x < 11
230 ≥ 7y 1 40 24 1 4 ≤ 24 2 3x 1 4 < 11 1 4
240 2 30 ≥ 7y 1 40 2 40 0 ≤ 23x < 15
270 ≥ 7y 0 23x 15
≥ >
23 23 23
210 ≥ y
0 ≥ x > 25
y
15 10 5 0 −5
x
−6 −4 −2 0 2

79. x < 23 or x ≥ 2 81. 25 ≤ x < 4 83. x ≤ 22.5 or x ≥ 20.5


Hx|x < 23J < Hx|x ≥ 2J Hx|x ≥ 25J > Hx|x < 4J Hx|x ≤ 22.5J < Hx|x ≥ 20.5J

|
85. Hx x ≥ 27J > Hx x < 0J | | |
87. Hx x < 25J < Hx x > 3J 89. H x x > 2 92J > H x x ≤ 2 32J
| |
91. “x is nonnegative” using inequali- 93. “z is at least 2” using inequality 95. “n is at least 10, but no more than
ty notation is x ≥ 0. notation is z ≥ 2. 16” using inequality notation is
10 ≤ n ≤ 16.

97. A verbal description of x ≥ 5


2 is x 99. A verbal description of 3 ≤ y < 5 101. A verbal description of
is at least 52. is y is at least 3 and less than 5. 0 < z ≤ p is z is greater than 0
and no more than p.

Verbal Transportation Other Total money Verbal Temp in > Temp in > Temp in
103. Model: 1 ≤ 105. Model:
costs costs for trip Miami Washington New York

Labels: Transportation costs 5 1900 The average temperature in Miami, therefore, is greater
Other costs 5 C than (>) the average temperature in New York.
Total money 5 4500
Inequality: 1900 1 C ≤ 4500
1900 1 C 2 1900 ≤ 4500 2 1900
C ≤ 2600

Verbal Operating
107. Model: < $12,000 Verbal
cost 109. Revenue > Cost
Model:
Label: Operating cost 5 0.35m 1 2900 Revenue 5 89.95x
Labels:
Inequality: 0.35m 1 2900 < 12,000 Cost 5 61x 1 875
0.35m 1 2900 2 2900 < 12,000 2 2900 Inequality: 89.95x > 61x 1 875
0.35m < 9100 89.95x 2 61x > 61x 1 875 2 61x
0.35m 9100 28.95x > 875
<
0.35 0.35
28.95x 875
>
m < 26,000 miles 28.95 28.95
x > 30.224525
x ≥ 31
Section 1.4 Linear Inequalities 121

111. Verbal Cost of


1
Cost of additional
≤ $5.00
Model: first minute minutes

Label: Number of additional minutes 5 x


Inequality: $0.96 1 $0.75 ≤ $5.00
0.96 1 0.75x 2 0.96 ≤ 5.00 2 0.96
0.75x ≤ 4.04
0.75x 4.04

0.75 0.75
x ≤ 5.386667
Since x represents the additional minutes after the first minute, the call must be less than
6.38 minutes. If a portion of a minute is billed as a full minute, then the call must be less
than or equal to 6 minutes.

Verbal
113. 36 ≤ Perimeter ≤ 64 115. 12 ≤ 4n ≤ 30
Model:
12 4n 30
Label: Perimeter 5 2x 1 32 ≤ ≤
4 4 4
Inequality: 36 ≤ 2x 1 32 ≤ 64
15
3 ≤ n ≤
36 2 32 ≤ 2x 1 32 2 32 ≤ 64 2 32 2
4 ≤ 2x ≤ 32
4 2x 32
≤ ≤
2 2 2
2 ≤ x ≤ 16

Verbal Verbal Air pollutant


117. Model: Second plan > First plan 119. > 6
Model: emission
Labels: First payment plan: $12.50 per hour Label: Air pollutant emission 5 5.890 2 0.276t
Second payment plan: $8 1 $0.75n per
hour where n represents the number of Inequality: 5.890 2 0.276t > 6
units produced. 5.890 2 5.890 2 0.276t > 6 2 5.890
Inequality: 8 1 0.75n > 12.5 20.276t > 0.11
0.75n > 4.5 20.276t 0.11
<
n > 6 20.276 20.276

If more than 6 units are produced per hour, the second t < 20.399
payment plan yields the greater hourly wage. t 5 21 → year 1989
t 5 22 → year 1988
t 5 23 → year 1987

121. (f) C 5 31.20 1 11.91x ≤ 50 (g) C 5 34.19 1 3.95x ≤ 50


11.91x ≤ 18.8 3.95x ≤ 15.81
18.8 x ≤ 4.00
x ≤
11.91
At most, you can purchase four pay-per-view movies.
x ≤ 1.58
At most, you can purchase one premium movie
channel.
122 Chapter 1 Linear Equations and Inequalities

123. Yes, dividing both sides of an inequality by 5 is the same 125. The multiplication and division properties differ. The
as multiplying both sides by 15. inequality symbol is reversed if both sides of the
inequality are multiplied or divided by a negative real
5x 5 15 5x 5 15
number.
5x 15 1 1
5
5
5 5
? 5x 5 15 ? 5
x53 x53

127. If 25 ≤ t < 8, then s21ds25d ≥ s21dstd > s21ds8d and 5 ≥ 2t > 28 or 28 < 2t ≤ 5.

Section 1.5 Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

| |
1. 4x 1 5 5 10, x 5 23 | |
3. 6 2 2w 5 2, w 5 4 5. x 2 10 5 17 or x 2 10 5 217
? ?
|
4s23d 1 5 5 10 | | |
6 2 2s4d 5 2
? ?
|
212 1 5 5 10 | |
628 52 |
? ?
27 5 10 | | | |
22 5 2
7 Þ 10 252
No Yes

7. 4x 1 1 5 12 or 4x 1 1 5 2 12 ||
9. x 5 4 ||
11. t 5 245
x 5 4 or x 5 24 No solution

||
13. h 5 0 | |
15. 5x 5 15 | |
17. x 2 16 5 5
h50 5x 5 15 or 5x 5 215 x 2 16 5 5 or x 2 16 5 25
x53 x 5 23 x 5 21 x 5 11

|
19. 2s 1 3 5 25 | |
21. 32 2 3y 5 16 |
2s 1 3 5 25 or 2s 1 3 5 225 32 2 3y 5 16 or 32 2 3y 5 216
2s 5 22 2s 5 228 23y 5 216 23y 5 248
16
s 5 11 s 5 214 y5 3 y 5 16

|
23. 3x 1 4 5 216 | | |
25. 4 2 3x 5 0
No solution 4 2 3x 5 0
23x 5 24
x 5 43

27. | x 1 4| 5 9
2
3
2 2
|
29. 0.32x 2 2 5 4 |
3x 1459 or 3x 1 4 5 29 0.32x 2 2 5 4 or 0.32x 2 2 5 24
2 2
3x 55 3x 5 213 0.32x 5 6 0.32x 5 22
2x 5 15 2x 5 239 6 22
x5 x5
15 0.32 0.32
x5 2 x 5 2 39
2
x 5 18.75 x 5 26.25
122 Chapter 1 Linear Equations and Inequalities

123. Yes, dividing both sides of an inequality by 5 is the same 125. The multiplication and division properties differ. The
as multiplying both sides by 15. inequality symbol is reversed if both sides of the
inequality are multiplied or divided by a negative real
5x 5 15 5x 5 15
number.
5x 15 1 1
5
5
5 5
? 5x 5 15 ? 5
x53 x53

127. If 25 ≤ t < 8, then s21ds25d ≥ s21dstd > s21ds8d and 5 ≥ 2t > 28 or 28 < 2t ≤ 5.

Section 1.5 Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

| |
1. 4x 1 5 5 10, x 5 23 | |
3. 6 2 2w 5 2, w 5 4 5. x 2 10 5 17 or x 2 10 5 217
? ?
|
4s23d 1 5 5 10 | | |
6 2 2s4d 5 2
? ?
|
212 1 5 5 10 | |
628 52 |
? ?
27 5 10 | | | |
22 5 2
7 Þ 10 252
No Yes

7. 4x 1 1 5 12 or 4x 1 1 5 2 12 ||
9. x 5 4 ||
11. t 5 245
x 5 4 or x 5 24 No solution

||
13. h 5 0 | |
15. 5x 5 15 | |
17. x 2 16 5 5
h50 5x 5 15 or 5x 5 215 x 2 16 5 5 or x 2 16 5 25
x53 x 5 23 x 5 21 x 5 11

|
19. 2s 1 3 5 25 | |
21. 32 2 3y 5 16 |
2s 1 3 5 25 or 2s 1 3 5 225 32 2 3y 5 16 or 32 2 3y 5 216
2s 5 22 2s 5 228 23y 5 216 23y 5 248
16
s 5 11 s 5 214 y5 3 y 5 16

|
23. 3x 1 4 5 216 | | |
25. 4 2 3x 5 0
No solution 4 2 3x 5 0
23x 5 24
x 5 43

27. | x 1 4| 5 9
2
3
2 2
|
29. 0.32x 2 2 5 4 |
3x 1459 or 3x 1 4 5 29 0.32x 2 2 5 4 or 0.32x 2 2 5 24
2 2
3x 55 3x 5 213 0.32x 5 6 0.32x 5 22
2x 5 15 2x 5 239 6 22
x5 x5
15 0.32 0.32
x5 2 x 5 2 39
2
x 5 18.75 x 5 26.25
Section 1.5 Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities 123

| |
31. 5x 2 3 1 8 5 22 |
33. 3x 1 9 2 12 5 28|
|5x 2 3| 5 14 |3x 1 9| 5 4
5x 2 3 5 14 or 5x 2 3 5 214 3x 1 9 5 4 or 3x 1 9 5 24
5x 5 17 5x 5 211 3x 5 25 3x 5 213
17
x5 5 x5 2 11
5 x5
5
23 x 5 2 13
3

| |
35. 22 7 2 4x 5 216 |
37. 3 2x 2 5 1 4 5 7 |
|7 2 4x|58 | |
3 2x 2 5 5 3
7 2 4x 5 8 or 7 2 4x 5 28 |2x 2 5| 5 1
24x 5 1 24x 5 215 2x 2 5 5 1 or 2x 2 5 5 21
x5 2 14 x5 15
4 2x 5 6 2x 5 4
x53 x52

| | |
39. x 1 8 5 2x 1 1 | |
41. x 1 2 5 3x 2 1 | | |
x 1 8 5 2x 1 1 or x 1 8 5 2 s2x 1 1d x 1 2 5 3x 2 1 or x 1 2 5 2 s3x 2 1d
85x11 x 1 8 5 22x 2 1 3 5 2x x 1 2 5 23x 1 1
3
75x 3x 1 8 5 21 2 5x 4x 5 21
3x 5 29 x 5 2 14
x 5 23

| | |
43. 45 2 4x 5 32 2 3x | |
45. 4x 2 10 5 2 2x 1 3 | | |
45 2 4x 5 32 2 3x or 45 2 4x 5 2 s32 2 3xd 4x 2 10 5 2s2x 1 3d or 4x 2 10 5 22s2x 1 3d
45 5 32 1 x 45 2 4x 5 232 1 3x 4x 2 10 5 4x 1 6 4x 2 10 5 24x 2 6
13 5 x 45 5 232 1 7x 210 5 6 8x 2 10 5 26
77 5 7x No solution 8x 5 4
11 5 x x 5 48 5 12

| |
47. x 2 5 5 3

49. (a) x 5 2 (b) x 5 24 (c) x 5 4 (d) x 5 21

|2| < 3 |24| < 3 |4| < 3 |21| < 3


2 < 3 4 < 3 4 < 3 1 < 3
Yes No No Yes

51. (a) x 5 9 (b) x 5 24 (c) x 5 11 (d) x 5 6

|9 2 7| ≥ 3 |24 2 7| ≥ 3 |11 2 7| ≥ 3 |6 2 7| ≥ 3
|2| ≥ 3 |211| ≥ 3 |4| ≥ 3 |21| ≥ 3
2 ≥ 3 11 ≥ 3 4 ≥ 3 1 ≥ 3
No Yes Yes No
124 Chapter 1 Linear Equations and Inequalities

|
53. y 1 5 < 3 | |
55. 7 2 2h ≥ 9 | 57. “All x greater than 22 and less
than 5.”
23 < y 1 5 < 3 7 2 2h ≥ 9 or 7 2 2h ≤ 29
5
x
4 2 0 2 4 6

59. “All x less than or equal to 4 or 61. |y| < 4 ||


63. x ≥ 6
greater than 7.”
24 < y < 4 x ≥ 6 or x ≤ 26
7
x
0 2 4 6 8

65. |2x| < 14


214 < 2x < 14
67.
|| y
3
≤ 3

y
|
69. y 2 2 ≤ 4 |
24 ≤ y 2 2 ≤ 4
23 ≤ ≤ 3
27 < x < 7 3 22 ≤ y ≤ 6
29 ≤ y ≤ 9

|
71. x 1 6 > 10 | |
73. 2x 2 1 ≤ 7 | |
75. 6t 1 15 ≥ 30 |
x 1 6 > 10 or x 1 6 < 210 27 ≤ 2x 2 1 ≤ 7 6t 1 15 ≤ 230 or 6t 1 15 ≥ 30
x > 4 x < 216 26 ≤ 2x ≤ 8 6t ≤ 245 6t ≥ 15
2 45 15
23 ≤ x ≤ 4 t ≤ 6 t ≥ 6

t ≤ 2 15
2 t ≥ 5
2

|
77. 2 2 5x > 28 | |
79. 3x 1 10 < 21 | 81. |x 1 2| ≤ 8
10
2` < x < ` No solution
|x 1 2| ≤ 80
Absolute value is always positive. Absolute value is never negative.
280 ≤ x 1 2 ≤ 80
282 ≤ x ≤ 78

83. |y 2 16| < 30


4
85.
| | z
10
23 > 8 |
87. 0.2x 2 3 < 4 |
24 < 0.2x 2 3 < 4
|y 2 16| < 120 z
2 3 < 28 or
z
23 > 8
10 10 21 < 0.2x < 7
2120 < y 2 16 < 120
z z 21 7
2104 < y < 136 < 25 > 11 < x <
10 10 0.2 0.2
z < 250 z > 110 25 < x < 35

| |
3
89. 6 2 x ≤ 0.4
5 |
91. 22 3x 1 6 < 4 |
|3x 1 6| > 22
| |
93. 9 2
x
2
27 ≤ 4

3
20.4 ≤ 6 2 x ≤ 0.4
5 2` < x < ` | | 92
x
2
≤ 11

22 ≤ 30 2 3x ≤ 2 Absolute value is always positive. x


211 ≤ 9 2 ≤ 11
2
232 ≤ 23x ≤ 228
x
32 28 220 ≤ 2 ≤ 2
≥ x ≥ 2
3 3
40 ≥ x ≥ 24
28 32
≤ x ≤
3 3 24 ≤ x ≤ 40
Review Exercises for Chapter 1 125

|
95. 3x 1 2 < 4 | |
97. 2x 1 3 > 9 |
Keystrokes: Y 5 ABS x 3 X,T, u 1 2 < 4 GRAPH Keystrokes: Y 5 ABS 2 X,T, u 1 3 > 9 GRAPH
x
x
x

2
22 < x < 3 x < 26 or x > 3

| |
99. x 2 5 1 3 ≤ 5
Keystrokes: Y 5 ABS x X,T, u 2 5 1 3 ≤ 5 GRAPH
x

3 ≤ x ≤ 7

101. Matches graph (d). 103. Matches graph (b). 105. f22, 2g

|x 2 4| ≤ 4 1
2 |x 2 4| > 4 |x| ≤ 2
24 ≤ x 2 4 ≤ 4 |x 2 4| > 8
0 ≤ x ≤ 8 x24 > 8 or x 2 4 < 28
0 8 x > 12 x < 24
x
0 2 4 6 8
−4 12
x
−4 0 4 8 12

107. s16, 22d 109. x < 3|| | |


111. x 2 5 > 6
16 < x < 22
23 < x 2 19 < 3

|x 2 19| < 3

|
113. t 2 72 < 10 | 115. (a) s 2 x ≤| | 3
16 117. The absolute value of a real num-
210 < t 2 72 < 10 (b) | 518 2x ≤
3
| 3
16
1 3
ber measures the distance of the
real number from zero.
62 < t < 82 2 16 ≤ 58 2 x ≤ 16
3 41 3
62 82 2 16 ≤ 8 2x ≤ 16
t
2 85 79
50 60 70 80 90 16 ≤ 2x ≤ 2 16
85 79
16 ≥ x ≥ 16

119. The solutions of x 5 a are || 121. The graph of x 2 4 < 1 can be | | | |


123. x 2 3 ≤ 3 since
x 5 a and x 5 2a. For example, described as all real numbers less
23 ≤ x 2 3 ≤ 3
|
to solve x 2 3 5 5: | than one unit from 4.
0 ≤ x ≤ 6.
x2355 or x 2 3 5 25
x58 x 5 22

Review Exercises for Chapter 1

1. (a) 45 2 7s3d 5 3 (b) 45 2 7s6d 5 3


45 2 21 5 3 45 2 42 5 3
24 5 3 353
Not a solution Solution
Review Exercises for Chapter 1 125

|
95. 3x 1 2 < 4 | |
97. 2x 1 3 > 9 |
Keystrokes: Y 5 ABS x 3 X,T, u 1 2 < 4 GRAPH Keystrokes: Y 5 ABS 2 X,T, u 1 3 > 9 GRAPH
x
x
x

2
22 < x < 3 x < 26 or x > 3

| |
99. x 2 5 1 3 ≤ 5
Keystrokes: Y 5 ABS x X,T, u 2 5 1 3 ≤ 5 GRAPH
x

3 ≤ x ≤ 7

101. Matches graph (d). 103. Matches graph (b). 105. f22, 2g

|x 2 4| ≤ 4 1
2 |x 2 4| > 4 |x| ≤ 2
24 ≤ x 2 4 ≤ 4 |x 2 4| > 8
0 ≤ x ≤ 8 x24 > 8 or x 2 4 < 28
0 8 x > 12 x < 24
x
0 2 4 6 8
−4 12
x
−4 0 4 8 12

107. s16, 22d 109. x < 3|| | |


111. x 2 5 > 6
16 < x < 22
23 < x 2 19 < 3

|x 2 19| < 3

|
113. t 2 72 < 10 | 115. (a) s 2 x ≤| | 3
16 117. The absolute value of a real num-
210 < t 2 72 < 10 (b) | 518 2x ≤
3
| 3
16
1 3
ber measures the distance of the
real number from zero.
62 < t < 82 2 16 ≤ 58 2 x ≤ 16
3 41 3
62 82 2 16 ≤ 8 2x ≤ 16
t
2 85 79
50 60 70 80 90 16 ≤ 2x ≤ 2 16
85 79
16 ≥ x ≥ 16

119. The solutions of x 5 a are || 121. The graph of x 2 4 < 1 can be | | | |


123. x 2 3 ≤ 3 since
x 5 a and x 5 2a. For example, described as all real numbers less
23 ≤ x 2 3 ≤ 3
|
to solve x 2 3 5 5: | than one unit from 4.
0 ≤ x ≤ 6.
x2355 or x 2 3 5 25
x58 x 5 22

Review Exercises for Chapter 1

1. (a) 45 2 7s3d 5 3 (b) 45 2 7s6d 5 3


45 2 21 5 3 45 2 42 5 3
24 5 3 353
Not a solution Solution
126 Chapter 1 Linear Equations and Inequalities

35 35 2
2 35 22
3. (a) 12
1 12
51 (b) 1 35 5 1
7 5 7 5
5 7 2 2
1 51 2 12 51
12 12 245 175
12 10 14
51 2 12 51
12 1225 1225
151 24
2 51
1225
Solution
Not a solution

5. x1255 Check: 7. 23x 5 36 Check:


? ?
x12225522 31255 23x 36 23s212d 5 36
5
23 23
x53 555 36 5 36
x 5 212

1
9. 2 x53 Check: 11. 5x 1 4 5 19 Check:
8
?
1 ? 5x 1 4 2 4 5 19 2 4 5s3d 1 4 5 19
2 s224d 5 3
11
8 2
s28d 2 x 5 s3ds28d 8
5x 5 15
?
15 1 4 5 19
353
x 5 224 5x 15 19 5 19
5
5 5
x53

13. 17 2 7x 5 3 Check: 15. 7x 2 5 5 3x 1 11 Check:


? ?
17 2 7x 2 17 5 3 2 17 17 2 7s2d 5 3 7x 2 3x 2 5 5 3x 2 3x 1 11 7s4d 2 5 5 3s4d 1 11
? ?
27x 5 214 17 2 14 5 3 4x 2 5 5 11 28 2 5 5 12 1 11
27x 214 353 4x 2 5 1 5 5 11 1 5 23 5 23
5
27 27
4x 5 16
x52
4x 16
5
4 4
x54

17. 3s2y 2 1d 5 9 1 3y Check:


?
6y 2 3 5 9 1 3y 3s2s4d 2 1d 5 9 1 3s4d
?
6y 2 3y 2 3 5 9 1 3y 2 3y 3s7d 5 9 1 12
3y 2 3 5 9 21 5 21
3y 2 3 1 3 5 9 1 3
3y 5 12
3y 12
5
3 3
y54
Review Exercises for Chapter 1 127

19. 4y 2 6s y 2 5d 5 2 Check: 21. 4s3x 2 5d 5 6s2x 1 3d


?
4y 2 6y 1 30 5 2 4s14d 2 6s14 2 5d 5 2 12x 2 20 5 12x 1 18
?
22y 1 30 5 2 56 2 6s9d 5 2 12x 2 12x 2 20 5 12x 2 12x 1 18
?
22y 1 30 2 30 5 2 2 30 56 2 54 5 2 220 5 18
22y 5 228 252 No solution
22y 228
5
22 22
y 5 14

4 1 3
23. x2 5 Check:
5 10 2
4 1 ? 3
s2d 2 5
3 4 34
4 1 3
10 x2 5 10 5 10 2
5 10 2
8 1 ? 3
8x 2 1 5 15 2 5
5 10 2
8x 2 1 1 1 5 15 1 1
16 1 ? 3
2 5
8x 5 16 10 10 2
8x 16 15 ? 3
5 5
8 8 10 2
x52 3 3
5
2 2

25. 1.4t 1 2.1 5 0.9t Check:


?
1.4t 1 2.1 2 0.9t 5 0.9t 2 0.9t 1.4s24.2d 1 2.1 5 0.9s24.2d
?
0.5t 1 2.1 5 0 25.88 1 2.1 5 23.78
0.5t 1 2.1 2 2.1 5 0 2 2.1 23.78 5 23.78
0.5t 5 22.1
0.5t 22.1
5
0.5 0.5
t 5 24.2

Verbal Compared Base


27. 29. Model:
number 5 Percent ? number
Parts out
Percent of 100 Decimal Fraction
Labels: Compared number 5 a
87
87% 87 0.87 100 Percent 5 p
Base number 5 b
Equation: a5p ?b
a 5 1.30 ? 50
a 5 65
128 Chapter 1 Linear Equations and Inequalities

Verbal Compared Base Verbal Compared Base


31. Model:
number 5 Percent ? number 33. Model:
number 5 Percent ? number

Labels: Compared number 5 a Labels: Compared number 5 a


Percent 5 p Percent 5 p
Base number 5 b Base number 5 b
Equation: a5p ?b Equation: a5p ?b
645 5 0.215 ? b 250 5 p ? 200
645 250
5b 5p
0.215 200
3000 5 b 1.25 5 p or 125%

16 feet 16 feet 16 4 45 seconds 45 seconds 45 3


35. 5 5 5 37. 5 5 5
4 yards 12 feet 12 3 5 minutes 300 seconds 300 20

7 y b 51b
39. 5 41. 5
8 4 6 15
8y 5 28 15b 5 6s5 1 bd
28 15b 5 30 1 6b
y5
8
9b 5 30
7
y5 30
2 b5
9
10
b5
3

Verbal Selling Verbal Selling


43. Model: 5 Cost 1 Markup 45. Model: 5 Cost 1 Markup
price price

Labels: Selling price 5 149.93 Labels: Selling price 5 125.85


Cost 5 99.95 Cost 5 x
Markup 5 x Markup 5 44.13
Equation: 149.93 5 99.95 1 x Equation: 125.85 5 x 1 44.13
149.93 2 99.95 5 x 125.85 2 44.13 5 x
$49.98 5 x $81.72 5 x

Verbal Markup Verbal Markup


Model: Markup 5 rate ? Cost Model: Markup 5 rate ? Cost

Labels: Markup 5 49.98 Labels: Markup 5 44.13


Markup rate 5 x Markup rate 5 x
Cost 5 99.95 Cost 5 81.72
Equation: 49.98 5 x ? 99.95 Equation: 44.13 5 x ? 81.72
49.98 44.13
5x 5x
99.95 81.72
50% < x 54% < x
Review Exercises for Chapter 1 129

Verbal Sale List Verbal Sale List


47. 5 2 Discount 49. 5 2 Discount
Model: price price Model: price price

Labels: Sale price 5 53.96 Labels: Sale price 5 x


List price 5 71.95 List price 5 1995.50
Discount 5 x Discount 5 598.65
Equation: 53.96 5 71.95 2 x Equation: x 5 1995.50 2 598.65
x 5 71.95 2 53.96 x 5 $1396.85
x 5 $17.99
Verbal Discount List
Model:
Discount 5
rate
? price
Verbal Discount List
Model:
Discount 5
rate
? price Labels: Discount 5 598.65
Labels: Discount 5 17.99 Discount rate 5 x
Discount rate 5 x List price 5 1995.50
List price 5 71.95 Equation: 598.65 5 x ? 1995.50
Equation: 17.99 5 x ? 71.95 598.65
5x
1995.50
17.99
5x
71.95 30% 5 x
25% < x

51. 2x 2 7y 1 4 5 0 53. V 5 p r 2h 55. x 2 5 ≤ 21


2x 5 7y 2 4 V x 2 5 1 5 ≤ 21 1 5
5h
7 pr2
x5 2y 22 x ≤ 4
x 5 2 s7y 2 4d
1
x
0 1 2 3 4 5

57. 25x < 30 59. 5x 1 3 > 18 61. 8x 1 1 ≥ 10x 2 11


25x 30 5x > 15 8x 2 10x 1 1 ≥ 10x 2 10x 2 11
>
25 25
x > 3 22x 1 1 ≥ 211
x > 26
22x 1 1 2 1 ≥ 211 2 1
x

22x ≥ 212
x 0 1 2 3 4
−8 −6 −4 −2 0 2

22x 212

22 22
x ≤ 6
x
−2 0 2 4 6 8

1 1
63. 2 y < 12 65. 26 ≤ 2x 1 8 < 4
3 2
26 2 8 ≤ 2x 1 8 2 8 < 4 2 8
2 2 3y < 72
214 ≤ 2x < 24 −7
23y < 70 x
214 2x 24 −8 −6 −4 −2 0
70 ≤ <
y > 2 2 2 2
3
27 ≤ x < 22
70
3
y
25 24 23 22
130 Chapter 1 Linear Equations and Inequalities

x11 69. 5x 2 4 < 6 and 3x 1 1 > 28


67. 5 > > 0
23
5x 2 4 1 4 < 6 1 4 3x 1 1 2 1 > 28 2 1
215 < x 1 1 < 0
5x < 10 3x > 29
216 < x < 21
5x 10 3x 29
< >
1 5 5 3 3
x
20 16 12 8 4 0 x < 2 and x > 23
23 < x < 2 −3
x
−4 −2 0 2

71. 24s3 2 2xd ≤ 3s2x 2 6d


212 1 8x ≤ 6x 2 18
212 1 8x 2 6x ≤ 6x 2 6x 2 18
212 1 2x ≤ 218
212 1 12 1 2x ≤ 218 1 12
2x ≤ 26
2x 26 x
≤ −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 0 1 2
2 2
x ≤ 23

73. z ≤ 10 75. 7 ≤ y < 14 ||


77. x 5 6
x 5 6 or x 5 26

|
79. 4 2 3x 5 8 | |
81. 5x 1 4 2 10 5 26 |
4 2 3x 5 8 or 4 2 3x 5 28 |
5x 1 4 5 4 |
4 2 4 2 3x 5 8 2 4 4 2 4 2 3x 5 28 2 4 5x 1 4 5 4 or 5x 1 4 5 24
23x 5 4 23x 5 212 5x 1 4 2 4 5 4 2 4 5x 1 4 2 4 5 24 2 4
23x 4 23x 212 5x 5 0 5x 5 28
5 5
23 23 23 23
5x 0 5x 28
5 5
4 5 5 5 5
x5 x54
23
8
x50 x52
5

|
83. 3x 2 4 5 x 1 2 | | | |
85. x 2 4 > 3 |
3x 2 4 5 x 1 2 or 3x 2 4 5 2 sx 1 2d x 2 4 < 23 or x 2 4 > 3
2x 5 6 3x 2 4 5 2x 2 2 x < 1 or x > 7
x53 4x 5 2
2 1
x5452

| |
87. 3x > 9 |
89. 2x 2 7 < 15 |
3x < 29 or 3x > 9 215 < 2x 2 7 < 15
x < 23 or x > 3 28 < 2x < 22
24 < x < 11
Review Exercises for Chapter 1 131

| |
91. b 1 2 2 6 > 1 |
93. 2x 2 5 ≥ 1 |
|b 1 2| > 7 Keystrokes: Y 5 ABS x 2 X,T, u 2 5
x
≥ 1 GRAPH
b 1 2 < 27 or b 1 2 > 7 x ≤ 2 or x ≥ 3
b < 29 or b > 5

95. s1, 5d
1 < x < 5
123 < x23 < 523
22 < x 2 3 < 2

|x 2 3| < 2
Verbal First Second Verbal Percent
97.
Model: integer
1
integer
5 Sum 99.
Model:
Commission 5
rate
? Sales

Labels: First integer 5 x Labels: Commission 5 9000


Second integer 5 x 1 1 Percent rate 5 x
Sum 5 147 Sales 5 150,000
Equation: x 1 sx 1 1d 5 147 Equation: 9000 5 x ? 150,000
2x 1 1 5 147 9000
5x
150,000
2x 1 1 2 1 5 147 2 1
6% 5 x
2x 5 146
2x 146
5
2 2
x 5 73, x 1 1 5 74

101. Verbal Total


5
List
1 Shipping
Model: price price

Labels: Total price 5 x


List price 5 24.95
Shipping 5 6.95
Equation: x 5 24.95 1 6.95
x 5 $31.90

Verbal Discount List


Model:
Discount 5
rate
? price

Labels: Discount 5 x
Discount rate 5 30%
List price 5 35.95
Equation: x 5 0.30 ? 35.95
x 5 $10.79
—CONTINUED—
132 Chapter 1 Linear Equations and Inequalities

101. —CONTINUED—
Verbal Sale List
5 2 Discount
Model: price price

Labels: Sale price 5 x


List price 5 $35.95
Discount 5 $10.79
Equation: x 5 35.95 2 10.79
x 5 $25.16
The department store price is the better buy.

Verbal Sales Percent Verbal Cups Cups


103. Model: 5 rate ? Cost 105. 5
tax Model: Batches Batches
1
Labels: Sales tax 5 x 12 x
Proportion: 5 1
Percent rate 5 714% 1 22
Cost 5 34 x 5 112 ? 212
Equation: x 5 0.0725 ? 34 x 5 334 cups
x 5 $2.47

Verbal Gasoline Gasoline Verbal Base Base


107. 5 109. 5
Model: Oil Oil Model: Side Side

50 x 3 4
Proportion: 51 Proportion: 5
1 2 3.5 x
x 5 25 pints 3x 5 14
14
x5
3

Verbal Silo’s height Your height Verbal Base


111.
Model: Silo’s shadow
5
Your shadow
113.
Model:
Increase 5 Percent ? number

x 6 Labels: Increase 5 x
Proportion: 5
20 112 Percent 5 5 2 %
1

120 Base number 5 25,750


x5
112
Equation: x 5 0.055 ? 25,750
x 5 80 feet
x 5 $1416.25

Verbal New Old


5 1 Increase
Model: model price

Labels: New model 5 x


Old price 5 25,750
Increase 5 1416.25
Equation: x 5 25,750 1 1416.25
x 5 $27,166.25
Review Exercises for Chapter 1 133

Verbal Selling Verbal Total List


115. Markup 5 price 2 Cost 117. 5 1 Shipping
Model: Model: price price

Labels: Markup 5 x Labels: Total price 5 x


Selling price 5 175.00 List price 5 99.97
Cost 5 95.00 Shipping 5 4.50

Equation: x 5 175.00 2 95.00 Equation: x 5 99.97 1 4.50

x 5 $80.00 x 5 $104.47

Verbal Discount List


Verbal Markup
Markup 5 rate ? Cost Model:
Discount 5
rate
? price
Model:

Labels: Markup 5 80.00 Labels: Discount 5 x

Markup rate 5 x Discount rate 5 20%

Cost 5 95.00 List price 5 125.95

Equation: 80.00 5 x ? 95.00 Equation: x 5 0.20 ? 125.95

80.00 x 5 $25.19
5x
95.00
Verbal Sale List
84.21% 5 x 5 2 Discount
Model: price price

Labels: Sale price 5 x


List price 5 125.95
Discount 5 25.19
Equation: x 5 125.95 2 25.19
x 5 $100.76
The department store price is the better buy.

