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GATE-PD- F & B service -2009

Chapter - 1



Chapter outline

1.1.1 Introduction
1.1.2 Functions of an organization chart
1.1.3 Organization chart of a hotel
1.1.4 Organisation chart of a food and beverage department
1.1.5 Organisation chart of a kitchen
1.1.6 Organisation chart of a beverage department
1.1.7 Organisation chart of a restaurant
1.1.8 Responsibilities of various positions in a restaurant

Objectives of this chapter

At the end of this chapter, the reader will be able to:

• Describe the functions of an organization chart

• List the divisions and departments within the organization chart of a large
• List the positions within the organization chart of a food and beverage
• List the positions within the organization chart of a kitchen
• List the position within the organization chart of a beverage department
• List the position within the organization chart of a restaurant
• Describe the responsibilities of various positions in a restaurant

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An organization chart is a visual representation of the departments and hierarchy of staff

positions within an organization.


An organization chart shows the:

• Division of work within an organization

The organization chart visually illustrates the relationship of the various

departments within a hotel, division or department. It also classifies departments
by the type of work they do and their respective areas of responsibilities, e.g.
Finance, Food and Beverage, Human Resource, Rooms Division, and Sales and

• Chain of command and communication

An organization chart does not only show the various departments within a hotel
but also the relative staff positions within each department. This chain of
command facilitates the flow of informing up and down the hierarchy and helps
eliminate incidences of “double bossing”. It also allows all employees to see:

 their span of control, if any

 the correct line of communication
 where they belong within the organization
 who their superiors, peers and subordinates are
 the hierarchy of positions within other departments

• Possible career path for employees

An organization chart allows employees to plan a career path in their chosen

professions. Thus, a waiter knows that in order to become an Assistant Restaurant
Manager; he must first work towards the position of Captain before he may aspire
to the position of an Assistant Restaurant Manager.

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Figure 1.1 Organization Chart of Large Hotel

General Manager’s

Finance and
Accounting Division

Executive Assistant Manager’s Office

Sales &
Food & Beverage Rooms Human Resources
Division Division Division

Room Employee Security

Banquet Sales Welfare Department

Catering Personnel Training

Front Service Department Department
Telephone Relations

Mail Room

Kitchen Concierge

Room Service Business

Department Center

Stewarding Department

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Figure 1.2 Organization Chart of Food & Beverage

Division in a Large Hotel

Food & Beverage


Food & Beverage


Sales & Marketing Human Resources

Division Division

Chief Steward
Executive Chef

Beverage Manager

Bar Managers Restaurant Managers Room Service Manager

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Figure 1.3 Organization Chart of an Outlet Kitchen Brigade

Executive Chef

Sous Chef

Chef de Partie Chef de Partie

Commis –I Commis –I

Commis - II Commis - II

Commis - III Commis - III

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Figure 1.4 Organization Chart of a Beverage Outlet

Beverage Manager

Bar Manager

Assistant Bar Manager

Senior Bartender
Bar Captain

Bar Tender Server

Barboy Commis Server

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Figure 1.5 Organization Chart of a Restaurant

Assistant Director – Food & Beverage

Restaurant Manager

Assistant Restaurant Manager

Hostess Captain Sommelier


Commis Server

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The following positions are usually found in a restaurant:

• Restaurant • Hostess
Manager • Captain
• Assistant • Wine Butler
Restaurant • Waiter
Manager • Busboy

1.8.1 Restaurant Manager

The Restaurant Manager’s position is referred to as the

Director de Restaurant in the traditional French restaurant
service brigade.

A Restaurant Manager is in charge of the overall

operation of a food and beverage outlet. He or she is
responsible for the following:

• Supervising staff in the dining room

• Selling and promoting restaurant
• Maintaining good staff and customer relations
• Maintaining set standard for food, beverage and
service quality
• Performing table side preparation (especially in
fine dining restaurants)
• Developing the annual operation budget for the
• Controlling the expenses of the restaurant (payroll,
F&B cost, etc.)
• Approving duty rosters for service staff
• Conducting and co-coordinating training for the
• Working with the Human Resource Department
(HRD) in the recruitment and development of staff
according to the policies of the hotel
• Overseeing daily roll-call / pre-service briefing
• Attending Food and Beverage operations meetings
and conducting departmental meetings to
disseminate information to staff in the restaurant.

List the responsibility of Maitre d’hotel or Restaurant


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1.8.2 Assistant Restaurant Manager

The Assistant Restaurant Manager is also known as,

Premier Maitre d’ hotel, in the traditional French
restaurant brigade. The Assistant Restaurant Manager
provides support
and assists the Restaurant Manager and takes over the
Restaurant Manager`s duties in his or her absence. The
Assistant Restaurant Manager is also directly responsible
for the following:

• supervising Staff
• selling and Promoting Restaurant
• maintaining good staff and Customer Relations
• checking on food, beverage and service quality
• performing table side preparation (in fine dining
• drawing up the duty rosters for the restaurant staff
• conducting on–the–job training for the restaurant
• overseeing daily roll-call / pre-service briefing

1.8.3 Hostess

The position of Hostess is usually filled by females but

having a male Host is not unheard of. The main role of the

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Host or Hostess in a restaurant is to greet and seat

customers. Key responsibilities include:

• keeping menu stock and maintains menu

• ensuring that floral arrangements are changed
regularly by the flower department
• taking and maintaining customers records for
restaurant reservations
• assisting customer seating to each station
• greeting , welcoming and seating customers
• maintaining customer`s history record
• assisting in presenting menu, and where
necessary taking orders for food and beverage

List the information that might be included in a

customer history record in a restaurant.


1.8.4 Captain

The Captain’s position in the traditional French restaurant

service brigade is called Chef de rang. A Captain is
normally in-charge of smaller sections within a restaurant
and is responsible for 5 to 8 tables covering approximately
about 20 to 36 seats.

Key responsibilities of a Captain include:

• supervising, directing, assisting and co-

coordinating service staff(waiters / stewards)
within the station
• recommending or suggesting food and
beverage items to customers and taking the
orders for food and beverage

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• checking customers satisfaction with quality of

food, beverage and service provided
• attending to customer complaints and requests
• checking and presenting bills

Captains may also assist the Hostess, Assistant

Restaurant Manager or Restaurant Manager in the

• welcoming and seating customers

• performing table side preparation
• overseeing the restaurant in the absence of the
Manager or Assistant Restaurant Manager

1.8.5 Wine Butler

The Wine Butler is also known as Wine Waiter, and is

referred to as Sommelier in the traditional French service
brigade. This position specializes in the recommendation
and service of wine and other beverages. This is a
specialized position usually found only in a fine dining

The Wine Butler’s duties include:

• Recommending selecting wine and formulating or

revising the wine list.
• Preparing the mise-en-place for wine service
(wine glasses, wine buckets and stand, decanters,
wine baskets)
• Recommending appropriate wines to match
customer’s food order.
• Presenting, uncorking and serving wines.
• Maintaining the inventory of wines in the
restaurant through requisitions and daily physical
• Training staff in wine knowledge and wine service

1.8.6 Waiter

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This position is known as Commis de rang in the

traditional French service brigade and are also sometimes
referred to as “Servers”.

A Waiter is required to perform the following tasks:

• Preparing the mise-en-place for the restaurant’s

operation, for example:

- drawing, stocking and laying table

- folding napkins for use in service
- setting tables with tableware,
glassware and chinaware
- stocking side stations with linen,
glassware, and chinaware
- cleaning and refilling salt and
pepper shakers or mills, oil and
vinegar bottles and other
condiments, if applicable

• Serving food and beverage to customers

patronizing the restaurant
• Clearing soiled tableware from restaurant to the
• Re-setting table for ‘new’ customers when tables
are re-sold during the course of the same meal
period (i.e. when a turnover occurs)

1.8.7 Busboy

This is an entry level position in most restaurants and

is usually held by an inexperienced, freshly hired
individual. ‘Busboy’ is an American term which in
Singapore is also referred to as a Commis server or Junior
Waiter .In the traditional French service brigade the
position is known as Commis de’barrasseur.

The main duties of this position are:

• Collecting food and beverages from the kitchen

into the restaurant
• Collecting beverages from the bar
• Bussing (collecting and clearing) soiled dishes
from the dining room to the back- of-the-house to
the stewarding wash-up point

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• Assisting a waiter to serve the customers if need




Chapter outline

2.1 Support service

2.2 Internal support services
2.3 External support services

Objectives of this chapter

At the end of this chapter, the reader will be able to:

• List the two types of support services

• Explain what are internal support services
• List the various internal support services
provided by departments within a hotel
• Explain what are external support services
• List the various external support services co-
ordinated by departments within a hotel

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Support services are any services which are required by a

department within a hotel such as restaurant in order to
operate efficiently. Such services may be required on a
regular or ad-hoc basis.

There are two forms of support services:

1. Internal support services

2. External support services


Internal support services include those which are provided

by a department or area of operation within the
organization or hotel to a food and beverage department.
The departments within the organization or hotel that
provide such services are known as internal support
departments. The following are internal support
departments within a hotel:

• Housekeeping Department
• Engineering Department
• Front Office Department
• Security Department
• Finance / Accounts Department
• Human Resource Department
• Sales and Marketing Department
• Other departments within the Food and Beverage

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2.2.1 Housekeeping Department

The Housekeeping department provides the

following internal support services to food and beverage

• Cleans public areas including food and beverages

• Maintains public area facilities by replenishing
customer support such as soap and toilet paper in
areas such as rest rooms used by customers of food
and beverage outlets;
• Maintains the hotel’s Lost and Found
• Operates the laundry department, linen and
uniform room and thus provides linen and uniform
to food and beverage outlets; and
• Provides flower arrangements and fresh flowers as
table centerpieces to food and beverage outlets.

2.2.2 Engineering Department

Often referred to as the ‘maintenance’ department, the

Engineering Department is responsible for more than
general maintenance of equipment in restaurants. The
following are some of the services and facilities in food
and beverage outlets that are the responsibility of the
Engineering Department:

• Maintains water, steam, electrical and air-

conditioning facilities and equipments
• Fabricates, maintains and repairs furniture, fixtures
and equipments.

2.2.3 Front Office Department

The Front Office Department provides the following

support services to food and beverage outlets by:

• directing customers to food and beverage outlets

• providing information about the hotel’s food and
beverage facilities
• issuing meal vouchers to tour groups to facilitate
meal arrangements

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• handling the distribution of mail and messages to

food and beverage outlets
• maintaining customer room folio accounts and
ensuring the settlement of bills incurred in food
and beverage outlets
• operating the telephone department and re-routing
telephone calls and messages for in-house
customers who are dining in the hotel’s food and
beverage outlets

2.2.4 Security Department

Customers who use any hotel’s food and beverage

facilities expect and must be provided with a safe, friendly
and comfortable environment. Food and beverage outlets
must therefore depend on the hotel’s Security Department

• Ensure the safety of staff, customers and the

security of their belongings
• Maintain security within the hotel premises
• Handle emergencies such as fires and if necessary,
evacuation of customer and staff.

2.2.5 Finance/ Accounts Department

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The financial status of the hotel’s various food and

beverage outlets are recorded and analyzed by the Finance
/Accounts Department. Thus, the Finance or Accounts
Department provides the following support services to
food and beverage outlets by:

• Handling of staff payroll

• Maintaining the food and beverage outlets
financial records
• Generating timely reports and analysis of financial
• Providing cashiering services at food and beverage
outlets point-of sales
• Providing purchasing services (which includes
receiving, storing and issuing items).

