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# Leaching numericals

1. Vegetable oil seeds containing 120 gm insoluble solid and 12 gm oil are contacted
with 250 gm of organic solvent in a single stage leaching operation. The solvent
used is fresh. Determine amount of oil left in the oil seeds after leaching. The
equilibrium data can be expressed as N=-4y + 8, where N is gm insoluble/(gm
solvent + gm oil), y is gm oil/(gm solvent + gm oil) in the seed phase and x is gm
oil/(gm solvent + gm oil) in the solvent phase. The tie line data is
y 0.26 0.28 0.31 0.34
x 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08

## 2. Oil is to be extracted from meal by means of benzene using continuous counter

current extractor. The unit is to treat 1000 kg of meal (based on completely
exhausted solid) per hour. The untreated meal contains 350 kg of oil and 30 kg of
benzene. The fresh solvent is to contain 50 kg of unextracted oil. Experiments
carried out under conditions identical with those of the projected battery, show
that the solution retained depends on the concentration of the solution as follows
`conc. Kg 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
oil/kg
solution
Solution 0.5 0.505 0.515 0.530 0.550 0.571 0.595 0.620
retained
kg/kg solid

3. 300 kg per hour of halibut liver is to be extracted in a counter current cascade with
ether to recover oil. The ether which has been partially purified contains 3% oil.
The fresh liver contains 15 % oil and is to be extracted to composition 0.8% oil
(on solvent free basis). 200 kg of solvent is to be used.
1. What percentage of oil entering with the liver is recovered in the extract?
2. How many equilibrium stages are required?
4. Roasted copper ore containing copper as CuSO4 is to be extracted in a counter
current extractor. The feed charge to be treated per hour comprises of 12 tonnes of
gangue, 1.5 tonnes of copper sulphate and 0.5 tonne of water. The strong solution
produced is to consist of 90% water and 10% copper sulphate by weight. The
recovery of copper sulphate is to be 95% of that of the ore. Pure water is to be
used as the fresh solvent. After each stage one tonne of inert gangue retains 2
tonnes of water plus the copper sulphate dissolved in that water. Equilibrium is
attained in each stage. How many stages are required.
5. 50 tons per day of oil sand (25 mass % oil and 75 mass % sand) is to be extracted
with 50 tons per day of naphtha in a continuous counter current extraction battery.
The final extract from the battery contains 40 mass % oil and 60 mass % naphtha
and the underflow from each unit is expected to consist of 35 mass % solutions
and 65 mass % sand. If the overall efficiency of the battery is 60%, how many
stages will be required?
6. 2000 kg of waxed paper per day are to be dewaxed in a continuous counter
current extraction system which contains a number of ideal stages by using
kerosene as the solvent. The waxed paper contains, by weight 25% paraffin wax
and 75 % paper pulp. The extracted pulp is put through a dryer to evaporate the
kerosene. The pulp, which retains the unextracted wax after evaporation, must not
contain over 0.2 kg of wax per 100 kg of wax free pulp. The kerosene used for
extraction contains 0.05 kg of wax per 100 kg of wax free kerosene. Experiments
show that the pulp retains 2 kg of kerosene per kg of kerosene and wax free pulp
as it is transferred from cell to cell. The extract from the battery is to contain 5 kg
of wax per 100 kg of wax free kerosene. How many stages are required?
7. It is desired to extract the oil from halibut livers by continuous counter current
extraction with ethyl acetate. The quantity of solution retained by the granulated
livers is given as
`conc. Kg 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.72
oil/kg
solution
Solution 0.20 0.242 0.28 0.339 0.405 0.489 0.60 0.67 0.76 0.81
retained kg 5 6 2 5
solution /kg
oil free liver
The liver contains 0.257 mass fraction oil. If 95 % of the oil is to be extracted and the
strong solution obtained from the system is to contain 0.7 mass fraction oil,determine
a. The quantity and composition of discharged solids
b. Kg of oil free ether required per 1000 kg charge of fresh livers
c. The number of ideal stages required.