Verbal Amount of Amount of Amount of


119. Model: 1 5
solution 1 solution 2 final solution

Labels: Percent of solution 1 5 30%


Liters of solution 1 5 x
Percent of solution 2 5 60%
Liters of solution 2 5 10 2 x
Percent of final solution 5 50%
Liters of final solution 5 10
Equation: 0.30x 1 0.60s10 2 xd 5 0.50s10d
0.30x 1 6 2 0.60x 5 5
20.30x 5 21
x 5 313 liters of 30% solution
2
10 2 x 5 63 liters of 60% solution

Verbal
121.
Model:
Distance 5 Rate ? Time

Labels: Distance 5 d
Rate 5 1200 mph
Time 5 2 13 hours
Equation: d 5 1200 ? 2 13
d 5 2800 miles
134 Chapter 1 Linear Equations and Inequalities

Verbal Verbal Work Work done Work done


123.
Model:
Distance 5 Rate ? Time 125.
Model: done
5
by person 1
1
by person 2
Labels: Distance 5 100 miles
Labels: Work done 5 1
Rates 5 48 mph and 40 mph
1
Time 5 t Rate of person 1 5
4.5
Equation: d 5 rt 1
Rate of person 2 5
6
d
t5 Time 5 t
r
1 1
100 100 Equation: 15 std 1 std
t5 1 4.5 6
48 40
27 5 6t 1 4.5t
55
t 5 4.583 or 27 5 10.5t
12
27
Verbal Average Total Total 5t
5 4 10.5
Model: speed distance time
2.57 hours 5 t
Labels: Average speed 5 r
Total distance 5 200 miles
Total time 5 4.583 hours
Equation: r 5 200 4 4.583
r < 43.6 mph

Verbal Verbal
127. Model: Interest 5 Principal ? Rate ? Time 129. Model: Interest 5 Principal ? Rate ? Time

Labels: Interest 5 i Labels: Interest 5 $20,000


Principal 5 $1000 Principal 5 p
Rate 5 8.5% Rate 5 9.5%
Time 5 4 Time 5 1
Equation: i 5 1000 ? 0.085 ?4 Equation: 20,000 5 p ? 0.095 ?1
i 5 $340 20,000
5p
0.095
$210,526.32 5 p

Verbal Verbal
131. Model: Interest 5 Principal ? Rate ? Time 133.
Model:
Area 5 Length ? Width

Labels: Interest 5 4700 Labels: Area 5 48


Principal 1 5 p Length 5 x
Rate 1 5 8.5% Width 5 6
Principal 2 5 50,000 2 p Equation: 48 5 x ? 6
Rate 2 5 10%
8 inches 5 x
Time 5 1
Equation: 4700 5 0.085p 1 0.10s50,000 2 pd
4700 5 0.085p 1 5000 2 0.10p
2300 5 20.015p
2300
5p
20.015
$20,000 5 p
$30,000 5 50,000 2 p
Chapter Test for Chapter 1 135

Verbal
135.
Model:
50 ≤ Perimeter ≤ 100 |
137. t 2 78.3 < 38.3 |
238.3 < t 2 78.3 < 38.3
Label: Perimeter 5 2x 1 2s23d
40 < t < 116.6
Inequality: 50 ≤ 2x 1 2s23d ≤ 100
4 ≤ 2x ≤ 54 116.6
t
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
2 ≤ x ≤ 27

Chapter Test for Chapter 1

1. 6x 2 5 5 19 2. 5x 2 6 5 7x 2 12
6x 2 5 1 5 5 19 1 5 5x 2 7x 2 6 5 7x 2 7x 2 12
6x 5 24 22x 2 6 5 212
6x 24 22x 2 6 1 6 5 212 1 6
5
6 6 22x 5 26
x54 22x 26
5
22 22
x53

2x x
3. 15 2 7s1 2 xd 5 3sx 1 8d 4. 5 14
3 2
15 2 7 1 7x 5 3x 1 24
8 1 7x 5 3x 1 24
6 12x3 2 5 12x 1 426
8 1 7x 2 3x 5 3x 1 24 2 3x 4x 5 3x 1 24
8 2 8 1 4x 5 24 2 8 4x 2 3x 5 3x 1 24 2 3x
4x 5 16 x 5 24
4x 16
5
4 4
x54

Verbal Compared Base Verbal Compared Base


5. Model:
number
5 Percent ? number
6. Model:
number
5 Percent ? number

Labels: Compared number 5 a Labels: Compared number 5 a


Percent 5 p Percent 5 p
Base number 5 b Base number 5 b
Equation: a5p ?b Equation: a5p ?b
x 5 0.27 ? 3200 1200 5 x ? 800
1200
x 5 864 800 5x
1.5 5 x
150% 5 x
Chapter Test for Chapter 1 135

Verbal
135.
Model:
50 ≤ Perimeter ≤ 100 |
137. t 2 78.3 < 38.3 |
238.3 < t 2 78.3 < 38.3
Label: Perimeter 5 2x 1 2s23d
40 < t < 116.6
Inequality: 50 ≤ 2x 1 2s23d ≤ 100
4 ≤ 2x ≤ 54 116.6
t
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
2 ≤ x ≤ 27

Chapter Test for Chapter 1

1. 6x 2 5 5 19 2. 5x 2 6 5 7x 2 12
6x 2 5 1 5 5 19 1 5 5x 2 7x 2 6 5 7x 2 7x 2 12
6x 5 24 22x 2 6 5 212
6x 24 22x 2 6 1 6 5 212 1 6
5
6 6 22x 5 26
x54 22x 26
5
22 22
x53

2x x
3. 15 2 7s1 2 xd 5 3sx 1 8d 4. 5 14
3 2
15 2 7 1 7x 5 3x 1 24
8 1 7x 5 3x 1 24
6 12x3 2 5 12x 1 426
8 1 7x 2 3x 5 3x 1 24 2 3x 4x 5 3x 1 24
8 2 8 1 4x 5 24 2 8 4x 2 3x 5 3x 1 24 2 3x
4x 5 16 x 5 24
4x 16
5
4 4
x54

Verbal Compared Base Verbal Compared Base


5. Model:
number
5 Percent ? number
6. Model:
number
5 Percent ? number

Labels: Compared number 5 a Labels: Compared number 5 a


Percent 5 p Percent 5 p
Base number 5 b Base number 5 b
Equation: a5p ?b Equation: a5p ?b
x 5 0.27 ? 3200 1200 5 x ? 800
1200
x 5 864 800 5x
1.5 5 x
150% 5 x
136 Chapter 1 Linear Equations and Inequalities

Verbal Sale List Total price 2.49 249


7.
Model: price
5 Percent ? price
8.
Total units
5
12
5
1200
5 0.2075 per ounce

Sale price 5 6400 Total price 2.99 299


Labels: 5 5 5 0.1993 per ounce
Total units 15 1500
Percent 5 80%
List price 5 x The 15-ounce can is the better buy.

Equation: 6400 5 0.80 ? x


6400
5x
0.80
$8000 5 x

Verbal Tax Tax Verbal Total Cost of Cost of


5
9. Model:
Assessed value Assessed value
10. Model: bill 5 parts 1 labor

1200 x Labels: Total bill 5 165


Proportion: 5
90,000 110,000 Cost of parts 5 85
s1200ds110,000d Number of hours of labor 5 x
x5
90,000 Cost of labor 5 6x
x < $1466.67 Equation: 165 5 85 1 6x
80 5 16x
5 half hours 5 x
1
x 5 22 hours

Verbal Amount of Amount of Amount of Verbal Distance Distance


11. Model: 1 5 12. Model: 1 10 miles 5
solution 1 solution 2 final solution of car 1 of car 2

Labels: Number of liters of solution 1 5 x Labels: Time 5 x


Percent concentration of solution 1 5 10% Distance of car 1 5 40x
Number of liters of solution 2 5 100 2 x Distance of car 2 5 55x
Percent concentration of solution 2 5 40% Equation: 40x 1 10 5 55x
Number of liters of final solution 5 100
10 5 15x
Percent concentration of final solution 5 30% 10
15 5x
Equation: 0.10x 1 0.40s100 2 xd 5 0.30s100d 2
3 hour or 40 minutes 5 x
0.10x 1 40 2 0.40x 5 30
20.30x 5 210
x 5 3313 liters at 10%
2
100 2 x 5 663 liters at 40%
Chapter Test for Chapter 1 137

Verbal
13. Model: Interest 5 Principal ? Rate ? Time |
14. (a) 2x 1 6 5 16|
2x 1 6 5 16 or 2x 1 6 5 216
Labels: Interest 5 300
Principal 5 p 2x 5 10 2x 5 222
Rate 5 7.5% x55 x 5 211
Time 5 2
| | |
(b) 3x 2 5 5 6x 2 1 |
Equation: 300 5 p ? 0.075 ? 2 3x 2 5 5 6x 2 1 or 3x 2 5 5 2 s6x 2 1d
$2000 5 p 23x 2 5 5 21 3x 2 5 5 26x 1 1
23x 5 4 9x 2 5 5 1
x5 2 43 9x 5 6
x 5 69 5 23

| |
(c) 9 2 4x 2 10 5 1

|9 2 4x| 5 11
9 2 4x 5 11 or 9 2 4x 5 211
24x 5 2 24x 5 220
x5 2 24 x55
x5 2 12

12x
15. (a) 3x 1 12 ≥ 26 (b) 1 1 2x > 7 2 x (c) 0 ≤ < 2
4
3x 1 12 2 12 ≥ 26 2 12 3x > 6
0 ≤ 12x < 8
3x ≥ 218 x > 2
21 ≤ 2x < 7
x ≥ 26 x
1 ≥ x > 27
0 1 2 3 4
x
−7 1
−8 −6 −4 −2 0
x
−8 −6 −4 −2 0 2 4

(d) 27 < 4s2 2 3xd ≤ 20


27 < 8 2 12x ≤ 20
215 < 212x ≤ 12
15
> x ≥ 21
12
5
21 ≤ x <
4
5
4
x
−2 −1 0 1 2
138 Chapter 1 Linear Equations and Inequalities

|
16. (a) x 2 3 ≤ 2 |
22 ≤ x 2 3 ≤ 2
| |
(b) 5x 2 3 > 12
5x 2 3 > 12 or 5x 2 3 < 212
(c)
| |
x
4
1 2 < 0.2

x
20.2 < 1 2 < 0.2
1 ≤ x ≤ 5 5x > 15 5x < 29 4
9 20.8 < x 1 8 < 0.8
x > 3 x < 2
5
28.8 < x < 27.2
44 36
2 < x < 2
5 5

17. t ≥ 8 denotes the phrase “t is at least 8.”

Verbal Operating
18. ≤ 11,950
Model: cost

Label: Number of miles 5 m


Equation: 0.37m 1 2700 ≤ 11,950
0.37m ≤ 9250
m ≤ 25,000 miles
Integrated Reviews 3

CHAPTER 1 Linear Equations and Inequalities

SECTION 1.1 Linear Equations

1. 5 1 x 5 x 1 5 illustrates the Commutative Property of 2. 10 ? 10


1
5 1 illustrates the Multiplicative Inverse Property.
Addition.

3. 6sx 2 2d 5 6x 2 6 ? 2 illustrates the Distributive 4. 3 1 s4 1 xd 5 s3 1 4d 1 x illustrates the Associative


Property. Property of Addition.

| |
5. 4 2 23 5 4 2 3 5 1 6. 210 2 s4 2 18d 5 210 2 s214d
5 210 1 14
54

7.
3 2 s5 2 20d 3 2 s215d 3 1 15 18 9
5 5 5 5 8. |3 2 18| 5 |215| 5 15 5 5
4 4 4 4 2 3 3 3

1152 2 5 3 5? 2? 3? 2 5 54
7 5 7 16
9. 6 10. 4 5
12 16 12
? 5

5
7 ?4?4
4 ?3?5
28
5
15

135 feet
11. Money saved 5 $75s20ds12d 5 $18,000 12. Length of each piece 5 5 9 feet
15

SECTION 1.2 Linear Equations and Problem Solving

1. An algebraic expression is a collection of letters (called 2. The terms of an algebraic expression are those parts sepa-
variables) and real numbers (called constants) combined, rated by addition or subtraction.
using the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplica-
tion, and division.

3. a m ? a n 5 a m1n 4. sabdm 5 a mb m 5. 2360 1 120 5 2240

4 15 4?5?3 3 5 3 16
6. 5s57 2 33d 5 5s24d 5 120 7. 2 ? 16 5 2 5 8. 4 5 ?
15 ?3?4?4 8 16 8 5

52
1
5
3 ?8?2
4 8?5
6
5
5

9. s12 2 15d3 5 s23d3 5 227 10. s58 d2 5 s58 ds58 d 5 2564


4 Integrated Reviews

11. Perimeter 5 x 1 x 1 sx 1 3d 1 s3x 2 2d 12. Perimeter 5 s4x 1 1d 1 s2xd 1 s3x 2 1d 1 x 1 sx 1 2d 1 s3xd


5 sx 1 x 1 x 1 3xd 1 s3 2 2d 5 s4x 1 2x 1 3x 1 x 1 x 1 3xd 1 s1 2 1 1 2d
5 6x 1 1 5 14x 1 2

SECTION 1.3 Business and Scientific Problems

1. The sign of s27d 1 s23d is negative. The rule used is to 2. The sign of the sum of 27 1 3 is negative. The rule used
add two real numbers with like signs, add their absolute is to add two real numbers with unlike signs, subtract the
values and attach the common sign to the result. smaller absolute value from the greater absolute value and
attach the sign of the number with the greater absolute
value.

3. The sign of s26ds22d is positive. The rule used is to 4. The sign of the product 6s22d is negative. The rule used
multiply two real numbers with like signs, find the is to multiply two real numbers with unlike signs, find the
product of their absolute values. product of their absolute values. The product is negative.

5. 2x 2 5 5 x 1 9 6. 6x 1 8 5 8 2 2x 7. 2x 1 32 5 32
2x 2 x 2 5 5 x 2 x 1 9 6x 1 2x 1 8 5 8 2 2x 1 2x 2x 1 32 2 32 5 32 2 32
x2559 8x 1 8 5 8 2x 5 0
x25155915 8x 1 8 2 8 5 8 2 8 x50
x 5 14 8x 5 0
8x 0
5
8 8
x50

x
8. 2 5 1000 9. 20.35x 5 70 10. 0.60x 5 24
10
20.35x 70 0.60x 24
x 5 5
s210d ? 2 5 1000s210d 20.35 20.35 0.60 0.60
10
x 5 2200 x 5 40
x 5 210,000

Verbal Length Length of Length of


11. Model: 5 1
of race first part last part

Labels: Length of race 5 2.5


Length of first part 5 1.8
Length of last part 5 x
Equation: 2.5 5 1.8 1 x
2.5 2 1.8 5 x
0.7 mile 5 x
Integrated Reviews 5

Verbal Total Soybeans Soybeans Soybeans


12. Model: 5 1 1
soybeans in January in February in March

Equation: x 5 3413 1 1815 1 2556


x 5 3410 6 25
30 1 1830 1 2530

x 5 s34 1 18 1 25d 1 s10


30 1 30 1 30 d
6 25

x 5 77 41 11
30 5 7830 tons

SECTION 1.4 Linear Inequalities

1. 3yx 5 3xy illustrates the Commu- 2. 3xy 2 3xy 5 0 illustrates the 3. 6sx 2 2d 5 6x 2 6 ? 2 illustrates
tative Property of Multiplication. Additive Inverse Property. the Distributive Property.

4. 3x 1 0 5 3x illustrates the 5. x 2 2 y 2, x 5 4, y 5 3 6. 4s 1 st, s 5 3, t 5 24


Additive Identity Property.
42 2 32 5 16 2 9 5 7 4s3d 1 3s24d 5 12 1 212 5 0

x z2 1 2 a 1
7. , x 5 0, y 5 3 8. , x 5 2, z 5 21 9. , a 5 2, r 5
x2 1 y2 x2 2 1 12r 2
0 0 s21d2 1 2 1 1 2 3 2 2
5 50 5 5 51 51 54
02 1 32 9 22 2 1 421 3 1 2 12 2

10. 2l 1 2w, l 5 3, w 5 1.5 11. A 5 12sb1 1 b2 dh 12. A 5 12sb1 1 b2 dh


2s3d 1 2s1.5d 5 6 1 3 5 9 A 5 12s7 1 4d3.6 A 5 2s16 1 10d8
1

A 5 19.8 square meters A 5 104 square feet

SECTION 1.5 Absolute Value Equations and Inequalities

1. If n is an integer, 2n is an even integer and 2n 1 1 is an 2. 22x 4 and s22xd4 are not equal. By order of operations
odd integer. 22x 4 5 22x 4 and s22xd4 5 16x 4.

35 7 ? 5 5 4 z 4 3 12
3. 5 5
14 7 ? 2 2
4. 4 5
5 3 5
? z
5
5z
Divide the numerator and denominator by 7 to put the To divide fractions, multiply by the reciprocal of the
fraction in simplified form. divisor.

5. 23.2 < 2 because 23.2 is to the left of 2 on the number 6. 23.2 > 24.1 because 23.2 is to the right of 24.1 on the
line. number line.

7. 2 34 > 25 because 2 34 is to the right of 25 on the 8. 2 15 > 2 13 because 2 15s2 15 d is to the right of 2 13s2 155 d on
3

number line. the number line.

10. 6 < 2 because 6 is to the left of 2 s62 d on the number


13 13 1
9. p > 23 because p is to the right of 23 on the number
line. line.
6 Integrated Reviews

Verbal Actual Budgeted Verbal Actual Budgeted


11. Model: Difference 5 2 12. Model: Difference 5 2
expense amount expense amount
Equation: x 5 163,356 2 162,700 Equation: |
x 5 42,335 2 42,640 |
x 5 $656 which is more than $500. | |
x 5 2305 5 $305 which is less than $500.

CHAPTER 2 Graphs and Functions

SECTION 2.1 The Rectangular Coordinate System

1. 3x 5 7 is a linear equation because it can be written in the 2. To check x 5 3 is a solution of the equation 5x 2 4 5 11
form ax 1 b 5 0. Since x2 1 3x 5 2 cannot be written in substitute 3 for x in the equation. If the result is true,
the form ax 1 b 5 0, it is not a linear equation. x 5 3 is a solution.

3. 6xs2x2d 5 s6 ? 2d ? sx ? x2d 5 12x3 4. 3t2 ? t4 5 3t214 5 3t6

5. 2 s23x2d3s2x4d 5 s21ds23d3s2dsx2d3sx4d 6. s4x3y2ds22xy3d 5 s4ds22dsx3dsxdsy2dsy3d


5 s21ds227ds2dsx6dsx4d 5 28x4y5
5 54x10

7. 4 2 3s2x 1 1d 5 4 2 6x 2 3 5 1 2 6x 8. 5sx 1 2d 2 4s2x 2 3d 5 5x 1 10 2 8x 1 12


5 23x 1 22

9. 24 13y 1 6y 2 5 8y 1 4y 5 12y 10. 0.12x 1 0.05s2000 2 2xd 5 0.12x 1 100 2 0.1x


5 0.02x 1 100

1
11. Your rate 5 4 job per hour
1
Friend’s rate 5 5 job per hour

Work Work done Work done


Verbal model: done 5 by you 1 by friend

Labels: Work done 5 1


1
Your rate 5
4
1
Friend’s rate 5
5
Time 5 t

—CONTINUED—
C H A P T E R 2
Graphs and Functions

Section 2.1 The Rectangular Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

Section 2.2 Graphs of Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146

Section 2.3 Slope and Graphs of Linear Equations . . . . . . . . . . . 153

Mid-Chapter Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159

Section 2.4 Equations of Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

Section 2.5 Relations and Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

Section 2.6 Graphs of Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

Review Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

Chapter Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184


C H A P T E R 2
Graphs and Functions
Section 2.1 The Rectangular Coordinate System
Solutions to Odd-Numbered Exercises

1. y 3. y

6 8

( 5, 3) 6
4 (4, 3) (6, 5)
4
2
2
x
6 4 2 2 4 6 x
2 8 6 4 2 2 4 6
2
4
( 8, 2) (6, 2)
4
(3, 5)
6 6

s4, 3d is 4 units to the right of the vertical axis and 3 units s28, 22d is 8 units to the left of the vertical axis and 2
above the horizontal axis. units below the horizontal axis.
s25, 3d is 5 units to the left of the vertical axis and 3 units s6, 22d is 6 units to the right of the vertical axis and 2
above the horizontal axis. units below the horizontal axis.
s3, 25d is 3 units to the right of the vertical axis and 5 s6, 5d is 6 units to the right of the vertical axis and 5 units
units below the horizontal axis. above the horizontal axis.

5. y 7. y

2 (− 43, 37 ) 3
1
2, 1 2
4

x 1 ( 23 , 1)
3 2 1 1 2 3
1 x
5 −2 −1 1 2 3 4
2, 2
−1
2
3 7 −2
3 2, 2
−3 (4, −3)
4

s52, 22d is 52 units to the right of the vertical axis and 2 s32, 1d is 32 units to the right of the vertical axis and 1 unit
units below the horizontal axis. above the horizontal axis.
s22, d is 2 units to the left of the vertical axis and units
1
4
1
4 s4, 23d is 4 units to the right of the vertical axis and 3
above the horizontal axis. units below the horizontal axis.
s32, 2 72 d is 32 units to the right of the vertical axis and 72 s2 43, 73 d is 43 units to the left of the vertical axis and 73 units
units below the horizontal axis. above the horizontal axis.

9. Point Position Coordinates 11. Point Position Coordinates


A 2 left, 4 up s22, 4d A 4 right, 2 down s4, 22d
B 0 right or left, 2 down s0, 22d B 3 left, down
5
2 s23, 2 52 d
C 4 right, 2 down s4, 22d C 3 right, 2 up
1
s3, 12 d

140
Section 2.1 The Rectangular Coordinate System 141

13. y 15. y
(3, 5)
5
(0, 6)
4
( 3, 3) 4
3
(3, 3) ( 1, 2 )
2

(0, 0) 1
x (2, 0)
4 2 2 4 x
2 1 1 2 3 4
2 1

17. y 19. y

5 (5, 5)
2
4
(4, 0) (2, 3)
x 3
( 2, 2) 4 6
2 (3, 2)
(6, 2) 1

4 x
(0, 4) −1 (0, 0) 2 3 4 5
−1
6

21. Point 5 units left of y-axis and 2 units above 23. Point 3 units right of y-axis and 2 units below
x-axis 5 s25, 2d x-axis 5 s3, 22d

25. The coordinates of the point are equal and located in 27. Point on positive x-axis 10 units from the
Quadrant III, 10 units left of y-axis 5 s210, 210d. origin 5 s10, 0d.

29. s23, 25d is in Quadrant III. 31. s3, 2 58 d is in Quadrant IV.

33. s200, 1365.6d is in Quadrant I. 35. sx, yd, x > 0, y < 0 is in Quadrant IV.

37. sx, 4d is in Quadrants I or II. 39. s23, yd is in Quadrants II or III.

41. sx, yd, xy > 0 is in Quadrants I or III. 43. y

100

90

80

70
x
2 4 6 8

45. y The relationship 47. s22, 21d shifted 2 units right and 5 units up 5 s0, 4d
between x and y is as
70
x increases from 1 to s23, 24d shifted 2 units right and 5 units up 5 s21, 1d
60
50 7, y also increases, but s1, 23d shifted 2 units right and 5 units up 5 s3, 2d
40 as x increases from 7
30 to 12, y decreases.
20
10
x
2 4 6 8 10 12 14
142 Chapter 2 Graphs and Functions

49.
x 22 0 2 4 6
y 5 5x 2 1 211 21 9 19 29

30 (6, 29)
25
20 (4, 19)
15
10 (2, 9)
5
x
–3 –2 –1 (0, −1) 4 5 6 7
(−2, −11)

51. 2
y
x 24 5 4 8 12 (−4, 14)
14
5
y 5 2 2x 1 4 14 3 26 216 226 7 ( 2 , 3)
5
x
−6 −3 3 12
25 25 2 25 (4, −6)
12
−7
y5 s24d 1 4 y5 14 y5 s4d 1 4
2 2 5 2 −14
(8, −16)
−21
5 10 1 4 5 21 1 4 5 210 1 4
−28
(12, −26)
5 14 53 5 26

25 25
y5 s8d 1 4 y5 s12d 1 4
2 2
5 220 1 4 5 230 1 4
5 216 5 226

53.
x 22 0 2 4 6
y 5 4x2 1 x 2 2 12 22 16 66 148

Keystrokes: Y 5 4 X,T, u x2 1 X,T, u 2 2 GRAPH

55. x2 1 3y 5 25
(a) s3, 22d (b) s22, 23d
? ?
32 1 3s22d 5 25 s22d2 1 3s23d 5 25
? ?
9 2 6 5 25 4 2 9 5 25

3 Þ 25 25 5 25

Not a solution Solution

(c) s3, 25d (d) s4, 27d


? ?
32 1 3s25d 5 25 42 1 3s27d 5 25
? ?
9 2 15 5 25 16 2 21 5 25
26 Þ 25 25 5 25
Not a solution Solution
Section 2.1 The Rectangular Coordinate System 143

57. 4y 2 2x 1 1 5 0
(a) s0, 0d (b) s12, 0d
4s0d 2 2s2 d 1 1 5 0
? 1 ?
4s0d 2 2s0d 1 1 5 0
?
1Þ0 0211150
Not a solution 050
Solution
(c) s23, 2 74 d (d) s1, 2 34 d
4s2 74 d 2 2s23d 1 1 5 0 4s2 34 d 2 2s1d 1 1 5 0
? ?

? ?
27 1 6 1 1 5 0 23 2 2 1 1 5 0
050 24 Þ 0
Solution Not a solution

59. y 5 78x 1 3
(a) s87, 4d (b) s8, 10d
?
4 5 78s87 d 1 3 10 5 78s8d 1 3
?

? ?
45113 10 5 7 1 3

454 10 5 10

Solution Solution

(c) s0, 0d (d) s216, 14d


? 7 ? 7
0 5 8s0d 1 3 14 5 8s216d 1 3
? ?
05013 14 5 214 1 3
0Þ3 14 Þ 211
Not a solution Not a solution

|
61. d 5 5 2 s22d | 63. d 5 10 2 3 | |
5 |7| 5 7 ||
57 57

y y

6 (3, 5)
3
4
(3, 2)
2 2
(10, 2)
x
4 2 2 4 6 1
2
(3, 2)
4 x
4 8 12

Vertical line Horizontal line


144 Chapter 2 Graphs and Functions

65. d 5 | 3
2 2 94 | 67. d 5 | 2 s24d|
5
2

5| | 5| 1 |
6
2 94 5 8
4 2 2

5 34 5| | 13
2

y 5 13
2

3 y

( −3, 94 ) 2
6
5
( −3, 2
3
) 4
1
3

2
x
−3 −2 −1 (−4 , 31) 1 ( 52 , 31)
x
−4 −3 −2 −1 1 2 3
Vertical line −1

Horizontal line

69. d 5 !s3 2 4d2 1 s7 2 5d2 71. d 5 !s1 2 5d2 1 s3 2 6d2


5 !s21d2 1 s2d2 5 !1 1 4 5 !5 5 !16 1 9 5 !25 5 5

73. d 5 !s23 2 4d2 1 f0 2 s23dg2 75. d 5 !s22 2 4d2 1 s23 2 2d2


5 !s27d2 1 s3d2 5 !49 1 9 5 !58 5 !36 1 25 5 !61

77. d 5 !s1 2 3d2 1 f3 2 s22dg2 5 !4 1 25 5 !29

79. y 81. y

7 4
(3, 6) (9, 4)
6 3
d1
5 d1 2
(−1, 1)
4 d3
3 x
−4 −3 −2 d2 1
d3 3 4
2
d2 (4, 1)
1 (1, 3) −2
x −3
−1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (1, −3)
−4

d1 5 !s1 2 3d2 1 s3 2 6d2 5 !4 1 9 5 !13 d1 5 !s21 2 3d2 1 s1 2 3d2 5 !16 1 4 5 !20


d2 5 !s1 2 4d2 1 s3 2 1d2 5 !9 1 4 5 !13 d2 5 !s21 2 1d2 1 f1 2 s23dg2 5 !4 1 16 5 !20
d3 5 !s3 2 4d2 1 s6 2 1d2 5 !1 1 25 5 !26 d3 5 !s1 2 3d2 1 s23 2 3d2 5 !4 1 36 5 !40

s!13d2 1 s!13d2 5? s!26d2 s!20d2 1 s!20d2 5? s!40d2


? ?
13 1 13 5 26 20 1 20 5 40

26 5 26 40 5 40

By the Pythagorean Theorem, it is a right triangle. By the Pythagorean Theorem, it is a right triangle.
Section 2.1 The Rectangular Coordinate System 145

83. d 5 !s2 2 2d2 1 s3 2 6d2 5 !0 1 9 5 3 3 1 4 Þ 5 Not collinear


d 5 !s2 2 6d2 1 s3 2 3d2 5 !16 1 0 5 4
d 5 !s2 2 6d2 1 s6 2 3d2 5 !16 1 9 5 5

85. d 5 !s8 2 5d2 1 s3 2 2d2 5 !9 1 1 5 !10 !10 1 !10 5 2!10 Collinear

d 5 !s8 2 2d2 1 s3 2 1d2 5 !36 1 4 5 !40 5 2!10


d 5 !s5 2 2d2 1 s2 2 1d2 5 !9 1 1 5 !10

87. M 5 12221 4, 0 12 82 5 s1, 4d 89. M 5 11 12 6, 6 12 32 5 172, 922


y y

10 7
6
(1, 6)
8 (4, 8)
7 9
5
6 2, 2
4
4 (1, 4)
3
(6, 3)
( 2, 0) 2
x 1
4 2 2 4 6 8
2 x
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

91.
x 100 150 200 250 300
c 5 28x 1 3000 5800 7200 8600 10,000 11,400

y 5 28s100d 1 3000 y 5 28s150d 1 3000 y 5 28s200d 1 3000


5 2800 1 3000 5 4200 1 3000 5 5600 1 3000
5 5800 5 7200 5 8600

y 5 28s250d 1 3000 y 5 28s300d 1 3000


5 7000 1 3000 5 8400 1 3000
5 10,000 5 11,400

For each additional 50 units produced, costs increase by $1400.

93. x2 5 72 1 152 95. d 5 !s22 2 0d2 1 s0 2 5d2 5 !4 1 25 5 !29


x2 5 49 1 225 d 5 !s0 2 1d2 1 s5 2 0d2 5 !1 1 25 5 !26
x 5 !274 < 16.55294536 d 5 !s22 2 1d2 1 s0 2 0d2 5 !9 5 3
Rafter 5 2 1 x < 18.55294536 < 18.55 feet P 5 !29 1 !26 1 3 < 13.48

97. The word ordered is significant because each number in the pair has a particular interpretation. The first measures horizontal
distance and the second measures vertical distance.

99. The x-coordinate of any point on the y-axis is 0.


The y-coordinate of any point on the x-axis is 0.
146 Chapter 2 Graphs and Functions

101. No. The scales on the x and y-axes are determined by the magnitudes of the quantities being measured by x and y.

103. y

8
6
(−3, 5) (3, 5)
4
(−2, 1) 2 (2, 1)
x
−8 −6 −4 −2 2 4 6 8

(−7, −3) −4 (7, −3)


−6
−8

When the sign of the x-coordinate is changed, the point is on the opposite side of the y-axis as the original point.

Section 2.2 Graphs of Equations

1. y 5 2 matches graph (e). 3. y 5 2 2 x matched graph (f) 5. y 5 x2 2 4 matches graph (d).

7. y
x 22 21 0 1 2
9
y 5 3x 26 23 0 3 6 6

Solution s22, 26d s21, 23d s0, 0d s1, 3d s2, 6d 3

x
−9 −6 −3 3 6 9

−9

9. y
x 22 21 0 1 2
4
y542x 6 5 4 3 2
3

Solution s22, 6d s21, 5d s0, 4d s1, 3d s2, 2d 2

x
1 1 2 3 4 5
1

11. y
x 22 21 0 1 2
3
y 5 2x 2 3 27 25 23 21 1 2

Solution s22, 27d s21, 25d s0, 23d s1, 21d s2, 1d 1

x
−3 −2 −1 1 2 3
−1

−2

−3
146 Chapter 2 Graphs and Functions

101. No. The scales on the x and y-axes are determined by the magnitudes of the quantities being measured by x and y.

103. y

8
6
(−3, 5) (3, 5)
4
(−2, 1) 2 (2, 1)
x
−8 −6 −4 −2 2 4 6 8

(−7, −3) −4 (7, −3)


−6
−8

When the sign of the x-coordinate is changed, the point is on the opposite side of the y-axis as the original point.