2.2.6 Human Resource Department

The Human Resource Departments in hotels serve three

basic functions: personnel-related matters, staff welfare
and development of its employees. Food and beverage
outlets therefore depend on the Human Resource
Department for the following:

• Recruiting, orienting, training, evaluating,

motivating ,disciplining ,promoting and
communicating with food and beverage staff; and
• Overseeing the welfare and employee benefits of

2.2.7 Sales and Marketing Department

The Sales and Marketing Department generates business

for the hotel by marketing the hotel; its services and
facilities. It is usually made up the following department:

• Marketing
• Public relations
• Catering sales
• Room sales

The Sales and Marketing Department thus provides

support services to food and beverage outlets by:

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• Generating catering (banquet) sales;

• Generating convention sales with food and
beverage arrangements;
• Increasing room sales and thus maintaining a high
occupancy of in –house customers who are likely
to use the food and beverage outlets; and
• Promoting hotels food and beverage outlets
through advertisements, by soliciting publicity and
generating good public relations.

Other departments within the Food and Beverage


The other departments within the food and beverage

departments or division are also a source of internal
support services to a food and beverage outlet. Food
and beverage outlets receive support from the Food
and Beverage Manager’s office or administration,
Stewarding Department, Beverage Department,
Kitchen and other food and beverage outlets.

These support services usually include:

• Secretarial support;
• Maintenance of equipment inventory;
• Provision of manpower from other restaurants;
• Cross-selling of outlet by other food and
beverage outlet; and
• Provision of cleaning services to the food and
beverage outlets


External support services are those which are not available

within the hotel but are required for the smooth operation
of good and beverage outlets. Such services may be

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required on a regular or ad-hoc basic and include the


• Laundry
• Contract cleaning of back-of-the-house areas such
as kitchens
• General maintenance of customer areas
• Fabrication, maintenance or repair of furniture and
• Landscaping services
• Supply of floral arrangements
• Contracted security services
• Printing and graphic design work
• Catering of staff meals
• Catering for specialized meals (Muslim Halal
meals, vegetarian, etc.)
• Provision of props and decorations for banquet
function rooms
• Photography and video-taping services
• Rental of audio-visual equipment e.g. karaoke
• Entertainment services such as musicians,
magicians, disc or karaoke jockeys, dancers
(cultural, modern, ethnic or non-ethnic), master of
ceremonies, etc.

2.3.1 Co-coordinating external support services

Due to the wide range of external support services

required by the food and beverage department, some form
of co-ordination is required when dealing with external
support service.

The following lists the likely departments within the

hotels and food and beverage department which are
responsible for the co- ordination of these external support

• Housekeeping Department
The Housekeeping Department may co-ordinate
the following external support services:

 laundry services;

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 florist, landscaping and gardening services;

 General maintenance of public areas.

• Food and Beverage Manager’s Office /


This area within the departments serves to co-

ordinate the following:

 printing of menus and promotional

 graphic design for menus and promotional
materials like brochures ;and
 Provision of `live` entertainment, e.g. a
string quartet for the New Year’s Eve
dinner in a restaurant.

• Banquet Operations

Customers using the hotel’s Banquet services may require

items, services or equipment which are not readily
available within the hotel. As such, the Banquet
Department may be required to co-ordinate the following
external support services:

- hiring of entertainment services;

- rental of audio-visual equipment;
- arrangement for photography or vide-
taping services; and
- Provision of large scale props, signs,
banners and decorations.

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• Kitchen

The following external support services are co-

ordinated by the kitchen:

- staff meals e.g. on the hotel’s family day;

- catering for food and beverage items which
cannot be prepared in house.

It may not be feasible for a hotel to prepare all the items

required on a menu.
Such menu items may require specialized skills,
equipment or conditions. Foe example, Halal or Kosher
meals must be prepared under very specific and strict
religious requirements. Thus it may be feasible to have
such food items prepared outside of the hotel by registered
caterers who specialize in in such meals.

Menus items may require specialized skills which are not

found in the hotel.
For example, Vegetarian food, roast sucking piglets,
satay, Nonya kueh,etc. may not be possible to produce in
the hotel due to lack of manpower, equipment, space,
knowledge or skills. Such items may instead be purchased
for either a particular function or as a regular (daily)

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• Stewarding Department

Besides the regular daily cleaning of the kitchen

areas, equipment such as cooker hoods, ovens, gas
ranges, grills and griddle tops must also be cleaned

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on a regular basis if hygiene and sanitation

standards are to be maintained.
However, the specialized tools, chemicals,
knowledge and skills required are usually not
available in the hotel. The Stewarding Department
may therefore co- ordinate contract cleaning
services for the back- of-the-house areas and

• Front Office Department

The Front Office usually co-ordinates contracted

security services for the hotel. Hotel may choose
to hire the service of forms providing security for
several reasons:
- higher operating costs;
- lack of available and trained manpower;
- In-house security staff becomes too
familiar with other staff to prove effective.

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• Engineering

The Engineering Department may not be

equipped, knowledge or skilled enough to
fabricate, maintain or repair all existing
equipment. Thus, the department may instead co-
ordinate the provision of external support services
equipment, furniture and fixtures.

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Chapter Outline

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Restaurant
3.3 Theme Restaurant
3.4 Types of bar set-ups
3.5 Types of beverage outlets
3.6 Other food service operations

Objectives of this chapter

At the end of this chapter, the reader will be

able to:

• Outlets the criteria used to classify restaurants

• List the different types of restaurants as
classified by the level of service provided
• Outline the characteristics of restaurants
classified by the level of service provided
• Explain what are theme restaurants
• Outline the two different types of bar counter
set- ups
• List the different types of beverage outlets

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• Describe the characteristics of the different

types of beverage outlets
• Describe the characteristics of other food
service operations


Food service operations range form food and beverage

outlets that are operate in and out of hotels to those found
in locations which are not primarily designed for the
service of food and beverage.


There are several criteria that may be used to classify

restaurants, including:

• Nature of the operation (chain or independent);

• Type of management concepts (owner-operated,
franchise agreement or management contract);
• Use or absence of a theme; and
• Level of service provided (fine dining, coffee
house, etc.).

The most common basis for classifying restaurants is the

level of service they provide. Restaurants classified using
this criterion includes:

> Fine dining restaurants

> Brasseries
> Coffee houses
> Quick service restaurants

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Fine dining establishments are full- service restaurants

traditionally associated with five- star luxury hotels
though such restaurants may also be operated
independently. Excellence in all aspects of the operations
of such outlets is a pre-requisite because the prices
charged are usually very high. In hotels, these restaurants
act as ‘showcases of excellence’- where the service, food
and beverages offered are the very best that the hotel can

Listed below are the characteristics found in most fine

dining restaurants:

 Seating capacity

They are limited in capacity by the high level of service

they provide. They usually seat no more than 100 guests.

 Atmosphere

These restaurants provide a comfortable and elegant

atmosphere and are often describe as being romantic,

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classy and exclusive. The décor in these restaurants is

usually elaborate with top-quality furniture, furnishing
and may include expensive works of art and antiques.

Seating is kept relatively sparse and effort is made to

provide customers with a greater sense of privacy than in
most restaurants. In some fine-dining restaurants private
dining rooms may also be made available.

These private dining rooms are used to cater to larger

groups of diners and help isolate the noise that these large
groups of diners are likely to create as well as providing
these groups with a greater sense of privacy.

In traditional fine dining restaurants, a dress code might

also be enforced. Such dress codes usually require male
diners to wear a tie and jacket. Such dress codes may
apply to one or both meal periods but is more likely to be
enforced more strictly for dinner rather than lunch

 Operational hours

Fine dining restaurants usually operate only two meal

periods: lunch and dinner. However, some fine dining
rooms might also operate for breakfast, specifically to
cater to selected customers such as those staying on the
hotel’s Executive Club Floor and suite rooms.

 Range of food and beverage offered

Fine dining restaurants cater to a very specific group of

diners–food connoisseurs and gourmets. Thus, food items
and delicacies such as foie gras, truffles, fresh oysters,
caviar, veal sweetbreads, etc. are likely to be found on the
menus of fine dining restaurants.

The menus in these restaurants feature a relatively small

selection but are changed quite often when compared to
other types of restaurants. Great care and effort is made to
ensure that the menu items are presented and served in a
visually stunning and pleasing manner.

Expensive, fine, rare wines and spirits from the top notch
producers, shippers and vintages are offered in these

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 Target market

The clientele in fine dining restaurants are mostly made

up of business men and women who work or entertain
over lunch, while dinner is more likely to draw food
connoisseurs and gourmets.

 Staff and service

Service staffs working in fine dining restaurants are highly

skilled in restaurant craft. They are knowledgeable,
experienced individuals who pay a great deal of attention
to details in every aspect of their work.

Customers can expect efficient, attentive, personalized

and yet unobtrusive service. Service staffs in such
restarurants have learnt the art of anticipating the needs of
customers, e.g. water and bread is offered and replenished
without customers having to ask for it.

In addition, specialized positions may exist in these

restaurants. Sommeliers are usually only found in fine-
dining restaurants and are on-hand to advise diners on
their choice of wines and beverages.

The chefs who work in these restaurants are highly

skilled, creative and innovative as they must provide
diners with an ever-changing fare on the restaurant’s

Staffs in these restaurants work on split-shift rosters.

Though they may be financially compensated for the
inconvenience and long hours associated with such shifts,
it is usually a strong sense of commitment that sees them

• Service equipment

Service equipment used in such restaurants is usually high

quality and expensive. Cutlery is often silver or silver-
plated, glassware may be crystal and chinaware may be
fine bone china. The linen used in these restaurants are
usually pure linen or a linen-cotton mixture rather than the
cheaper cotton-polyester variety.

• Entertainment concept

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The music in such restaurants tends to be classical or

semi-classical in nature and is played over a sound system
or presented as live entertainment in the form of a pianist,
harpist, flautist, a strolling violinist, etc.

• Pricing

The average food and beverage check in these restaurants

are comparatively high.

Casual upscale dining

Fine-dining restaurants are in a general decline in recent times. Customers now favour
casual, upscale restaurants which offer popular foods in a setting that is mere appealing
than most mid- scale restaurants while offering better value than fine-dining restaurants.
Examples of casual upscale dining establishment include Compass Rose Restaurant,
Morton’s of Chicago and Lawry’s The Prime Rib.

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‘Brasserie’ is a French term and originally referred to

restaurants which served beer, as opposed to fine-dining
restaurants which did not. The term has, however become
one used to refer to any restaurant providing a level of
service that is higher than a coffee

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L’Absinthe Brassiere- Restaurant

house but below that provided by a fine dining restaurant.
Listed below are the characteristics found in most

• Seating capacity

The restaurants range widely in seating capacity, from

smaller versions seating less than a hundred to larger to
restaurants seating as many as 450.

• Atmosphere

Brasseries are designed to be more functional than a fine

dining restaurant. They are geared for quick turnovers and
are noisy with relatively dense seating and are generally
less formal than a fine dining establishment.

• Operational hours

In Singapore, most brasseries operate only during lunch

and dinner only. They may also be opened for customers
staying in the suite rooms or Executive Floors in hotels. In
Paris, some brasseries open for breakfast and close late,
often after 11.00 p.m.

• Range of food and beverage offered

The menus in brasseries usually have a larger selection

than fine dining restaurants but are also revised less
frequently. Traditional French brasseries are likely to
serve regional specialties like French Onion Soup,
Bouillabaisse, Quiche Lorraine, Coq au vin or Boeuf
Bourguignon. However, modern brasseries may serve
Asian, American or other European cuisines.

A comprehensive range of wines may also be offered in

brasseries though the range is likely to be less extensive
than fine dining restaurants.

• Target market

The clientele in brasseries are mostly made up of business

people who may work or entertain over while dinner is
more likely to draw diners who are out for an evening of
entertainment and fun rather than a culinary experience.

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• Staff and service

Service staffs in brasseries are fairly skilled and

knowledgeable, though the selection criteria for staff may
be less stringent than fine-dining restaurants. The staff in
these restaurants is likely to work on a split shift or a 2-
shift roster. Fast and efficient services are provided
despite a lower staff to customer ratio when compared to
fine dining restaurants. The combination of this and a
higher table turnover results in a level of service that is
lower when compared with a fine-dining restaurant.