Section 2.2 Graphs of Equations

1. y 5 2 matches graph (e). 3. y 5 2 2 x matched graph (f) 5. y 5 x2 2 4 matches graph (d).

7. y
x 22 21 0 1 2
9
y 5 3x 26 23 0 3 6 6

Solution s22, 26d s21, 23d s0, 0d s1, 3d s2, 6d 3

x
−9 −6 −3 3 6 9

−9

9. y
x 22 21 0 1 2
4
y542x 6 5 4 3 2
3

Solution s22, 6d s21, 5d s0, 4d s1, 3d s2, 2d 2

x
1 1 2 3 4 5
1

11. y
x 22 21 0 1 2
3
y 5 2x 2 3 27 25 23 21 1 2

Solution s22, 27d s21, 25d s0, 23d s1, 21d s2, 1d 1

x
−3 −2 −1 1 2 3
−1

−2

−3
Section 2.2 Graphs of Equations 147

13. y
x 22 21 0 1 2
3
y 5 2 32x 1 1 4
5
2 1 2 12 22

Solution s22, 4d s21, 52 d s0, 1d s1, 2 12 d s2, 22d 1

x
−3 −2 −1 2 3
−1

−2

−3

15. y
x 22 21 0 1 2
2
y 5 2x2 24 21 0 21 24 1

Solution s22, 24d s21, 21d s0, 0d s1, 21d s2, 24d –3 –2 2 3
x

–1

–2

–3

–4

17. y
x 22 21 0 1 2
1
y 5 x2 2 4 0 23 24 23 0
x
3 1 1 3
Solution s22, 0d s21, 23d s0, 24d s1, 23d s2, 0d 1

19. y
x 22 21 0 1 2
3
y 5 x2 1 3x 22 22 0 4 10
2

Solution s22, 22d s21, 22d s0, 0d s1, 4d s2, 10d 1

x
−4 −2 −1 1 2

−2

−3

21. y
x 22 21 0 1 2
4
y 5 x2 2 2x 2 1 7 2 21 22 21 3

Solution s22, 7d s21, 2d s0, 21d s1, 22d s2, 21d 2

x
−2 −1 1 2 3 4
−1

−2
148 Chapter 2 Graphs and Functions

23. y
x 22 21 0 1 2

||
5
y5 x 2 1 0 1 2
4

Solution s22, 2d s21, 1d s0, 0d s1, 1d s2, 2d 3

x
3 2 1 1 2 3
1

25. y
x 22 21 0 1 2
5
||
y5 x 13 5 4 3 4 5 4

Solution s22, 5d s21, 4d s0, 3d s1, 4d s2, 5d 3

x
−3 −2 −1 1 2 3
−1

27. y
x 22 21 0 1 2
6
y5 x13| | 1 2 3 4 5 5
4
Solution s22, 1d s21, 2d s0, 3d s1, 4d s2, 5d 3

1
x
–7 –6 –5 –4 –3 –2 –1 1

–2

29. y
x 22 21 0 1 2
3
y 5 2x3 8 1 0 21 28
2

Solution s22, 8d s21, 1d s0, 0d s1, 21d s2, 28d 1

x
−3 −2 −1 1 2 3
−1

−2

−3

31. y 5 6x 2 3 33. y 5 34x 1 15


y-intercept: y 5 6s0d 2 3 y-intercept: y 5 4s0d 1 15
3

y 5 23 s0, 23d y 5 15 s0, 15d


x-intercept: 0 5 6x 2 3 x-intercept: 05 3
4x 1 15
3 5 6x 215 5
3
4x
3
6 5x 220 5 x s220, 0d
1
2 5x s 1
2, 0d
Section 2.2 Graphs of Equations 149

35. x 1 2y 5 10 37. 4x 2 y 1 3 5 0
y-intercept: 0 1 2y 5 0 y-intercept: 4s0d 2 y 1 3 5 0
y55 s0, 5d 35y s0, 3d
x-intercept: x 1 2s0d 5 10 x-intercept: 4x 2 0 1 3 5 0
x 5 10 s10, 0d 4x 5 23
x 5 2 34 s2 34, 0d

||
39. y 5 x 2 1 |
41. y 5 x 1 2 |
y-intercept: y 5 0 2 1 || y-intercept: y 5 0 1 2| |
y 5 21 s0, 21d y52 s0, 2d
x-intercept: ||
05 x 21 x-intercept: 05 x12| |
1 5 |x| 05x12
±1 5 x s1, 0d, s21, 0d 22 5 x s22, 0d

|
43. y 5 x 2 1 2 3 |
|
y-intercept: y 5 0 2 1 2 3 |
y5123
y 5 22 s0, 22d

| |
x-intercept: 0 5 x 2 1 2 3
3 5 |x 2 1|
3 5 x 2 1 or 23 5 x 2 1
45x 22 5 x s4, 0d, s22, 0d

45. 2x 1 3y 5 6
Estimate: y-intercept < 2 Check: 2s0d 1 3y 5 6
x-intercept < 3 3y 5 6
y52 s0, 2d

2x 1 3s0d 5 6
2x 5 6
x53 s3, 0d

47. y 5 x2 1 3
Estimate: y-intercept < 3 Check: y 5 02 1 3 5 3 s0, 3d

no x-intercepts 0 5 x2 1 3
23 5 x2 no real solution
150 Chapter 2 Graphs and Functions

49. y 5 4x 2 6 3

Keystrokes: Y 5 4 X,T, u 2 6 GRAPH


−3 7

Estimate: y-intercept < 26


3
x-intercept < 2
−7

Check: y 5 4s0d 2 6 Check: 0 5 4x 2 6

y 5 26 s0, 26d 6 5 4x
6
4 5x
3
2 5x s32, 0d
51. y 5 sx 2 1dsx 2 6d
Keystrokes: Y 5 x X,T, u 2 1 d x X,T, u 2 6 d GRAPH

Estimate: y-intercept < 6 12

x-intercepts < 1, 6

−6 14

−8

Check: y 5 s0 2 1ds0 2 6d Check: 0 5 sx 2 1dsx 2 6d


y56 s0, 6d x51 x56 s1, 0d, s6, 0d

| |
53. y 5 4x 1 6 2 2
Keystrokes: Y 5 ABS x 4 X,T, u 1 6 d 2 2 GRAPH
Estimate: y-intercept < 4 16

x-intercepts < 21, 22

−12 8

−4

|
Check: y 5 4s0d 1 6 2 2 | Check: | |
0 5 4x 1 6 2 2
y5622 2 5 |4x 1 6|
y54 s0, 4d 2 5 4x 1 6 or 4x 1 6 5 22
24 5 4x 4x 5 28
21 5 x x 5 22
s21, 0d, s22, 0d

55. y5320 y 57. y 5 2s0d 2 3 y

y 5 3 s0, 3d 4 y 5 23 s0, 23d 3 (3, 3)


2
0532x 3 (0, 3)
0 5 2x 2 3
1 3
(1, 2) 2, 0
x53 s3, 0d 2
3 5 2x x
2 1 2 3 4
1
y5321 (3, 0)
x
3
2 5x s 3
2, 0d
1

2
y52 s1, 2d 1
1
1 2 3 4
y 5 2s3d 2 3 3 (0, 3)

y53 s3, 3d
Section 2.2 Graphs of Equations 151

59. 4x 1 y 5 3 y 61. 2x 2 3y 5 6 y

(0, 3)
2s0d 2 3y 5 6
3
4s0d 1 y 5 3 1
2 (3, 0)
y53 s0, 3d 23y 5 6 x
1 2 3 4
1
4x 1 0 5 3 3 y 5 22 s0, 22d 1
4, 0 4
x 1, 3
4x 5 3 2 1 2 2x 2 3s0d 5 6 (0, 2)
(1, 1)
s34, 0d
1
x 5 34 2x 5 6 3

4s1d 1 y 5 3 x53 s3, 0d


y 5 21 s1, 21d 2s1d 2 3y 5 6
23y 5 4
y 5 2 43 s1, 2 43 d

63. x 1 5y 5 10 y 65. y 5 x2 2 9
0 1 5y 5 10 6 0 5 x2 2 9
y52 s0, 2d 4
0 5 sx 2 3dsx 1 3d
(0, 2)
(5, 1)
x 1 5s0d 5 10 (10, 0) 3 5 x x 5 23 s3, 0ds23, 0d
x
2 4 6 8 10
x 5 10 s10, 0d 2
y5 02 29
5 1 5y 5 10 4 y 5 29 s0, 29d
5y 5 5 y

y51 s5, 1d 3
( 3, 0) (3, 0)
x
6 6

9 (0, 9)

67. y 5 1 2 x2 69. y 5 xsx 2 2d

y5120 y 5 02 2 2s0d

y51 s0, 1d y50 s0, 0d


y 5 1 2 s1d2 0 5 x2 2 2x

y5121 0 5 xsx 2 2d

y50 s1, 0d 05x x52 s0, 0d, s2, 0d


y 5 1 2 s21d2 y

y5121
3

y50 s21, 0d 2

(0, 0) (2, 0)
x
1 1 3

1
(1, 1)
152 Chapter 2 Graphs and Functions

71. y5 x 23|| 73. y5 x12 | |


y 5 23 s0, 23d 52 s0, 2d

||
05 x 23 y 5 22 1 2 | |
3 5 |x| 50 s22, 0d
3 5 x x 5 23 s3, 0d, s23, 0d y 5 24 1 2 | |
y
52 s24, 2d
y
2

1 5
( 3, 0) (3, 0)
x 4
3 2 1 1 2 3
1 3
(1, 3)
2
(0, 2)
3 (0, 3)
4 x
–5 –4 (−2, 0) 1

75. || | |
y52 x 1 x11 y52 3 1 311|| | | 77. y 5 225,000 2 20,000t

y 5 2 |0| 1 |0 1 1| y 5 23 1 4 y 5 225,000 2 20,000s0d

y51 s0, 1d y51 s3, 1d 5 225,000 s0, 225,000d

|| |
052 x 1 x11 | y 5 225,000 2 20,000s8d

|x| 5 |x 1 1| 5 225,000 2 160,000

x5x11 or 2x 5 x 1 1 5 65,000 s8, 65,000d


0Þ1 22x 5 1 y

y x5 2 12 s 2 12, 0d 225,000
200,000
175,000
4
150,000
3 125,000
2 (3, 1) 100,000
(0, 1)
(−12, 0) 1 75,000
50,000
x
−4 −3 −2 1 2 3 4 25,000
t
−2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

−3
−4

79. 0 ≤ x ≤ 7 y

s0, 40,000d, s7, 5000d 40,000

40,000 2 5,000 35,000


m5 5 5 25000 30,000
027 27
20,000
y 5 25000x 1 40,000
10,000

t
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Section 2.3 Slope and Graphs of Linear Equations 153

81. (a) (b) F


x 0 3 6 9 12
15
4
3x 0 4 8 12 16
12

x
3 6 9 12 15

(c) F doubles.

83. The scales on the y-axes are different. From graph (a) it appears that sales have not increased. From graph (b) it appears that
sales have increased dramatically.

85. The graph of an equation is the set of all solutions of the equation plotted on a rectangular coordinate system.

87. To find the x-intercepts, let y 5 0 and solve the equation for x. To find the y-intercepts, let x 5 0 and solve the equation for y.
Example: 2x 2 y 5 4
2x 2 0 5 4 2s0d 2 y 5 4
2x 5 4 2y 5 4
x 5 2 s2, 0d y 5 24 s0, 24d
x-intercept y-intercept

89. (a) It is 6 miles from the person’s home.


(b) For time 4 < t < 6 the person is stopped since the graph is a constant line.
(c) The person’s speed was greatest during 6 ≤ t ≤ 10 because the graph is steepest there.

Section 2.3 Slope and Graphs of Linear Equations

1. s0, 2d and s6, 6d 3. s0, 8d and s4, 0d


622 4 2 0 2 8 28
m5 5 5 m5 5 5 22
620 6 3 420 4

3
5. s3, 0d and s3, 8d 7. (a) m 5 ⇒ L3 (b) m 5 0 ⇒ L2
4
820 8
m5 5 5 undefined (c) m 5 23 ⇒ L1
323 0
Section 2.3 Slope and Graphs of Linear Equations 153

81. (a) (b) F


x 0 3 6 9 12
15
4
3x 0 4 8 12 16
12

x
3 6 9 12 15

(c) F doubles.

83. The scales on the y-axes are different. From graph (a) it appears that sales have not increased. From graph (b) it appears that
sales have increased dramatically.

85. The graph of an equation is the set of all solutions of the equation plotted on a rectangular coordinate system.

87. To find the x-intercepts, let y 5 0 and solve the equation for x. To find the y-intercepts, let x 5 0 and solve the equation for y.
Example: 2x 2 y 5 4
2x 2 0 5 4 2s0d 2 y 5 4
2x 5 4 2y 5 4
x 5 2 s2, 0d y 5 24 s0, 24d
x-intercept y-intercept

89. (a) It is 6 miles from the person’s home.


(b) For time 4 < t < 6 the person is stopped since the graph is a constant line.
(c) The person’s speed was greatest during 6 ≤ t ≤ 10 because the graph is steepest there.

Section 2.3 Slope and Graphs of Linear Equations

1. s0, 2d and s6, 6d 3. s0, 8d and s4, 0d


622 4 2 0 2 8 28
m5 5 5 m5 5 5 22
620 6 3 420 4

3
5. s3, 0d and s3, 8d 7. (a) m 5 ⇒ L3 (b) m 5 0 ⇒ L2
4
820 8
m5 5 5 undefined (c) m 5 23 ⇒ L1
323 0
154 Chapter 2 Graphs and Functions

520 5 24 2 0 24
9. m 5 5 Line rises. 11. m 5 5 Line falls.
720 7 520 5

y y
(0, 0)
x
8
1 2 3 4 5
–1
6 (7, 5)
–2
4
–3
2
(0, 0) –4 (5, −4)
x
2 4 6 8 –5
2

325 22 4 2 s23d 7
13. m 5 5 51 Line rises. 15. m 5 5 5 undefined
24 2 s22d 22 25 2 s25d 0

y Line is vertical.
(−2, 5) 5 y
4
(−4, 3) ( 5, 4)
3 4

2 2
1
x
x 6 4 2 2
−5 −4 −3 −2 −1 1
−1 2
( 5, 3)
4

25 2 s25d 0 25
17. m 5 5 50 Line is horizontal. 22
722 5 2 4 8 1 10 18
19. m 5
3
? 4 5 3 2 20 5 217 Line falls.
25
y 4

2
y
x
2 2 4 6 8
2 3
2 4, 2
4 (2, 5) (7, 5)
1
6 x
1 1 2 4 5
8 1

2
5
5, 2
3
Section 2.3 Slope and Graphs of Linear Equations 155

1 1
2
4 8 8 221 1 5.25 2 s22d 7.25 725 29
21. m 5
3 23
? 8 5 6 1 12 5 18 Line rises. 23. m 5
4.75 2 2.5
5 5
2.25 225
5
9
Line rises.
2
4 2
y

6
y
(4.75, 5.25)
4
2
2

1 3, 1 x
(− 32 , 18 ( ( 4 4 ( 2 2 4 6 8
x 2 (2.5, 2)
−2 −1 1 2
4
−1

−2

25. y 27. y

2 6
(0, 4)
1 (1, 1)
2
x (8, 0)
−2 −1 1 2 x
−2 2 4 6 8
−1 (0, −1)
−2

−4

x 21 0 1 x 21 0 1
2 12x 9 7
y 5 2x 2 1 23 21 1 y5 14 2 4 2

Solution s21, 23d s0, 21d s1, 1d Solution s21, 92 d s0, 4d s1, 72 d

1 2 s21d 2 7
m5 5 52 24
120 1 2 7 8
m5 5 2
120 2 2
1
52
2

29. y 4x 1 5y 5 10
4 5y 5 24x 1 10
3
4
(0, 2) y52 x12
5
1

x 6
−2 −1 1 2 4 22
−1 5 6 10
(4, − 65( m5 5 2
−2 120 5 5
4
52
5
x 21 0 1
2 45x 14 6
y5 1 10 5 2 5

Solution s21, 145 d s0, 2d s1, 65 d


156 Chapter 2 Graphs and Functions

22 7 2 5 3 32y y22
31. 5 33. 5 35. 0 5
3 x24 2 9 2 s23d x25
22sx 2 4d 5 6 3s12d 5 2s3 2 yd Horizontal line: s1, 2d, s0, 2d, s3, 2d
22x 1 8 5 6 36 5 6 2 2y Any points with a y-coordinate of 2
22x 5 22 30 5 22y
x51 215 5 y

y14 y23 4 y20


37. 3 5 39. 21 5 41. 5
x23 x20 3 x15
s4, 21d, s5, 2d s1, 2d, s2, 1d s22, 4d, s1, 8d
let x 5 4, solve for y: let x 5 1, solve for y: let x 5 22, solve for y:
y14 y23 4 y
35 21 5 5
423 120 3 22 1 5
35y14 21 5 y 2 3 45y
21 5 y 25y let x 5 1, solve for y:
let x 5 5, solve for y: let x 5 2, solve for y: 4 y
5
3 115
y14 y23
35 21 5
523 220 85y
65y14 22 5 y 2 3
25y 15y

43. 6x 2 3y 5 9 45. 4y 2 x 5 24 47. 2x 1 5y 2 3 5 0


23y 5 26x 1 9 4y 5 x 2 4 5y 5 22x 1 3
23y 26x 9 4y x 4 5y 22x 3
5 1 5 2 5 1
23 23 23 4 4 4 5 5 5
y 5 2x 2 3 1 22 3
y5 x21 y5 x1
4 5 5

49. y 5 12x 1 2 51. y 5 3x 2 2 53. 3y 2 2x 5 3


m 5 3; s0, 22d 3y 5 2x 1 3
y 5 23x 1 1
m 5 23; s0, 1d

55. 5x 1 3y 2 2 5 0 57. 3x 2 y 2 2 5 0 y

3y 5 25x 1 2 2y 5 23x 1 2 3

25 2 y 5 3x 2 2 2
y5 x1 1
3 3
slope 5 3 x
25
1 2
3 2 1 1 2 3
2
m5 ; 0, y-intercept 5 22 1
3 3 2 (0, 2)
Section 2.3 Slope and Graphs of Linear Equations 157

59. x 1 y 5 0 y 61. 3x 1 2y 2 2 5 0 y

y 5 2x 1 0 2y 5 23x 1 2
2 2

slope 5 21 23
1 y5 x11 1 (0, 1)
2
y-intercept 5 0 (0, 0)
x x
2 1 1 2 23 2 1 2

1
slope 5 1
2
2
y-intercept 5 1 2

63. x 2 4y 1 2 5 0 y 65. y

24y 5 2x 2 2 4
2

1 1 1 3
y5 x1 1 0, 2
4 2 2 (3, 2)
x
1 2 1 1 2
slope 5 1
1
4
x
2
1 1 3 4
y-intercept 5
2
Locate a second point with the slope of 3.
3 Change in y
m5 5
1 Change in x

67. y 69. y

4 3

2 (3, 2)

1
2
(3, 2) x
1 −1 1 2 4
−1
x
1 2 3 4 −2

21
Locate a second point with the slope of . m is undefined so the line is vertical.
3
21 Change in y
m5 5
3 Change in x

71. 2x 2 y 1 4 5 0 y

2s0d 2 y 1 4 5 0
6

4 5 y s0, 4d (0, 4)
4

2x 2 0 1 4 5 0 2

2x 5 24 ( 2, 0)
x
4 2 4
x 5 22 s22, 0d 2
158 Chapter 2 Graphs and Functions

73. 25x 1 2y 2 20 5 0 y 1
75. L1: y 5 x 2 2
2
25s0d 1 2y 2 20 5 0 12
10 (0, 10)
1
2y 5 20 L2: y 5 x 1 3
2
6
y 5 10 s0, 10d
4 1 1
m1 5 and m2 5
25x 1 2s0d 2 20 5 0 ( 4, 0)
2 2 2
x
25x 5 20 10 8 6 2
2
2 4
L1 5 m2 so the lines are parallel.
x 5 24 s24, 0d

3 12 22000 3 h
77. L1: y 5 x 2 3 79. 2 5 81. 5
4 100 x 4 15
24 212x 5 2200,000 45 5 4h
L2: y 5 x11
3
x < 16,667 45
5h
3 24 4
m1 5 and m2 5 The change in horizontal
4 3
position is 16,667 feet.
The maximum height in
m1 ? m2 5 21 so the lines 45
are perpendicular. the attic is feet 5 11.25 feet.
4

83. y 5 192.64t 1 2015.79

(a)
t 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
y $2015.79 $2208.43 $2401.07 $2593.71 $2786.35 $2978.99 $3171.63

(b) y

3000

2500

2000

t
1 2 3 4 5 6

(c) On the average, tuition and fees increased $192.64 each year from 1990 to 1996. The increase is the slope of the graph.
(d) for 2005, t 5 15 so y 5 192.64s15d 1 2015.79
5 $4905.39

15,900 2 10,200
85. (a) y (b) m 5 5 21900
023
20,000
(0, 15,900) (c) The slope is the annual depreciation.
15,000

10,000
(3, 10,200)
5,000

x
1 2 3
Mid-Chapter Quiz for Chapter 2 159

87. Negative slope: line falls to the right.


Zero slope: line is horizontal
Positive slope: line rises to the right

89. In the form y 5 mx 1 b, m represents the slope and b represents the y-intercept.

91. No, it is not possible for two lines with positive slopes to be perpendicular to each other. Their slopes must be negative
reciprocals of each other.

Mid-Chapter Quiz for Chapter 2

1. Quadrants I or II. Since x can be any real number and y is 2. s10, 23d
4, the point sx, 4d can only be located in quadrants in
which the y coordinate is positive.

3. 4x 2 3y 5 10
? ?
(a) s2, 1d 4s2d 2 3s1d 5 10 (b) s1, 22d 4s1d 2 3s22d 5 10
? ?
8 2 3 5 10 4 1 6 5 10
5 Þ 10 not a solution 10 5 10 solution
(d) s2, d 4s2d 2 3s2 23 d 5 10
?
(c) s2.5, 0d
?
4s2.5d 2 3s0d 5 10 2 23
?
?
10 2 0 5 10 8 1 2 5 10
10 5 10 solution
10 5 10 solution

4. y d 5 !s21 2 3d2 1 s5 2 2d2 5. y d 5 !s23 2 2d2 1 s22 2 10d2


(−1, 5) 5 !16 1 9 10 (2, 10) 5 !25 1 144
4 8
3 5 !25 6 5 !169
2 (3, 2) 4
1
55 5 13
x x
−3 −2 1 2 3 −6 − 4 2 4 6
−1
(−3, −2)

6. 6x 2 8y 1 48 5 0 7. y 5 2x 2 3 y

y 5 2s0d 2 3
2
x-intercept: 6x 2 8s0d 1 48 5 0
1 (2, 1)
6x 5 248 5 23 s0, 23d x
−3 −2 −1 ( 3 , 0)
−1
x 5 28 s28, 0d 0 5 2x 2 3 2

−2
y-intercept: 6s0d 2 8y 1 48 5 0 3 5 2x −3 (0, −3)

28y 5 248
3
2 5x s32, 0d
y56 s0, 6d y 5 2s2d 2 3
51 s2, 1d
Mid-Chapter Quiz for Chapter 2 159

87. Negative slope: line falls to the right.


Zero slope: line is horizontal
Positive slope: line rises to the right

89. In the form y 5 mx 1 b, m represents the slope and b represents the y-intercept.

91. No, it is not possible for two lines with positive slopes to be perpendicular to each other. Their slopes must be negative
reciprocals of each other.

Mid-Chapter Quiz for Chapter 2

1. Quadrants I or II. Since x can be any real number and y is 2. s10, 23d
4, the point sx, 4d can only be located in quadrants in
which the y coordinate is positive.

3. 4x 2 3y 5 10
? ?
(a) s2, 1d 4s2d 2 3s1d 5 10 (b) s1, 22d 4s1d 2 3s22d 5 10
? ?
8 2 3 5 10 4 1 6 5 10
5 Þ 10 not a solution 10 5 10 solution
(d) s2, d 4s2d 2 3s2 23 d 5 10
?
(c) s2.5, 0d
?
4s2.5d 2 3s0d 5 10 2 23
?
?
10 2 0 5 10 8 1 2 5 10
10 5 10 solution
10 5 10 solution

4. y d 5 !s21 2 3d2 1 s5 2 2d2 5. y d 5 !s23 2 2d2 1 s22 2 10d2


(−1, 5) 5 !16 1 9 10 (2, 10) 5 !25 1 144
4 8
3 5 !25 6 5 !169
2 (3, 2) 4
1
55 5 13
x x
−3 −2 1 2 3 −6 − 4 2 4 6
−1
(−3, −2)

6. 6x 2 8y 1 48 5 0 7. y 5 2x 2 3 y

y 5 2s0d 2 3
2
x-intercept: 6x 2 8s0d 1 48 5 0
1 (2, 1)
6x 5 248 5 23 s0, 23d x
−3 −2 −1 ( 3 , 0)
−1
x 5 28 s28, 0d 0 5 2x 2 3 2

−2
y-intercept: 6s0d 2 8y 1 48 5 0 3 5 2x −3 (0, −3)

28y 5 248
3
2 5x s32, 0d
y56 s0, 6d y 5 2s2d 2 3
51 s2, 1d
160 Chapter 2 Graphs and Functions

8. 3x 1 y 2 6 5 0 y

3s0d 1 y 2 6 5 0
y56 s0, 26d (0, 6)
6

3x 1 0 2 6 5 0 4
(1, 3)
3x 5 6 2
(2, 0)
x
x52 s2, 0d –4 –2
–2
4 6 8

3s1d 1 y 2 6 5 0
y53 s1, 3d

9. y 5 6x 2 x2 y
(3, 9)
y 5 6s0d 2 02 9

6
50 s0, 0d
3
(0, 0) (6, 0)
y 5 6s6d 2 62 x
–6 –3 3 9 12
50 s6, 0d –3

y 5 6s3d 2 32
5 18 2 9
59 s3, 9d

10. y 5 x2 2 4 y

y5 02 24 1

x
5 24 s0, 24d (−2, 0) –1 1 (2, 0)
–1

y 5 22 2 4 –2

50 s2, 0d –3

y 5 s22d2 2 4 –5
(0, −4)

50 s22, 0d

||
11. y 5 x 1 1 y

y 5 |0| 1 1 (−2, 3)
3
(2, 3)

51 s0, 1d 2

||
y5 1 11 (0, 1)

52 s1, 2d x
−2 −1 1 2

| |
y 5 21 1 1 −1

52 s21, 2d

|
12. y 5 x 2 2 2 3 | y

|
y5 022 23 | 4
3
5 21 s0, 21d (−1, 0)
1 (5, 0)
|
y5 522 23 | (0, −1) 1 2 3 5 6
x

−2
50 s5, 0d −3
(2, −3)
| |
−4
y5 222 23
5 23 s2, 23d
Mid-Chapter Quiz for Chapter 2 161

22 2 3 25 828 0
13. m 5 5 5 undefined 14. m 5 5 50 Line is horizontal.
525 0 7 2 s23d 10

Line is vertical.

520 5 26 2 4 210 25
15. m 5 5 Line rises. 16. m 5 5 5 Line falls.
623 3 5 2 s21d 6 3

17. 3x 1 6y 5 6 18. 22x 1 y 5 8 19. x 2 2y 5 4


6y 5 23x 1 6 y 5 2x 1 8 22y 5 2x 1 4
21 m 5 2; s0, 8d 1
y5 x11 y5 x22
2 2
y
21 1
m5 ; s0, 1d 8 (0, 8) m 5 ; s0, 22d
2 2
6

4 y
y
2
1
3
x
−8 −6 −2 2 x
2 −1 1 2 4
−2
(0, 1) −1

(0, −2)
x
−1 1 2 4 −3
−1
−4
−2

21 1
20. y 5 3x 1 2; y 5 x24 21. y 5 2x 1 3; y 5 22x 2 3 22. y 5 4x 1 3; y 5 s8x 1 5d
3 2
m1 5 2 m2 5 22
21 m1 5 4 m2 5 4
m1 5 3 m2 5
3 m1 Þ m2
m1 5 m2
m1 ? m2 5 21 m1 ? m2 Þ 21 Lines are parallel.
Lines are perpendicular. Lines are neither.

23. s0, $85,000d, s10, $4000d


4000 2 85,000 281,000
m5 5 5 28100
10 2 0 10
V 5 28100t 1 85,000, 0 ≤ t ≤ 10
V

100,000

80,000

60,000

40,000

20,000

t
2 4 6 8 10
162 Chapter 2 Graphs and Functions

Section 2.4 Equations of Lines

1. y 5 23x 1 2 matches graph (b). 3. y 5 2 32x 1 2 matches graph (a).

y25 1 y21 4 y 2 s21d


5. 35 7. 2 5 9. 5
x22 2 x 2 s23d 5 3
x2
4
3sx 2 2d 5 y 2 5 x 1 3 5 22sy 2 1d
3x 2 6 5 y 2 5 x 1 3 5 22y 1 2 1
4 x2
3
425 5sy 1 1d
3x 2 y 5 1 x 1 2y 5 21
4x 2 3 5 5y 1 5
4x 2 5y 5 8

11. y 2 0 5 2 2sx 2 0d
1
13. y 1 4 5 3sx 2 0d 15. y 2 6 5 2 4sx 2 0d
3

1 3
y 5 2 2x y 1 4 5 3x y 2 6 5 2 4x

17. y 2 8 5 22fx 2 s22dg 19. y 2 s27d 5 4fx 2 s24dg


5
21. y 2 2 5 24fx 2 s22dg
7

y 2 8 5 22sx 1 2d y 1 7 5 4sx 1 4d
5
y 2 72 5 24sx 1 2d

23. y 2 52 5 43sx 2 34 d 25. y 2 s21d 5 0sx 2 2d


y1150

320 3 0 2 4 24
27. m 5 5 29. m 5 5 5 21
220 2 420 4
3 y 2 4 5 21sx 2 0d
y 2 0 5 sx 2 0d
2
y 2 4 5 2x
3
y5 x x1y2450
2
2y 5 3x
3x 2 2y 5 0

023 23 21 22 2 2 4 2
31. m 5 5 5 33. m 5 52 52
4 2 s22d 6 2 515 10 5
21 2
y205 sx 2 4d y 2 2 5 2 sx 1 5d
2 5
21 2
y5 x12 y2252 x22
2 5
2y 5 2x 1 4 2
y52 x
5
x 1 2y 2 4 5 0
5y 5 22x
2x 1 5y 5 0
Section 2.4 Equations of Lines 163

423 1 1 7 1
35. m 5 5 5 2
9 3 6 3 4 2 4 722 5
2 37. m 5 ? 4 5 6 2 40 5 234
2 2 2 3
2 12
2 10
y235
1
3
x213
2 2 1 5
y2 5 2 sx 2 10d
2 34
1 1
y235 x2
3 2 1 5 50
y2 52 x1
2 34 34
6y 2 18 5 2x 2 3
34y 2 17 5 25x 1 50
2x 2 6y 1 15 5 0
5x 1 34y 2 67 5 0

21.4 2 9 210.4 2104 252 24.2 2 0.6 4.8


39. m 5 5 5 5 41. m 5 52 5 20.8
825 3 30 15 822 6
252 y 2 0.6 5 20.8sx 2 2d
y295 sx 2 5d
15
y 2 0.6 5 20.8x 1 1.6
252 52
y295 x1 0.8x 1 y 2 2.2 5 0
15 3
8x 1 10y 2 22 5 0
15y 2 135 5 252x 1 260
4x 1 5y 2 11 5 0
52x 1 15y 2 395 5 0

522 3 1 323 0
43. m 5 5 5 45. m 5 5 50 47. x 5 21 because every
412 6 2 412 6
x-coordinate is 21.
1 y 2 3 5 0sx 2 4d
y 2 5 5 sx 2 4d
2
y2350
1
y255 x22 y53
2
1
y5 x13
2

49. y 5 6 because every y-coordinate 51. x 5 27 because both points have


is 6. an x-coordinate of 27.

53. 6x 2 2y 5 3 slope 5 3 55. 5x 1 4y 5 24


22y 5 26x 1 3 4y 5 25x 1 24
3
y 5 3x 2 2 y 5 2 54x 1 6 slope 5 2 54
(a) y 2 1 5 3sx 2 2d (a) y 2 4 5 2 4fx 2 s25dg
5

y 2 1 5 3x 2 6 y 2 4 5 2 54sx 1 5d
y 5 3x 2 5 y 2 4 5 2 54x 2 25
4

(b) y 2 1 5 2 3sx 2 2d y 5 2 54x 2 25


1 16
4 1 4

y 2 1 5 2 13x 1 23 y 5 2 54x 2 94
y 5 2 13x 1 23 1 33 (b) y 2 4 5 45fx 2 s25dg
y 2 4 5 45sx 1 5d
1 5
y 5 2 3x 1 3
y 2 4 5 45x 1 4
y 5 45x 1 8
164 Chapter 2 Graphs and Functions

57. 4x 2 y 2 3 5 0 slope 5 4 59. x 2 5 5 0


4x 2 3 5 y x55 The slope is undefined.
(a) y 2 7 5 4sx 2 3d (a) x5 2
3

y 2 7 5 4x 2 12 x 2 23 5 0 or
y 5 4x 2 5 3x 2 2 5 0
(b) y 2 7 5 2 14sx 2 3d (b) y 5 43
y 2 7 5 2 14x 1 34 y 2 43 5 0 or
y 5 2 14x 1 34 1 28
4 3y 2 4 5 0
y5 2 14x 1 31
4

x y
61. y 1 5 5 0 63. 1 5 1, a Þ 0, b Þ 0
a b
y 5 25 The slope is zero.
x y
1 51
(a) y 2 2 5 0sx 1 1d 3 2
y2250
(b) x 5 21
x1150

x y
1 5 1, a Þ 0, b Þ 0 6000 2 5000 1000
65. 67. M 5 5 5 20
a b 50 2 0 50
x
1
y
51 C 2 5000 5 20sx 2 0d
25 27
6 3 C 5 20x 1 5000

6x 3y C 5 20s400d 1 5000
2 2 51
5 7 5 $13,000

200,000 2 500,000 1530 2 1500


69. M 5 71. M 5
225 1000 2 0
2300,000 30
5 5
23 1000
5 100,000 3
5
100
S 2 500,000 5 100,000st 2 5d
3
S 2 500,000 5 100,000t 2 500,000 S 2 1500 5 sM 2 0d
100
S 5 100,000t
3
S5 M 1 1500 or
S 5 100,000s6d 5 $600,000 100
S 5 0.03M 1 1500
0.03 5 3%
Section 2.4 Equations of Lines 165

73. (a) S 5 0.70L 75. (a) s0, 7400d s4, 1500d


(b) S 5 0.70s135d 7400 2 1500 5900
m5 5 5 21475
S 5 $94.50 024 24
V 2 7400 5 21475st 2 0d
V 2 7400 5 21475t
V 5 21475t 1 7400
(b) V 5 21475s2d 1 7400
V 5 22950 1 7400
V 5 4450
Thus, after 2 years, the photocopier has a
value of $4450.

77. (a) N 5 1500 1 60t (b) N 5 1500 1 60s15d (c) N 5 1500 1 60s5d
5 1500 1 900 5 1500 1 300
5 2400 5 1800

79. (a) & (b) (c) Two points taken from the “best-fitting” line sketched in
E
part (b) are 0 and 10.
38.3 2 21.1 17.2
100
m5 5 5 20.86
40 2 60 220

60 E 2 38.3 5 20.86sA 2 40d


40 E 5 20.86A 1 72.7
20
E 5 20.86A 1 74.56
A
20 40 60 80

(d) E 5 20.86s30d 1 74.56


E 5 225.8 1 74.56
E < 48.8 years

81. s0, 0d, s40, 5d


Distance from deep end 0 8 16 24 32 40
520 5 1
m5 5 5 Depth of water 9 8 7 6 5 4
40 2 0 40 8
y 2 0 5 18sx 2 0d
y 5 18x
8y 5 x
x 2 8y 5 0

—CONTINUED—
166 Chapter 2 Graphs and Functions

81. —CONTINUED—
Depth of water 5 9 2 y
(a) Depth 5 9 2 y (b) Depth 5 9 2 y (c) Depth 5 9 2 y
9592y 8592y 7592y
05y 21 5 2y 22 5 2y
x 2 8s0d 5 0 15y 25y
x50 x 2 8s1d 5 0 x 2 8s2d 5 0
x58 x 5 16

(d) Depth 5 9 2 y (e) Depth 5 9 2 y (f) Depth 5 9 2 y


6592y 5592y 4592y
23 5 2y 24 5 2y 25 5 2y
35y 45y 55y
x 2 8s3d 5 0 x 2 8s4d 5 0 x 2 8s5d 5 0
x 5 24 x 5 32 x 5 40

83. Yes. When different pairs of points are selected, the change in y and the change in x are the lengths of the sides of similar
triangles. Corresponding sides of similar triangles are proportional.

85. In the equation y 5 3x 1 5, 3 is the slope and 5 is the y-intercept.

Section 2.5 Relations and Functions

1. Domain 5 H22, 0, 1J 3. Domain 5 H0, 2, 4, 5, 6J


Range 5 H21, 0, 1, 4J Range 5 H23, 0, 5, 8J
y y

(1, 4)
4 8 (2, 8)
6
3 (5, 5) (6, 5)
4
2
2
1 (0, 1) (0, 0)
(−2, 0) x
x −4 −2 2 4 6 8
−3 −2 1 2 −2
(4, −3)
(0, −1) −4

5. s3, 150d, s2, 100d, s8, 400d, s6, 300d, s12, 25d 7. s1, 1d, s2, 8d, s3, 27d, s4, 64d, s5, 125d, s6, 216d, s7, 343d

9. (1995, Atlanta Braves), (1996, New York Yankees), 11. No, this relation is not a function because 21 in the
(1997, Florida Marlins), (1998, New York Yankees) domain is paired to 2 numbers s6 and 7d in the range.

13. Yes, this relation is a function as each number in the 15. No, this relation is not a function as 0 in the domain is
domain is paired with exactly one number in the range. paired with 2 numbers in the range s5 and 9d.
166 Chapter 2 Graphs and Functions

81. —CONTINUED—
Depth of water 5 9 2 y
(a) Depth 5 9 2 y (b) Depth 5 9 2 y (c) Depth 5 9 2 y
9592y 8592y 7592y
05y 21 5 2y 22 5 2y
x 2 8s0d 5 0 15y 25y
x50 x 2 8s1d 5 0 x 2 8s2d 5 0
x58 x 5 16

(d) Depth 5 9 2 y (e) Depth 5 9 2 y (f) Depth 5 9 2 y


6592y 5592y 4592y
23 5 2y 24 5 2y 25 5 2y
35y 45y 55y
x 2 8s3d 5 0 x 2 8s4d 5 0 x 2 8s5d 5 0
x 5 24 x 5 32 x 5 40

83. Yes. When different pairs of points are selected, the change in y and the change in x are the lengths of the sides of similar
triangles. Corresponding sides of similar triangles are proportional.

85. In the equation y 5 3x 1 5, 3 is the slope and 5 is the y-intercept.

Section 2.5 Relations and Functions

1. Domain 5 H22, 0, 1J 3. Domain 5 H0, 2, 4, 5, 6J


Range 5 H21, 0, 1, 4J Range 5 H23, 0, 5, 8J
y y

(1, 4)
4 8 (2, 8)
6
3 (5, 5) (6, 5)
4
2
2
1 (0, 1) (0, 0)
(−2, 0) x
x −4 −2 2 4 6 8
−3 −2 1 2 −2
(4, −3)
(0, −1) −4

5. s3, 150d, s2, 100d, s8, 400d, s6, 300d, s12, 25d 7. s1, 1d, s2, 8d, s3, 27d, s4, 64d, s5, 125d, s6, 216d, s7, 343d

9. (1995, Atlanta Braves), (1996, New York Yankees), 11. No, this relation is not a function because 21 in the
(1997, Florida Marlins), (1998, New York Yankees) domain is paired to 2 numbers s6 and 7d in the range.

13. Yes, this relation is a function as each number in the 15. No, this relation is not a function as 0 in the domain is
domain is paired with exactly one number in the range. paired with 2 numbers in the range s5 and 9d.
Section 2.5 Relations and Functions 167

17. No, this relation is not a function because both CBS and 19. Yes, this relation is a function as each number in the
ABC in the domain are each paired to 3 different TV domain is paired with exactly one number in the range.
shows in the range.

21. No, this relation is not a function as the 4 and the 7 in the domain are each paired with 2 different numbers in the range.

23. (a) Yes, this relation is a function as each number in the domain is paired with exactly one number in the range.
(b) No, this relation is not a function as the 1 in the domain is paired with 2 different numbers in the range.
(c) Yes, this relation is a function as each number in the domain is paired with exactly one number in the range.
(d) No, this relation is not a function as each number in the domain is not paired with a number.

25. x2 1 y2 5 25 ||
27. y 5 x 1 2
? ? ? ?
02 1 52 5 25 02 1 s25d 5 25
2
||
3 5112 |23| 5 1 1 2
25 5 25 25 5 25 353 353
Both s0, 5d and s0, 25d are solutions of x2 1 y2 5 25 ||
Both s1, 3d and s1, 23d are solutions of y 5 x 1 2
which implies y is not a function of x. which implies y is not a function of x.

29. y 5 10x 1 12 represents y as a function of x because there is one value of y associated with one value of x.

31. 3x 1 7y 2 2 5 0 represents y as a function of x because there is one value of y associated with one value of x.

33. y 5 xsx 2 10d represents y as a function of x because there is one value of y associated with one value of x.

35. f sxd 5 3x 1 5 37. f sxd 5 3 2 x2


(a) f s2d 5 3s2d 1 5 5 11 (a) f s0d 5 3 2 02 5 3
(b) f s22d 5 3s22d 1 5 5 21 (b) f s23d 5 3 2 s23d2 5 3 2 9 5 26
(c) f skd 5 3skd 1 5 5 3k 1 5 (c) f smd 5 3 2 m2
(d) f sk 1 1d 5 3sk 1 1d 1 5 5 3k 1 3 1 5 5 3k 1 8 (d) f s2td 5 3 2 s2td2 5 3 2 4t2

x
39. f sxd 5
x12
3 3
(a) f s3d 5 5
312 5
24 24
(b) f s24d 5 5 52
24 1 2 22
s
(c) f ssd 5
s12
s22 s22
(d) f ss 2 2d 5 5
ss 2 2d 1 2 s
168 Chapter 2 Graphs and Functions

41. f sxd 5 12x 2 7


(a) f s3d 5 12s3d 2 7 5 29
(b) f s32 d 5 12s32 d 2 7 5 11
(c) f sad 1 f s1d 5 f12sad 2 7g 1 f12s1d 2 7g 5 12a 2 7 1 12 2 7 5 12a 2 2
(d) f sa 1 1d 5 12sa 1 1d 2 7 5 12a 1 12 2 7 5 12a 1 5

43. gsxd 5 2 2 4x 1 x2
(a) gs4d 5 2 2 4s4d 1 42 5 2 2 16 1 16 5 2
(b) gs0d 5 2 2 4s0d 1 02 5 2
(c) gs2yd 5 2 2 4s2yd 1 s2yd2 5 2 2 8y 1 4y2
(d) gs4d 1 gs6d 5 f2 2 4s4d 1 42g 1 f2 2 4s6d 1 62g 5 s2 2 16 1 16d 1 s2 2 24 1 36d 5 2 1 14 5 16

45. f sxd 5 !x 1 5
(a) f s21d 5 !21 1 5 5 2 (b) f s4d 5 !4 1 5 5 3
(c) f sz 2 5d 5 !z 2 5 1 5 5 !z (d) f s5zd 5 !5z 1 5

47. gsxd 5 8 2 x 2 4 | |
| |
(a) gs0d 5 8 2 0 2 4 5 8 2 4 5 4
(b) gs8d 5 8 2 |8 2 4| 5 8 2 4 5 4
(c) gs16d 2 gs21d 5 s8 2 |16 2 4|d 2 s8 2 |21 2 4|d 5 s8 2 12d 2 s8 2 5d 5 24 2 3 5 27
(d) gsx 2 2d 5 8 2 |x 2 2 2 4| 5 8 2 |x 2 6|

3x
49. f sxd 5
x25

3s0d
(a) f s0d 5 50
025

3
5
12
(b) f
5
312
5
5
3 3 15 15
? 3 5 5 2 15 5 210 5 22
3
25
3
3s2d 3s21d 23 25
3 2 2 54 2 3 21 2 54 5 23 5 26 5 22 2 2 5
6 1
(c) f s2d 2 f s21d 5
2
3sx 1 4d 3x 1 12
(d) f sx 1 4d 5 5
x1425 x21

51. f sxd 5 5x10128,2x, ifif x < 0


x ≥ 0
(a) f s4d 5 10 2 2s4d 5 10 2 8 5 2
(b) f s210d 5 210 1 8 5 22
(c) f s0d 5 10 2 2s0d 5 10
(d) f s6d 2 f s22d 5 f10 2 2s6dg 2 f22 1 8g 5 10 2 12 2 6 5 28
Section 2.5 Relations and Functions 169

5x4 22 2,x , ifif x ≤ 2


2
53. hsxd 5
x > 2
(a) hs2d 5 4 2 22 5 0
(b) hs2 32 d 5 4 2 s2 32 d 5 4 2 94 5 16
2 9 7
4 2 4 5 4

(c) hs5d 5 5 2 2 5 3
(d) hs23d 1 hs7d 5 f4 2 s23d2g 1 f7 2 2g 5 4 2 9 1 5 5 0

55. f sxd 5 2x 1 5
f sx 1 2d 2 f s2d f2sx 1 2d 1 5g 2 f2s2d 1 5g 2x 1 4 1 5 2 4 2 5 2x
(a) 5 5 5 52
x x x x
f sx 2 3d 2 f s3d f2sx 2 3d 1 5g 2 f2s3d 1 5g 2x 2 6 1 5 2 6 2 5 2x 2 12
(b) 5 5 5
x x x x

57. Domain of f sxd 5 5 2 2x is all real numbers x.

2x
59. Domain of f sxd 5 is all real numbers x such that x Þ 3 because x 2 3 Þ 0 means x Þ 3.
x23

t13
61. Domain of f std 5 is all real numbers t such that t Þ 0, 22 because tst 1 2d Þ 0 means t Þ 0 and t Þ 22.
tst 1 2d

63. Domain of gsxd 5 !x 1 4 is all real numbers x such that x ≥ 24 because x 1 4 ≥ 0 means x ≥ 24.

65. Domain of f sxd 5 !2x 2 1 is all real numbers x such that x ≥ 1


2 because 2x 2 1 ≥ 0 means x ≥ 12.

| |
67. Domain of f std 5 t 2 4 is all real numbers t.

69. Domain 5 H0, 2, 4, 6J 71. Domain 5 H23, 21, 4, 10J 73. Domain 5 r > 0 75. Domain 5 r > 0
Range 5 H0, 1, 8, 27J 517 5
Range 5 2 , 2 , 2, 11
2 2 6 Range 5 C > 0 Range 5 A > 0

77. Verbal model: Perimeter 5 4 ? Length of side

Labels: Perimeter 5 P sxd


Length of side 5 x
Function: P sxd 5 4x

3
79. Verbal model: Volume 5 Length of side

Labels: Volume 5 V sxd


Length of side 5 x
Function: V sxd 5 x3
170 Chapter 2 Graphs and Functions

81. Verbal model: Distance 5 Rate ? Time

Labels: Distance 5 d std


Rate 5 230
Time 5 t
Function: d std 5 230t

83. Verbal model: Volume 5 Length ? Width ? Height

Labels: Volume 5 V sxd


Length 5 s24 2 2xd
Width 5 s24 2 2xd
Height 5 x
Function: V sxd 5 xs24 2 2xd2 or 4xs12 2 xd2

85. Verbal model: Area 5 Length ? Width

Labels: Area 5 A sxd


Length 5 s32 2 xd
Width 5 s32 2 xd
Function: A sxd 5 s32 2 xds32 2 xd
Asxd 5 s32 2 xd2

128,160
87. SsLd 5
L
128,160 128,160
(a) Ss12d 5 5 10,680 pounds (b) Ss16d 5 5 8010 pounds
12 16

89. Yes to both questions. For each year there is associated one public school enrollment and one private school enrollment.

91. (g) y sxd 5 15,900 2 1900x (h) Straight-line depreciation might not be a fair model for
automobile depreciation because the car depreciates more
y s7d 5 15,900 2 1900s7d
slowly as the car ages.
5 15,900 2 13,300
y

5 $2600
16,000

(i) Domain: all real numbers x such that 0 < x ≤ 8.37


12,000

Range: all real numbers y such that 0 < y ≤ 15,900


8,000

4,000

x
2 4 6 8 10

93. (a) This is not a correct mathematical use of the word function.
(b) This is a correct mathematical use of the word function.
Section 2.6 Graphs of Functions 171

95. No, every relation is not a function because some relations have more than one y value paired with each x value.
For example,Hs4, 3d, s4, 22dJ is a relation, but not a function.

97. You can name the function sf, g, etc.d. That is convenient when there is more than one function used in solving a problem.
The values of the independent and the dependent variables are easily seen in function notation.

Section 2.6 Graphs of Functions

1. y 3. y

2 5

4
x
4 2 2 4 6
3
2
2
4
1
6 x
3 2 1 1 2 3
1

Domain: 2 ` < x < ` Domain: 2 ` < x < `


Range: 2 ` < y < ` Range: f0, `d or 0 ≤ y < `

5. y 7. y

1 10

8
x
–1 1 2 3 6
–1
4

x
–3 4 2 2 4 6 8
2

Domain: 2 ` < x < ` Domain: 2 ` < x < `


Range: s2 `, 0g or 2 ` < y ≤ 0
Range: f21, `d or 21 ≤ y < `

9. y 11. y

3
6
2
4
1
2
x
−1 1 2 3 4
t
−1
2 2 4 6
−2 2

Domain: 0 ≤ x < ` Domain: f2, `d or 2 ≤ t < `


Range: 21 ≤ y < ` Range: f0, `d or 0 ≤ y < `
Section 2.6 Graphs of Functions 171

95. No, every relation is not a function because some relations have more than one y value paired with each x value.
For example,Hs4, 3d, s4, 22dJ is a relation, but not a function.

97. You can name the function sf, g, etc.d. That is convenient when there is more than one function used in solving a problem.
The values of the independent and the dependent variables are easily seen in function notation.

Section 2.6 Graphs of Functions

1. y 3. y

2 5

4
x
4 2 2 4 6
3
2
2
4
1
6 x
3 2 1 1 2 3
1

Domain: 2 ` < x < ` Domain: 2 ` < x < `


Range: 2 ` < y < ` Range: f0, `d or 0 ≤ y < `

5. y 7. y

1 10

8
x
–1 1 2 3 6
–1
4

x
–3 4 2 2 4 6 8
2

Domain: 2 ` < x < ` Domain: 2 ` < x < `


Range: s2 `, 0g or 2 ` < y ≤ 0
Range: f21, `d or 21 ≤ y < `

9. y 11. y

3
6
2
4
1
2
x
−1 1 2 3 4
t
−1
2 2 4 6
−2 2

Domain: 0 ≤ x < ` Domain: f2, `d or 2 ≤ t < `


Range: 21 ≤ y < ` Range: f0, `d or 0 ≤ y < `
172 Chapter 2 Graphs and Functions

13. y 15. y

10 4

6 2

2 s
−3 −2 1 2 3
x −1
−6 −4 −2 2 4 6
−2 −2

Domain: 2 ` < x < ` Domain: 2 ` < s < `


Range: y 5 8 Range: 2 ` < y < `

17. y 19. y

8 8

4 4

2
x
8 6 4 2 2 s
2 4 6 8
2

Domain: 2 ` < x < `


Domain: 2 ` < x < `
Range: f1, `d or 1 ≤ y < `
Range: f0, `d or 0 ≤ y < `

21. y 23. y

8 8
6
6 4

4 2
x
2 −8 −6 −4 −2 2 4 6 8

x
4 2 2 4 6
2

Domain: 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 or f0, 2g Domain: 22 ≤ x ≤ 2 or f22, 2g


Range: 0 ≤ y ≤ 6 or f0, 6g Range: 28 ≤ y ≤ 8 or f28, 8g

25. y 27. y
f (x) = x 2 − 4x
5 4 x>0
h(x) = 3 − x 3
4
x≥0 2
f (x) = −x
h(x) = 2x + 3 3 x≤0
x<0 x
−3 −2 −1 1 2 3 5

1 −2

x −3
−1 1 2 3 −4

Domain: 2 ` < x < ` Domain: 2 ` < x < `


Range: s2 `, 3g or ` < y ≤ 3 Range: 24 ≤ y < ` or f24, `d
Section 2.6 Graphs of Functions 173

29. Keystrokes: 10

Y 5 1 2 X,T, u x2 GRAPH
Domain 5 2 ` < x < ` Range 5 s2 `, 1g or 2 ` < y ≤ 1 −10 10

−10

31. Keystrokes: 10

Y5 ! x X,T, u 2 2 d GRAPH

Domain 5 f2, `d or x ≥ 2 Range 5 f0, `d or 0 ≤ y < ` −10 10

2 ≤ x < `
−10

33. Yes, y 5 13x3 passes the Vertical Line Test and is a 35. Yes, y is a function of x by the Vertical Line Test.
function of x.

37. No, y is not a function of x by the Vertical Line Test. 39. No, y2 5 x does not pass the Vertical Line Test and y is
not a function of x.

41. y 43. y

1 3

x 2
1 1 2 3 5
1 1

2 x
2 1 1 2 3 4
3
1
4 2

5 3

y is a function of x. y is not a function of x.

45. (b) graph matches f sxd 5 x2 2 1. 47. (a) graph matches f sxd 5 2 2 x . ||
49. (b) shows the most complete graph.
30 60 60

0 20 15 30
0 10
0 −10 −10

(a) (b) (c)


174 Chapter 2 Graphs and Functions

51. (a) Vertical shift 2 units upward (b) Vertical shift 4 units downward
y y

7 2
6
1
5
x
4 –3 –1 1 3
3 –1

–2
1
x
4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4
1

(c) Horizontal shift 2 units to the left (d) Horizontal shift 4 units to the right
y y

5 8

4
6

1 2
x
5 4 3 2 1 1 x
1 2 4 6 8

(e) Reflection in the x-axis. (f) Reflection in the x-axis and a vertical shift 4 units upward
y y

x 3
3 2 2 3
1 2

1
2
x
3 –3 –1 1 3
–1
4
–2
5

(g) Horizontal shift 3 units to the right and a vertical shift 1 (h) Reflection in the x-axis, a horizontal shift 2 units to the
unit upward left, and a vertical shift 3 units downward
y y

6 1
5 x
−5 −4 −3 −2 −1 1 2
4 −1
3 −2

2 −3
1 −4
x
−1 1 2 3 4 5 6
−1
Section 2.6 Graphs of Functions 175

53. Keystrokes: 55. Keystrokes:

Y 5 ABS x X,T, u 2 5 d GRAPH Y 5 ABS X,T, u 2 5 GRAPH

10 10

−10 10 −10 10

−10 −10

Horizontal shift 5 units to the right Vertical shift 5 units downward

57. Keystrokes: 59. Graph is shifted 3 units left


Y 5 x2 c ABS X,T, u GRAPH hsxd 5 sx 1 3d2

10

−10 10

−10

Reflection in the x-axis

61. Graph is reflected in the x-axis 63. Graph is shifted 3 units left and reflected in the x-axis
hsxd 5 2x2 hsxd 5 2 sx 1 3d2

65. Graph is reflected in 67. f sxd 5 2 !x 69. f sxd 5 !x 1 2 71. f sxd 5 !2x
the x-axis and shifted
up 2 units
hsxd 5 2x2 1 2

73. (a) y 5 f sxd 1 2 (b) y 5 2f sxd


y y

5 2
(4, 4) (0, 1)
4 1
(1, 0)
3 x
(3, 3) 1 3 4 5
2 −1
(1, 2) (3, −1)
1 −2
(0, 1) (4, −2)
x −3
1 2 3 4 5

—CONTINUED—
176 Chapter 2 Graphs and Functions

73. —CONTINUED—
(c) y 5 f sx 2 2d (d) y 5 f sx 1 2d
y y

4 3

3
(2, 2)
2
(6, 2)
2
1
(1, 1)
1
(5, 1) (− 1, 0)
(3, 0) x
x −3 −2 1 2
1 2 3 4 5 6
−1
−1
(2, −1) (− 2, −1)
−2 −2

(e) y 5 f sxd 2 1 (f) y 5 f s2xd


y y

2 3
(4, 1) (− 4, 2)
1 2
(3, 0)
x
1 3 4 5 (−3, 1) (−1, 0)
−1 x
(1, −1) −5 −4 −3 −2 −1
−2 (0, −2)
(0, −1)
−3 −2

75. (a) Keystrokes:


Y 5 26 2 .0242 X,T, u x2 4 x X,T, u ≥ 20 AND X,T, u ≤ 60 d GRAPH

20

20 60

−50

(b) < 46%

77. (a) Let x 5 length P 5 2l 1 2w


100 − x 100 2 x 5 width 200 5 2l 1 2w
100 5 l 1 w
x
100 2 l 5 w
A5l?w
A 5 xs100 2 xd

Keystrokes:
Y 5 X,T, u x 100 2 X,T, u d GRAPH
(b) 3000 (c) When x 5 50, the largest value of A is 2500. s50, 2500d is
the highest point on the graph of A giving the largest value
of the function.

0 100
0
Review Exercises for Chapter 2 177

79. (a) Keystrokes:


Y 5 x2 c 5.46 X,T, u x2 1 2665.56 X,T, u 1 153,363 GRAPH

280,000

0 48
150,000

(b) t 5 0 corresponds to the year 1970 (20 years later).


(c) Keystrokes:
Y 5 x2 c 5.46 x X,T, u 1 20 d x2 1 2665.56 x X,T, u 1 20 d 1 153,363 GRAPH

280,000

−20 28
150,000

81. If the domain of the function f sxd 5 2x changes from f0, 2g to f0, 4g, then the range changed from f0, 4g to f0, 8g.

83. The four types of shifts of the graph of a function are vertical shift upward, vertical shift downward, horizontal shift to the left,
horizontal shift to the right.

85. gsxd 5 f s2xd is a reflection in the y-axis of the graph of f sxd.

Review Exercises for Chapter 2

1. y 3. y
5
5 2, 5 (4, 20)
20
4
3 16
2
1 12
x (12, 9)
4 3 2 1 2 3 4 5 8
1
2 4
( 2, 4) 3 (0, 3) (1, 1)
x
4 4 8 12 16 20

5. Quadrant IV 7. Quadrant I, IV
y y

6 6
(4, y)
4 4

2 2

x x
–6 –4 –2 2 4 6 −6 −4 −2 2 4 6
–2 −2
(4, y)
–4 −4

−6
–6 (2, −6)
Review Exercises for Chapter 2 177

79. (a) Keystrokes:


Y 5 x2 c 5.46 X,T, u x2 1 2665.56 X,T, u 1 153,363 GRAPH

280,000

0 48
150,000

(b) t 5 0 corresponds to the year 1970 (20 years later).


(c) Keystrokes:
Y 5 x2 c 5.46 x X,T, u 1 20 d x2 1 2665.56 x X,T, u 1 20 d 1 153,363 GRAPH

280,000

−20 28
150,000

81. If the domain of the function f sxd 5 2x changes from f0, 2g to f0, 4g, then the range changed from f0, 4g to f0, 8g.

83. The four types of shifts of the graph of a function are vertical shift upward, vertical shift downward, horizontal shift to the left,
horizontal shift to the right.

85. gsxd 5 f s2xd is a reflection in the y-axis of the graph of f sxd.

Review Exercises for Chapter 2

1. y 3. y
5
5 2, 5 (4, 20)
20
4
3 16
2
1 12
x (12, 9)
4 3 2 1 2 3 4 5 8
1
2 4
( 2, 4) 3 (0, 3) (1, 1)
x
4 4 8 12 16 20

5. Quadrant IV 7. Quadrant I, IV
y y

6 6
(4, y)
4 4

2 2

x x
–6 –4 –2 2 4 6 −6 −4 −2 2 4 6
–2 −2
(4, y)
–4 −4

−6
–6 (2, −6)
178 Chapter 2 Graphs and Functions

? ?
9. (a) s4, 2d 2 5 4 2 12s4d (b) s21, 5d 5 5 4 2 12s21d
? ?
25422 5 5 4 1 12
2 5 2 yes 5 Þ 412 no
? ?
(c) s24, 0d 0 5 4 2 12s24d (d) s8, 0d 0 5 4 2 12s8d
? ?
05412 05424
0 Þ 6 no 0 5 0 yes

11. d 5 !s4 2 4d2 1 s3 2 8d2 13. d 5 !s25 2 1d2 1 s21 2 2d2


5 !0 1 25 5 !36 1 9
5 !25 5 !45
55 5 3!5

15. y 5 5 2 32x matches graph (c). ||


17. y 5 x 1 4 matched graph (a).

19. y 5 6 2 13x y

y 5 6 2 13s0d 20

16
y 5 6 s0, 6d
12

0 5 6 2 13x 8 (0, 6)
1 4
3x 56 (18, 0)
x
x 5 18 s18, 0d 4
4
4 8 12 16 20

21. 3y 2 2x 2 3 5 0 y

3y 2 2s0d 2 3 5 0 2

3y 5 3 1 (0, 1)
3
2, 0
y51 s0, 1d x
3 1 1
3s0d 2 2x 2 3 5 0 1

22x 5 3 2

x5 2 32 s 2 32, 0d

23. y 5 x2 2 1 y

y 5 02 2 1 4

5 21 s0, 21d 3

2
0 5 x2 2 1 1
(−1, 0) (1, 0)
0 5 sx 2 1dsx 1 1d −3 −2 −1 1 2 3
x

(0, −1)
x51 x 5 21 s1, 0d, s21, 0d −2
Review Exercises for Chapter 2 179

25. ||
y5 x 22 y

y 5 |0| 2 2 3

5 22 2

1
||
05 x 22
−3
(−2, 0)
−2 −1
(2, 0)
1 2 3
x

2 5 |x|
−2 (0, −2)
±2 5 x s2, 0d, s22, 0d
−3

27. y 5 4x 2 6 29. 7x 2 2y 5 214


y-intercept y-intercept
y 5 4s0d 2 6 7s0d 2 2y 5 214
5 26 s0, 26d 22y 5 214
x-intercept y57 s0, 7d
0 5 4x 2 6 x-intercept
6 5 4x 7x 2 2s0d 5 214
6
4 5x 7x 5 214
3
2 5x s 3
2, 0d x 5 22 s22, 0d

|
31. y 5 x 2 5 | 33. y 5 2x 1 1 2 5 | |
y-intercept y-intercept

y5 025| | |
y 5 2s0d 1 1 2 5 |
55 s0, 5d 5 25

x-intercept
5 24 s0, 24d

05 x25| | x-intercepts

05x25 | |
0 5 2x 1 1 2 5

55x s5, 0d 5 5 |2x 1 1|


5 5 2x 1 1 or 25 5 2x 1 1
4 5 2x 26 5 2x
25x 23 5 x
s2, 0d, s23, 0d

35. Keystrokes: 37. Keystrokes:


Y5 x X,T, u 2 3 d x2 2 3 GRAPH Y 5 x2 c ABS x X,T, u 2 4 d 2 7 GRAPH
10 0
0 8

−4 10

−4 −12

s1.27, 0d, s4.73, 0d, s0, 6d s0, 211d

no x-intercepts
180 Chapter 2 Graphs and Functions

321 2
39. Keystrokes: 41. m 5 5
6 2 s21d 7
Y5 ! x 3 2 X,T, u d GRAPH
4

−6 4

−1

s3, 0d, s0, 1.73d

323 0 0 2 6 26 23 3 3 2 s23d 6 3
43. m 5 5 50 45. m 5 5 5 52 47. m5 5 5
4 2 s21d 5 820 8 4 4 1 2 s23d 4 2
3 32t
5
2 120
3 5 6 2 2t
23 5 22t
3
5t
2

y14 5 y21
49. 23 5 51. 5 53. Since m is undefined the line is
x22 4 x23
a vertical line so points such as
s0, 2d, s1, 21d s7, 6d, s11, 11d s3, 0d, s3, 1d, and s3, 22d are on
this line.