• Service equipment

The functional atmosphere of traditional brasseries is

reflected in the equipment used in the restaurant.
Stainless-steel cutlery and glassware are used rather than
silverware and crystal. The chinaware in these restaurants
may be ceramic or stoneware but seldom fine china. Linen
is usually a polyester-cotton mix rather than the more
expensive linen-cotton or pure linen.

• Entertainment concept

The entertainment format usually reflective of the adopted

theme of the restaurant. Traditional French-Parisian
brasseries might present French accordion music while
modern brasseries may play pop music over the sound

• Pricing

The average food and beverage check in brasseries ranges

widely but is generally lower than fine dining restaurants.

Brasserie or not?

Some restaurants might include the term ‘brasserie’ in their names but most do not fit
the characteristics stated here as the level of the service provided is more typical of
coffee houses.

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Coffee houses are also known by many other names:

• Cafés
• Bistros
• All day dining rooms
• Family restaurants
• Popularly-priced restaurants

The level of service is less attentive than that expected in

a brasserie or fine-dining establishments. Some of the
characteristics of such restaurants are:

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• Seating capacity

These restaurants range widely in capacity, with smaller

restaurants seating slightly less than a hundred customers
while larger restaurants can seat as many as 500.

• Atmosphere

The original cafés were basically small informal places

which served coffee and originated in Paris, France.

Coffee houses are functional but comfortable and are

designed to feeding large numbers of people quickly.
Coffee houses become very crowded and noisy but that is
it’s very nature.

Coffee houses are geared for quick turnovers and seating

is often very dense with tables close to each other,
offering little in terms of privacy.

• Operational hours

These restaurants are likely to operate 24-hours, though

some restaurants are closed during specified, off-peak
periods (e.g. 2.00 a.m. to 6.00 am)-when the volume of
business makes it uneconomical or unnecessary to stay

• Range of food and beverages offered

Coffee houses offer a range of food that is often described

as being ‘international’ in nature. Thus, the menus feature
anything from a Grilled T- bone steak to Mexican
Fajitas, Italian pasta, Thai Tom Yum, Indonesian Nasi
Goreng and local hawker fare like Hokkien Prawns
Noodles or Satay.

Menus and beverages lists in coffee houses offer a large

selection but these are changed less frequently (a once a
year change is not unusual). Different menus may also be
used for each meal period the restaurant operates.

Coffee houses in hotels are often the only restaurants open

for breakfast and usually offer breakfast buffets in
addition to an a la carte menu. Buffets might also be

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offered for other meal periods such as lunch, high-tea,

dinner and supper.

Alcoholic beverages are offered in coffee houses, but the

only alcoholic beverage that is significant in terms of sales
is beer. The sales of wines and spirits are usually
negligible and the range offered is seldom extensive.

• Target market

The clientele in coffee houses are mainly made up of in-

house customers at breakfast while lunch attracts office
workers. Dinner is more likely to draw larger groups such
as families while supper attracts late–night diners who
come in after going to night spots and clubs. These outlets
are also likely to attract family groups, especially if they
offer buffet brunch or tea on weekends.

• Staff and service

Service staffs in coffee houses need to work fast and their

skills lie in maximizing efficiency as they often work with
a very low staff to customer ratio. Though generally less-
skilled than service staff in fine dining restaurants and
brasseries. Service staffs in coffee houses are able to work
fast and handle large volumes of customers at one seating.
Their fast and efficient style of service may often be
viewed as being impersonal in nature. Working on a 3-
shifts roster, staffing in coffee houses is also very likely to
be supplemented with part time staff.

• Service equipment

The functional nature of coffee houses is reflected in the

choice of equipment used in the restaurant. Stainless steel
is often used for cutlery while chinaware is often hard
wearing, rolled-edged chinaware. Glassware is functional
and durable in design while linen is seldom used. Instead
paper napkins are offered while table mat are made of
paper or laminated in plastic. If linen tablecloth and
napkin are used, they are often made of a polyester-cotton

• Entertainment concept

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Piped-in instrumental music or a juke box is the usual

form of entertainment in a coffee house though some rare
exceptions feature live music.

• Pricing

Coffee houses have relatively low average food and

beverage checks when compared to brasseries.


Pre- teens, teenagers, students and families with young

children are the main target of these restaurants which
provide food in a casual atmosphere and are relatively
inexpensive. These food and beverage operations offer a
limited menu selection as speed is an important

Pre-teens, teenagers, students and families with young

children are the main target of these restaurants which
provide food in a casual atmosphere and are relatively
inexpensive. These food and beverage operations offer a
limited menu selection as speed is an important

Most of these operations offer over-the-counter service

and customers must bring food from individual’s counters
to the dining tables. Quick service restaurants include:

o Cafeterias
o Delicatessens

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o Fast- food outlets

o Snack bars

• Cafeterias

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Also known locally as food courts, these food service

operations offer a variety of food and beverage served
over-the counter at a series of counters operated either by
different business entities or a single operator in a
common location. Diners may take-away the food and
beverage items but may also dine on site. Seating is
provided at common tables (those which may be used by
anyone patronizing the food court).

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• Delicatessens

Delicatessens originated form the Jewish community of

America and are basically take-away counters where cold
cuts, sausages, salads cheeses, pastries and freshly baked

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breads were sold. Later, these ‘delis’ started to cater to

their customers different tastes by making these
sandwiches and salads to order. They may also offer
limited seating for diners who prefer to consume the food
and drinks on premise.

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• Fast-food outlets

Customers at fast-food outlets place their food and drink

orders with the server-cum-cashier at the counter. The
food is wrapped in disposable grease proof paper or
Styrofoam boxes. Once the order is assembled by the
counter staff, customers either carry the food on trays to
the table to eat or away-away the order.

Seating is provided and is usually dense with tables and

fixed swivel chairs allowing the seating capacity to be
fully maximized. As most of these outlets cater to
families, children’s play area or room and facilities such
as baby chairs are usually made available. Waste bins are

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also located throughout the outlet to allow customers to

dispose of leftover food and disposable packaging.

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• Snack bars

Snack bars are small eateries that operate in hotels,

shopping centres or as free-standing kiosks. These outlets
cater to busy office workers on to short lunch break and to
hungry shoppers looking for a quick, inexpensive meal.
Service is fast and often impersonal-due to the low staff to
customer ratio and a relatively high turnover. Service is
usually over- the-counter or plated service and take- away
counters are common. Staff must be well-trained to handle
properly and food sanitation and hygiene is very important
as the food is pre- cooked.


Restaurants may also be classified by the use or absence

of a theme. Themes are varied and can be based on almost
anything. Theme restaurants are often elaborately
decorated in a motif that is easily identifiable. These
restaurants are also likely to carry the theme through to
the menu, service style, uniforms and the ambience.

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Commonly used themes are:

• Comic characters e.g. Garfield, Snoopy,

Marvel Mania
• Environment e.g. Rainforest Café
• Ethnic restaurants e.g. Cha Cha cha, Bice,
Lei Garden,Sanur
Food themes e.g. Imperial Herbal Restaurant,
• Lifestyle e.g. Planet Hollywood
• Movie genres e.g. Jekyll and Hyde Club
• Music e.g. Blues café, Hard Rock Café
• Period themes e.g. Billy Bombers
• Personalities e.g. Kenny Roger’s Rosters,
Steven Spielberg’s Dive !, House of Mao I and
II, Bruce Lee Café
• Sports e.g. Theatre of Dreams (Soccer –
Manchester United), Official All Star Sports
Café and Sportopia

Non-theme restaurants

These are restaurants without an identifiable theme. Restaurants like

Jack’s Place, Denny’s Restaurants as well as most hotel-based coffee
houses tend to be non-theme restaurants.

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There are two basic types of bar set-ups:

o Display bars
o Service bars

A display bar is one that is located in a beverage outlet.

These bars are likely to serve customers directly and
provided seating at the bar counter.

A service bar is also known as a dispense bar. These bars

do not serve customers directly and dispense drinks to
service staff who in turn serve the drinks to customers.
They are therefore basic and functional in design and
provide no seats at the bar counter. These bars are likely
to be located in the back- of –the –house but are also
found in banquet function rooms, Chinese restaurants and
coffee houses

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Types of bar counters:

There are two basic types of bar counters:



Island Bar Counter

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Traditional Bar Counter


Door flaps that allow bartenders to move in and

out from behind the bar counter

Storage areas with locks

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Island bar counters are those that are located in the

middle of the beverage outlet. As such, they are able to
serve drinks from all sides of the counter and are
commonly the main feature in the outlet.

Traditional bar counters are those located against a wall

in the beverage outlet. These bar counters occupy less
space but are also less visually prominent than Island bar

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There are several types of beverage outlets:

 Cocktail bars
 Pubs
 Lounges
 Discotheques
 Night- clubs
 Pool- side bars
 Micro- breweries
 Wine bars
 Gourmet coffee bars and tea houses

Traditionally, these beverage outlets had specific

characteristics which could be used to identify them.
However, in recent times, beverage outlets have
undergone great changes, often becoming ‘multi-concept’
outlets, thus making a clear classification of these outlets
increasingly difficult.

3.5.1 Cocktail bars

The passage of the Volstead Act, the Eighteen

Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of

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America, had prohibited the manufacture, sales and

distribution of alcoholic beverages. It began that era in
American history known commonly as the Prohibition
(1920-1933). During these times, a new type of bar was
spawned- the ‘speakeasy’ These places were often
operated by criminals who sold ‘bootleg’ liquor- spirits
illegally produced or smuggled into the country.

The spirits sold then were often of very poor quality. By

sweetening and flavouring the spirits with strongly
flavoured liqueurs and fruit juices, the operators of these
illegal establishments sought to disguise the poor quality
of their products. Such drinks eventually became
popularly known as cocktails. Many of the classic
cocktails of today like the Manhattan, Rob Roy and Dry
Martini cocktail were invented in those times.

Cocktail bars:

 Serve a wide range of sprits and feature a

wide variety of cocktails.
 Also serve a limited range of beers and
 Provide tray or counter service.
 Have relatively large bar counters designed
for volume and often use the bar counter as
their main decorative feature.
 Provide entertainment which varies from
background music to live performances.
 Have comparatively little seating at the bar
counter and may provide small side
counters near the walls for patrons to place
their drinks

3.5.2 Pubs

The word ‘pub’ originates from the term ‘public house’

and is a bar concept from the United Kingdom. Also
known as taverns, pubs were originally small bars located
in villages and small towns where the locals gathered at
the end of the day to socialize over drinks.

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 Have limited seating away at the bar

 Provide seating with furniture that is often
rustic and basic (wooden tables, benches or
 Are usually small in size are thus provide a
cozy, intimate atmosphere, often with
wood paneling on the walls.
 Also often serve food, termed ‘pub grub’,
such as sausages with mash potato known
by the English as bangers and mash.

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 Features tray and counter service.

 Requires a relatively small number of staff
to carry out service.
 Offer a wide range of beers, ales and stouts
while Irish whiskey, Scotch whisky and
gins were the main spirits on sale.
 Traditionally did not provide entertainment
aside from indoor games like darts, chess
sets and draughts.

Modern pubs are larger, noisier and best described as ‘fun

pubs’. These are likely to feature entertainment as such
live bands, small dance floors and have more in common
with cocktail bars than the original pub concept.

Irish pubs are a variation of the pub which have become

popular in Asia. These pubs feature a more traditional pub
atmosphere and are likely to offer a wide variety of beers
and stouts on tap.

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3.5.3 Lounges:

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• Are larger, more elaborately decorated than pubs.

• Practice tray and counter service.
• Requires a relatively higher staff to customer ratio
than pubs.
• Feature cocktails as well as sprits, wines and beers.

These days, the term lounge brings to mind beverage

outlets found in hotel lobbies and many Singaporeans
prefer these outlets as they are a quiet venue where
one is able to hold a conversation.

Modern lounges in Singapore:

• Are larger in capacity than the traditional lounge.

• Have fairly comfortable seating- sofas seats with
low coffee tables.
• Include karaoke lounges which feature facilities
that play recorded music on laser discs that allow
patrons to sing along with displayed lyrics.
• Commonly have private rooms for groups- with
their own private karaoke facilities.
• May also feature live performances and small
dance floor.