55. 5x 2 2y 2 4 5 0 57. x 1 2y 2 2 5 0
22y 5 25x 1 4 2y 5 2x 1 2
y5 5
2x 22 y 5 2 12x 1 1

y y

3
3
2
2
1

x
−2 −1 1 2 3 4
−1 x
−1 1 2
−2
−1
Review Exercises for Chapter 2 181

3
59. L1: y 5 2x 1 1 61. L1: y 5 32x 2 2 63. L1: 2x 2 3y 2 5 5 0
L 2: y 5 23x 2 1 L 2: y 5 2 23x 11 L 2: x 1 2y 2 6 5 0
3
m1 5 3
2, m2 5 2
3 m1 5 2, m2 5 2 23 L1: 23y 5 22x 1 5
m1 Þ m2, m1 ? m2 Þ 21 m1 ? m2 5 21 y 5 23x 2 53
So lines are neither So lines are perpendicular m1 5 23
L 2: 2y 5 2x 1 6
y 5 2 12x 1 3
m2 5 2 12
m1 Þ m2, m1 ? m2 Þ 21
So lines are neither

65. y 1 4 5 2sx 2 1d 67. y 2 4 5 24sx 1 1d 69. y 2 4 5 2 23sx 2 52 d


y 1 4 5 2x 2 2 y 2 4 5 24x 2 4 y 2 4 5 2 23x 1 53
2x 2 y 2 6 5 0 4x 1 y 5 0 3y 2 12 5 22x 1 5
2x 1 3y 2 17 5 0

013 3 1 6 2 s23d 6 1 3 9 3
71. y 2 5 5 0fx 2 s26dg 73. m 5 5 52 75. m 5 5 5 5
26 2 0 26 2 4 2 s22d 4 1 2 6 2
y2550
1 3
y 2 0 5 2 sx 1 6d y 2 6 5 sx 2 4d
2 2
1 3
y52 x23 y265 x26
2 2
2y 5 2x 2 6
x 1 2y 1 6 5 0
2sy 2 6d 5 2 132x 2 62
2y 2 12 5 3x 2 12
3x 2 2y 5 0

7 1
2
6 6 6 721 6 3
77. m 5
4
? 6 5 24 2 8 5 16 5 8 79. 3x 1 y 5 2
42
3 y 5 23x 1 2

y2
7 3
5 sx 2 4d
6 8
(a) y 1
4
5 1
5 23 x 2
3
5 2
or 3x 1 y 2 1 5 0

y2
7 3
5 x2
6 8
12
8
(b) y 1
4 1
5 x2
5 3 13
5 2
or x 2 3y 2 3 5 0

48y 2 56 5 18x 2 72
18x 2 48y 2 16 5 0
9x 2 24y 2 8 5 0

81. 5x 5 3 83. No, this relation is not a function 85. Yes, this relation is a function
because the 8 in the domain is because each number in the
x 5 35 m 5 undefined
paired to two numbers (1 and 2) domain is paired to only one
(a) x 5 12 or x 2 12 5 0 in the range. number in the range.

(b) y 5 1 or y 2 1 5 0
182 Chapter 2 Graphs and Functions

87. f sxd 5 4 2 52x


(a) f s210d 5 4 2 52s210d 5 4 1 25 5 29
(b) f s25 d 5 4 2 52s25 d 5 4 2 1 5 3
(c) f std 1 f s24d 5 s4 2 2td 1 f4 2 2s24dg 5 4 2 2t 1 4 1 10 5 18 2 2t
5 5 5 5

(d) f sx 1 hd 5 4 2 2sx 1 hd 5 4 2 2x 2 2h
5 5 5

89. f std 5 !5 2 t
(a) f s24d 5 !5 2 s24d 5 !9 5 3
(b) f s5d 5 !5 2 5 5 0
(c) f s3d 5 !5 2 3 5 !2
(d) f s5zd 5 !5 2 5z

91. 523x, if
1 2 x , if 2
x ≤ 0
x > 0 6
(a) f s2d 5 1 2 22 5 23
(b) f s2 3 d 5 23s2 3 d 5 2
2 2

(c) f s1d 5 1 2 12 5 0
(d) f s4d 2 f s3d 5 s1 2 42d 2 s1 2 32d 5 1 2 16 2 1 1 9 5 27

f sx 1 2d 2 f s2d f3 2 2sx 1 2dg 2 f3 2 2s2dg 3 2 2x 2 4 2 3 1 4 22x


93. (a) 5 5 5 5 22
x x x x
f sx 2 3d 2 f s3d f3 2 2sx 2 3dg 2 f3 2 2s3dg 3 2 2x 1 6 2 3 1 6 22x 1 12
(b) 5 5 5
x x x x

95. Find the domain of hsxd 5 4x2 2 7. 97. Find the domain of f sxd 5 !5 2 2x.
Domain: 2 ` < x < ` or s2 `, `d Domain: s2 `. 2 g or 2 ` < x ≤
5 5
2

99. y 101. y 103. y

4 5 8

2 4 6

x 3 4
–2 2 4 6 8
2 2
–2
1 x
–4 −6 −4 −2 2 4 6 8
x
−1 1 2 3 4 5
–6
−1 −4

105. y 107. y 109. No, y is not a function of x.

12 4

3
4
y = 2 + (x − 1) 2
2
x x≥1
−2 −1 1 2 3 4
−4
1 y = 2 − (x − 1) 2
x<1
−8 x
−1 1 2 3
Review Exercises for Chapter 2 183

111. Yes, y is a function of x. 113. hsxd 5 2 !x is a reflection in the x-axis of f sxd 5 !x

x
−1 1 2 3 4 5
−1

−2

−3

−4

−5

115. hsxd 5 !x 2 1 is a horizontal 117. y 5 x2 2 2 119. y 5 2 sx 1 3d2


shift 1 unit to the right
Vertical shift 2 units downward Reflection in the x-axis and a
of f sxd 5 !x
horizontal shift 3 units to the left

Rise Rise
121. Verbal model:
Run 5 Run
1 3
Proportion: 5
12 x
x 5 36
2 2
Leg Leg 2
Verbal model:
1 1 2 5 Hypotenuse

Labels: Leg 1 5 3
Leg 2 5 36
Hypotenuse 5 x
Equation: 32 1 362 5 x2
9 1 1296 5 x2
!1305 5 x

3!145 5 x < 36.12 feet

123. s0, $20,000d, s7, $6000d V

6,000 2 20,000 214,000 25,000


m5 5 5 22,000
720 7 20,000

V 2 20,000 5 22,000st 2 0d 15,000

V 2 20,000 5 22,000t
10,000

5,000
V 5 22,000t 1 20,000, 0 ≤ t ≤ 7
t
2 4 6 8 10

20.88 2 4.75 25.63


125. m 5 5 5 21
4.75 2 s20.88d 5.63
y 1 0.88 5 21sx 2 4.75d
y 5 2x 1 4.75 2 0.88
y 5 2x 1 3.87
184 Chapter 2 Graphs and Functions

127. 150 − 2x Verbal model: Perimeter 5 2 Length 1 2 Width


2

150 5 2Length 1 2x
x x 150 2 2x
5 Length
2
150 − 2x 75 2 x 5 Length
2

Verbal model: Area 5 Length ? Width

Labels: Area 5 Asxd


Length 5 75 2 x
Width 5 x
Function: Asxd 5 s75 2 xdx
75
Domain: 0 < x <
2

129. (a) v 5 232s2d 1 80 (b) 0 5 232t 1 80 (c) v 5 232s3d 1 80


v 5 264 1 80 32t 5 80 v 5 296 1 80
80
v 5 16 feet per second t5 32 v 5 216 feet per second
5
t 5 seconds
2

Chapter Test for Chapter 2

1. sx, yd lies in Quadrant IV if x > 0 and y < 0. 2. d 5 !s0 2 3d2 1 s5 2 1d2 5 !9 1 16 5 !25 5 5
y

5 (0, 5)

1 (3, 1)

x
1 2 3 4 5

3. (a) y 5 23s0 1 1d 5 23 s0, 23d; y-intercept 4. y

(b) 0 5 23sx 1 1d 4

x 5 21, s21, 0d; x-intercept 3

x
1 2 3 4
184 Chapter 2 Graphs and Functions

127. 150 − 2x Verbal model: Perimeter 5 2 Length 1 2 Width


2

150 5 2Length 1 2x
x x 150 2 2x
5 Length
2
150 − 2x 75 2 x 5 Length
2

Verbal model: Area 5 Length ? Width

Labels: Area 5 Asxd


Length 5 75 2 x
Width 5 x
Function: Asxd 5 s75 2 xdx
75
Domain: 0 < x <
2

129. (a) v 5 232s2d 1 80 (b) 0 5 232t 1 80 (c) v 5 232s3d 1 80


v 5 264 1 80 32t 5 80 v 5 296 1 80
80
v 5 16 feet per second t5 32 v 5 216 feet per second
5
t 5 seconds
2

Chapter Test for Chapter 2

1. sx, yd lies in Quadrant IV if x > 0 and y < 0. 2. d 5 !s0 2 3d2 1 s5 2 1d2 5 !9 1 16 5 !25 5 5
y

5 (0, 5)

1 (3, 1)

x
1 2 3 4 5

3. (a) y 5 23s0 1 1d 5 23 s0, 23d; y-intercept 4. y

(b) 0 5 23sx 1 1d 4

x 5 21, s21, 0d; x-intercept 3

x
1 2 3 4
Chapter Test for Chapter 2 185

327 4 2
5. (a) m 5 52 52 6.
214
y
6 3
x
612 8 −2
(b) m 5 5 5 undefined
2 6
323 0 −2

−4

−6 (0, − 6)

−8

7. 2x 1 5y 5 10 y 8. 5x 1 3y 2 9 5 0
2s0d 1 5y 5 10 4
3y 5 25x 1 9
3
5y 5 10 (0, 2) 25
y5 x13
3
y52 s0, 2d 1
(5, 0)
x
3
2x 1 5s0d 5 10 −1
1 2 3 4 5 m5
5
2x 5 10 −2

x55 s5, 0d

10 1 15 25 1
9. m 5 5 5 10. y 2 s24d 5 22sx 2 2d
75 2 25 50 2
y 1 4 5 22x 1 4
1
y 2 10 5 sx 2 75d
2 2x 1 y 5 0
1 75
y 2 10 5 x 2
2 2
2y 2 20 5 x 2 75
x 2 2y 2 55 5 0

11. x 5 22 12. No, y2s4 2 xd 5 x3 is not a function of x, because the


graph does not pass the Vertical Line Test.
x1250

13. (a) The relation is a function because each x number is paired with exactly one y number.
(b) The relation is not a function because 0 is paired with two numbers, 0 and 24.

2 x11
14. (a) gs2d 5 5 22 15. (a) hstd 5 !9 2 t
223 (b) f sxd 5 x 2 4
7 92t ≥ 0 Domain: x Þ 4

(b) g12
7
2
5
7
2
5
7
726
57 2t ≥ 29
23 t ≤ 9
2
x12 x12 Domain: t ≤ 9 or s2 `, 9g
(c) gsx 1 2d 5 5
sx 1 2d 2 3 x 2 1
186 Chapter 2 Graphs and Functions

16. y 17. gsxd 5 2 sx 2 2d2 1 1 is a reflection in the x-axis,


horizontal shift 2 units to the right and a vertical shift
4
1 unit upward.
3

x
−3 −2 1 2 3

−2

18. s0, $26,000d, s4, $10,000d | |


19. (a) y 5 x 2 2
10,000 2 26,000 216,000 (b) y 5 |x| 2 2
m5 5 5 24000
420 4
(c) y 5 2 |x| 1 2 or 2 2 |x|
V 2 26,000 5 24000st 2 0d
V 5 24000t 1 26,000
16,000 5 24000t 1 26,000
210,000 5 24000t
210,000
5t
24000
5
2.5 5 5t
2
6 Integrated Reviews

Verbal Actual Budgeted Verbal Actual Budgeted


11. Model: Difference 5 2 12. Model: Difference 5 2
expense amount expense amount
Equation: x 5 163,356 2 162,700 Equation: |
x 5 42,335 2 42,640 |
x 5 $656 which is more than $500. | |
x 5 2305 5 $305 which is less than $500.

CHAPTER 2 Graphs and Functions

SECTION 2.1 The Rectangular Coordinate System

1. 3x 5 7 is a linear equation because it can be written in the 2. To check x 5 3 is a solution of the equation 5x 2 4 5 11
form ax 1 b 5 0. Since x2 1 3x 5 2 cannot be written in substitute 3 for x in the equation. If the result is true,
the form ax 1 b 5 0, it is not a linear equation. x 5 3 is a solution.

3. 6xs2x2d 5 s6 ? 2d ? sx ? x2d 5 12x3 4. 3t2 ? t4 5 3t214 5 3t6

5. 2 s23x2d3s2x4d 5 s21ds23d3s2dsx2d3sx4d 6. s4x3y2ds22xy3d 5 s4ds22dsx3dsxdsy2dsy3d


5 s21ds227ds2dsx6dsx4d 5 28x4y5
5 54x10

7. 4 2 3s2x 1 1d 5 4 2 6x 2 3 5 1 2 6x 8. 5sx 1 2d 2 4s2x 2 3d 5 5x 1 10 2 8x 1 12


5 23x 1 22

9. 24 13y 1 6y 2 5 8y 1 4y 5 12y 10. 0.12x 1 0.05s2000 2 2xd 5 0.12x 1 100 2 0.1x


5 0.02x 1 100

1
11. Your rate 5 4 job per hour
1
Friend’s rate 5 5 job per hour

Work Work done Work done


Verbal model: done 5 by you 1 by friend

Labels: Work done 5 1


1
Your rate 5
4
1
Friend’s rate 5
5
Time 5 t

—CONTINUED—
Integrated Reviews 7

11. —CONTINUED—

1 1
Equation: 15 t1 t
4 5

15 114 1 512t
15 1209 2t
1
5t
9
20
20
5 t < 2.2 hours
9

12. Verbal model: Distance 5 Rate ? Time

Labels: Distance 5 200 miles at 50 mph


200 miles at 42 mph
400 miles at x mph
Rate 5 50, 42, x
200 200 400
Time 5 1 or
50 42 x
200 200 400
Equation: 1 5
50 42 x
100 400
41 5
21 x
184 400
5
21 x
21s400d
x5 < 45.65 mph
184

SECTION 2.2 Graphs of Equations

1. If t 2 3 > 7 and c is an algebraic expression, then 2. If t 2 3 < 7 and c < 0, then st 2 3dc > 7c.
t 2 3 1 c > 7 1 c.

3. Multiplicative Inverse Property: 4. u 1 v 5 v 1 u illustrates the Commutative Property of


Addition.
y 11y 2 5 1
8 Integrated Reviews

5. 2x 1 3 ≥ 5 6. 5 2 3x > 14
2x 1 3 2 3 ≥ 5 2 3 5 2 5 2 3x > 14 2 5
2x ≥ 2 23x > 9
2x 2 23x 9
≥ <
2 2 23 23
x ≥ 1 x < 23

7. 24 < 10x 1 1 < 6 8. 22 ≤ 1 2 2x ≤ 2


24 2 1 < 10x 1 1 2 1 < 6 2 1 22 2 1 ≤ 1 2 1 2 2x ≤ 2 2 1
25 < 10x < 5 23 ≤ 22x ≤ 1
25 10x 5 23 22x 1
< < ≥ ≥
10 10 10 22 22 22
21 1 3 21
< x < ≥ x ≥
2 2 2 2
21 3
≤ x ≤
2 2

9. 23 ≤ 2
x
≤ 3 10. 25 < x 2 25 < 5
2
25 1 25 < x 2 25 1 25 < 5 1 25
x
2 ? 23 ≤ 2 ? 2 ≤ 3 ?2 20 < x < 30
2
26 ≤ 2x ≤ 6
26 2x 6
≥ ≥
21 21 21
6 ≥ x ≥ 26
26 ≤ x ≤ 6

Compared Base
11. Verbal model: number 5 Percent ? number

Labels: Compared number 5 a


Percent 5 p
Base number 5 b
Equation: a 5 pb
32,500 5 1.12b
32,500
1.12 5b
$29,018 < b
Integrated Reviews 9

Compared Base
12. Verbal model: number 5 Percent ? number

Labels: Compared number 5 a


Percent 5 p
Base number 5 b
Equation: a 5 pb
a 5 s0.035ds3100d
a 5 $108.50

SECTION 2.3 Slope and Graphs of Linear Equations

1. Two equations having the same set of solutions are called 2. 12x 2 5 5 13
equivalent.
12x 5 13 1 5

x 1
3. x1 54 4. x 1 1 5 10
2 3

1
2 x1
x
2 2
5 s4d2 3 113x 1 12 5 s10d3
2x 1 x 5 8 x 1 3 5 30
3x 5 8 x 5 27
3x 8
5
3 3
8
x5
3

3 3
5. 24sx 2 5d 5 0 6. x1 52
8 4
24x 1 20 5 0
24x 5 220
8 138x 1 432 5 s2d8
24x 220 3x 1 6 5 16
5
24 24
3x 5 10
x55
10
x5
3

7. 8sx 2 14d 5 32 8. 12s3 2 xd 5 5 2 7s2x 1 1d


8x 2 112 5 32 36 2 12x 5 5 2 14x 2 7
8x 5 144 36 2 12x 5 214x 2 2
8x 144 36 1 2x 5 22
5
8 8
2x 5 238
x 5 18
x 5 219
10 Integrated Reviews

1
9. 2 s2x 1 8d 1 s6x 1 5d 5 0 10. s1 1 rd500 5 550
3
550
5 11r5
22x 2 8 1 2x 1 50 500
3
1 1 r 5 1.1
224 5
1 50
3 3 r 5 1.1 2 1
219 r 5 0.1
Þ0
3

No solution

Number of
Total Cost of
5
first minute 1 0.45
additional
11. Verbal model: cost
minutes
Labels: Total cost 5 $11
Cost of first minute 5 $1.10
Number of additional minutes 5 x
Inequality: 11 ≥ 1.10 1 0.45t > 1.10
9.9 ≥ 0.45t > 0
22 ≥ t > 0
0 < t ≤ 22
0 < t ≤ 23 (with first minute)

12. 0.65m 1 4500 < 20,000


0.65m < 15,500
m < 23,846

SECTION 2.4 Equations of Lines

a 4 12
1. The ratio of the real number a to the real number b is . 2. 5 is a proportion.
b 5 u

Compared
3. Verbal model: number 5 Percent ? Base number

Labels: Compared number 5 a


Percent 5 p
Base number 5 b
Equation: a5p ?b
a 5 0.075 ? 25
a 5 1.875
Integrated Reviews 11

Compared
4. Verbal model: number 5 Percent ? Base number

Labels: Compared number 5 a


Percent 5 p
Base number 5 b
Equation: a 5 pb
a 5 1.50s6000d
a 5 9000

Compared
5. Verbal model: number 5 Percent ? Base number

Labels: Compared number 5 a


Percent 5 p
Base number 5 b
Equation: a5p ?b
225 5 p ? 150
225
150 5p
1.5 5 p
150% 5 p

Compared
6. Verbal model: number 5 Percent ? Base number

Labels: Compared number 5 a


Percent 5 p
Base number 5 b
Equation: a 5 pb
93 5 p ? 600
93
600 5p
0.155 5 p
15.5% 5 p
12 Integrated Reviews

Compared
7. Verbal model: number 5 Percent ? Base number

Labels: Compared number 5 a


Percent 5 p
Base number 5 b
Equation: a5p ?b
160 5 p ? 240
160
240 5p
0.6623 5p
6623% 5p

Compared
8. Verbal model: number 5 Percent ? Base number

Labels: Compared number 5 a


Percent 5 p
Base number 5 b
Equation: a 5 pb
42 5 0.12b
42
0.12 5b
350 5 b

Compared
9. Verbal model: number 5 Percent ? Base number

Labels: Compared number 5 a


Percent 5 p
Base number 5 b
Equation: a 5 pb
400 5 0.005b
400
0.005 5b
80,000 5 b

Compared
10. Verbal model: number 5 Percent ? Base number

Labels: Compared number 5 a


Percent 5 p
Base number 5 b
Equation: a 5 pb
132 5 0.48b
132
0.48 5b
275 5 b
Integrated Reviews 13

Cement Cement
11. Verbal model: 5
Sand Sand
1 90 2 x
Proportion: 5
4 x
4s90 2 xd 5 x
360 2 4x 5 x
360 5 5x
72 5 x pounds

12. 96 2 32t 5 0
96 5 32t
96
32 5t
3 5 t seconds

SECTION 2.5 Relations and Functions

1. If a < b and b < c, then a < c by the Transitive Property. 2. 9x 5 36


9x 5 19s36d
x54

3. “y is no more than 45” translates into y ≤ 45. 4. “x is at least 15” can be expressed in inequality notation
as x ≥ 15.

5. 6y 2 3x 1 3x 2 10y 5 s6y 2 10yd 1 s23x 1 3xd 6. 8sx 2 2d 2 3sx 2 2d 5 8x 2 16 2 3x 1 6


5 24y 5 5x 2 10
5 5sx 2 2d

7. 23t 2 58 1 56t 5 s23 1 56 dt 2 58 8. 38x 2 12


1
x 1 8 5 s38 2 12
1
dx 1 8
5 s46 1 56 dt 2 58 5 s24 dx 1 8
9 2
2 24
5 96t 2 58 7
5 24x 1 8
5 32t 2 58

9. 3x2 2 5x 1 3 1 28x 2 33x2 5 s3x2 2 33x2d 1 s25x 1 28xd 1 3


5 230x2 1 23x 1 3

10. 4x3 2 3x2y 1 4xy2 1 15x2y 1 y3 5 4x3 1 s23 1 15dsx2yd 1 4xy2 1 y3


5 4x3 1 12x2y 1 4xy2 1 y3
14 Integrated Reviews

Cups flour Cups flour


11. Verbal model: 5
Batches cookies Batches cookies
1
2
2 x
Proportion: 5
1 1
3
2
1 1
x52
2
? 32
5 7
x5
2
?2
35 3
x5 5 8 cups
4 4

Gasoline Gasoline
12. Verbal model: 5
Oil Oil
32 x
Proportion: 5
1 1
2
1
x 5 32 ?
2
x 5 16 pints or 4 gallons

SECTION 2.6 Graphs of Functions

1
1. 8x ? 5 1 illustrates the Multiplicative Inverse Property. 2. 3x 1 0 5 3x illustrates the Additive Identity Property.
8x

3. 24sx 1 10d 5 24 ? x 1 s24ds10d illustrates the 4. 5 1 s23 1 xd 5 s5 2 3d 1 x illustrates the Associative


Distributive Property Property of Addition.

5. 5x4sx2d 5 5x412 5 5x6 6. 3sx 1 1d2sx 1 1d3 5 3sx 1 1d213 5 3sx 1 1d5

7. s24t 3d 5 s24d3std3 5 264t 3 8. 2 s22xd4 5 2 s22d4x4 5 2 s116dx4 5 216x4

9. su2vd4 5 su2d4v4 5 u8v4 10. s3a2bd2s2b3d 5 32sa2d2b2s2dsb3d


5 s9 ? 2dsa4dsb213d
5 18a4b5
Integrated Reviews 15

11. Verbal model: Discount 5 Discount rate ? List price

Labels: Discount 5 x
Discount rate 5 20%
List price 5 $239.95
Equation: x 5 0.20s239.95d
x 5 $47.99

Verbal model: Total cost 5 List price 1 Shipping

Labels: Total cost 5 x


List price 5 $188.95
Shipping 5 $4.32
Equation: x 5 188.95 1 4.32
x 5 $193.27

Verbal model: Sale price 5 List price 2 Discount

Labels: Sale price 5 x


List price 5 $239.95
Discount 5 $47.99
Equation: x 5 239.95 2 47.99
x 5 $191.96
The department store price is a better bargain.

Compared
12. Verbal model: number 5 Percent ? Base number

Labels: Compared number 5 a


Percent 5 p
Base number 5 b
Equation: a 5 pb
a 5 1.30s739d
a 5 $960.70
C H A P T E R 3
Polynomials and Factoring

Section 3.1 Adding and Subtracting Polynomials . . . . . . . . . . . 188

Section 3.2 Multiplying Polynomials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

Section 3.3 Factoring Polynomials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

Mid-Chapter Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

Section 3.4 Factoring Trinomials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203

Section 3.5 Solving Polynomial Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

Review Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

Chapter Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218

Cumulative Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220


C H A P T E R 3
Polynomials and Factoring
Section 3.1 Adding and Subtracting Polynomials
Solutions to Odd-Numbered Exercises

1. Standard form: 10x 2 4 3. Standard form: 3x2 2 x 1 2


Degree: 1 Degree: 2
Leading coefficient: 10 Leading coefficient: 3

5. Standard form: y5 2 3y4 2 2y3 1 5 7. Standard form: 23x3 2 2x2 2 3


Degree: 5 Degree: 3
Leading coefficient: 1 Leading coefficient: 23

9. Standard form: 24 11. Standard form: 216t2 1 v0t


Degree: 0 Degree: 2
Leading coefficient: 24 Leading coefficient: 216

13. 12 2 5y2 is a binomial. 15. x3 1 2x2 2 4 is a trinomial. 17. 5 is a monomial.

19. A monomial of degree 3 is any term of form ax3 where a 21. A binomial of degree 2 and leading coefficient of 8 is any
is any real number. binomial beginning 8x2 and containing one other term of
degree less than 2 such as 8x2 1 4 or 8x2 1 x.

23. y23 2 2 is not a polynomial because the first term is not of the form axk (k must be nonnegative).

8
25. is not a polynomial because the term is not of the form axk (k must be nonnegative).
x

27. 5 1 s2 1 3xd 5 s5 1 2d 1 3x 5 7 1 3x 29. s2x2 2 3d 1 s5x2 1 6d 5 s2x2 1 5x2d 1 s23 1 6d 5 7x2 1 3

31. s5y 1 6d 1 s4y2 2 6y 2 3d 5 4y2 1 s5y 2 6yd 1 s6 2 3d 5 4y2 2 y 1 3

33. s2 2 8yd 1 s22y4 1 3y 1 2d 5 s22y4d 1 s28y 1 3yd 1 s2 1 2d 5 22y4 2 5y 1 4

35. s8 2 t 4d 1 s5 1 t 4d 5 s8 1 5d 1 s2t 4 1 t 4d 5 13

37. sx2 2 3x 1 8d 1 s2x2 2 4xd 1 3x2 5 sx2 1 2x2 1 3x2d 1 s23x 2 4xd 1 s8d 5 6x2 2 7x 1 8

39. s23x3 2 4x 1 1d 1 s2 35 1 7x 2 12x3d 5 s23x3 2 12x3d 1 s24x 1 7xd 1 s1 2 35 d 5 s46x3 2 36x3d 1 3x 1 s55 2 35 d 5 16x3 1 3x 1 25

41. s6.32t 2 4.51t2d 1 s7.2t2 1 1.03t 2 4.2d 5 s24.51t2 1 7.2t2d 1 s6.32t 1 1.03td 2 4.2 5 2.69t2 1 7.35t 2 4.2

188
Section 3.1 Adding and Subtracting Polynomials 189

43. 5x2 2 3x 1 4 45. 4x3 2 2x2 1 8x 47. 5p2 2 4p 1 2


23x2 24 4x2 1 x 2 6 23p2 1 2p 2 7
2x2 2 3x 4x3 1 2x2 1 9x 2 6 2p2 2 2p 2 5

49. 23.6b2 1 2.5b 51. s4 2 y3d 2 s4 1 y3d 5 s4 2 y3d 1 s24 2 y3d


22.4b2 2 3.1b 1 7.1 5 s4 2 4d 1 s2y3 2 y3d
6.6b2 5 22y3
0.6b2 2 0.6b 1 7.1

53. s3x2 2 2x 1 1d 2 s2x2 1 x 2 1d 5 s3x2 2 2x 1 1d 1 s22x2 2 x 1 1d


5 s3x2 2 2x2d 1 s22x 2 xd 1 s1 1 1d
5 x2 2 3x 1 2

55. s6t3 2 12d 2 s2t3 1 t 2 2d 5 s6t3 2 12d 1 st3 2 t 1 2d


5 s6t3 1 t3d 2 t 1 s212 1 2d
5 7t3 2 t 2 10

57. s14 y2 2 5yd 2 s12 1 4y 2 32 y2d 5 s14 y2 2 5yd 1 s212 2 4y 1 32 y2d


5 s14 y2 1 32 y2d 1 s25y 2 4yd 2 12
7
5 4 y2 2 9y 2 12

59. s10.4t 4 2 0.23t 5 1 1.3t2d 2 s2.6 2 7.35t 1 6.7t2 2 9.6t 5d 5 s10.4t 4 2 0.23t5 1 1.3t2d 1 s22.6 1 7.35t 2 6.7t2 1 9.6t5d
5 s20.23t 5 1 9.6t 5d 1 10.4t 4 1 s1.3t2 2 6.7t2d 1 7.35t 2 2.6
5 9.37t 5 1 10.4t 4 2 5.4t 2 1 7.35t 2 2.6

61. sx3 2 3xd 2 f3x3 2 sx2 1 5xdg 5 sx3 2 3xd 2 f3x3 2 x2 2 5xg 63. x2 2 x 1 3 ⇒ x2 2 x 1 3
5 x3 2 3x 2 3x3 1 x2 1 5x 2 sx 2 2d ⇒ 2 x12
5 22x3 1 x2 1 2x x2 2 2x 1 5

65. 25 2 15x 2 2x3 ⇒ 22x3 2 15x 1 25 67. 23x7 1 6x4 1 4 ⇒ 23x7 1 6x4 1 4
2 s12 2 13x 1 2x3d ⇒ 22x3 1 13x 2 12 2 s8x7 1 10x5 2 2x4 2 12d ⇒ 28x7 2 10x5 1 2x4 1 12
24x3 2 2x 1 13 211x7 2 10x5 1 8x4 1 16

69. 2 s2x3 2 3d 1 s4x3 2 2xd 5 22x3 1 3 1 4x3 2 2x


5 s22x3 1 4x3d 1 s22xd 1 s3d
5 2x3 2 2x 1 3

71. s4x5 2 10x3 1 6xd 2 s8x5 2 3x3 1 11d 1 s4x5 1 5x3 2 x2d 5 s4x5 2 10x3 1 6xd 1 s28x5 1 3x3 2 11d 1 s4x5 1 5x3 2 x2d
5 s4x5 2 8x5 1 4x5d 1 s210x3 1 3x3 1 5x3d 2 x2 1 6x 2 11
5 22x3 2 x2 1 6x 2 11
190 Chapter 3 Polynomials and Factoring

73. s5y2 2 2yd 2 fsy2 1 yd 2 s3y2 2 6y 1 2dg 5 s5y2 2 2yd 2 fsy2 1 yd 1 s23y2 1 6y 2 2dg
5 s5y2 2 2yd 2 fsy2 2 3y2d 1 sy 1 6yd 2 2g
5 s5y2 2 2yd 2 f22y2 1 7y 2 2g
5 s5y2 2 2yd 1 s2y2 2 7y 1 2d
5 s5y2 1 2y2d 1 s22y 2 7yd 1 2
5 7y2 2 9y 1 2

75. s8x3 2 4x2 1 3xd 2 fsx3 2 4x2 1 5d 1 sx 2 5dg 5 s8x3 2 4x2 1 3xd 2 fx3 2 4x2 1 xg
5 s8x3 2 4x2 1 3xd 1 s2x3 1 4x2 2 xd
5 s8x3 2 x3d 1 s24x2 1 4x2d 1 s3x 2 xd
5 7x3 1 2x

77. 3s4x2 2 1d 1 s3x3 2 7x2 1 5d 5 12x2 2 3 1 3x3 2 7x2 1 5


5 3x3 1 5x2 1 2

79. 2st2 1 12d 2 5st2 1 5d 1 6st2 1 5d 5 2t2 1 24 2 5t2 2 25 1 6t2 1 30


5 s2t2 2 5t2 1 6t2d 1 s24 2 25 1 30d
5 3t2 1 29

81. 15v 2 3s3v 2 v2d 1 9s8v 1 3d 5 15v 2 9v 1 3v2 1 72v 1 27


5 s3v2d 1 s15v 2 9v 1 72vd 1 27
5 3v2 1 78v 1 27

83. 5s 2 f6s 2 s30s 1 8dg 5 5s 2 f6s 2 30s 2 8g


5 s5s 2 6s 1 30sd 1 s8d
5 29s 1 8

85. Keystrokes:
y1 Y 5 x X,T, u 3 2 3 X,T, u x2 2 2 d 2 x X,T, u x2 1 1 d
>

ENTER

y2 X,T, u 3 2 4 X,T, u x2 2 3 GRAPH


>

−10 11

−13

y1 and y2 represent equivalent expressions since the graphs of y1 and y2 are identical.

87. hsxd 5 f sxd 1 gsxd


5 s4x3 2 3x2 1 7d 1 s9 2 x 2 x2 2 5x3d
5 s4x3 2 5x3d 1 s23x2 2 x2d 2 x 1 s7 1 9d
5 2x3 2 4x2 2 x 1 16
Section 3.1 Adding and Subtracting Polynomials 191

89. Polynomial Value Substitute Simplify


hstd 5 216t2 1 64 (a) t 5 0 216s0d2 1 64 64 feet
(b) t 5
1
2 216s 2d
1 2
1 64 60 feet
(c) t 5 1 216s1d 1 64 2
48 feet
(d) t 5 2 216s2d2 1 64 0 feet
At time t 5 0, the object is at 64 feet and continues to fall, reaching the ground at time t 5 2.

91. Polynomial Value Substitute Simplify


hstd 5 216t2 1 80t 1 50 (a) t 5 0 216s0d2 1 80s0d 1 50 50 feet
(b) t 5 2 216s2d 1 80s2d 1 50
2 146 feet
(c) t 5 4 216s4d 1 80s4d 1 50
2 114 feet
(d) t 5 5 216s5d2 1 80s5d 1 50 50 feet
At time t 5 0, the object is at a height of 50 feet. The object moves upward, reaches a maximum height and returns down-
ward. At time t 5 5, object is again at a height of 50 feet.