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3.5.4. Discotheques and Clubs

Discotheque is a French word that refers to a place that

plays recorded music from a record or disc. Also known
as discos, these beverage outlets were widely popular in
the 1970’s and early 1980’s. In recent times, the term
‘club’ has been used to refer to similar beverage outlets.

Discotheques and Clubs:

 Feature music from pre- recorded sources

 Provide dance music from expensive high-
tech sound systems with elaborate effects
such as lasers, strobe lights and smoke
 Have large dance floors which are the main
feature of the outlet.
 Have functional dispense bars with against
the wall bar counters with little or no
seating provided at the bar counter.
 May be designed with more than one bar
counter, especially in larger establishments.

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 Serve beverages using tray, counter service

and bottle sales service.
 Cover charges may be levied and
membership concepts may apply.
 May also provide Velvet service to
customers who are entitled to be seated in
‘member’s section of the outlet.
 Requires a relatively large number of staff
to take and serve drink orders.
 Live entertainment such as bands may be
provided in between period where recorded
music is not being played.
 Bottle sales are more likely to take place as
it often results in easier entry to the outlet
(especially if the disco is a popular one and
long queues exist at the entrance

3.5.5 Night-Clubs

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Night-clubs originate from the London of the 1920’s and

30’s. Gambling in public is illegal in the United Kingdom
but is allowed in private. Since entry to a club is restricted
to members only, criminals who were keen to get into the
gambling scene legally began to open such clubs.
However, since their clientele were only likely to
patronize these clubs at night, they became known as
‘night- clubs’.

In the Asian context, night-clubs are also known in the

trade as ‘Latin bars’ and are regarded as being fairly
sleazy. These outlets often provide these bars usually also
feature booth seating to provide greater privacy.

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Features of Night-Clubs:

• Have functional dispense bars with against the wall

bar counters.
• Are likely to have bottle sales as their customers tend
to come in larger groups.
• May apply a higher age limit than other beverage
outlets as entertainment provided maybe of an adult
nature, e.g. topless performances.
• Have a higher staff to customer ratio than most other
beverage outlets.
• Serve drinks using Velvet service and bottle sales
• Have décor that is often elaborating such velvet
upholstery, chandeliers, etc.
• Provide private rooms with karaoke facilities.
• May feature female companionship in the form of
`hostess` for an hourly fee.
• Also engage `mama-sans` who oversee the activities
of the hostesses.
• A small dance floor with a stage featuring live music
or other cabaret performance.

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3.5.6 Pool-side bars

These bars are located in ‘open- air’ areas, near or in

swimming pools. For example, those with ‘sunken bars’
may be located in the swimming pool to allow bartenders
to work at waist level to the water in the pool outside of
the bar. A bridge or gangway over the water in the pool
allows the access to the bar in the pool. See illustration

POOL Bridge to and from Bar



Pool- side bars:

• Cater to customers seated around or having a swim in

the pool.
• Serve drinks using tray and counter service.
• Use plastic ‘glassware’ for safety reasons.
• Offer a wide range of exotic tropical cocktails and
long drinks.
• May also serve snacks if the bar counter is not part of
a sunken bar.
• May feature entertainment in the form of pre- recorded
music or live entertainment.
• With sunken bars usually have seats at the bar which
are made up of fixed mosaic-covered concrete stools
in the water along the bar counter.

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3.5.7 Micro-breweries

Micro- breweries produce beers on site in the outlet. Thus,

these outlets often occupy a substantial area, often
requiring high ceiling or occupying two or more floors.
Beer is brewed and matured in tanks and when matured/
ready, the beer is fed through a pipe using gravity to a
lower tank where it is held and drained for sale and
consumption as illustrated below.

Brewing and
maturing tanks
Upper floor

Tanks for holding beer

meant for sale
Lower floor
Tanks for holding beer
meant for sale

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 Offer a small but exclusive range of

specialty beers which are brewed, matured
and sold on site in the outlet itself.
 Require large floor areas to accommodate
the brewing equipment.
 These outlets may also offer dining

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3.5.8 Wine bars

Wine bars originate from Paris where these beverage

outlets are referred to as ‘vinotheques’.

Wine bars:

• Offer little or no entertainment other than background

• Features a wide range of wines, many of which are
available by the glass.
• May use specialized wine dispensing systems to
prevent spoilage of open bottles.

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• Usually offer finger foods such as cold cuts, hot

snacks but may also have more elaborate dining
• May feature wine buffets where an unlimited amount
of wines and snacks are served for a fixed price.

3.5.9 Gourmet Coffee Bars and Tea Houses

These outlets do not serve alcoholic beverages and thus

may not strictly be considered a beverage outlet and could
be classified as cafes. However, these outlets generally do

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not feature food as the main attraction and thus are

perhaps more appropriately classified as a beverage outlet.

Gourmet coffee bars and tea house are a recent and

increasingly popular world wide trend in the food and
beverage scene. They specialize in gourmet coffees and
teas rather than alcoholic beverages.

Gourmet Coffee Bars:

• Feature a wide range of blends of gourmet coffee

beans (e.g. Blue Mountain Kona, Java Arabica),
infusions and teas served as hot or cold drinks.
• Usually also offer ready made sandwiches, cakes,
pastries, tarts and cookies.
• Serve drinks and food using counter service only.
• Generally tend to use modern décor with both air-
conditioned and open-air (alfresco) seating.
• Offer little or no entertainment other than background
music and a range of newspaper and magazines as
reading material.
• Are outlets where take- away orders form a large part
of the business volume.

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Tea Houses:

• Often offer seating at low tables where customers seat

on clean, polished wooden floors (Note: shoes may
have to be taken off near the entrance):
• Features a wide range of Chinese black and green teas
(e.g. Oolong , Long Jing) which are brewed at the
• Serve tea by providing the tea pot, cups, hot water and
tea leaves but allow customers to brew and serve the
tea themselves.
• May offer snacks in the form of bite- sized traditional
Chinese pastries like lotus seed buns.
• Provide little in terms of entertainment except Chinese
instrumental background music and light reading
material or board games such as Chinese checkers.
• Often try to ‘educate’ its customers on how tea is best
brewed and appreciated.

In addition to traditional tea houses, there exist tea houses

that serve `bubble tea` or `tea shakes` which are known as
`pao-pao cha` in Mandarin. This concept originates from
Taiwan and offers sweet, dessert-like drinks which use tea
as a base for preparing a variety of mock tails (non-
alcoholic cocktails).

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Food service operations outside of the hotel and

restaurant context include the following:

• Airlines
• Cruise Ships
• Luxury Trains
• Institutions
• Home Delivery
• Off-premise Catering

3.6.1 Airlines

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Serving food and beverage on board an aircraft is very

different from other forms of catering. Catering aboard a
commercial flight is dependant on a centralized kitchen at
each destination. In this centralized kitchen, menu items
are prepared in a mass production assembly line to the
specifications of each airline.

The food items are partially cooked, packaged, cooled,

transported to and loaded onto the aircraft prior to a flight.
The food is then re-heated on board the aircraft before
being served to passengers.

Catering on board a commercial aircraft thus has rather

unique characteristics:

• No cooking takes place on board yet there is a

need to serve hot food hot.
• Space constraints in the cabin restrict the storage,
re-heating and serving of food and beverages.
• Meals are served in surroundings that are designed
for purpose of air travel rather than dining.
• Meals are served as part of an all-inclusive
package when the ticket is purchased.
• A relatively limited choice of items on the menu.
E.g. economy class passengers are only allowed to
chooses between two different ``main course``
items in an otherwise set meal.

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• As a distinction between each of its seating

classifications, different menus are offered for
first, Business/ Executive and Economy class.
Business class and First class passengers get to
choose from a small and limited a` la carte menu
that ranges between 3 to 4 items for starters as well
as main course items. These main course items
may include caviar, roast beef or other more
elaborate offerings.

While chinaware and crystal-ware is used in the first

and business class, passengers in the economy class
are served their refreshments in plastic cups and trays.

Service staff has little to do in terms of suggestive

selling and taking food or beverage orders but are
generally very productive in the number of customers
they actually serve.

On international flights, menu items served must take

into considerations the wide range of ethnics, religious
and cultural attitudes amongst passengers.

Advanced notifications needed for special diets for

diabetics (who must watch their sugar intake),
vegetarians and those with medical conditions (low
salt, low cholesterol).

3.6.2 Cruise Ships

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The purpose of the vessel dictates the type of food and

beverages items and service offered. If the purpose of the
ship is to transport cargo, the items served would hardly
be elaborate or of a very high quality.

Short pleasure cruises are available in the local the waters

around the southern islands of Singapore. These boats
range from modern catamarans to old restored Chinese
junks. These boats cater to small groups of passengers
who choose to hold private functions off shore. Some of

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these services also offer a daily ‘cruise to no where’

during lunch, afternoon tea and dinner respectively.

However, on board luxury passenger liners, elaborate

menus and beverage selections may be expected. In
addition, a Captain’s table would be a feature for any
important passengers on board.

Turnover in restaurants is needed as luxury liners can only

accommodate half of the passengers at each seating. The
type of food and is beverages that may be served on board
a cruise ship would therefore have the following features:

The menu needs to change constantly as journey could

take up to 2 weeks otherwise passengers would get very
bored eating the same food prolonged periods.

Price of passage would include complimentary food and

beverages while on board.

Both a limited a la carte menu and daily buffet menus may

be changed daily.

Nutritionally balanced meals need to be served for long

journeys to prevent illnesses and to keep passengers

3.6.3 Luxury Trains

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Like ships, the types and quality of food and beverages for
to passengers are dictated by the type of train service in
question. Passenger trains that travel over long distances
are more likely to make provisions for serving food and
beverage for its passengers than fright trains. Luxury
passenger trains are those which provide travellers with
luxurious, well appointed accommodation on board a train
where upscale dining facilities exist. Amongst some of the
best known luxury train services are:

• Spain’s Andalusia Express

• India’s Maharaja on Wheels
• Russia’s Trans-Siberian Express
• South Africa’s Blue Train (between Johannesburg and
Cape Town) and
• The Eastern and Oriental Express (between from
Singapore to Bangkok)

The most famous of these luxury train services is the

Venice-Simplon Orient Express which travels between
London to Venice, passing through some of the major
cities in Europe.

Luxury train services usually have fairly elaborate food

and beverage selections as their passengers are likely to be
demanding and would have paid high prices for passage
on board these train services. A trip on board the Eastern
and Oriental from Singapore to Bangkok would cost S$
2,300 per passenger for a one way trip.

Train carriages are rather narrow, limiting the size of food

storage areas as well as the kitchen on board. This results
in a rather limited menu selection and thus only a certain
number of people can be served each meal period. Meal
period on board these trains may thus be staggered to
accommodation all passengers.

Luxury trains services would have the following features:

• Limited a` la carte menu available.

• Set menus made up of items from the a` la carte


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• Small but high quality wines and beverage usually

offered complimentary to passengers.

• Less restricted in terms of cooking facilities than

an aircraft as danger of fire is less crucial and thus
allows the use of stoves, microwave, electrical
ovens and deep- fryers to cook and heat food.

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3.6.4 Institutions

The following institutions may have facilities

for the preparation and service of food and
beverages to their staff, students, patients or

 Factories and offices

 Schools, colleges and universities
 Prisons
 Military
 Hospitals, Nursing homes and other
health care institutions

• Factories and offices

Meals may or may not be part of the employees`

benefits package. In some cases, the price of the meal
may be subsided and thus employees pay only a
nominal amount.

Such food and beverage facilities may range from a

cafeteria for rank and file staff to exclusive dining
rooms for executives. Such dining facilities are offered

 Traveling to and from the factory or

office for a meal might be inconvenient
and time consuming as the factory or
office may be located away from urban
 It may be part of the employees’

The following are some aspects of catering in factories

and offices:

 The meal periods are fairly short as the

employees usually have only an hour or
less for their meals.
 The nutritional aspect is important as
employees may be ‘captive
consumers’-those who have no choice

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but to eat in the same location on a

daily basis.
 Menu planning can help eliminate
boredom as well as to for allow
nutritionally balanced meals to be
prepared for the employees.