93. The free-falling object was dropped. 95. The free-falling object was thrown downward.
216s0d2 1 100 5 100 feet 216s0d2 2 24s0d 1 50 5 50 feet

97. h 5 216s1d2 1 40s1d 1 200 5 224 feet


h 5 216s2d2 1 40s2d 1 200 5 216 feet
h 5 216s3d2 1 40s3d 1 200 5 176 feet

99. Verbal model: Profit 5 Revenu 2 Cost

Equation: P5R2C
P 5 14x 2 s8x 1 15,000d
P 5 6x 2 15,000
P 5 6s5000d 2 15,000
P 5 $15,000

101. Perimeter of region 5 2s2x 1 4d 1 4x 1 2s3xd 103. Area of region 5 s6 ? 32xd 1 s6 ? 92xd or 6 ? f32x 1 92xg
5 4x 1 8 1 4x 1 6x 5 9x 1 27x or 6f12
2 xg

5 14x 1 8 5 36x or 36x

105. Area 5 12sx 1 6d 2 7x


5 12x 1 72 2 7x
5 5x 1 72
192 Chapter 3 Polynomials and Factoring

Per capita
consumption Per capita
of all bever- consumption Per capita
107. (a) Verbal model: age 5 of all 2 consumption
milks other beverage of whole
than whole milks milk

Equation: y 5 s231.06 1 0.009t 2 0.095t2d 2 s171.17 2 11.415t 1 0.325t2d


y 5 231.06 1 0.009t 2 0.095t2 1 s2171.17 1 11.415t 2 0.325t2d
5 s231.06 2 171.17d 1 s0.009t 1 11.415td 1 s20.095t2 2 0.325t2d
5 59.89 1 11.424t 2 0.42t2
5 20.42t2 1 11.424t 1 59.89
(b) Keystrokes:
Y 5 59.89 1 11.4141 X,T, u 2 .42 X,T, u x2 GRAPH

150

6 16
100

No, this model was increasing over the interval 6 ≤ t ≤ 13.6.

109. The degree of the term axk is k. The term of highest degree in a polynomial has the same degree as the polynomial.

111. 8x2 2 3x2 5 s8 2 3dx2 5 5x2

113. No, not every trinomial is a second-degree polynomial. For example, x3 1 2x 1 3 is a trinomial of third-degree.

Section 3.2 Multiplying Polynomials

1. t 3 ? t 4 5 st ? t ? tdst ? t ? t ? td 5 t 314 5 t7 3. s25xd5 5 25x ? 25x ? 25x ? 25x ? 25x


5 25 ? 25 ? 25 ? 25 ? 25 ? x ? x ? x ? x ? x
5 s25d5x5 5 23125x5

x6 x ? x ? x ? x ? x ? x
5. su4d2 5 u4 ? u4 7.
x4
5
x?x?x?x
5 x624 5 x2
5 u414
5 u8

y?y?y?y
15y 2
4
y y y y y4 y4
9. 5 ?5?5?555 5 45
5 ? 5 ? 5 ? 5 5 625
192 Chapter 3 Polynomials and Factoring

Per capita
consumption Per capita
of all bever- consumption Per capita
107. (a) Verbal model: age 5 of all 2 consumption
milks other beverage of whole
than whole milks milk

Equation: y 5 s231.06 1 0.009t 2 0.095t2d 2 s171.17 2 11.415t 1 0.325t2d


y 5 231.06 1 0.009t 2 0.095t2 1 s2171.17 1 11.415t 2 0.325t2d
5 s231.06 2 171.17d 1 s0.009t 1 11.415td 1 s20.095t2 2 0.325t2d
5 59.89 1 11.424t 2 0.42t2
5 20.42t2 1 11.424t 1 59.89
(b) Keystrokes:
Y 5 59.89 1 11.4141 X,T, u 2 .42 X,T, u x2 GRAPH

150

6 16
100

No, this model was increasing over the interval 6 ≤ t ≤ 13.6.

109. The degree of the term axk is k. The term of highest degree in a polynomial has the same degree as the polynomial.

111. 8x2 2 3x2 5 s8 2 3dx2 5 5x2

113. No, not every trinomial is a second-degree polynomial. For example, x3 1 2x 1 3 is a trinomial of third-degree.

Section 3.2 Multiplying Polynomials

1. t 3 ? t 4 5 st ? t ? tdst ? t ? t ? td 5 t 314 5 t7 3. s25xd5 5 25x ? 25x ? 25x ? 25x ? 25x


5 25 ? 25 ? 25 ? 25 ? 25 ? x ? x ? x ? x ? x
5 s25d5x5 5 23125x5

x6 x ? x ? x ? x ? x ? x
5. su4d2 5 u4 ? u4 7.
x4
5
x?x?x?x
5 x624 5 x2
5 u414
5 u8

y?y?y?y
15y 2
4
y y y y y4 y4
9. 5 ?5?5?555 5 45
5 ? 5 ? 5 ? 5 5 625
Section 3.2 Multiplying Polynomials 193

11. (a) 23x3 ? x5 5 23sx3 ? x5d 5 23x315 5 23x8 (b) s23xd2 ? x5 5 9x2 ? x5 5 9x215 5 9x7

13. (a) s25z2d3 5 s25d3 ? sz2d3 5 2125z2 ? 3 5 2125z6 (b) s25z4d2 5 s25d2sz4d2 5 25z4 ? 2 5 25z8

15. (a) su3vds2v2d 5 2 ? u3 ? v112 5 2u3v3 (b) s24u4dsu5vd 5 24 ? u415 ? v 5 24u9v

17. (a) 5u2 ? s23u6d 5 5 ? 23 ? u2 ? u6 5 215u216 5 215u8 (b) s2ud4s4ud 5 24u4 ? 4u 5 16 ? 4 ? u411 5 64u5

19. (a) 2 sm5nd3s2m2n2d2 5 2m5 ? 3n3 ? m2 ? 2n2 ? 2 (b) s2m5ndsm2n2d 5 2m512n112 5 2m7n3
5 2m15n3 ? m4n4
5 2m1514 ? n314 5 2m19n7

27m5n6 27 m5 n6 218m3n6 218 m3 n6


21. (a)
9mn3
5
9
? m
? n3 (b)
26mn3
5
26
? m
? n3
5 3 ? m521 ? n623 5 3 ? m321 ? n623
5 3m4n3 5 3m2n3

? x2 53 ? u3
13x4y2 15u3v 2
2 3
32
23. (a) 5 (b) 5
42 ? y2 33 ? v3
9x2 125u3
5 5
16y2 27v3

s23x2yd3 s23d3sx2d3y3 s22xy3d2 s22d2x2sy3d2


25. (a) 2 2 2
52 (b) 2 52
9x y 9x2y2 6y2 6y2
s227dx6y3 4x2y6
52 52
9x2y2 6y2
27x622 y322 2x2 y622
5 52
9 3
5 3x4y 2x2y4
52
3

? su3d2 ? svd2
3 s25u vd
10u v 4
53
s25d
4 3 2510usu vvd 4 5 3 25 ? 10u
su d ? svd
4
3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 2
27. (a) 2
(a)
10u2v 2 v 2

25u6v2
3 10u v 4 3 10u v 4
2 2
25u6v2
5 2 5 2

3 25 4 3 25 4
6 2 2
u v2 u 6
v2
5 ?
10 u 2 ? v
5 ?
10 u 2 ? v

32 ? u ? v2214 3 ? u622 ? v2214


2 2
5 1
5 622 5 2
2

3 52u v4 3 212u v4
2 2
5 4
5 4

25 8 2 1
5 uv 5 u8v2
4 4
194 Chapter 3 Polynomials and Factoring

x2n14y4n
29. (a) 5 x2n1425y4n2 s2n11d 5 x2n21y4n22n21 5 x2n21y2n21
x5y2n11
x6nyn27
(b) 5 x6n2 s4n12dyn2725 5 x6n24n22yn212 5 x2n22yn212
x4n12y5

31. s22a2ds28ad 5 s22ds28da2 ? a 5 16a211 5 16a3 33. 2ys5 2 yd 5 s2yds5d 2 s2ydsyd 5 10y 2 2y2

35. 4xs2x2 2 3x 1 5d 5 s4xds2x2d 2 s4xds3xd 1 s4xds5d 5 8x3 2 12x2 1 20x

37. 22x2s5 1 3x2 2 7x3d 5 s22x2ds5d 1 s22x2ds3x2d 2 s22x2ds7x3d 5 210x2 2 6x4 1 14x5

39. 2x3sx4 2 2x3 1 5x 2 6d 5 2x3sx4d 2 x3s22x3d 2 x3s5xd 2 x3s26d 5 2x7 1 2x6 2 5x4 1 6x3

41. 23xs25xds5x 1 2d 5 s23xds25xds5x 1 2d 5 15x2s5x 1 2d 5 15x2s5xd 1 15x2s2d 5 75x3 1 30x2

43. u2vs3u4 2 5u2 1 6uv3d 5 u2vs3u4d 1 u2vs25u2d 1 u2vs6uv3d 5 3u6v 2 5u4v 1 6u3v4

45. sx 1 2dsx 1 4d 5 x2 1 4x 1 2x 1 8 5 x2 1 6x 1 8

47. sx 2 6dsx 1 5d 5 x2 1 5x 2 6x 2 30 5 x2 2 x 2 30

49. sx 2 4dsx 2 4d 5 x2 2 4x 2 4x 1 16 5 x2 2 8x 1 16

51. s2x 2 3dsx 1 5d 5 2x2 1 10x 2 3x 2 15 5 2x2 1 7x 2 15

53. s5x 2 2ds2x 2 6d 5 10x2 2 30x 2 4x 1 12 5 10x2 2 34x 1 12

55. s8 2 3x2ds4x 1 1d 5 32x 1 8 2 12x3 2 3x2 5 212x3 2 3x2 1 32x 1 8

57. s4y 2 13 ds12y 1 9d 5 48y2 1 36y 2 4y 2 3 5 48y2 1 32y 2 3

59. s2x 1 yds3x 1 2yd 5 6x2 1 4xy 1 3xy 1 2y2 5 6x2 1 7xy 1 2y2

61. s2t 2 1dst 1 1d 1 1s2t 2 5dst 2 1d 5 2t2 1 2t 2 t 2 1 1 2t2 2 2t 2 5t 1 5 5 4t2 2 6t 1 4

63. sx 2 1dsx2 2 4x 1 6d 5 sx 2 1dsx2d 1 sx 2 1ds24xd 1 sx 2 1ds6d


5 x3 2 x2 2 4x2 1 4x 1 6x 2 6
5 x3 2 5x2 1 10x 2 6

65. s3a 1 2dsa2 1 3a 1 1d 5 s3a 1 2dsa2d 1 s3a 1 2ds3ad 1 s3a 1 2ds1d


5 3a3 1 2a2 1 9a2 1 6a 1 3a 1 2
5 3a3 1 11a2 1 9a 1 2
Section 3.2 Multiplying Polynomials 195

67. s2u2 1 3u 2 4ds4u 1 5d 5 s4u 1 5ds2u2d 1 s4u 1 5ds3ud 1 s4u 1 5ds24d


5 8u3 1 10u2 1 12u2 1 15u 2 16u 2 20
5 8u3 1 22u2 2 u 2 20

69. sx3 2 3x 1 2dsx 2 2d 5 x3sx 2 2d 1 s23xdsx 2 2d 1 2sx 2 2d


5 x4 2 2x3 2 3x2 1 6x 1 2x 2 4
5 x4 2 2x3 2 3x2 1 8x 2 4

71. s5x2 1 2dsx2 1 4x 2 1d 5 s5x2 1 2dsx2d 1 s5x2 1 2ds4xd 1 s5x2 1 2ds21d


5 5x4 1 2x2 1 20x3 1 8x 2 5x2 2 2
5 5x4 1 20x3 2 3x2 1 8x 2 2

73. st2 1 t 2 2dst2 2 t 1 2d 5 t2st2 2 t 1 2d 1 tst2 2 t 1 2d 2 2st2 2 t 1 2d


5 t 4 2 t3 1 2t2 1 t3 2 t2 1 2t 2 2t2 1 2t 2 4
5 t 4 2 t2 1 4t 2 4

75. 7x2 2 14x 1 9 77. 2u2 1 5u 1 3


4x3 1 3 u22
1 21x2 2 42x 1 27 24u2 2 10u 2 6
28x5 2 56x4 1 36x3 2u3 1 5u2 1 3u
28x5 2 56x4 1 36x3 1 21x2 2 42x 1 27 2u3 1 u2 2 7u 2 6

79. 2x2 1 2x 2 1 81. t2 1 t 2 2


2x 1 1 t2 2 t 1 2
2x2 1 2x 2 1 1 2t2 1 2t 2 4
22x3 1 4x2 2 2x 2 t3 2 t2 1 2t
22x3 1 3x2 21 t 4 1 t3 2 2t2
t4 2 t2 1 4t 2 4

83. sx 1 2dsx 2 2d 5 sxd2 2 s2d2 85. sx 2 7dsx 1 7d 5 sxd2 2 s7d2


5 x2 2 4 5 x2 2 49

87. s2 1 7yds2 2 7yd 5 s2d2 2 s7yd2 5 4 2 49y2 89. s6 2 4xds6 1 4xd 5 s6d2 2 s4xd2 5 36 2 16x2

91. s2a 1 5bds2a 2 5bd 5 s2ad2 2 s5bd2 5 4a2 2 25b2 93. s6x 2 9yds6x 1 9yd 5 s6xd2 2 s9yd2 5 36x2 2 81y2

95. s2x 2 14 ds2x 1 14 d 5 s2xd2 2 s14 d 5 4x2 2 16


2 1
97. s0.2t 1 0.5ds0.2t 2 0.5d 5 s0.2td2 2 s0.5d2
5 0.04t2 2 0.25

99. sx 1 5d2 5 sxd2 1 2sxds5d 1 s5d2 5 x2 1 10x 1 25 101. sx 2 10d2 5 sxd2 2 2sxds10d 1 102 5 x2 2 20x 1 100
196 Chapter 3 Polynomials and Factoring

103. s2x 1 5d2 5 s2xd2 1 2s2xds5d 1 s5d2 5 4x2 1 20x 1 25 105. s6x 2 1d2 5 s6xd2 2 2s6xds1d 1 s1d2 5 36x2 2 12x 1 1

107. s2x 2 7yd2 5 s2xd2 2 2s2xds7yd 1 s7yd2 5 4x2 2 28xy 1 49y2

109. fsx 1 2d 1 yg2 5 sx 1 2d2 1 2sx 1 2dy 1 y2 5 sxd2 1 2sxds2d 1 s2d2 1 2xy 1 4y 1 y2 5 x2 1 4x 1 4 1 2xy 1 4y 1 y2

111. fu 2 sv 2 3dgfu 1 sv 2 3dg 5 sud2 2 sv 2 3d2 5 u2 2 fv2 2 2svds3d 1 s3d2g 5 u2 2 sv2 2 6v 1 9d 5 u2 2 v2 1 6v 2 9

113. sx 1 3d3 5 sx 1 3dsx 1 3dsx 1 3d 115. su 1 vd3 5 su 1 vdsu 1 vdsu 1 vd


5 sx2 1 3x 1 3x 1 9dsx 1 3d 5 su2 1 uv 1 uv 1 v2dsu 1 vd
5 sx2 1 6x 1 9dsx 1 3d 5 su2 1 2uv 1 v2dsu 1 vd
x2 1 6x 1 9 u2 1 2uv 1 v2
x1 3 u1v
3x2 1 18x 1 27 u2v 1 2uv2 1 v3
x3 1 6x2 1 9x u3 1 2u2v 1 uv2
x3 1 9x2 1 27x 1 27 u3 1 3u2v 1 3uv2 1 v3

117. Keystrokes:
y1 Y 5 x X,T, u 1 1 d x X,T, u x2 2 X,T, u 1 2 d ENTER

y2 X,T, u 3 1 X,T, u 1 2 GRAPH


>

−9 9

−4

y1 5 y2 because sx 1 1dsx2 2 x 1 2d 5 x3 2 x2 1 2x 1 x2 2 x 1 2 5 x3 1 x 1 2

119. Keystrokes:
y1 Y 5 x 2 X,T, u 2 3 d x X,T, u 1 2 d ENTER

y2 2 X,T, u x2 1 X,T, u 2 6 GRAPH

−12 12

−8

y1 5 y2 because s2x 2 3dsx 1 2d 5 2x2 1 4x 2 3x 2 6 5 2x2 1 x 2 6

121. (a) f st 2 3d 5 st 2 3d2 2 2st 2 3d (b) f s2 1 hd 2 f s2d 5 fs2 1 hd2 2 2s2 1 hdg 2 f22 2 2s2dg
5 t2 2 6t 1 9 2 2t 1 6 5 s4 1 4h 1 h2 2 4 2 2hd 2 s0d
5 t2 2 8t 1 15 5 2h 1 h2
Section 3.2 Multiplying Polynomials 197

123. (a) Verbal model: Volume 5 Length ? Width ? Height

Function: Vsnd 5 n ? sn 1 2d ? sn 1 4d
5 nsn2 1 6n 1 8d
5 n3 1 6n2 1 8n
(b) Vs2d 5 2 ? s2 1 2d ? s2 1 4d
5 2s4ds6d
5 48 cubic inches
(c) Verbal model: Area 5 Length ? Width

Function: Asnd 5 n ? sn 1 2d
5 n2 1 2n
(d) Function: Area 5 sn 1 4dsn 1 2 1 4d
5 sn 1 4dsn 1 6d
5 n2 1 6n 1 4n 1 24
5 n2 1 10n 1 24 5 Asn 1 4d
Asn 1 4d 5 sn 1 4dsn 1 4 1 2d
5 sn 1 4dsn 1 6d
5 n2 1 10n 1 24

Area of Area of Area of


125. Verbal model: Shaded 5 Outside 2 Inside
Region Rectangle Rectangle

Function: Asxd 5 3xs3x 1 10d 2 xsx 1 4d


5 9x2 1 30x 2 x2 2 4x
5 8x2 1 26x

Area of Area of Area of


127. Verbal model: Shaded 5 Larger 2 Smaller
Region Triangle Triangle

Function: Asxd 5 12s2xds1.6xd 2 12sxds0.8xd


5 1.6x2 2 0.4x2
5 1.2x2

129. (a) Verbal model: Perimeter 5 2 Length 1 2 Width (b) Verbal model: Area 5 Length ? Width

P 5 2s2wd 1 2w A 5 s32wdswd
3

5 3w 1 2w A 5 32w2
P 5 5w

3
2
w
198 Chapter 3 Polynomials and Factoring

131. Interest 5 1000s1 1 rd2 133. Area 5 l ? w

5 1000s1 1 rds1 1 rd 5 sx 1 adsx 1 bd

5 1000s1 1 2r 1 r2d 5 x2 1 ax 1 bx 1 ab

5 1000 1 2000r 1 1000r2 Area 5 sx ? xd 1 sx ? ad 1 sx ? bd 1 sa ? bd


5 x2 1 ax 1 bx 1 ab
Formula: sx 1 adsx 1 bd 5 x2 1 ax 1 bx 1 ab.
Distributive Property

135. (a) sx 2 1dsx 1 1d 5 x2 2 1


(b) sx 2 1dsx2 1 x 1 1d 5 x3 1 x2 1 x 2 x2 2 x 2 1 5 x3 2 1
(c) sx 2 1dsx3 1 x2 1 x 1 1d 5 x4 1 x3 1 x2 1 x 2 x3 2 x2 2 x 2 1 5 x4 2 1
sx 2 1dsx4 1 x3 1 x2 1 x 1 1d 5 x5 2 1

137. (a) Verbal model: Volume 5 Length ? Width ? Height

Labels: Volume 5 VBsxd


Length 5 3x 2 2
Width 5 x 1 5
Height 5 x
Function: VBsxd 5 s3x 2 2dsx 1 5dx
5 s3x2 1 15x 2 2x 2 10dx
5 s3x2 1 13x 2 10dx
5 3x3 1 13x2 2 10x
1
(b) Verbal model: Volume 5
3
? Area of base ? Height

Labels: Volume 5 VPsxd


Area of base 5 s2x 2 6dsx 2 1d
Height 5 x 2 3
Function: VPsxd 5 13s2x 2 6dsx 2 1dsx 2 3d
5 13s2x2 2 8x 1 6dsx 2 3d
5 13s2x3 2 8x2 1 6x 2 6x2 1 24x 2 18d
5 13s2x3 2 14x2 1 30x 2 18d
5 23x3 2 14
3 x 1 10x 2 6
2

Volume Volume Volume


(c) Verbal model: 5 of bin 2 of pyramid
of grain

Function: VSsxd 5 s3x3 1 13x2 2 10xd 2 s23x3 2 14


3 x 1 10x 2 6d
2

5 3x3 1 13x2 2 10x 2 23x3 1 14


3 x 2 10x 1 6
2

7 53
5 3x3 1 3 x2 2 20x 1 6
Section 3.3 Factoring Polynomials 199

139. s2xd3 5 23 ? x3 5 8x3 Þ 2x3 141. F 5 First


O 5 Outer
I 5 Inner
L 5 Last

143. (a) True, the product of two monomials is a monomial.


(b) False, the product of two binomials can be a trinomial. For example, sx 1 2dsx 2 3d 5 x2 2 x 2 6.

Section 3.3 Factoring Polynomials

1. 48 5 24 ? 3 3. 3x2 5 3 ? x ? x 5. 30z2 5 2 ? 3 ?5?z?z


90 5 5 ? 2 ?32 12x 5 22 ?3?x 212z3 5 21 ? 22 ?3?z?z?z
96 5 25 ? 3 GCF 5 3x GCF 5 2 ? 3 ?z?z
GCF 5 2 ? 3 5 6 5 6z2

7. 28b2 5 7 ? 22 ?b?b 9. 42sx 1 8d2 5 7 ? 3 ? 2 ? sx 1 8d2


14b3 5 7 ? 2 ?b?b?b 63sx 1 8d3 5 7 ? 32 ? sx 1 8d3
42b5 5 7 ? 2 ?3?b?b?b?b?b GCF 5 7 ? 3sx 1 8d2
GCF 5 7 ? 2 ?b?b 5 21sx 1 8d2
5 14b2

11. 8z 2 8 5 8sz 2 1d 13. 4u 1 10 5 2s2u 1 5d 15. 24x2 2 18 5 6s4x2 2 3d

17. 2x2 1 x 5 xs2x 1 1d 19. 21u2 2 14u 5 7us3u 2 2d 21. 11u2 1 9 is prime (No common
factor other than 1.)

23. 28x2 1 16x 2 8 5 4s7x2 1 4x 2 2d 25. 3x2y2 2 15y 5 3ysx2y 2 5d

27. 15xy2 2 3x2y 1 9xy 5 3xys5y 2 x 1 3d 29. 14x4y3 1 21x3y2 1 9x2 5 x2s14x2y3 1 21xy2 1 9d

31. 10 2 x 5 21s210 1 xd 5 21sx 2 10d 33. 7 2 14x 5 27s21 1 2xd 5 27s2x 2 1d

35. 16 1 4x 2 6x2 5 21s216 2 4x 1 6x2d 5 21s6x2 2 4x 2 16d 5 22s3x2 2 2x 2 8d

37. y 2 3y3 2 2y2 5 21s2y 1 3y3 1 2y2d 5 21s3y3 1 2y2 2 yd 5 2ys3y2 1 2y 2 1d

39. 2y 2 35 5 15s10y 2 3d 41. 32x 1 54 5 14s6x 1 5d

43. 2ysy 2 3d 1 5sy 2 3d 5 sy 2 3ds2y 1 5d 45. 5xs3x 1 2d 2 3s3x 1 2d 5 s3x 1 2ds5x 2 3d

47. 2s7a 1 6d 2 3a2s7a 1 6d 5 s7a 1 6ds2 2 3a2d 49. 8t 3s4t 2 1d2 1 3s4t 2 1d2 5 s4t 2 1d2s8t 3 1 3d
Section 3.3 Factoring Polynomials 199

139. s2xd3 5 23 ? x3 5 8x3 Þ 2x3 141. F 5 First


O 5 Outer
I 5 Inner
L 5 Last

143. (a) True, the product of two monomials is a monomial.


(b) False, the product of two binomials can be a trinomial. For example, sx 1 2dsx 2 3d 5 x2 2 x 2 6.

Section 3.3 Factoring Polynomials

1. 48 5 24 ? 3 3. 3x2 5 3 ? x ? x 5. 30z2 5 2 ? 3 ?5?z?z


90 5 5 ? 2 ?32 12x 5 22 ?3?x 212z3 5 21 ? 22 ?3?z?z?z
96 5 25 ? 3 GCF 5 3x GCF 5 2 ? 3 ?z?z
GCF 5 2 ? 3 5 6 5 6z2

7. 28b2 5 7 ? 22 ?b?b 9. 42sx 1 8d2 5 7 ? 3 ? 2 ? sx 1 8d2


14b3 5 7 ? 2 ?b?b?b 63sx 1 8d3 5 7 ? 32 ? sx 1 8d3
42b5 5 7 ? 2 ?3?b?b?b?b?b GCF 5 7 ? 3sx 1 8d2
GCF 5 7 ? 2 ?b?b 5 21sx 1 8d2
5 14b2

11. 8z 2 8 5 8sz 2 1d 13. 4u 1 10 5 2s2u 1 5d 15. 24x2 2 18 5 6s4x2 2 3d

17. 2x2 1 x 5 xs2x 1 1d 19. 21u2 2 14u 5 7us3u 2 2d 21. 11u2 1 9 is prime (No common
factor other than 1.)

23. 28x2 1 16x 2 8 5 4s7x2 1 4x 2 2d 25. 3x2y2 2 15y 5 3ysx2y 2 5d

27. 15xy2 2 3x2y 1 9xy 5 3xys5y 2 x 1 3d 29. 14x4y3 1 21x3y2 1 9x2 5 x2s14x2y3 1 21xy2 1 9d

31. 10 2 x 5 21s210 1 xd 5 21sx 2 10d 33. 7 2 14x 5 27s21 1 2xd 5 27s2x 2 1d

35. 16 1 4x 2 6x2 5 21s216 2 4x 1 6x2d 5 21s6x2 2 4x 2 16d 5 22s3x2 2 2x 2 8d

37. y 2 3y3 2 2y2 5 21s2y 1 3y3 1 2y2d 5 21s3y3 1 2y2 2 yd 5 2ys3y2 1 2y 2 1d

39. 2y 2 35 5 15s10y 2 3d 41. 32x 1 54 5 14s6x 1 5d

43. 2ysy 2 3d 1 5sy 2 3d 5 sy 2 3ds2y 1 5d 45. 5xs3x 1 2d 2 3s3x 1 2d 5 s3x 1 2ds5x 2 3d

47. 2s7a 1 6d 2 3a2s7a 1 6d 5 s7a 1 6ds2 2 3a2d 49. 8t 3s4t 2 1d2 1 3s4t 2 1d2 5 s4t 2 1d2s8t 3 1 3d
200 Chapter 3 Polynomials and Factoring

51. sx 2 5ds4x 1 9d 2 s3x 1 4ds4x 1 9d 5 s4x 1 9dsx 2 5 2 3x 2 4d 5 s4x 1 9ds22x 2 9d

53. x2 1 25x 1 x 1 25 5 sx2 1 25xd 1 sx 1 25d 5 xsx 1 25d 1 1sx 1 25d 5 sx 1 25dsx 1 1d

55. y2 2 6y 1 2y 2 12 5 sy2 2 6yd 1 s2y 2 12d 57. x3 1 2x2 1 x 1 2 5 sx3 1 2x2d 1 sx 1 2d


5 ysy 2 6d 1 2sy 2 6d 5 x2sx 1 2d 1 1sx 1 2d
5 sy 2 6dsy 1 2d 5 sx 1 2dsx2 1 1d

59. 3a3 2 12a2 2 2a 1 8 5 s3a3 2 12a2d 1 s22a 1 8d 61. z422z 1 3z3 2 6 5 sz4 2 2zd 1 s3z3 2 6d
5 3a2sa 2 4d 2 2sa 2 4d 5 zsz3 2 2d 1 3sz3 2 2d
5 sa 2 4ds3a2 2 2d 5 sz3 2 2dsz 1 3d

63. 5x3 2 10x2y 1 7xy2 2 14y3 5 s5x3 2 10x2yd 1 s7xy2 2 14y3d


5 5x2sx 2 2yd 1 7y2sx 2 2yd
5 sx 2 2yds5x2 1 7y2d

65. x2 2 64 5 x2 2 82 67. 1 2 a2 5 12 2 a2 69. 16y2 2 9 5 s4yd2 2 32


5 sx 2 8dsx 1 8d 5 s1 2 ads1 1 ad 5 s4y 2 3ds4y 1 3d

71. 81 2 4x2 5 92 2 s2xd2 73. 4z2 2 y2 5 s2z 2 yds2z 1 yd 75. 36x2 2 25y2 5 s6xd2 2 s5yd2
5 s9 2 2xds9 1 2xd 5 s6x 2 5yds6x 1 5yd

5 u2 2 s14 d 25 y 5 s3 xd 2 s5 yd
1 2 2 2
79. 49x2 2 16 2 4
77. u2 2 16 2

5 su 2 4 dsu 1 4 d 5 s3x 2 5yds3x 1 5yd


1 1 2 4 2 4

81. sx 2 1d2 2 16 5 fsx 2 1d 2 4gfsx 2 1d 1 4g 5 sx 2 5dsx 1 3d

83. 81 2 sz 1 5d2 5 92 2 sz 1 5d2 5 f9 2 sz 1 5dgf9 1 sz 1 5dg 5 f9 2 z 2 5gf9 1 z 1 5g 5 s4 2 zds14 1 zd

85. s2x 1 5d2 2 sx 2 4d2 5 fs2x 1 5d 2 sx 2 4dgfs2x 1 5d 1 sx 2 4dg 5 f2x 1 5 2 x 1 4gf2x 1 5 1 x 2 4g 5 sx 1 9ds3x 1 1d

87. x3 2 8 5 x3 2 23 89. y3 1 64 5 y3 1 43 91. 8t 3 2 27 5 s2td3 2 33


5 sx 2 2dsx2 1 2x 1 4d 5 sy 1 4dsy2 2 4y 1 16d 5 s2t 2 3ds4t2 1 6t 1 9d

93. 27u3 1 1 5 s3ud3 1 13 95. 64a3 1 b3 5 s4ad3 1 b3


5 s3u 1 1ds9u2 2 3u 1 1d 5 s4a 1 bds16a2 2 4ab 1 b2d

97. x3 1 27y3 5 x3 1 s3yd3 99. 8 2 50x2 5 2s4 2 25x2d


5 sx 1 3ydsx2 2 3xy 1 9y2d 5 2f22 2 s5xd2g
5 2f2 2 5xgf2 1 5xg
Section 3.3 Factoring Polynomials 201

101. 8x3 1 64 5 8sx3 1 8d 103. y4 2 81 5 sy2d2 2 92


5 8sx3 1 23d 5 sy2 2 9dsy2 1 9d
5 8sx 1 2dsx2 2 2x 1 4d 5 sy 2 3dsy 1 3dsy2 1 9d

105. 3x4 2 300x2 5 3x2sx2 2 100d 107. 6x6 2 48y6 5 6sx6 2 8y6d
5 3x2sx 2 10dsx 1 10d 5 6fsx2d3 2 s2y2d3g
5 6sx2 2 2y2dsx4 1 2x2y2 1 4y4d

109. 4x2n 2 25 5 s2xnd2 2 52


5 s2xn 2 5ds2xn 1 5d

111. Keystrokes: 4

y1 Y 5 3 X,T, u 2 6 ENTER −6 12

y2 3 x X,T, u 2 2 d GRAPH

y1 5 y2
−8

113. Keystrokes: 3

y1 Y 5 X,T, u x2 2 4 ENTER
−6 6
y2 x X,T, u 1 2 d x X,T, u 2 2 d GRAPH
y1 5 y2
−5

115. 3x3 1 4x2 2 3x 2 4 5 s3x3 1 4x2d 1 s23x 2 4d 5 s3x3 2 3xd 1 s4x2 2 4d


5 x2s3x 1 4d 2 1s3x 1 4d or 5 3xsx2 2 1d 1 4sx2 2 1d
5 sx2 2 1ds3x 1 4d 5 sx2 2 1ds3x 1 4d
5 sx 2 1dsx 1 1ds3x 1 4d 5 sx 2 1dsx 1 1ds3x 1 4d

117. R 5 800x 2 0.25x2 119. P 1 Prt 5 Ps1 1 rtd 121. A 5 45l 2 l2


5 xs800 2 0.25xd 5 ls45 2 ld so
R 5 xp w 5 45 2 l
p 5 800 2 0.25x

123. S 5 2x2 1 4xh 125. A 5 pR2 2 pr2 127. A polynomial is in factored form
when the polynomial is written as
S 5 2xsx 1 2hd 5 psR2 2 r2d
a product of polynomials.
5 psR 2 rdsR 1 rd

129. The method of finding the greatest common factor of two or more integers is first determine the prime factorization of each
integer. Then the greatest common factor is the product of each common prime factor raised to its lowest power in either one
of the integers.

131. The Distributive Property is used to factor a polynomial in this example x2 1 2x 5 xsx 1 2d.
202 Chapter 3 Polynomials and Factoring

Mid-Chapter Quiz for Chapter 3

1. degree 5 4 2. 2x 2 3x1/2 1 5 is not a polynomial because the term


2 3x1/2 has degree 12. The degree of the variable x is not
leading coefficient 5 22
an integer.