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• Schools, colleges and universities

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Students studying in boarding schools, colleges and

universities may live in hostels or dormitories located
on the grounds of these institutions while other may
commute to the institution. Thus, a wide range of food
and beverage facilities may exist in schools, colleges
and universities and can range from cafeterias or snack
bars to dining rooms or halls.

The following are some aspects of catering in factories

and offices:

 The cost of meals served in boarding

schools may be included in the tuition
fees in some cases.
 Menu planning is important to ensure
that menu is varied enough to avoid
 Nutrition plays an important role as the
students are “captive consumers”.

• Prisons

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Prisons are institutions where the diners are truly ‘captive

consumer’. Though the quality of food may be a prime
issue, nutrition and boredom must still be considered.

The following are some aspects of catering in factories

and offices:

 Menu planning is important to ensure

that menu is varied enough to avoid
 Nutrition plays an important role.

• Military

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Soldiers and other armed forces personnel living on

military bases and camps must be fed. The large numbers
involved often means mass catering and as a result the
quality of food produced often something to be desired.

The following are some aspects of catering in the military:

 Menu planning is important to ensure

that menu is varied enough to avoid
 Nutrition plays an important role.

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• Hospitals, nursing homes and other health care


Dietetics, as a hospital service, had it beginning at the

time of the Crimean war (1854-1856). It was during those
those times that Florence Nightingale, pioneer of nursing
care and dietetics, established a diet kitchen to provide
clean, nourishing food for the ill and wounded. Until then,
foods or questionable quality were poorly cooked in
unsanitary conditions and served at irregular intervals.

The need for nutritionally balanced meals and special

diets is a crucial to the care and recovery of patients as the
young, the aged and the sick cannot plan their own meals.

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The following become important considerations:

 In the case of hospitals and nursing

homes, a dietician is usually on hard to
plan meals for patients and in-mates.

 Dietary concerns would include special

diets for medical conditions, ease of
digestion, nutrition and providing a
balanced meal.

 Patients due for surgery must be

starved prior to the operation because
of possible complications if food is
vomited during surgery as a result of a
reaction to being under anesthesia.

 Post-operation patients and orthopedic

patients (those who must be
immobilized) are likely to be ‘placed
on drip’, that is fed by the use of an
intravenous solution of glucose and

 In Asia, mothers in post-delivery

convalescence are given specified food
items that are traditionally
recommended for convalescing
mothers. Such social needs must thus
also be catered for when catering for
such patients.

 Older patients in the geriatric wards

may require special meals- those which
are easily digested and soft as many
may not be able to chew well.

 Children in pediatric wards must be

provided food that is likely to be eaten
and thus ice cream, cream soups and
other ‘child- friendly’ dishes must be

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 Day care centers provide care for

children and elderly persons who
would otherwise be unsupervised,
isolated and lonely. Nutrition is thus a
prime concern in catering at these

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3.6.5 Home delivery

Home delivery has become an increasingly important

aspect of catering as less households prepare their own
meals. Though the option of eating out is a popular and
convenient one, many would prefer to spend time with
their family members over a meal at home. Home delivery
thus combines the best of both world’s convenience and
the option of having a meal at home.

In home delivery the selection of menu items is crucial

since not all food items are suitable as the time frame
between production and consumption is quite different
from a restaurant setting.

The home delivery business includes those services

offered by restaurants as well as specialized home
delivery services.

Restaurants may choose to provide a home delivery

service as it allows them to reach wider market. With little
additional costs, the restaurant is able to increase its sales.
Examples of restaurants that provide home delivery
include Burger King, Pizza Hut, Kentucky Fried Chicken
and McDonald’s.

In these restaurants delivery is only provided if the

location for delivery is within a certain radius of one of
their restaurants. This is necessary as there is no way to
keep the food hot for long periods despite the use of
insulated bags and containers to hold the food.

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Specialized home delivery services are those which only

provide home delivery services. Examples include:
Domino’s Pizza and Food Runners.

Domino’s Pizza does not actually have restaurants.

Instead they only provide pizza as a home delivery service
and are able to provide pizza at a lower price as there is
obvious saving made on labor as well as rentals.

Food Runners is a food delivery firm that does not even

have a kitchen. Instead, it locates itself in the Holland
Village area and taps on the area’s existing restaurants. It
makes a profit by charging a mark-up on the prices of
menu items from these restaurants. Thus, such businesses
actually serve two markets- the restaurants are able to
increase their sales while the customers are able to avail
themselves to the menu of their favorite restaurants.

3.6.6 Off-premise catering

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Off premise catering allows a restaurant or hotel’s banquet

department to cater food and beverage to its customers
away from its production and dining facilities.

The following are characteristics of off- premise catering:

• Higher operating costs due to need for manpower to

transport and set up furniture and equipment.
• More than sufficient food, beverage and equipment
must be supplied for the function as there is no more
margins for error. Most caterers would tend to have
these additional items on stand- by.
• Charges may be levied in addition to the meal or event
if the customer requires manpower for service e.g.
• The menu selection is limited as cooking facilities are
not likely to be available and the meal is most often a
buffet arrangement.
• Only a limited bar serving beers wines and a small
selection of spirits and mixers is normally made
• In off- premise catering situations, disposable items
instead of crockery and cutlery might be used.

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Chapter outline

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Types of operating equipment
4.3 Cutlery
4.4 Ceramics
4.5 Glassware
4.6 Linen
4.7 Purchasing operating equipment
4.8 Setting operating equipment par stocks

Objectives of this chapter

At the end of this chapter, the reader will be able to:

• List the advantages and disadvantages of

using large operating equipment
• Identify commonly used food and beverage
• Differentiate between the polishing and
burnishing processes
• Outline the characteristics of the seven types
of ceramics.
• Outline the characteristics of quality
• Outline the step in carrying out the Thermal
Shock Test for ceramics.
• Outline the steps in carrying out the
“Wetability” test for ceramics
• Outline the eight factors that determine the
strength of ceramics
• Outline the characteristics of the four types
of glassware
• Outline the five methods used in
strengthening glassware

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• Outline the characteristics of poor quality

• List the types of table linen commonly used
in food and beverage outlets
• Outline the characteristics of the four types
of fabrics used for table linen
• List the criteria used when selecting fabrics
for table linen
• Outline the seven factors used in the
selection of operating equipment
• Outline the six factors used to determine the
par stocks for operating equipment


Restaurant operating equipment requires large amounts of

capital and thus a great deal of thought must be given to
their selection. Operating equipment may be divided into
two broad categories:

• Large operating equipment

• Small operating equipment


Large operating equipment includes those items which are

large, bulky but portable pieces of equipment used in
dining rooms and include the following:

• Guéridon
• Room service Trolley
• Cold appetizer Trolley
• Carving wagon
• Flambé trolley
• Dessert trolley
• Chafing dishes
• Coffee urns

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4.2.1 Advantages and disadvantages of using large

operating equipment

Using large operating equipment may be advantageous to

a restaurant because they:

• Enhance the restaurant’s ambience

• Increase sales of food and beverage items
• Increase profit margins
• Allow the display of showmanship skills
• Speed up service

• Enhance the restaurants ambience

A well maintained piece of equipment like a carving

wagon can add to the overall ambience of a fine dining

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• Increase sales of food and beverage items

When placed at strategic locations in a restaurant, such as

that near the entrance a well decorated trolley can increase
the sales of food and beverage items. Customers often end
up ordering items which hey originally did not intend to
order but were tempted after viewing the items. This can
increase the average check and revenue.

• Increasing profit margins

Restaurants can charge higher prices for menu items sold

from a dessert trolley or carving wagon and can increase
the profit margin of the restaurant.

• Allow the display of showmanship skills

Carving a side of beef on a wagon or preparing a flambé

item shows a definite level of skill attained by the
restaurants service staff.

• Speed up service

Certain pieces of large operating equipment can increase

the speed of service. Cold appetizers served directly from
on antipasto trolley takes only a few minutes to plate and
serve instead of having to wait for the item to be plated in
the kitchen an then picking it up to serve. Other pieces of
large operating equipment the also help to speed up
service include the following:

 Carving wagon
 Cheese trolley
 Dessert trolley
 Digestif trolley

Using large operating equipment may be disadvantageous

because they are:

• Very expensive
• Bulky and take up valuable seating space in the dining

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These are smaller pieces of equipment which may be

directly used by the diner. Small operating equipment
includes the following:

• Tableware
• Ceramics
• Glassware
• Linen

4.3.1 Tableware

Tableware is a term that refers to all items that are used by

the diner at the table and is a collective term that includes
cutlery and hollow-ware.

Cutlery is a general term used to refer to knives, spoons

and forks. Hollow-ware is a term that refers to equipment
which have a depression or hollow. Examples of hollow-
ware include sauce boats, flambé pans, wine buckets,
stands and baskets, food covers, food platters, finger
bowls, coffee and tea pots.

Material used for cutlery and hollow- ware may include

silver, stainless steel, or copper-lined with tin.

• Cutlery

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Most cutlery is either made of stainless steel or are silver

plated. Stainless steel resists staining and corrosion to a
far greater degree than ordinary steel. These resistant
properties come from the presence of chromium and
chromium nickel in the alloy.

The oxides of these elements form an extremely thin

protective film on the steel surface. This very thin oxide
film is invisible and adheres tightly to the surface. This
oxide film is inert, impermeable to and insoluble in water.
As long as this film remains intact and tightly adherent to
the stainless steel surface, the steel is protected from

The oxide film is also self-repairing- any break or rupture

in the film quickly reforms if the clean, dry surface is

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exposed to oxygen of the atmosphere for a sufficient

period of time. If the ruptured film is prevented from
repairing itself, the steel then begins to corrode.

Under normal usage, them oxide layer is complete and

protects the stainless steel cutlery. Over time this
protective film becomes susceptible to removal by a
number of chemicals, many of which are naturally present
in foods.

• Silverware

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Silverware refers to items made from or plated in silver. It

is sometimes used wrongly used to collectively refer to all
cutlery, including stainless steel items. Silverware items
found in restaurants include- knives, forks, spoons,
goosenecks, platters, wine buckets, wine baskets, etc.

Except for sterling silverware (pure silver), most

silverware is normally plated silver. Sterling silver is
actually an alloy of silver, copper and other metals, but
must have a minimum fineness of 925; has a silver
content of 92.5%.

In plated silver, the base metal (or ‘blank’) is a non-

ferrous alloy containing 60-65% copper, 10-18% nickel
and 17- 24% zinc. The silver is then electroplated onto the
base metal in a uniform layer.

The production of silver-plated items follows the same

procedure for stainless steel except for the inclusion of
electroplating with silver. In both processes, buffing
(polishing) to the desired sheen or finish constitutes the
final manufacturing process.

• Caring for silverware

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Silver and silver-plated items require some

maintenance to preserve its lustrous appearance.
Burnishing and polishing are two very different processes
which are used to keep the silverware shining.

A burnishing machine is basically a revolving drum

with a safety shield. It may either be connected to a source
of running water or portable with water being poured in be
manual means or a hose.

The burnishing machine drum is half full of numerous

small ball-bearings. Water is introduced into the drum
until it covers the ball-bearings. Specialized soap power is
added and the item to be burnished is placed into the drum
and is ‘immersed’ in the mass of ball-bearings. The lid is
then clamped down.