3. s2t 3 1 3t2 2 2d 1 st 3 1 9d 5 3t 3 1 3t2 1 7 4. s3 2 7yd 1 s7y2 1 2y 2 3d 5 7y2 2 5y

5. s7x3 2 3x2 1 1d 2 sx2 2 2x3d 5 7x3 2 3x2 1 1 2 x2 1 2x3 6. s5 2 ud 2 2f3 2 su2 1 1dg 5 s5 2 ud 2 2f3 2 u2 2 1g
5 9x3 2 4x2 1 1 5 s5 2 ud 2 2f2 2 u2g
5 5 2 u 2 4 1 2u2
5 2u2 2 u 1 1

6x7 6x7
7. s25n2ds22n3d 5 10n5 8. s22x2d3sx4d 5 s22d3sx2d3sx4d 9. 5
s22x d
2 3
28x6
5 28x6 ? x4 3x
52
5 28x10 4

11. 7ys4 2 3yd 5 28y 2 21y2


14y5x 2 5 14y5x 214y5x 2
2 2 2
10.

16y4
5
25x2

12. sx 2 7dsx 1 3d 5 x2 1 3x 2 7x 2 21 13. s4x 2 yds6x 2 5yd 5 24x2 2 20xy 2 6xy 1 5y2
5 x2 2 4x 2 21 5 24x2 2 26xy 1 5y2

14. 2zsz 1 5d 2 7sz 1 5d 5 2z2 1 10z 2 7z 2 35 15. s6r 1 5ds6r 2 5d 5 36r2 2 25


5 2z2 1 3z 2 35

16. s2x 2 3d2 5 s2x 2 3ds2x 2 3d 17. sx 1 1dsx2 2 x 1 1d 5 x3 2 x2 1 x 1 x2 2 x 1 1


5 4x2 2 12x 1 9 5 x3 1 1

18. sx2 2 3x 1 2dsx2 1 5x 2 10d 5 x2sx2 1 5x 2 10d 2 3xsx2 1 5x 2 10d 1 2sx2 1 5x 2 10d
5 x4 1 5x3 2 10x2 2 3x3 2 15x2 1 30x 1 2x2 1 10x 2 20
5 x4 1 2x3 2 23x2 1 40x 2 20

19. 28a2 2 21a 5 7as4a 2 3d 20. 25 2 4x2 5 s5 2 2xds5 1 2xd

21. z3 1 3z2 2 9z 2 27 5 z2sz 1 3d 2 9sz 1 3d 22. 4y3 2 32x3 5 4sy3 2 8x3d


5 sz 1 3dsz2 2 9d 5 4fy3 2 s2xd3g
5 sz 1 3dsz 1 3dsz 2 3d 5 4sy 2 2xdsy2 1 2xy 1 4x2d
5 sz 1 3d2sz 2 3d
Section 3.4 Factoring Trinomials 203

23. s5x 1 10ds2x 1 1d s5x 2 10ds2x 2 1d


s5x 1 1ds2x 1 10d s5x 2 1ds2x 2 10d
s5x 1 2ds2x 1 5d s5x 2 2ds2x 2 5d
s5x 1 5ds2x 1 2d s5x 2 5ds2x 2 2d

Area of Area of Area of


24. Verbal model: shaded 5 large 2 small
region triangle triangle

Equation: A 5 12sx 1 2d2 2 12x2


5 12sx2 1 4x 1 4d 2 12x2
5 12x2 1 2x 1 2 2 12x2
5 2x 1 2

25. h s1d 5 216s1d2 2 5s1d 1 100 26. Psxd 5 Rsxd 2 Csxd


5 216 2 5 1 100 5 19x 2 s5x 1 2000d
5 79 feet 5 19x 2 5x 2 2000
h s2d 5 216s2d2 2 5s2d 1 100 5 14x 2 2000
5 216s4d 2 10 1 100 Ps1000d 5 14s1000d 2 2000 5 $12,000
5 264 1 90
5 26 feet

Section 3.4 Factoring Trinomials

1. x2 1 4x 1 4 5 x2 1 2s2xd 1 22 5 sx 1 2d2 3. a2 2 12a 1 36 5 a2 2 2s6ad 1 62 5 sa 2 6d2

5. 25y2 2 10y 1 1 5 s5yd2 2 2s5yd 1 1 5 s5y 2 1d2 7. 9b2 1 12b 1 4 5 s3bd2 1 2s3bds2d 1 22 5 s3b 1 2d2

9. u2 1 8uv 1 16v2 5 u2 1 2s4uvd 1 s4vd2 5 su 1 4vd2

11. 36x2 2 60xy 1 25y2 5 s6xd2 2 2s6xds5yd 1 s5yd2 5 s6x 2 5yd2

13. 5x2 1 30x 1 45 5 5sx2 1 6x 1 9d 5 5fx2 1 2s3dsxd 1 32g 5 5sx 1 3d2

15. 2x2 1 24x2 1 72x 5 2xsx2 1 12x 1 36d 5 2xfx2 1 2s6dx 1 62g 5 2xsx 1 6d2

17. 20v4 2 60v3 1 45v2 5 5v2s4v2 2 12v 1 9d 5 5v2fs2vd2 2 2s2vds3d 1 32g 5 5v2s2v 2 3d2
Section 3.4 Factoring Trinomials 203

23. s5x 1 10ds2x 1 1d s5x 2 10ds2x 2 1d


s5x 1 1ds2x 1 10d s5x 2 1ds2x 2 10d
s5x 1 2ds2x 1 5d s5x 2 2ds2x 2 5d
s5x 1 5ds2x 1 2d s5x 2 5ds2x 2 2d

Area of Area of Area of


24. Verbal model: shaded 5 large 2 small
region triangle triangle

Equation: A 5 12sx 1 2d2 2 12x2


5 12sx2 1 4x 1 4d 2 12x2
5 12x2 1 2x 1 2 2 12x2
5 2x 1 2

25. h s1d 5 216s1d2 2 5s1d 1 100 26. Psxd 5 Rsxd 2 Csxd


5 216 2 5 1 100 5 19x 2 s5x 1 2000d
5 79 feet 5 19x 2 5x 2 2000
h s2d 5 216s2d2 2 5s2d 1 100 5 14x 2 2000
5 216s4d 2 10 1 100 Ps1000d 5 14s1000d 2 2000 5 $12,000
5 264 1 90
5 26 feet

Section 3.4 Factoring Trinomials

1. x2 1 4x 1 4 5 x2 1 2s2xd 1 22 5 sx 1 2d2 3. a2 2 12a 1 36 5 a2 2 2s6ad 1 62 5 sa 2 6d2

5. 25y2 2 10y 1 1 5 s5yd2 2 2s5yd 1 1 5 s5y 2 1d2 7. 9b2 1 12b 1 4 5 s3bd2 1 2s3bds2d 1 22 5 s3b 1 2d2

9. u2 1 8uv 1 16v2 5 u2 1 2s4uvd 1 s4vd2 5 su 1 4vd2

11. 36x2 2 60xy 1 25y2 5 s6xd2 2 2s6xds5yd 1 s5yd2 5 s6x 2 5yd2

13. 5x2 1 30x 1 45 5 5sx2 1 6x 1 9d 5 5fx2 1 2s3dsxd 1 32g 5 5sx 1 3d2

15. 2x2 1 24x2 1 72x 5 2xsx2 1 12x 1 36d 5 2xfx2 1 2s6dx 1 62g 5 2xsx 1 6d2

17. 20v4 2 60v3 1 45v2 5 5v2s4v2 2 12v 1 9d 5 5v2fs2vd2 2 2s2vds3d 1 32g 5 5v2s2v 2 3d2
204 Chapter 3 Polynomials and Factoring

19. 14x2 2 23x 1 49 5 s12xd 2 2s12xds23 d 1 s23 d


2 2 9 2
x 2 24 16
or 5 36 36 x 1 36

5 s2 x 2 3 d s9x2 2 24x 1 16d


2 2 1
1
5 36
1
5 36 fs3xd2 2 2s3xds4d 1 42g
1
5 36 s3x 2 4d2

21. x2 1 bx 1 81 5 x2 1 bx 1 92
(a) b 5 18 or (b) b 5 218
x2 1 18x 1 92 5 x2 1 2s9xd 1 92 x2 2 18x 1 92 5 x2 2 2s9xd 1 92
5 sx 1 9d2 5 sx 2 9d2

23. 4x2 1 bx 1 9 5 s2xd2 1 bx 1 32


(a) b 5 12 or (b) b 5 212
s2xd2 1 12x 1 32 5 s2xd2 1 2s2xds3d 1 32 s2xd2 2 12x 1 32 5 s2xd2 2 2s2xds3d 1 32
5 s2x 1 3d2 5 s2x 2 3d2

25. c 5 16 27. c 5 9
x2 1 8x 1 c 5 x2 1 2s4xd 1 c y2 2 6y 1 c 5 y2 2 2s3yd 1 c
5 x2 1 2s4xd 1 42 5 y2 2 2s3yd 1 32
5 sx 1 4d2 5 sy 2 3d2

29. x2 1 5x 1 4 5 sx 1 4dsx 1 1d 31. y2 2 y 2 20 5 sy 1 4dsy 2 5d 33. x2 2 2x 2 24 5 sx 1 4dsx 2 6d

35. z2 2 6z 1 8 5 sz 2 4dsz 2 2d 37. x2 1 4x 1 3 5 sx 1 3dsx 1 1d 39. x2 2 5x 1 6 5 sx 2 3dsx 2 2d

41. y2 1 7y 2 30 5 sy 1 10dsy 2 3d 43. t2 2 4t 2 21 5 st 2 7dst 1 3d 45. x2 2 20x 1 96 5 sx 2 12dsx 2 8d

47. x2 2 2xy 2 35y2 5 sx 2 7ydsx 1 5yd 49. x2 1 30xy 1 216y2 5 sx 1 12ydsx 1 18yd

51. b 5 19: x2 1 19x 1 18 5 sx 1 18dsx 1 1d 53. b 5 20: x2 1 20x 2 21 5 sx 1 21dsx 2 1d


b 5 219: x2 2 19x 1 18 5 sx 2 18dsx 2 1d b 5 220: x2 2 20x 2 21 5 sx 2 21dsx 1 1d
b 5 9: x2 1 9x 1 18 5 sx 1 6dsx 1 3d b 5 4: x2 1 4x 2 21 5 sx 1 7dsx 2 3d
b 5 29: x2 2 9x 1 18 5 sx 2 6dsx 2 3d b 5 24: x2 2 4x 2 21 5 sx 2 7dsx 1 3d
b 5 11: x2 1 11x 1 18 5 sx 1 9dsx 1 2d
b 5 211: x2 2 11x 1 18 5 sx 2 9dsx 2 2d

55. b 5 36: x2 1 36x 1 35 5 sx 1 35dsx 1 1d


b 5 236: x2 2 36x 1 35 5 sx 2 35dsx 2 1d
b 5 12: x2 1 12x 1 35 5 sx 1 7dsx 1 5d
b 5 212: x2 2 12x 1 35 5 sx 2 7dsx 2 5d
Section 3.4 Factoring Trinomials 205

57. There are many possibilities, such as: 59. There are many possibilities, such as:
c55 x2 1 6x 1 5 5 sx 1 5dsx 1 1d c52 x2 2 3x 1 2 5 sx 2 2dsx 2 1d
c58 x2 1 6x 1 8 5 sx 1 4dsx 1 2d c 5 24 x2 2 3x 2 4 5 sx 2 4dsx 1 1d
c59 x2 1 6x 1 9 5 sx 1 3dsx 1 3d c 5 210 x2 2 3x 2 10 5 sx 2 5dsx 1 2d
Also note that if c 5 a negative number, there are many c 5 218 x2 2 3x 2 18 5 sx 2 6dsx 1 3d
possibilities for c such as the following.
There are more possibilities.
c 5 27 x2 1 6x 2 7 5 sx 1 7dsx 2 1d
c 5 216 x2 1 6x 2 16 5 sx 1 8dsx 2 2d
c 5 227 x2 1 6x 2 27 5 sx 1 9dsx 2 3d

61. 5x2 1 18x 1 9 5 sx 1 3ds5x 1 3d 63. 5a2 1 12a 2 9 5 sa 1 3ds5a 2 3d 65. 2y2 2 3y 2 27 5 sy 1 3ds2y 2 9d

67. 3x2 1 4x 1 1 5 s3x 1 1dsx 1 1d 69. 7x2 1 15x 1 2 5 s7x 1 1dsx 1 2d 71. 2x2 2 9x 1 9 5 s2x 2 3dsx 2 3d

73. 6x2 2 11x 1 3 5 s3x 2 1ds2x 2 3d 75. 3t 2 2 4t 2 10 5 prime 77. 6b2 1 19b 2 7 5 s3b 2 1ds2b 1 7d

79. 18y2 1 35y 1 12 5 s2y 1 3ds9y 1 4d 81. 22x2 2 x 1 6 5 21s2x2 1 x 2 6d 5 21s2x 2 3dsx 1 2d

83. 1 2 11x 2 60x2 5 260x2 2 11x 1 1 85. 6x2 2 3x 2 84 5 3s2x2 2 x 2 28d


5 21s60x2 1 11x 2 1d 5 3s2x 1 7dsx 2 4d
5 21s15x 2 1ds4x 1 1d

87. 60y3 1 35y2 2 50y 5 5ys12y2 1 7y 2 10d 89. 10a2 1 23ab 1 6b2 5 sa 1 2bds10a 1 3bd
5 5ys3y 2 2ds4y 1 5d

91. 24x2 2 14xy 2 3y2 5 s6x 1 yds4x 2 3yd 93. 3x2 1 10x 1 8 5 3x2 1 6x 1 4x 1 8
5 s3x2 1 6xd 1 s4x 1 8d
5 3xsx 1 2d 1 4sx 1 2d
5 s3x 1 4dsx 1 2d

95. 6x2 1 x 2 2 5 6x2 1 4x 2 3x 2 2 97. 15x2 2 11x 1 2 5 15x2 2 6x 2 5x 1 2


5 s6x2 1 4xd 1 s23x 2 2d 5 s15x2 2 6xd 1 s25x 1 2d
5 2xs3x 1 2d 2 1s3x 1 2d 5 3xs5x 2 2d 2 1s5x 2 2d
5 s2x 2 1ds3x 1 2d 5 s3x 2 1ds5x 2 2d

99. 3x4 2 12x3 5 3x3sx 2 4d 101. 10t 3 1 2t 2 2 36t 5 2ts5t 2 1 t 2 18d


5 2ts5t 2 9dst 1 2d

103. 54x3 2 2 5 2s27x3 2 1d 105. 27a3b4 2 9a2b3 2 18ab2 5 9ab2s3a2b2 2 ab 2 2d


5 2s3x 2 1ds9x2 1 3x 1 1d 5 9ab2s3ab 1 2dsab 2 1d
206 Chapter 3 Polynomials and Factoring

107. x3 1 2x2 2 16x 2 32 5 sx3 1 2x2d 1 s216x 2 32d 109. 36 2 sz 1 3d2 5 f6 2 sz 1 3dgf6 1 sz 1 3dg
5 x2sx 1 2d 2 16sx 1 2d 5 f6 2 z 2 3gf6 1 z 1 3g
5 sx 1 2dsx2 2 16d 5 s3 2 zds9 1 zd
5 sx 1 2dsx 2 4dsx 1 4d

111. x2 2 10x 1 25 2 y2 5 sx 2 5d2 2 y2 113. x8 2 1 5 sx4d2 2 12 5 sx4 2 1dsx4 1 1d


5 fsx 2 5d 1 ygfsx 2 5d 2 yg 5 fsx2d2 2 12gsx4 1 1d
5 sx 2 5 1 ydsx 2 5 2 yd 5 sx2 2 1dsx2 1 1dsx4 1 1d
5 sx 2 1dsx 1 1dsx2 1 1dsx4 1 1d

115. Keystrokes: 10

y1 Y 5 X,T, u x2 1 6 X,T, u 1 9 ENTER

y2 x X,T, u 1 3 d x2 GRAPH

y1 5 y2 −12 6

−2

117. Keystrokes: 6

y1 Y 5 X,T, u x2 1 2 X,T, u 2 3 ENTER

y2 x X,T, u 2 1 d x X,T, u 1 3 d GRAPH −10 8

y1 5 y2
−6

119. a2 2 b2 5 sa 1 bdsa 2 bd matches graph (c). 121. a2 1 2ab 1 b2 5 sa 1 bd2 matches graph (b).

Area of Area of Area of


123. Verbal model: shaded 5 rectangle 2 squares 125. (a) 8n3 2 8n 5 2ns4n2 2 4d
region
5 2nfs2nd2 2 22g
Equation: Area 5 s8 ? 18d 2 4 ? x2 5 2ns2n 2 2ds2n 1 2d
5 144 2 4x2 (b) If n 5 10, 2n 5 2s10d 5 20
5 4s36 2 x2d 2n 2 2 5 2s10d 2 2 5 18
5 4s6 1 xds6 2 xd 2n 1 2 5 2s10d 1 2 5 22

127. To factor x2 2 5x 1 6 begin by finding the factors of 6 whose sum is 25. They are 22 and 23. The factorization
is sx 2 2dsx 2 3d.

129. Check the factors of a trinomial by multiplication. The factors of x2 2 5x 1 6 are x 2 2 and x 2 3 because
sx 2 2dsx 2 3d 5 x2 2 5x 1 6.

131. No, xsx 1 2d 2 2sx 1 2d is not in factored form. It is not yet a product. xsx 1 2d 2 2sx 1 2d 5 sx 1 2dsx 2 2d
Section 3.5 Solving Polynomial Equations 207

Section 3.5 Solving Polynomial Equations

1. 2xsx 2 8d 5 0 3. sy 2 3dsy 1 10d 5 0 5. 25sa 1 4dsa 2 2d 5 0


2x 5 0 x2850 y2350 y 1 10 5 0 a1450 a2250
x50 x58 y53 y 5 210 a 5 24 a52

7. s2t 1 5ds3t 1 1d 5 0 9. 4xs2x 2 3ds2x 1 25d 5 0


2t 1 5 5 0 3t 1 1 5 0 4x 5 0 2x 2 3 5 0 2x 1 25 5 0
2 52 1 3 25
t5 t5 23 x50 x5 2 x522

11. sx 2 3ds2x 1 1dsx 1 4d 5 0 13. 5y 2 y2 5 0


x2350 2x 1 1 5 0 x1450 ys5 2 yd 5 0
x53 x5
1
22 x 5 24 y50 52y50
55y

15. 9x2 1 15x 5 0 17. xsx 1 2d 2 10sx 1 2d 5 0


3xs3x 1 5d 5 0 sx 1 2dsx 2 10d 5 0
3x 5 0 3x 1 5 5 0 x1250 x 2 10 5 0
x50 x5 2 53 x 5 22 x 5 10

19. usu 2 3d 1 3su 2 3d 5 0 21. x2 2 25 5 0


su 2 3dsu 1 3d 5 0 sx 1 5dsx 2 5d 5 0
u2350 u1350 x1550 x2550
u53 u 5 23 x 5 25 x55

23. 3y2 2 48 5 0 25. x2 2 3x 2 10 5 0


3sy2 2 16d 5 0 sx 2 5dsx 1 2d 5 0
3sy 1 4dsy 2 4d 5 0 x2550 x1250
y1450 y2450 x55 x 5 22
y 5 24 y54

27. x2 2 10x 1 24 5 0 29. 4x2 1 15x 2 25 5 0


sx 2 6dsx 2 4d 5 0 s4x 2 5dsx 1 5d 5 0
x2650 x2450 4x 2 5 5 0 x1550
x56 x54 4x 5 5 x 5 25
5
x5 4
208 Chapter 3 Polynomials and Factoring

31. 7 1 13x 2 2x2 5 0 33. m2 2 8m 1 18 5 2


s7 2 xds1 1 2xd 5 0 m2 2 8m 1 16 5 0
72x50 1 1 2x 5 0 sm 2 4d2 5 0
75x 2 12 5 x m2450
m54

35. x2 1 16x 1 57 5 27 37. 4z2 2 12z 1 15 5 6 39. xsx 2 5d 5 36


x2 1 16x 1 64 5 0 4z2 2 12z 1 9 5 0 x2 2 5x 5 36
sx 1 8d2 5 0 s2z 2 3d2 5 0 x2 2 5x 2 36 5 0
x1850 2z 2 3 5 0 sx 2 9dsx 1 4d 5 0
3
x 5 28 z5 2 x2950 x1450
x59 x 5 24

41. ysy 1 6d 5 72 43. ts2t 2 3d 5 35


y2 1 6y 2 72 5 0 2t 2 2 3t 2 35 5 0
sy 1 12dsy 2 6d 5 0 s2t 1 7dst 2 5d 5 0
y 1 12 5 0 y2650 2t 1 7 5 0 t2550
7
y 5 212 y56 t5 22 t55

45. sa 1 2dsa 1 5d 5 10 47. sx 2 4dsx 1 5d 5 10


a2 1 7a 1 10 2 10 5 0 x2 1 x 2 20 2 10 5 0
a2 1 7a 5 0 x2 1 x 2 30 5 0
asa 1 7d 5 0 sx 1 6dsx 2 5d 5 0
a50 a1750 x1650 x2550
a50 a 5 27 x 5 26 x55

49. st 2 2d2 2 16 5 0 51. sx 1 2d2 5 9


st 2 2 1 4dst 2 2 2 4d 5 0 fsx 1 2d 2 3gfsx 1 2d 1 3g 5 0
st 1 2dst 2 6d 5 0 sx 2 1dsx 1 5d 5 0
t1250 t2650 sx 2 1d 5 0 sx 1 5d 5 0
t 5 22 t56 x51 x 5 25

53. x3 2 19x2 1 84x 5 0 55. 6t 3 2 t2 2 t 5 0


xsx2 2 19x 1 84d 5 0 t s6t2 2 t 2 1d 5 0
xsx 2 12dsx 2 7d 5 0 t s3t 1 1ds2t 2 1d 5 0
x50 x 2 12 5 0 x2750 t50 3t 1 1 5 0 2t 2 1 5 0
2 13 1
x50 x 5 12 x57 t50 t5 t52
Section 3.5 Solving Polynomial Equations 209

57. z2sz 1 2d 2 4sz 1 2d 5 0 59. a3 1 2a2 2 9a 2 18 5 0


sz 1 2dsz2 2 4d 5 0 sa3 1 2a2d 1 s29a 2 18d 5 0
sz 1 2dsz 2 2dsz 1 2d 5 0 a2sa 1 2d 2 9sa 1 2d 5 0
z1250 z2250 z1250 sa 1 2dsa2 2 9d 5 0
z 5 22 z52 z 5 22 sa 1 2dsa 2 3dsa 1 3d 5 0
a1250 a2350 a1350
a 5 22 a53 a 5 23

61. c3 2 3c2 2 9c 1 27 5 0 63. x4 2 3x3 2 x2 1 3x 5 0


c2sc 2 3d 2 9sc 2 3d 5 0 x3sx 2 3d 2 xsx 2 3d 5 0
sc 2 3dsc2 2 9d 5 0 sx 2 3dsx3 2 xd 5 0
sc 2 3dsc 2 3dsc 1 3d 5 0 sx 2 3d xsx2 2 1d 5 0
c2350 c2350 c1350 sx 2 3d xsx 2 1dsx 1 1d 5 0
c53 c53 c 5 23 x2350 x50 x2150 x1150
x53 x51 x 5 21

65. 8x4 1 12x3 2 32x2 2 48x 5 0 67. From the graph, the x-intercepts are s23, 0d and s3, 0d.
The solutions of the equation 0 5 x2 2 9 are 3 and 23.
4x3s2x 1 3d 2 16xs2x 1 3d 5 0
0 5 sx 2 3dsx 1 3d
s2x 1 3ds4x3 2 16xd 5 0
05x23 05x13
s2x 1 3d 4xsx2 2 4d 5 0
35x 23 5 x
s2x 1 3ds4xdsx 2 2dsx 1 2d 5 0
2x 1 3 5 0 4x 5 0 x2250 x1250
x 5 2 32 x50 x52 x 5 22

69. From the graph, the x-intercepts are s21, 0d and s3, 0d. The solutions of the equation 0 5 x2 2 2x 2 3 are 21 and 3.
0 5 x2 2 2x 2 3
0 5 sx 2 3dsx 1 1d
05x23 x1150
35x x 5 21

71. Keystrokes: 10

Y 5 X,T, u x2 2 6 X,T, u GRAPH


−1 7
The x-intercepts are 0 and 6, so the solutions are 0 and 6.

−10

73. Keystrokes: 8

Y 5 X,T, u x2 2 8 X,T, u 1 12 GRAPH

The x-intercepts are 2 and 6, so the solutions are 2 and 6. 0 8

−5
210 Chapter 3 Polynomials and Factoring

75. Keystrokes: 10

Y 5 2 X,T, u x2 1 5 X,T, u 2 12 GRAPH


−5 3

The x-intercepts are 24 and 32, so the solutions are 24 and 32.

−20

77. Keystrokes: 8

Y 5 2 X,T, u 3 2 5 X,T, u 2 2 12 X,T, u GRAPH


>

x −2 5

2 32, 3
The x-intercepts are 0, and 4, so the solutions are 2 2, 0, and 4.

−32

79. ax2 1 bx 5 0 81. x 5 23, x 5 5


xsax 1 bd 5 0 fx 2 s23dgsx 2 5d 5 0
x50 ax 1 b 5 0 sx 1 3dsx 2 5d 5 0
ax 5 2b x2 2 2x 2 15 5 0
x 5 2 ba

83. Verbal model: Number 1 Its Square 5 240

Labels: Number 5 x
Its square 5 x2
Equation: x 1 x2 5 240
x2 1 x 2 240 5 0
sx 1 16dsx 2 15d 5 0
x 1 16 5 0 x 2 15 5 0
x 5 216 x 5 15
reject

First Second
85. Verbal model: Integer ? Integer 5 132
Labels: First integer 5 x
Second integerx 1 1
Equation: x ? sx 1 1d 5 132
x2 1 x 2 132 5 0
sx 1 12dsx 2 11d 5 0
x 1 12 5 0 x 2 11 5 0
x 5 212 x 5 11 1st integer
reject x 1 1 5 12 2nd integer
Section 3.5 Solving Polynomial Equations 211

87. Verbal model:


Length ? Width 5 Area

Labels: Length 5 x 1 7
Width 5 x
Equation: sx 1 7d ? x 5 330
x2 1 7x 5 330
x2 1 7x 2 330 5 0
sx 1 22dsx 2 15d 5 0
x 1 22 5 0 x 2 15 5 0
x 5 222 x 5 15 feet width
reject x 1 7 5 22 feet length

1
89. Verbal model: ? Base ? Height 5 Area
2

Labels: Base 5 x
3
Height 5 2x
Equation:
1
2 ? x ? 32x 5 48
3 2
4x 2 48 5 0
3x2 2 192 5 0
3sx2 2 64d 5 0
sx 1 8dsx 2 8d 5 0
x1850 x2850
x 5 28 x58 inches base
3
reject 2x 5 12 inches height

91. (a) Volume V 5 Length ? Width ? Height


V 5 s5 2 2xds4 2 2xdx
(b) 0 5 s5 2 2xds4 2 2xdx Domain: Each side must be positive.
5 2 2x 5 0 4 2 2x 5 0 x50 x > 0 5 2 2x > 0 4 2 2x > 0 so 0 < x < 2
5 5
x5 2 x52 x50 x < 2 x < 2

(c) x 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 (d) If V 5 3, then x 5 1.5.
V 3.94 6 6.56 6 4.69 3 1.31 3 5 f5 2 2s1.5dgf4 2 2s1.5dgs1.5d
3 5 s5 2 3ds4 2 3ds1.5d
3 5 s2ds1ds1.5d
353
(e) Keystrokes:
10

Y5 x 5 2 2 X,T, u d x 4 2 2 X,T, u d X,T, u GRAPH

x 5 0.74 yields the box of greatest volume.

0 2
0
212 Chapter 3 Polynomials and Factoring

Revenue 5 Cost
93. 216t 2 1 6400 5 0 95. Verbal model:
216st 2 2 400d 5 0 Equation: 90x 2 x2 5 200 1 60x
216st 2 20dst 1 20d 5 0 0 5 x2 2 30x 1 200
t 2 20 5 0 t 1 20 5 0 0 5 sx 2 20dsx 2 10d
t 5 20 t 5 220 x 2 20 5 0 x 2 10 5 0
reject x 5 20 x 5 10
The object reaches the ground after 20 seconds. units units

97. (a) 2sx 1 3d2 1 sx 1 3d 2 15 5 0 (b) 2sx 1 3d2 1 sx 1 3d 2 15 5 0


2u2 1 u 2 15 5 0 2sx2 1 6x 1 9d 1 sx 1 3d 2 15 5 0
s2u 2 5dsu 1 3d 5 0 2x2 1 12x 1 18 1 x 1 3 2 15 5 0
2u 2 5 5 0 u1350 2x2 1 13x 1 6 5 0
2u 5 5 u 5 23 s2x 1 1dsx 1 6d 5 0
5
u5 2 2x 1 1 5 0 x1650
u5x13 u5x13 2x 5 21 x 5 26
5 1
2 5x13 23 5 x 1 3 x 5 22
1
22 5 x 26 5 x
(c) Answers will vary.

99. (d) Verbal model: Area 5 Length ? Width

Labels: Area 5 30
Length 5 2x 2 6
Width 5 x 2 1
Equation: 30 5 s2x 2 6dsx 2 1d
30 5 2x2 2 8x 1 6
0 5 2x2 2 8x 2 24
0 5 x2 2 4x 2 12
0 5 sx 2 6dsx 1 2d
05x26 x1250
65x x 5 22 reject
Length 5 2s6d 2 6 Width 5 6 2 1 Height 5 6 2 3
5 6 feet 5 5 feet 5 3 feet
(e) Volume 5 VSsxd 5
7 3 53 2
3x 1 3x 2 20x 1 6
VSs6d 5 3 s6d
7 3
1 3 s6d
53 2
2 20s6d 1 6

3 s216d 3 s36d
7 53
5 1 2 120 1 6
5 504 1 636 2 120 1 6
5 1026 cubic feet
(f ) Domain of VBsxd
Review Exercises for Chapter 3 213

101. False. This is not an application of the Zero Factor Property because there are unlimited number of factors whose product is 1.

103. The maximum number of solutions of an nth degree polynomial equation is n. The third-degree equation sx 1 1d3 5 0 has
only one solution, x 5 21.

Review Exercises for Chapter 3

1. x2 1 2 1 3x1/2 is not a polynomial because the exponent 3. Standard form: 2x 4 1 6x3 1 5x2 2 4x
of a variable must be a natural number.
Leading coefficient: 21
Degree: 4

5. Standard form: 27x3 1 3x2 2 6x 1 14 7. Binomial of degree 4: 3x 4 2 2


Leading coefficient: 27
Degree: 3

9. Monomial of degree 3 and leading coefficient 5: 5x3

11. s5x 1 3x2d 1 s6 2 x 2 4x2d 5 s3x2 2 4x2d 1 s5x 2 xd 1 6 5 2x2 1 4x 1 6

13. s5x3 2 6x 1 11d 1 s5 1 6x 2 x2 2 8x3d 5 s5x3 2 8x3d 2 x2 1 s26x 1 6xd 1 s11 1 5d 5 23x3 2 x2 1 16

15. s3t 2 5d 2 st 2 2 t 2 5d 5 s3t 2 5d 1 s2t 2 1 t 1 5d 5 2t 2 1 s3t 1 td 1 s25 1 5d 5 2t 2 1 4t

17. s3x5 1 4x2 2 8x 1 12d 2 s2x5 1 xd 1 s3x2 2 4x3 2 9d 5 s3x5 2 2x5d 2 4x3 1 s4x2 1 3x2d 1 s28x 2 xd 1 s12 2 9d
5 x5 2 4x3 1 7x2 2 9x 1 3

19. s2x3 2 3xd 2 4s2x3 2 3x 1 1d 5 2x3 2 3x 2 8x3 1 12x 2 4


5 s2x3 2 8x3d 1 s23x 1 12xd 1 s24d
5 29x3 1 9x 2 4

21. 3y2 2 f2y 1 3sy2 1 5dg 5 3y2 2 f2y 1 3y2 1 15g 23. x2 ? x3 5 x213 5 x5
5 3y2 2 2y 2 3y2 2 15
5 s3y2 2 3y2d 2 2y 2 15
5 22y 2 15

25. su2d3 5 u2 ? 3 5 u6 27. s22zd3 5 s22d3z3 29. 2 su2vd2s24u3vd 5 2 su4v2ds24u3vd


5 28z3 5 4u413v211
5 4u7v3

1 2?z 172x
6x 2
12z5 12 120u5v3 120 u5 v3 4 2
31. 5 522
5 2z3 33.
15u3v
5 ? u3 ? 35. 5 s12x422d2
6z2 6 15 v 2

5 8u2v2 5 s12x2d2
5 144x 4
Review Exercises for Chapter 3 213

101. False. This is not an application of the Zero Factor Property because there are unlimited number of factors whose product is 1.