When the machine is switched on, the drum revolves

the mixture of water and soap powder acts as a lubricant
between the silver and the ball bearings. This has two

 It breaks down the oxide layer on the

silver, cleaning off the tarnish, and
 Compresses the silver plating, causing it to

Care should be taken to ensure that all burnished

items are allowed to cool before and that the machine is
always left with the soap solution covering all the
polishing balls, to prevent rusting.
However, due to the size of the burnishing
machine (often about the size of a large clothes washing
machine), larger pieces of silver or silver-plated
equipment cannot be burnished and hand polishing with
an appropriate commercial brand of an abrasive-type
polish like ‘Silvo’ may be necessary.
Polishing which involves the use of abrasive
substance to remove the tarnish by an abrasive action on
the metal while burnishing accomplishes similar results
but without abrasive action.
Long term polishing of this nature actually wears
down the layer of silver plating and shortens the life-span
of the equipment unless it is electroplated again.

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Ceramic is a general term for all items made of backed

clay. If the clay is heated until it has fused or melted into a
solid, uniform mass, the ceramic is then said to have been
vitrified. This process makes the end product stronger and
less permeable to moisture and food stains.

There are seven types of ceramics:

• Earthenware
• Pottery
• Stoneware
• Fine china
• Porcelain
• Bone china
• Restaurant chinaware

• Earthenware

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Also known as “terra cotta”, this is made from the same

porous materials is used to make bricks and flower pots.
The clay is baked at a relatively low temperature into an
unverified, soft, porous, opaque and coarsely-finished
product. It may be glazed or left unglazed. The product is
not as strong as stoneware or chinaware and lacks the
resonance of those products when stuck; giving a dull
should as it is unvitrified.

• Pottery

This term refers to clay products made of unrefined clays

and includes all fired clay-ware and is generally thus often

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brick-coloured. Ceramics acquire strength through the

application of heat. Primitive pottery often baked in the
sun and composed of one or mere unrefined clays has
little strength and is quite porous. The end product looks
similar to ‘plaster-of –Paris’. The clay used for pottery is
more refined than that used for earthenware and the the
product is baked at higher temperatures (at about 800
degrees Celsius).

• Stoneware

This is a non-porous ceramic made of unprocessed clay or

clay with additives and then baked at high temperatures
which vitrifies the material, giving it added strength.
Highly vitrified stoneware can be made into fine ceramics.
Stoneware is relatively durable but lacks the translucence
and whiteness of chinaware. Stoneware is resistant to
chipping and has a clear ring when struck. It differs from
porcelain chiefly in that it produces colors other than
white which result from the natural contents or impurities
inherent in the clay.

• Fine china

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This term is applied to a thin, translucent, vitrified product

made from very fine white clay called ‘kaolin’, originally
form China. Baked at relatively high temperatures twice;
first, to mature the materials; second, to develop the high
gloss of the beautiful glaze. This is the highest quality
chinaware possible. Produced mainly for domestic-use,
fine china may sometimes be used in fine dining rooms
though their fragile nature and price makes this an
expensive choice.

• Porcelain

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This term is used frequently in Europe for fine quality

chinaware. Porcelain has a hard, non-absorbent, strong
body and is white and translucent. Porcelain is most
commonly used for producing domestic-use items and
seldom used in food and beverage outlets.

• Bone china

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A specific type of fine china manufactured primarily in

England. The base material of this ceramic contains a high
proportion of bone ash which produces greater
translucency, whiteness and strength in the finished
product. Like fine china, it is made primarily for domestic
use but have in some instances been used in fine dining

• Restaurant chinaware

This is a unique blend of fine china and porcelain and is

designed specifically for use in commercial operations.
The body is developed to give it great impact strength and
durability, as well as extremely low absorption which is
required of ceramics used in dining rooms. Decorations
are applied between the body and the glaze, thereby
protecting the decorations.

Signs of quality ceramics

High quality ceramics have the following characteristics:

• Ability to withstand thermal shocks

When a ceramic is heated and cooled very quickly, it may

crack as a result of the sudden change in temperature. God
quality ceramics are able to diffuse the heat without
crazing or cracking.

Crazing in ceramics takes place when fine hair line cracks

appear under the glaze. The ceramic is still intact despite
the hair line fractures as the glaze holds the ceramic

The following steps detail test used to check the ability of

the ceramic to thermal shocks:

1. Heat the ceramic to 175°C in a dry oven.

2. Remove the ceramic and plunge it into 20°C water
bath. Note that the water bath should have a
volume eight times that displaced by the ceramic.
3. Dry the ceramic and plunge it into a concentrated
dark-coloured dye.
4. Remove, wipe off the dye and dry.
5. Examine the ceramic. It should show no sings of
cracking or crazing.

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6. The same piece of ceramic should survive the test

at least five times.

• Good “wet ability”

A well made piece of ceramic wets evenly and

thoroughly. To test the quality of a piece of ceramic,
the following steps are carried out:

1. Wipe the entire surface of the ceramic with a

cotton wool soaked in alcohol to remove any
grease or stains that will interfere in the test.
2. Allow the ceramic to dry completely.
3. Immerse the ceramic in clean 20 degree Celsius
4. Remove the ceramic and note how the water
adheres to the and falls away from the surface. A
ceramic that wets well will have an thin, even film
of water covering the entire glaze.

• Well glazed

A well glazed ceramics has a clear, even, unpitted

glaze that completely seals the entire ceramic. A high
quality ceramic in constant use will last for 4 to 5
years before losing its glaze.

• Strength

The strength of ceramics is determined by the


• Quality of the clay

Fine, smooth clay results in an air-free clay paste
which when processed, shape and vitrified will
produce high quality ceramics.

• Resilience
Resilience describes the ability of the ceramics to
withstand physical shocks. The use of strengthening
compounds such as aluminum oxide and the degree of
vitrification add to the resilience of the ceramic.

• Thickness
Doubling the weight of the clay in a ceramic increases
the strength of the ceramics by 75%

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• Fashioning
Ceramics that have a rolled, scalloped rim or edge
helps protect it against chipping when the edges
collide against other ceramics or hard surfaces.

• Well strength
The amount of clay that is put into the centre or well
of each piece of ceramics determines its strength.
Ceramics with more clay in the well are thus less
likely to shatter or crack.

• Design
A compact shape is less likely to break that one that
flares outwards.

• Aluminum oxide
Aluminum oxide (a malleable metal) when added to
clay gives the ceramics strength. Products made with
aluminum oxide can thus be made thinner and finer. In
addition, the aluminums oxide also helps the glaze
adhere to the finished ceramic.

• Glazing

The glaze, which gives shine to ceramics, is made

from a substance known as boro-silicate, a compound
of aluminum and sand. This seals in the chinaware,
preventing it from coming into contact with food
placed on it, adds luster, waterproofs it and protects
the chinaware from scratches. A well glazed ceramic
is also made stronger as a result.

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Glassware is a collective term to all items made from

glass or crystal. These re four types of glassware:

• Common glass

The cheapest and most common type of glass is

known as lime glass. It is made from a combination of
sand, soda lime and cullet (recycled broken glass). The
lime and soda is added to clarify the glass and to give
it sparkle. When combined with a metal known as
boron, common glass becomes more resistant to
breaking and chipping.

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• Crystal

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This is made from sand with potassium silicate and lead

oxide. The potassium silicate gives clarity to the crystal
while lead oxide makes the product stronger strength.

• Corning ware

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This glass contains boric oxide which allows the glass to

withstand high temperatures as well as sudden and drastic
changes in temperature.

• Pyroceran

Originally developed for the nose cone of space going

rockers, this type of glass has the ability to withstand
sudden and drastic change in temperature and is made
from clay, silica and rare metals. This is the most

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expensive type of glass and is most commonly found as

oven-proof cookware.

4.5.1 Strengthening glass

There are five methods to strengthen glass:

• Thickening
This process adds more glass at strategic points of stress
to strengthen the glass. The rolled edge on a glass rim,
extra thick stem to bowl joints and bases are two ways of
strengthening glassware.

• Shaping
Glasses with curved sides are much stronger than those
straight sided. Glasses with rims that flare out and tall
glasses with thin stems are all weaker as a result of their

• Annealing
In annealing, hot molten glass is cooled very gradually.
The slow cooling process gives extra strength to the glass
as any stress on the surface is eliminated.

• Heating
In this process, hot molten glass is first annealed and then
reheated to melting point. It is then treated with a blast of
cold air which shrinks the surface of the glass forming a
‘skin’ while the glass inside is still molten. As the molten
glass cools, it shrinks and pulls in the outer surface layer
strengthening the glass. The end product is extremely
strong. However, as the process creates a great deal of
stress on the glass, production costs increases as the
rejection and damage rate is high.

• Compounds
Glass may be strengthened by the addition of compounds.
Pyroceran is an example of glass that is stronger through
the addition of a compound.

4.5.2 Poorly made glass

The following are characteristics of poorly made


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• Glass that is dull with no luster

• Dirt specks trapped within the glass
• Glass with irregular or bumpy edges
• Small air bubbles trapped within the glass
• Poorly designed glassware which are top heavy and
which tips over easily


Linen is both a type of fabric as well as a general

collective term referring to all items made of synthetic or
natural thread.

Article of table linen found in restaurants include:

• Table mats
• Glass cloths
• Waiters cloth
• Rags
• Napkins
• Table skirting

Table mats

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Glass cloths

Waiter’s cloth

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Table skirting

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Tablecloths (including silence cloths, overlays and


Fiber is a long, thin strand or thread of material. Fabric is

a cloth material made by weaving or knitting threads
together. Fabrics used to produce restaurant linen include:

• Linen
• Cotton
• Synthetic fibers
• Combination fabrics

• Linen

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(Flax fiber are contained within the stalk

surrounded by a fine layer of bast)

These are nature fibers obtained from the flax plant. It

produces an absorbent fabric with a smooth
appearance. It has a fairly stiff texture and creases
easily and is generally difficult to iron out unless
heavily starched. Fabrics made from pure linen are
relatively very expensive.
• Cotton

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Less expensive then linen, cotton has good absorption,

weight and when starched and ironed, has a good
appearance. However, pure cotton fabric creases easily
and has a shorter life-span when compared to
combination fabrics.

• Synthetic fibers

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Synthetic fibers like viscose, rayon are made from

regenerated cellulose. The smoothness of the fabric
results in the fabric slipping or being blown-off tables
unless weighted down. Such fabric is also not
absorbent and very sensitive to heat. Their main use as
restaurant linen is as material for table skirting as they
are often brightly colored, shiny and relatively

Polyester fabrics like Terylene have a rougher, more

solid texture than viscose rayon. However, this
synthetic fabric is rather elastic and stretches, resulting
in warping after some time. In addition, the inability
of Terylene to absorb moisture and their sensitivity to
heat make it necessary to combine it with natural
fibers for use in the catering industry. The most widely
used kinds of synthetic fibers are nylon (polyamide),
polyester, acrylic, and olefin.

• Combination fabrics

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Polyester-cotton fabric

Combination of synthetic and natural materials like

polyester-cotton produce a relatively inexpensive
restaurant linen that has elasticity, good moisture
absorption, weight, and which when starched, irons
and hangs well. These materials are the most widely
used fabric for linen tin the catering industry.

Unfortunately, linen items are very commonly

misused and easily damaged. The following are some
guidelines for linen care:

• Do not use napkins to clean or polish cutlery as the

cutting edge shreds the fabric.
• Do not tie napkins or tablecloth in a bunch as this
irreparably stretches and warps the linen.

4.6.1 Selecting fabrics for table linen

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When selecting fabrics for table linen, it is crucial to

ensure that the material is:

• Heat and fire retarding.

• Easy to repair (mending)
• Resistant to soling and staining
• Color fast and resistant to fading.
• Suitable for starching, if required.
• Pre- shrunk (as there is often a 5 to 10% shrinkage
factor in cotton-based linen).


When selecting operating equipment, consider the


• Price, quality and usage

• Long term saving versus short term costs
• Continuity of stock
• Lag time for reordering
• Choice of patterns/designs
• Budget constraints
• Required operating equipment par stock

• Price, quality and usage

When buying equipment, the price paid should be related

to the quality and the eventual use of the equipment. Thus,
a fine dining room is more likely to purchase an expensive
show-plate as it wants to project an image of quality and
elegance. Show-plates are unlikely to be broken or
damaged as they are usually removed after the serving of
the amuse bouche.

• Long term saving versus short term costs

Decisions should also consider the long term saving that

may be associated with the purchase of the equipment,
e.g. a coffee house is likely to purchase chinaware that are

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hard wear in with rolled edges if they are relatively

expensive. Such chinaware would last relatively longer
that a cheaper alternative. Thus, savings are made in the
long run by purchasing more expensive but durable

• Continuity of stock

Knowledge of how recent the pattern or design of the

equipment must be considered when buying equipment.
Older designs might become obsolete, making
replacements impossible in the long term.

Assurances or information about how long a design is

likely to be continued in production may sometimes be
available from the suppliers. Thus, it might be more
advantageous to purchase equipment from well
established, larger suppliers r producers than from smaller
or less established one.

• Lag time for recording

Equipment stocks from suppliers are available on an ‘ex-

stock’ or indent basis. ‘Ex-stock’ is a term that means the
required stock is held in stock (and thus, existing stock)
and therefore readily available. Items available on an
indent basis are those that are not readily available or in
stock and must be ordered and takes time to be delivered
from the producers-sometimes from overseas. Thus, the
recorder often indents item may take some time to

• Choice of patterns /designs

Hotels with more than one restaurant may need to decide

if they want to provide individual restaurants with specific
patterns or designs for equipment. The alternative is for all
or some of the restaurants to use equipment with similar

Hotels may decide to use different patterns/designs for

equipment for each of their restaurant because:

 items such as tableware can give individual

restaurants their own unique identity, thus
adding to its ambience

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 It is relatively cheaper to switch patterns or

designs if needed as such changes may
then only affect one restaurant rather than
 It is easier to take an accurate inventory
since the equipment are restaurant specific.

Hotels that decide to use a single pattern or design for

equipment do so because of the following:
 It allows greater flexibility to share
equipment amongst different restaurants as
and when the need arises and thus allows
for an overall lower amount to be put in
use in each restaurant.
 Creates little or no problems in the sorting
out of equipment in areas such as a
common Stewarding wash- up point.
 Cost savings from economies of scale as
items are purchased in bulk.
 There is overall saving in space for storage.
 May be able to convince producers to make
the chosen design/ pattern one that is
specific to the hotel or chain since the
orders are likely to be substantial.



The operating equipment par stock is a predetermined

amount of equipment to allow the efficient operation of
the restaurant. In the industry, many tend to use a rule-of-

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thumb technique when establishing par stocks for food

and beverage operations.

In this technique, the number of each type of equipment is

decided upon by multiplying the number of seats in the
restaurant by an arbitrary number:

 Glassware 2 times the number of seats

 Chinaware 1.5 times the number of seats
 Cutlery 2 times the number of seats

However, such estimates often prove unreliable, resulting

in either insufficient or an excess of equipment. Instead,
the following should be considered when establishing the
par stock for operating equipment:

 Type of operation, nature and expected

volume of business.
 Usage of the equipment.
 Flexibility of stock transfers.
 Structure of the menu, wine and beverage
 Stewarding ‘turn-around time’.
 Life-span of the equipment and budgeted
operating costs for replacement.

4.8.1 Type of operation, service ad expected volume

of business

A coffee house ( type of operation) serving a buffet (type

of service) will require higher par stocks for items like
dinner plates if it expects to be busy (volume of business)
whereas a similar same piece of equipment in a fine
dining restaurant might need a much lower par stock.

4.8.2 Usage of the equipment

Items that have a wider range of uses, like a side plate,

require a higher operating par stock because of their
‘usefulness’. Other items like sugar bowls or tea pots are
used relatively less and thus require a much lower
operating par stock.

4.8.3 Flexibility of stock transfers

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As previously mentioned, having a similar pattern or

design for a particular item of operating equipment allows
the movement of these items to different areas of
operating according to their needs and results in a overall
lower equipment par stock.

4.8.4 Structure of the menu, wine and beverage list

A wine bar with a list featuring a large selection of

champagnes requires a higher operating par stock for
champagne flutes while a beverage list for a bar that
boasts of a wide selection of vodkas might have a higher
stock of shot glasses.

4.8.5 Stewarding ‘turn-around time’

The efficiency of staff at the stewarding wash-up point

may be used to help determine the operating equipment
for the restaurant. The shorter the turn-around time for the
equipment (that is, the time required wash, clean, sort and
dry the equipment), the lower the overall equipment par

4.8.6 Durability of the equipment and budgeted costs

for replacement

The life-span and thus, durability of the equipment also

determines the amount of stocks kept aside for
replacement. In addition, the budget allocated for the
replacement of lost or damaged equipment also affects the
operating par stock for the restaurant.

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Chapter outline:

5.7 Types of beverage service

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Types of food service styles
5.3 Table service
5.4 Assisted service
5.5 Self-service
5.6 Single point service

Objectives of this chapter

At the end of this chapter, the reader shall be able to:

• List the five broad types of food service

• Outline the seven types of table service
• Outline the service of food using assisted service
• Outline the two types of self-service for food
• Outline the service of food using single point

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• Outline the service of food using specialized or in

situ service
• Outline the four types of beverage service


Food and beverages may be served in many ways. The

selection of the service method to be employed is
dependent on several factors:

• Type of establishment
• Expectation of customers
• Expected turnover
• Type of menu featured


In practice, there are five broad categories of food service:

• Table service
• Assisted service
• Self-service
• Single point service
• Specialized or in situ service

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In table service, food and beverage is brought and served

to customers who are seated at a dining table. There are
seven variations of table service in food and beverage

• English platter service

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• French platter service

• Simplified gueridon service
• Russian gueridon service
• French gueridon service
• Plated service
• Family service

5.3.1 English platter service

Also known as Silver Service or service a’ l’anglaise in

French, English platter service is carried our in the
following sequence:

1. A heated dinner plate is placed on the table in front

of each customer, from the right of each customer.
2. The platter of food is presented to the host from
the right for hi or her approval.
3. Server stands on the left side of each customer’s
and serves the food items from the platter onto
each pate with service gears.

5.3.2 French platter service

Also known as Butter or French Service, French platter

service is carried out in the following sequence:

1. A heated dinner plate is placed on the table, from

the right of each customer.

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2. The platter of food is presented to the host from

the right for his or her approval.
3. Server stands on the left side of each customer and
positions the platters so that the customers can
help themselves to the food on the platter using the
service gears placed on the platter.

5.3.3 Simplified gueridon service

This form of gueridon service is carried out in the

following sequence:

1. A gueridon is wheeled to and parked next to the

customers table.
2. The food is plated in the kitchen and brought to the
gueridon on a tray.
3. The plates may or may not be transferred onto the
4. Each plate is then served to each customer from
the right.
5. If the plates are covered with a food cover/cloche,
these are removed simultaneously only after the
entire table has been served.

5.3.4 Russian gueridon service

Also known as Russian gueridon service or service a la

russe in French, Russian guerison service is carried out in
the following sequence:

1. A gueridon is pushed to and parked next to the

customers table.
2. A tray is used to carry th pre-heated dinner plates
and the platter of food to the gueridon.
3. The platter of food and plates are then transferred
from the tray onto the gueridon.
4. The platter of food is presented to the host from
the right for his or her approval.
5. Server returns to the gueridon, portions and plates
the food onto hot dinner plates.
6. The plated food is then served to each customer
from their right.

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7. Any remaining food on the platter is kept hot on a

rechaud for second helpings.

5.3.5 French gueridon service

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French gueridon service is carried out in the following


1. A gueridon or a flambé trolley is placed next to the

customers table.
2. A tray with the complete mise- en-place (all
required equipment and ingredients) is brought to
the gueridon, carving wagon or flambé trolley.
3. Food may be de-boned, carved, flamed or finished
(such as mixing a salad).
4. The service staff then portions and plates the food
onto hot dinner plates.
5. The plated food is then served to each customer
from their right.

5.3.6 Plated service

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A known as American Service, plated service is carried

out in the following sequence:

1. The food is portioned and plated in the kitchen.

2. Food may be served to customers from the right or
left of the customer depending on house policy.

Food served using plated service is usually carried out

from the left of the guest in America and Europe.
However in Asia the food is usually served from the right.



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5.3.7 Family Service

Family service is carried out in the following sequence:

1. A pre-heated dinner plate is placed on the table

from the right side of the customer.
2. The service staff places dishes of food in the
middle of the table, each with a pair of service
3. Customers help themselves directly to the food
and the dishes of food may be passed around the
table by the host.


This is a combination of table service and self-service.

This form of service is commonly found in restaurants
offering “part-buffets” where part of the meal
(usually the main course) is served to seated customers
while others parts of the meal (such as appetizers,
salads, soups, and desserts) are collected by the

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Self-service may take two basic forms:

• Buffet service
• Cafeteria service

5.5.1 Buffet service

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A buffet is also known as a ‘smorgasbord’, a term that

originates in Scandinavia. In general, there are three types
of buffet service:

• Self-service buffet

Customers help themselves to food placed on a buffet

table without the assistance of any service staff.

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Service staff only carries out beverage service and the

clearing of soiled chinaware and cutlery.

• Assisted-buffet service

Service staff position themselves behind the buffet

table and dish the food onto the customers’ plates.
This form of service allows a large number of people
to e served in a shorter time span and allows some
measure of portion control. It also serves to keep the
buffet table more presentable throughout the service.

• Plated buffet service

Popular in Chinese restaurants, this form of service is

also known as “a’ la carte buffets’ (which is a
misnomer). These buffets feature a selection of items
on an a’ la carte-style menu, except that the entire
meal is for a fixed price.

Customers may order unlimited portions of plated

food, which is then served to then at the table. In
addition, a buffet table may also be used to serve
dessert items. In some restaurants, more expensive
items such as shark’s fins soup may also be included
in the meal though customers will find that these items
are served only one to a person.

5.5.2 Cafeteria service

In cafeteria service, the customer is offered a choice of

food and beverage by a single operator who offers a

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range of refreshments. The customer uses a tray to

collect portions of food and carries the tray to a table
for consumption. There are two basic forms of
cafeteria is service:

 Counter
 Free-flow

• Counter
In cafeteria counter service, customers form a queue
past a service counter and choose their food and
beverage in stages and load them onto a tray. Payment
is then made at the end of the queue.
• Free-flow
In cafeteria free-flow service, customers move at
will to random service points and may only form a
queue at those points. Customers exit the service
area via the cashiering point(s) to reach the dining


Customers are served at a single point and food and

beverages may be either consumed on premises or taken
away for consumption elsewhere. There are four basic
forms of single-point service:

• Fast food and take-away counters

• Vending machines
• Kiosks
• Food courts

5.6.1 Fast food and take-away counters

This form of service serves a limited range of food and

beverage from single point and includes snack bar and
delicatessen counters, drive-through counters, and fast
food operations.

The principle is straightforward: the customer approaches

the service counter where a menu is is played showing
prices and places the order with the counter staff, who
then assembles the order from pre-cooked items, totals the
amount, takes the cash, and hands the order to the

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customer. The customer then has the option of eating

inside the establishment or may be take away the food and
eat it off the premises.

5.6.2 Vending machines

Food and beverages is served via automated retailing. Pre-

packaged snacks, hot and cold beverages and hot soups
are commonly served through vending machines. Where
in use, vending machines are commonly located in office
buildings, airports, and train stations.

5.6.3 Kiosks

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These free-standing food and beverage stations are usually

located in high-pedestrian traffic locations. They
commonly dispense a limited range of beverages and pre-
cooked and /or packaged snacks such as sandwiches, hot
dogs and ice cream. Some may also offer limited seating
for consumption of the refreshments on site.

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5.6.4 Food courts

In food courts, food and beverage is served over the

counter at a series of autonomous counters operated by
different business entities but house in a common

It is fairly similar to the free-flow cafeteria service

previously mentioned. However, in food courts, the

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difference is that the individual counters are operated

independently and collect payment directly from the
customers rather tan have the customers pay a common
cashiering point.