103. The maximum number of solutions of an nth degree polynomial equation is n. The third-degree equation sx 1 1d3 5 0 has
only one solution, x 5 21.

Review Exercises for Chapter 3

1. x2 1 2 1 3x1/2 is not a polynomial because the exponent 3. Standard form: 2x 4 1 6x3 1 5x2 2 4x
of a variable must be a natural number.
Leading coefficient: 21
Degree: 4

5. Standard form: 27x3 1 3x2 2 6x 1 14 7. Binomial of degree 4: 3x 4 2 2


Leading coefficient: 27
Degree: 3

9. Monomial of degree 3 and leading coefficient 5: 5x3

11. s5x 1 3x2d 1 s6 2 x 2 4x2d 5 s3x2 2 4x2d 1 s5x 2 xd 1 6 5 2x2 1 4x 1 6

13. s5x3 2 6x 1 11d 1 s5 1 6x 2 x2 2 8x3d 5 s5x3 2 8x3d 2 x2 1 s26x 1 6xd 1 s11 1 5d 5 23x3 2 x2 1 16

15. s3t 2 5d 2 st 2 2 t 2 5d 5 s3t 2 5d 1 s2t 2 1 t 1 5d 5 2t 2 1 s3t 1 td 1 s25 1 5d 5 2t 2 1 4t

17. s3x5 1 4x2 2 8x 1 12d 2 s2x5 1 xd 1 s3x2 2 4x3 2 9d 5 s3x5 2 2x5d 2 4x3 1 s4x2 1 3x2d 1 s28x 2 xd 1 s12 2 9d
5 x5 2 4x3 1 7x2 2 9x 1 3

19. s2x3 2 3xd 2 4s2x3 2 3x 1 1d 5 2x3 2 3x 2 8x3 1 12x 2 4


5 s2x3 2 8x3d 1 s23x 1 12xd 1 s24d
5 29x3 1 9x 2 4

21. 3y2 2 f2y 1 3sy2 1 5dg 5 3y2 2 f2y 1 3y2 1 15g 23. x2 ? x3 5 x213 5 x5
5 3y2 2 2y 2 3y2 2 15
5 s3y2 2 3y2d 2 2y 2 15
5 22y 2 15

25. su2d3 5 u2 ? 3 5 u6 27. s22zd3 5 s22d3z3 29. 2 su2vd2s24u3vd 5 2 su4v2ds24u3vd


5 28z3 5 4u413v211
5 4u7v3

1 2?z 172x
6x 2
12z5 12 120u5v3 120 u5 v3 4 2
31. 5 522
5 2z3 33.
15u3v
5 ? u3 ? 35. 5 s12x422d2
6z2 6 15 v 2

5 8u2v2 5 s12x2d2
5 144x 4
214 Chapter 3 Polynomials and Factoring

37. s22xd3sx 1 4d 5 28x3sx 1 4d 39. 3xs2x2 2 5x 1 3d 5 6x3 2 15x2 1 9x


5 28x4 2 32x3

41. sx 2 2dsx 1 7d 5 x2 1 7x 2 2x 2 14
5 x2 1 5x 2 14

43. s5x 1 3ds3x 2 4d 5 15x2 2 20x 1 9x 2 12 5 15x2 2 11x 2 12

45. s4x2 1 3ds6x2 1 1d 5 24x4 1 4x2 1 18x2 1 3 5 24x4 1 22x2 1 3

47. s2x2 2 3x 1 2ds2x 1 3d 5 2x2s2x 1 3d 2 3xs2x 1 3d 1 2s2x 1 3d


5 4x3 1 6x2 2 6x2 2 9x 1 4x 1 6
5 4x3 1 s6x2 2 6x2d 1 s29x 1 4xd 1 6
5 4x3 2 5x 1 6

49. 2usu 2 7d 2 su 1 1dsu 2 7d 5 2usu 2 7d 2 usu 2 7d 2 1su 2 7d


5 2u2 2 14u 2 u2 1 7u 2 u 1 7
5 s2u2 2 u2d 1 s214u 1 7u 2 ud 1 7
5 u2 2 8u 1 7

51. s4x 2 7d2 5 s4xd2 2 2s4xds7d 1 s27d2 53. s2x 1 3yd2 5 s2xd2 1 2s2xds3yd 1 s3yd2
5 16x2 2 56x 1 49 5 4x2 1 12xy 1 9y2

55. s5u 2 8ds5u 1 8d 5 s5ud2 2 82 57. s2u 1 vds2u 2 vd 5 s2ud2 2 v2 5 4u2 2 v2


5 25u2 2 64

59. fsu 2 3d 1 vgfsu 2 3d 2 vg 5 su 2 3d2 2 v2 5 u2 2 2suds3d 1 s23d2 2 v2 5 u2 2 6u 1 9 2 v2

61. 6x2 1 15x3 5 3x2s2 1 5xd 63. 28sx 1 5d 2 70sx 1 5d2 5 14sx 1 5df2 2 5sx 1 5dg
5 14sx 1 5ds2 2 5x 2 25d
5 14sx 1 5ds25x 2 23d
5 214sx 1 5ds5x 1 23d

65. v3 2 2v2 2 v 1 2 5 v2sv 2 2d 2 1sv 2 2d 67. t 3 1 3t 2 1 3t 1 9 5 t2st 1 3d 1 3st 1 3d


5 sv 2 2dsv2 2 1d 5 st2 1 3dst 1 3d
5 sv 2 2dsv 2 1dsv 1 1d

69. x2 2 36 5 x2 2 62 5 sx 2 6dsx 1 6d 71. 9a2 2 100 5 s3a 2 10ds3a 1 10d

73. su 1 6d2 2 81 5 su 1 6 2 9dsu 1 6 1 9d 75. u3 2 1 5 su 2 1dsu2 1 u 1 1d


5 su 2 3dsu 1 15d
Review Exercises for Chapter 3 215

77. 8x3 1 27 5 s2xd3 1 s3d3 79. x2 2 18x 1 81 5 x2 2 2s9dx 1 92 5 sx 2 9d2


5 s2x 1 3ds4x2 2 6x 1 9d

81. 4s2 1 40st 1 100t2 5 s2sd2 1 2s2sds10d 1 s10td2 83. x2 1 2x 2 35 5 sx 1 7dsx 2 5d


5 s2s 1 10td2

85. 2x2 2 7x 1 6 5 s2x 2 3dsx 2 2d 87. 18x2 1 27x 1 10 5 s3x 1 2ds6x 1 5d

89. 4a 2 64a3 5 4as1 2 16a2d 91. 8xs2x 2 3d 2 4s2x 2 3d 5 s2x 2 3ds8x 2 4d


5 4as1 2 4ads1 1 4ad 5 s2x 2 3ds2x 2 1d
5 4s2x 2 3ds2x 2 1d

93. 14x2 1 xy 1 y2 5 s12xd 1 2s12 dxy 1 y2


2
95. 4u2 2 28u 1 49 5 s2ud2 2 2s2uds7d 1 72
5 s2 x 1 yd
2
1
5 s2u 2 7d2

97. x2 2 10x 1 25 2 y2 5 sx 2 5d2 2 y2 99. 3s2 2 2s 2 8 5 0


5 fsx 2 5d 2 ygfsx 2 5d 1 yg s3s 1 4dss 2 2d 5 0
5 sx 2 5 2 ydsx 2 5 1 yd 3s 1 4 5 0 s2250
5 sx 2 y 2 5dsx 1 y 2 5d s5 2 43 s52

101. v2 2 100 5 0 103. 10xsx 2 3d 5 0


sv 2 10dsv 1 10d 5 0 10x 5 0 x2350
v 2 10 5 0 v 1 10 5 0 x50 x53
v 5 10 v 5 210

105. zs5 2 zd 1 36 5 0 107. 2y4 1 2y3 2 24y2 5 0


5z 2 z2 1 36 5 0 2y2sy2 1 y 2 12d 5 0
z2 2 5z 2 36 5 0 2y2sy 1 4dsy 2 3d 5 0
sz 2 9dsz 1 4d 5 0 2y2 5 0 y1450 y2350
z2950 z1450 y50 y 5 24 y53
z59 z 5 24

109. Keystrokes: 10

Y 5 X,T, u x 2 2 10 X,T, u 1 21 GRAPH


The x-intercepts are 3 and 7, so the solutions are 3 and 7.
0 10

−5
216 Chapter 3 Polynomials and Factoring

111. x 5 5 x 5 29 113. x 5 0 x 5 2 32 x52


sx 2 5dsx 1 9d 5 0 xsx 1 32 dsx 2 2d 5 0
x2 1 9x 2 5x 2 45 5 0 xs2x 1 3dsx 2 2d 5 0
x2 1 4x 2 45 5 0 xs2x2 2 4x 1 3x 2 6d 5 0
2x3 2 x2 2 6x 5 0

115. (a) Keystrokes: 550

PH
y1 Y 5 x2 c .022 X,T, u x2 1 1.33 X,T, u 1 270.71 ENTER
PM
y2 2.386 X,T, u 1 274.857 ENTER
PL
y3 .028 X,T, u x2 1 3.4 X,T, u 1 278.18 GRAPH
0 50
200

PL 1 PH 20.022t2 1 1.33t 1 270.71 1 0.028t2 1 3.40t 1 278.18


(b) 5
2 2
0.006t2 1 4.73t 1 548.89
5
2
5 0.003t2 1 2.365t 1 274.445
550 This graph is most like the graph of PM , the average
of the high and low projections.

0 50
200

(c) PH 2 PL 5 s0.028t2 1 3.40t 1 278.18d 2 s20.022t2 1 1.33t 1 270.71d


5 s0.028t2 1 0.022t2d 1 s3.40t 2 1.33td 1 s278.18 2 270.71d
5 0.05t2 1 2.07t 1 7.47
Keystrokes: Y 5 .003 X,T, u x2 1 2.365 X,T, u 1 274.495 GRAPH

Keystrokes: Y 5 .05 X,T, u x2 1 2.07 X,T, u 1 7.47 GRAPH

200 The difference between the high and low


projections is increasing.

0 50
0

117. Verbal model: Profit 5 Revenue 2 Cost 119. Perimeter 5 x 1 3x 1 4 1 4x 1 3 1 1 5 8x 1 8


Area 5 1.3x 1 3.4x 5 3x 1 12x 5 15x
Equation: Psxd 5 1.1x 2 s0.5x 1 1000d
5 1.1x 2 0.5x 2 1000
5 0.6x 2 1000
Ps5000d 5 0.6s5000d 2 1000
5 3000 2 1000
5 $2000
Review Exercises for Chapter 3 217

Area of Area of Area of


121. Verbal model: shaded 5 larger 2 smaller
region rectangle rectangle

Labels: Width of larger rectangle 5 2x


Length of larger rectangle 5 2x 1 5
Width of smaller rectangle 5 2x 2 3
Length of smaller rectangle 5 2x 1 1

Equation: Area 5 2xs2x 1 5d 2 s2x 1 1ds2x 2 3d


5 4x2 1 10x 2 s4x2 2 6x 1 2x 2 3d
5 4x2 1 10x 2 4x2 1 4x 1 3
5 14x 1 3

123. (a) Perimeter 5 2l 1 2w (b) Area 5 l ? w


5 2l 1 2sl 2 5d 5 lsl 2 5d
5 2l 1 2l 2 10 5 l 2 2 5l
5 4l 2 10

Cost of Cost of Cost of


125. Verbal model: fencing 1 fencing 1 fencing 5 9500
2 widths front back

Labels: Width 5 x
Front 5 400 2 x
Back 5 400 2 x
Equation: 10s2xd 1 15s400 2 xd 1 10s400 2 xd 5 9500
20x 1 6000 2 15x 1 4000 2 10x 5 9500
25x 5 2500
x 5 100 feet
400 2 x 5 300 feet

127. 216t2 1 16t 1 32 5 0


216st2 2 t 2 2d 5 0
216st 2 2dst 1 1d 5 0
t2250 t1150
t52 t 5 21
reject
The object reaches the ground after 2 seconds.
218 Chapter 3 Polynomials and Factoring

129. Verbal model: First even Second


integer ? even
5 224

Labels: First even integer 5 2n


Second even integer 5 2n 1 2
Equation: 2n ? s2n 1 2d 5 224
4n2 1 4n 2 224 5 0
4sn2 1 n 2 56d 5 0
4sn 1 8dsn 2 7d 5 0
n1850 n2750
n 5 28 n57
reject 2n 5 14
2n 1 2 5 16

Chapter Test for Chapter 3

4
1. 25.2x3 1 3x2 2 8 2. is not a polynomial because the variable appears in
x2 1 2
Degree 5 3 Leading coefficient 5 25.2 the denominator.

3. (a) s5a2 2 3a 1 4d 1 sa2 2 4d 5 6a2 2 3a (b) s16 2 y2d 2 s16 1 2y 1 y2d


5 16 2 y2 2 16 2 2y 2 y2
5 22y2 2 2y

4. (a) 22s2x4 2 5d 1 4xsx3 1 2x 2 1d (b) 4t 2 f3t 2 s10t 1 7dg 5 4t 2 f3t 2 10t 2 7g


5 24x 4 2 10 1 4x 4 1 8x2 2 4x 5 4t 2 3t 1 10t 1 7
5 8x2 2 4x 1 10 5 11t 1 7

5. (a) s22u2vd3s3v2d 5 s28u6v3ds3v2d (b) 3s5xds2xyd2 5 3s5xds4x2y2d


5 224u6v5 5 60x3y2

s23x2yd4 81x8y4
14y 2 116y 2
2 2
6. (a) 2y 5 2y (b) 5
6x2 6x2
y3 27x6y4
5 5
8 2

7. (a) 23xsx 2 4d 5 23x2 1 12x (b) s2x 2 3ydsx 1 5yd 5 2x2 1 7xy 2 15y2

8. (a) sx 2 1df2x 1 sx 2 3dg 5 sx 2 1ds3x 2 3d 5 3x2 2 6x 1 3


(b) s2s 2 3ds3s2 2 4s 1 7d 5 6s3 2 8s2 1 14s 2 9s2 1 12s 2 21
5 6s3 2 17s2 1 26s 2 21
218 Chapter 3 Polynomials and Factoring

129. Verbal model: First even Second


integer ? even
5 224

Labels: First even integer 5 2n


Second even integer 5 2n 1 2
Equation: 2n ? s2n 1 2d 5 224
4n2 1 4n 2 224 5 0
4sn2 1 n 2 56d 5 0
4sn 1 8dsn 2 7d 5 0
n1850 n2750
n 5 28 n57
reject 2n 5 14
2n 1 2 5 16

Chapter Test for Chapter 3

4
1. 25.2x3 1 3x2 2 8 2. is not a polynomial because the variable appears in
x2 1 2
Degree 5 3 Leading coefficient 5 25.2 the denominator.

3. (a) s5a2 2 3a 1 4d 1 sa2 2 4d 5 6a2 2 3a (b) s16 2 y2d 2 s16 1 2y 1 y2d


5 16 2 y2 2 16 2 2y 2 y2
5 22y2 2 2y

4. (a) 22s2x4 2 5d 1 4xsx3 1 2x 2 1d (b) 4t 2 f3t 2 s10t 1 7dg 5 4t 2 f3t 2 10t 2 7g


5 24x 4 2 10 1 4x 4 1 8x2 2 4x 5 4t 2 3t 1 10t 1 7
5 8x2 2 4x 1 10 5 11t 1 7

5. (a) s22u2vd3s3v2d 5 s28u6v3ds3v2d (b) 3s5xds2xyd2 5 3s5xds4x2y2d


5 224u6v5 5 60x3y2

s23x2yd4 81x8y4
14y 2 116y 2
2 2
6. (a) 2y 5 2y (b) 5
6x2 6x2
y3 27x6y4
5 5
8 2

7. (a) 23xsx 2 4d 5 23x2 1 12x (b) s2x 2 3ydsx 1 5yd 5 2x2 1 7xy 2 15y2

8. (a) sx 2 1df2x 1 sx 2 3dg 5 sx 2 1ds3x 2 3d 5 3x2 2 6x 1 3


(b) s2s 2 3ds3s2 2 4s 1 7d 5 6s3 2 8s2 1 14s 2 9s2 1 12s 2 21
5 6s3 2 17s2 1 26s 2 21
Chapter Test for Chapter 3 219

9. (a) s4x 2 3d2 5 16x2 2 24x 1 9 10. 18y2 2 12y 5 6ys3y 2 2d


(b) f4 2 sa 1 bdgf4 1 sa 1 bdg 5 16 2 sa 1 bd2
5 16 2 sa2 1 2ab 1 b2d
5 16 2 a2 2 2ab 2 b2

9 5 sv 2 3 dsv 1 3 d
11. v2 2 16 4 4 12. x3 2 3x2 2 4x 1 12 5 x2sx 2 3d 2 4sx 2 3d
5 sx 2 3dsx2 2 4d
5 sx 2 3dsx 2 2dsx 1 2d

13. 9u2 2 6u 1 1 5 s3u 2 1ds3u 2 1d or s3u 2 1d2 14. 6x2 2 26x 2 20 5 2s3x2 2 13x 2 10d
5 2s3x 1 2dsx 2 5d

15. x3 1 27 5 sx 1 3dsx2 2 3x 1 9d 16. sy 1 2d2 2 9 5 0


fsy 1 2d 2 3gfsy 1 2d 1 3g 5 0
y2150 y1550
y51 y 5 25

17. 12 1 5y 2 3y2 5 0 18. Area 5 2xsx 1 15d 2 xsx 1 4d


s3 2 yds4 1 3yd 5 0 Shaded region 5 2x2 1 30x 2 x2 2 4x
32y50 4 1 3y 5 0 5 x2 1 26x
4
35y 23 5 y

19. Verbal model: Area rectangle 5 Length ? Width

Labels: Length 5 32w


Width 5 w
Equation: 54 5 32w ?w
108 5 3w2
36 5 w2
6 centimeters 5 width
9 centimeters 5 length

20. 0 5 216t2 2 40t 1 144


0 5 2t2 1 5t 2 18
0 5 s2t 1 9dst 2 2d
2t 1 9 5 0 t2250
9
t5 22 t 5 2 sec
reject
220 Chapter 3 Polynomials and Factoring

1
21. Verbal model: Area 5
2
? Base ? Height

Labels: Base 5 x
Height 5 2x 1 4
Equation: 35 5 12 ? x ? s2x 1 4d
70 5 2x2 1 4x
0 5 2x2 1 4x 2 70
0 5 x2 1 2x 2 35
0 5 sx 1 7dsx 2 5d
x1750 x2550
x 5 27 x 5 5 feet; base
reject 2x 1 4 5 14 feet; height

Cumulative Test for Chapters P–3

1. (a) 22 < 5 2. “The number n is tripled and the product is decreased by


1 1 8,” is expressed by 3n 2 8.
(b) 3 < 2

| |
(c) 2.3 > 2 24.5 | |

3. (a) ts3t 2 1d 2 2tst 1 4d 5 3t2 2 t 2 2t2 2 8t 4. (a) s2a2bd3s2ab2d2 5 s8a6b3dsa2b4d


5 t 2 2 9t 5 8a8b7
(b) 3xsx2 2 2d 2 xsx2 1 5d 5 3x3 2 6x 2 x3 2 5x
12x4x yy 2 5 1xy2 2
4 2 2 2
x2y2
(b) 3
5
4
5 2x3 2 11x

5. (a) s2x 1 1dsx 2 5d 5 2x2 2 10x 1 x 2 5


5 2x2 2 9x 2 5
(b) f2 1 sx 2 ydg2 5 4 1 4sx 2 yd 1 sx 2 yd2
5 4 1 4x 2 4y 1 x2 2 2xy 1 y2

6. (a) 12 2 5s3 2 xd 5 x 1 3 x12 7


(b) 12 5
4 8
12 2 15 1 5x 5 x 1 3
x12
23 1 5x 5 x 1 3 3
8 12
4
5
7
8
84 34
23 1 5x 2 x 5 x 1 3 2 x
8 2 2sx 1 2d 5 7
3 2 3 1 4x 5 3 1 3
8 2 2x 2 4 5 7
4x 5 6
4 2 2x 5 7
4x 6
5 4 2 4 2 2x 5 7 2 4
4 4
22x 5 3
3
x5
2 22x 3
52
22 2
3
x52
2
220 Chapter 3 Polynomials and Factoring

1
21. Verbal model: Area 5
2
? Base ? Height

Labels: Base 5 x
Height 5 2x 1 4
Equation: 35 5 12 ? x ? s2x 1 4d
70 5 2x2 1 4x
0 5 2x2 1 4x 2 70
0 5 x2 1 2x 2 35
0 5 sx 1 7dsx 2 5d
x1750 x2550
x 5 27 x 5 5 feet; base
reject 2x 1 4 5 14 feet; height

Cumulative Test for Chapters P–3

1. (a) 22 < 5 2. “The number n is tripled and the product is decreased by


1 1 8,” is expressed by 3n 2 8.
(b) 3 < 2

| |
(c) 2.3 > 2 24.5 | |

3. (a) ts3t 2 1d 2 2tst 1 4d 5 3t2 2 t 2 2t2 2 8t 4. (a) s2a2bd3s2ab2d2 5 s8a6b3dsa2b4d


5 t 2 2 9t 5 8a8b7
(b) 3xsx2 2 2d 2 xsx2 1 5d 5 3x3 2 6x 2 x3 2 5x
12x4x yy 2 5 1xy2 2
4 2 2 2
x2y2
(b) 3
5
4
5 2x3 2 11x

5. (a) s2x 1 1dsx 2 5d 5 2x2 2 10x 1 x 2 5


5 2x2 2 9x 2 5
(b) f2 1 sx 2 ydg2 5 4 1 4sx 2 yd 1 sx 2 yd2
5 4 1 4x 2 4y 1 x2 2 2xy 1 y2

6. (a) 12 2 5s3 2 xd 5 x 1 3 x12 7


(b) 12 5
4 8
12 2 15 1 5x 5 x 1 3
x12
23 1 5x 5 x 1 3 3
8 12
4
5
7
8
84 34
23 1 5x 2 x 5 x 1 3 2 x
8 2 2sx 1 2d 5 7
3 2 3 1 4x 5 3 1 3
8 2 2x 2 4 5 7
4x 5 6
4 2 2x 5 7
4x 6
5 4 2 4 2 2x 5 7 2 4
4 4
22x 5 3
3
x5
2 22x 3
52
22 2
3
x52
2
Cumulative Test for Chapters P–3 221

|
7. (a) 3x 2 5 5 7 | 8. (a) 3s1 2 xd > 6
3x 2 5 5 7 3x 2 5 5 27 3 2 3x > 6
3x 5 12 3x 5 22 23x > 3
x54 x 5 2 23 x < 21
(b) 2t2 2 5t 2 3 5 0 (b) 212 ≤ 4x 2 6 < 10
s2t 1 1dst 2 3d 5 0 26 ≤ 4x < 16
2t 1 1 5 0 t2350 2 64 ≤ x < 4
t 5 2 12 t53 2 32 ≤ x < 4

Total annual Annual


9. Verbal model: 5 1 Surcharge
premium premium

Labels: Total annual premium 5 x


Equation: x 5 1225 1 0.15s1225d
x 5 1225 1 183.75
x 5 $1408.75

9 13
10. 5 11. x 2 2 ≤ 23 or x22 ≥ 3
4.5 x
x ≤ 21 x ≥ 5
9x 5 13s4.5d
−1 5
13s4.5d
x5 x
9 −4 −2 0 2 4 6 8

x 5 6.5

12. Verbal model: Revenue > Cost 13. x 2 y3 5 0 does represent y as a function of x.

Equation: 12.90x ≥ 8.50x 1 450


4.4x ≥ 450
x ≥ 102.27273
x ≥ 103

14. f sxd 5 !x 2 2 D5x ≥ 2 x22 ≥ 0 15. f sxd 5 x2 2 3x


2 ≤ x < ` (a) f s4d 5 42 2 3s4d 5 16 2 12 5 4
(b) f sc 1 3d 5 sc 1 3d2 2 3sc 1 3d
5 c2 1 6c 1 9 2 3c 2 9
5 c2 1 3c
222 Chapter 3 Polynomials and Factoring

620 6 3
16. m 5 5 5
414 8 4
d 5 !s24 2 4d2 1 s0 2 6d2
5 !64 1 36
5 !100
5 10

17. (a) 2x 2 y 5 1 (b) 3x 1 2y 5 5


2y 5 22x 1 1 2y 5 23x 1 5
y 5 2x 2 1 y 5 2 32x 1 5
m52 m 5 23
y 2 1 5 2sx 1 2d y 2 1 5 23sx 1 2d
y 2 1 5 2x 1 4 y 2 1 5 23x 1 43
2x 2 y 1 5 5 0 y 5 23x 1 73
3y 5 2x 1 7
2x 2 3y 1 7 5 0

18. (a) 3x2 2 8x 2 35 5 s3x 1 7dsx 2 5d 19. (a) y3 2 3y2 2 9y 1 27 5 y2sy 2 3d 2 9sy 2 3d
(b) 9x2 2 144 5 s3xd2 2 s12d2 5 sy 2 3dsy2 2 9d
5 s3x 2 12ds3x 1 12d 5 sy 2 3dsy 2 3dsy 1 3d
5 3sx 2 4d 3sx 1 4d (b) 8t 3 2 40t 2 1 50t 5 2ts4t 2 2 20t 1 25d
5 9sx 2 4dsx 1 4d 5 2tfs2td2 2 2s2tds5d 1 52g
5 2ts2t 2 5d2

20. 4x 1 3y 2 12 5 0 y

4s0d 1 3y 2 12 5 0 4x 1 3s0d 2 12 5 0 8

3y 5 12 4x 5 12
4

y54 s0, 4d x53 s3, 0d 2

x
–6 –4 –2 2 6
–2

–4

21. y 5 1 2 sx 2 2d2
y

x
–1 2 4 5
–1

–2

–3
16 Integrated Reviews

CHAPTER 3 Polynomials and Factoring

SECTION 3.1 Adding and Subtracting Polynomials

1. If the product of two real numbers is 296 and one of the factors is 12, the other factor is negative.

2. The sum of the digits of 576 5 5 1 7 1 6 5 18. 576 is divisible by 9 and 3.

3. 262 is positive is a false statement. 262 5 21 ? 62 5 21 ? 36 5 236

4. s26d2 is positive is a true statement. s26d2 5 s26ds26d 5 36

5. 2x 2 12 ≥ 0 6. 7 2 3x < 4 2 x
2x 2 12 1 12 ≥ 12 7 2 3x 1 x < 4 2 x 1 x
2x ≥ 12 7 2 2x < 4
2x 12 7 2 7 2 2x < 4 2 7

2 2
22x < 23
x ≥ 6
22x 23
>
2 22
3
x >
2

7. 22 < 4 2 2x < 10 8. 4 ≤ x15 < 8


22 2 4 < 4 2 4 2 2x < 10 2 4 425 ≤ x1525 < 825
26 < 22x < 6 21 ≤ x < 3
26 22x 6
> >
22 22 22
3 > x > 23
23 < x < 3

9. |x 2 3| < 2 |
10. x 2 5 > 3|
22 < x 2 3 < 2 x25 > 3 or x 2 5 < 23
22 1 3 < x 2 3 1 3 < 2 1 3 x2515 > 315 x 2 5 1 5 < 23 1 5
1 < x < 5 x > 8 or x < 2

Tax Tax
11. Verbal model: 5
Assessed Value Assessed Value
2400 x
Proportion: 5
145,000 90,000
s2400ds90,000d
x5
145,000
x 5 $1489.66
Integrated Reviews 17

Gallons Gallons
12. Verbal model: 5
Miles Miles
7 x
Proportion: 5
200 325
7.325
x5
200
3
x 5 11.375 gallons or 11 gallons
8

SECTION 3.2 Multiplying Polynomials

1. The point s22, 3d is 2 units to the left of the y-axis and 3 units above the x-axis.

2. Point 3 units from x-axis and 4 units from y-axis s4, 3d, s24, 3d, s24, 23d, s4, 23d

3 5
3. y5 x14 4. y532 x
5 9
s15, d s12, d
3 5
y 5 s15d 1 4 y 5 3 2 s12d
5 9
y5914 20
y532
3
y 5 13
9 20
y5 2
3 3
11
y52
3

5. y 5 5.5 2 0.95x 6. y 5 3 1 0.2x


s , 21d s , 4.4d
21 5 5.5 2 0.95x 4.4 5 3 1 0.2x
26.5 5 20.95x 1.4 5 0.2x
26.5 1.4
5x 5x
20.95 0.2
6.84 < x 75x

1
7. f sxd 5 x2 8. f sxd 5 3 2 2x
3
(a) f s5d 5 3 2 2s5d
1 1
(a) f s6d 5 s6d2 5
3 3
? 36 5 12 5 3 2 10
5 27
1342 5 311342
2
1 9
(b) f 5
3
? 16
(b) f sx 1 3d 2 f s3d 5 3 2 2sx 1 3d 2 f3 2 2s3dg
3
5 5 3 2 2x 2 6 2 3 1 6
16
5 22x
18 Integrated Reviews

x 10. h sxd 5 !x 2 4
9. g sxd 5
x 1 10
(a) h s16d 5 !16 2 4
5 5 1
(a) g s5d 5 5 5 5 !12
5 1 10 15 3
c26 c26 5 !4 ?3
(b) g sc 2 6d 5 5
sc 2 6d 1 10 c 1 4 5 2!3
(b) h st 1 3d 5 !t 1 3 2 4
5 !t 2 1

3
11. g sxd 5 7 2 x
2
12. h sxd 5 3 2 x | |
y

y 6
5
4
6 3

4 2
1
2
x
−1 1 2 3 4 5 6
x
−4 −2 2 4 6
−2

SECTION 3.3 Factoring Polynomials

1. A function f from a set A to a set B is a rule of correspondence that assigns to each element x in the set A exactly one element
y in the set B.

2. The set A (see Exercise 1) is called the domain (or set of inputs) of the function f, and the set B (see Exercise 1) contains the
range (or set of outputs) of the function f.

3. y is not a function of x. 4. y is a function of x.


Answers will vary. Answers will vary.
y y

3 3

2 2

x x
−2 1 2 3 4 −2 −1 1 2 3 4
−1

−2

−3

x 5 y2 2 1
Integrated Reviews 19

2 5
5. y 5 6 2 x 6. y 5 x 2 4
3 2

y y

10 1

8 x
−2 −1 1 2 3 4
6 −1

4 −2

2 −3

x −4
−2 2 4 6 8
−2

Function Function

7. 2y 2 4x 1 3 5 0 8. 3x 1 2y 1 12 5 0
y y

2 1
1 x
−6 −5 −4 −3 −2 −1 1
x −1
−2 −1 1 2 3 4
−2
−1
−3
−4

−4 −6

Function Function

||
9. y 2 x 5 0 ||
10. y 5 2 2 x
y y

3 3

2 2

1 1

x x
−2 −1 1 2 3 4 −2 −1 1 2 3 4
−1 −1

−2 −2

−3 −3

Not a function Not a function

11. y

200,000

150,000

100,000

50,000

t
1 2 3 4 5
20 Integrated Reviews

12. (a)Verbal model: Area 5 Length ? Width

Function: A sxd 5 x ? s250 2 xd

(b) y

16,000

12,000

8,000

4,000

x
100 200 300

SECTION 3.4 Factoring Trinomials

1. A function can have only one value of y corresponding 2. Leading coefficient of 6t 3 1 3t2 1 5t 2 4 is 6.
to x 5 0.

3. The set of all real numbers x whose distance from 0 is less than 5 can be represented by x < 5. ||
4. The set of all real numbers x whose distance from 6 is more than 3 is represented by x 2 6 > 3. | |
5. s23, 2d, s5, 24d 6. s2, 8d, s7, 23d
y y

(2, 8)
4 8
(−3, 2)
2 6

4
x
−4 −2 2 4 6
2
−2
x
−4 (5, −4) −4 −2 2 4 8
−2
−6
−4
(7, −3)

24 2 2 26 23
m5 5 5 23 2 8 211
5 2 s23d 8 4 m5 5
722 5

7. 152, 722, 173, 222 8. 12 49, 2 412, 123, 292


y
y

4 (−3, 92 ) 5

3
(52 , 72 ) 4

3
2
2
1
1
x
−2 −1 1 2 3 4 x
−1 −1 1 2
(− 94 , − 14 ) −1
−2 (
7
3
, −2 )
7
2
22 2
6 212 2 21 233
9
2
2 2
1
4 1 2 4 18 1 1 19 19
m5 ? 5 5 5 33 m5
29
? 4 5 212 1 9 5 23 5 2 3
7 5
2
3 2
6 14 2 15 21
23 2
4 1 2
Integrated Reviews 21

9. s6, 4d, s6, 23d 10. s24, 5d, s7, 5d


y y

6 8

4 (6, 4) (−4, 5) 6 (7, 5)


2 4

x 2
−4 −2 2 4 8
−2