The autonomous counters pay the main operator of the

food court a rental fee as well as maintenance fees for
shared cleaning and stewarding services provided to all
counters operating within the food court.

Equipment such a plates, bowls, trays, and cutlery are

provided by the main operator and are shared by all food
stalls. Marketing and promotional activities are
undertaken by the operator and the cost of these services
may be either borne entirely by the main operator of
collected from the operations of the individual counters.


This form is service allows food and beverage to be

served in areas that are not primarily designed for food
service. Specialized service is also known as in situ
service (in situ is Latin for ‘in position’) and refers to the
delivery of food and beverage to the customer in areas
which are not specifically designed for the purpose of
dining. Specialized or in situ service includes the

• Tray service
• Trolley service
• Home delivery
• Drive in and/or drive through

5.7.1 Tray service

Tray service refers to the service of whole or part of a

meal to customers in situ such as patient’s wards in
hospitals, meeting rooms, hotel guest rooms and executive
lounges in hotels and on board aircraft. Tray service is
also commonly used at cocktail receptions where canapés
and other finger foods are offered to customers at a
standing cocktail reception.

5.7.2 Trolley service

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In trolley service a trolley is used to transport whole meals

or snacks on specially designed trolley to customers who
consume the refreshments away from a dining area. This
service is used o board trains, in customer rooms meeting
and executive lounges in hotels and on board aircraft.

5.7.3 Home delivery

In home delivery, food and beverages are order through

the telephone, facsimile machine or the internet. Food is
then delivered to customer’s homes or place of work. The
menus offered in this form of service may be restaurant
specific such as that offered by a pizza or fast-food

However, more elaborate menu selections may be offered

by specialized food delivery services who do not operate
food and beverage facilities but work in conjunction with
several restaurants. In this business arrangement, the
delivery service makes a profit by marking up the price of
the food items offered by the restaurants whose menus are
featured. They may also receive commissions from the
featured restaurants through discounted pricing.

Drive- in and/ or drive-through outlets

In drive-in outlet, customers park their motor vehicles and

servers approach the customers in their vehicles and serve
the food and beverages which are then consumed by

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the customers in the vehicles. This form of service was a

fairly popular feature at fast food restaurants in America
in the 1950’s and 1960’s.

Drive- through outlets allows customers to pick-up and

take away food while remaining in their cars. They first
place their order through an intercom system at the
entrance of the car park/driveways and then drive to a
special counter window where the packed order is handed
over and payment is made.

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There are four types of beverage service;

• Counter service
• Tray service
• Velvet service
• Bottle sale service

Counter service

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The drink is prepared by a bartender who takes the order,

prepares the drink and places it in front of the customer
who may be seated or standing at the bar counter.

Tray service

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A prepared drink is placed on a tray and carried by the

server from the bar counter to the customer table or
directly to the customer (as in the case of a stand-up
cocktail reception where there are no tables).

5.8.3 Velvet service

This form of beverage service is also referred to as ‘Club

service’ and is considered the highest possible form of
beverage service. It is usually performed in fine dining
restaurants, hotel lounges and clubs.

A gin and tonic served using Velvet service would be

carried out in the following sequence:

1. A measured portion of gin is poured into a glass

along with a slice of lime and ice cubes and placed
on a beverage tray.
2. A bottle or can of tonic is opened or a portion of
tonic is dispensed into a decanter from a bar gun
and placed on the tray.
3. A drink coaster, a cocktail napkin and a stirrer is
also placed on the tray.
4. The service staff then carries the tray to the table
and performs the service.
5. The drink coaster is placed on the table and the
glass is placed on the coaster.
6. The service staff picks up the tonic and asks the
customer how much tonic he would like with the
7. The required amount of tonic is poured in and the
mixture stirred with the stirrer.
8. The cocktail napkin is left next to the drink.
9. The stirrer may or may not be removed from the
table. If left on the table, it is usually left in the
10. Any mixer left over may or may not be left at that
able. If it is left on the table, the decanter, can or
bottle of mixer is placed on an additional coaster.

5.8.4 Bottle sales service

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This form of service is usually performed in discotheques,

clubs, lounges or pubs. It is fairly similar to Velvet service
except that the spirits in question are sold by the bottle.

A bottle of Scotch whisky served using Velvet service

would be carried out in the following manner:

1. Sufficient glasses for all customers is prepared and

brought to the table along with sufficient coasters,
cocktail napkins, garnishes and stirrers.
2. A pre-determined number of bottles or volume of
mixers is included in the price for the bottle sale.
Bottles or cans of mixers are opened or a portion
of the mixer is dispensed into a large decanter
from a bar gun brought to the table along with a
bucket of ice cubes. Subsequent orders of mixtures
or soft drinks are charged accordingly.
3. The selected bottle of Scotch is brought to the
customer’s table and opened upon approval by the
4. Drink coasters, cocktail napkins and stirrers are
placed on the table for each customer.
5. A free-poured measure of the Scotch is poured into
each glass along with the garnishes and ice cubes
by the server.
6. The service staff then asks each customer how
much mixer he would like with the Scotch and the
required amount of tonic is poured in and the
mixture stirred with the stirrer.

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7. The cocktail napkins are left next to the drink and

the stirrers are usually left on the table.
8. The ice may also be replenished and left in a
bucket with ice tongs for the customers to help
9. Service staff may serve subsequent round of drinks
or customers may also choose to help themselves
to the drinks.
10. A tag or numbered sticker will be used to identify
each bottle. These tags or stickers record the name
and signature of the customer who purchased the
bottle. These tags or stickers are also used to
record volume of sprit remaining bottle. These tags
or stickers are also used to record volume of sprit
remaining after each time it is ‘used’ to prevent
any misunderstanding.
11. A counterfoil or card is issued to the person who
purchased the bottle as proof of ownership.

Most discos or clubs that carry out bottle sales usually

impose a specified time span in which the bottle of sprit
must be consumed (normally a period for to 3 months).
Should the customer not be able to consume the sprit in
the specified time frame, the sprit is confiscated and may
be sold of f by the club.

The counterfoil or card issued to the person who

purchased the bottle as proof of ownership may be used to
gain entry on the next visit and may allow the purchaser to
avoid having to queue at the entrance. As most clubs
extend this form of ‘temporary membership’ to these
customers, bottle sales are popular at well patronized
clubs and discos. However, such privileges are only valid
if there is some sprit remaining in the bottle from a
previous visit.

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Chapter outline:

Sequence of courses in a classical French menu
Types of menus
Menu planning considerations

Objectives of this chapter

At the end of this chapter, the reader shall be able


• List the sequence of courses in a classical

French menu
• Outline the two main types of menus
• Outline the characteristics of a la carte menus
• Outline the characteristics of the five types of
table d’hote menus
• Outline the characteristics of children’s menus
• Outline the characteristics of festive and
promotional menus
• Outline the considerations used in planning a

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The word ‘menu’ is derived from the Latin words ‘minor’

or ‘minutes’: meaning a document that previews a
performance, similar to the minutes of a meeting, except
that it provided such details before the actual event.

Menus were thus initially provided by hosts when holding

large, elaborate feasts in ancient Greece and Rome. They
enabled invited customers to plan how much of each
course they should eat so as to make room for the rest of
the meal. Written menus on clay tablets were already
being used but it was more common at such feasts, to have
someone- either the host or a specially instructed slave- to
point our and provide information on each dish or wine

Written menus were in use in ancient times in restaurants

as a form of advertising or “bill of fare”- a list of what
available. Today, menus are still commonly described as
“silent salesmen” helping restaurants sell their food and
beverage items.


A typical menu in the time of legendary chef Georges

Auguste Escoffier was about 15 to 16 courses- already a
reduced version of the hundred odd- course meals that
were served by Crème. This “classical” French menu
appears below:

Classical French menu course Modern day

1. Hors d’ oeuvre Hot or cold
2. Potage Soups
3. Oeufs Eggs (served
4. Farineaux Farinaceous
(pasta or rice dishes)
5. Poisson Fish course
6. Entrée Entrée
(includes anything expect a roast)
7. Intermezzo (sorbet) Intermission

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8. Releve (piece de resistance) Butcher’s

joint e.g. roast meat joints
9. Roti Roasted
game or poultry
10. Legumes Hot or cold
11. Salade Salads
12. Buffet froid Cold meats,
poultry, ham or seafood items
13.Entremets Hot or cold
14 Savoureaux Savoury
items such as mushrooms on toast
15. Fromages Selection of
16. Dessert Choice of
fresh or candied fruits and nuts
17. Café Coffee
18. Petit four or mignandises Small
servings of sweets e.g. pralines

• Tea was not widely available or consumed as a

beverage in those times.


There are two basic categories of menus:

• A la carte
• Table d’hote

6.3.1 A la carte

‘A la carte’ is a French term that means ‘by the list’ and is

used to describe ordering food and beverage items
individually listed in a menu. Every restaurant is likely to
have an a la carte menu unless they exclusively serve
buffers or set meals only.

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An a la carte menu has the following features:

• Items are listed and priced individually to allow

customers to choose items they prefer and
combine these in a meal to suit their personal
budget, tastes and appetite.
• Items are prepared to order (described as being
cooked ‘a’ la minute’) and thus generally take
longer to prepare than items in a set menu.

6.3.2 Table d’hote

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‘Table d,hote’ means ‘table of the host’ in French. This is

a set meal sold at a fixed price which it is sometimes also
referred to a ‘prix fixe’ menu. The following are features
of table d’hote menus:

• They offer a fixed number of courses as a

complete meal at a fixed price.
• If choices are offered in the meal, the price of the
meal may vary according to the items chosen.

Offered by restaurants when there is a need to speed up

the service of a meal (e.g. during lunch) or when there is a
need to limit the range of food being prepared in the

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kitchen (during very busy mal periods such as New Year’s

Eve dinner).

There are several variations of the table d’hote menu:

• Plat du jour
• Carte du jour
• Menu degustation
• Buffet
• Banquet

• Plat du jour

The French phrase means ‘plate of the day’ and indicates

a single-course menu item, usually a main course item
featured as a ‘daily special’. There are three variations to a
plat du jour:

 A menu item that is quick to prepare and

offered to customers in a hurry.
 A specially created menu item using the
freshest available ingredients available for
that day and thus charged at a higher price.
 An item selected from the usual a’ la carte
menu and priced lower than normal just for
that day or meal period.

• Carte du jour

Table d’hote menus may also be known as ‘carte du jour’,

a French term which translates to mean ‘menu of the day’.
Where this term is used, the set menu is likely to be
changed on a daily basis. This differentiates it from the
table d’hote menu which may remain unchanged for a few

• Menu dégustation

In French, menu dégustation refers to a tasting menu. This

elaborate set menu offers small tasting portions and allows
customers to sample a wide variety a of menu items
without overeating. Such menus are normally offered in
fine dining restaurants and feature the following:

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 Only offered in fine dining restaurants

 Menu dégustation is usually only offered at
 The menu usually consists of 6 to 8 courses
of small tasting portions.
 Choices are seldom offered for each of the
courses except the main course.
1. Cold Appetizer
2. Soup
3. * Hot appetizer ( or entrée)
4. Sorbet
5. Main course
6. Cheese
7. Dessert
8. Coffee or Tea with petits fours

*Note: Menu items 3 & 6 are not featured if the menu

dégustation features a 6 course menu.

A menu dégustation may be created by offering:

 Smaller portions of selected items from the

a la carte menu; or
 Items specially created for the menu
dégustation and thus not found on the a la
carte menu.
• Buffet menus

A pre-selected menu where a variety of dishes are offered

ad a complete meal and where customers may choose to
eat whatever menu items they prefer. Such menus offer
customers’ unlimited serving for customers to help

 A part-buffet is one where salads, cold

appetizers and desserts are offered together
with a small a la carte selection of main
courses. The price of such a meal depends
on the main course selected.
 Restaurants which serve food family style
may offer ‘a’ la carte buffets’. Such buffets
offer diners an unlimited serving of food
from a small ‘a’ la carte’ menu for a fixed
price. However these restaurants usually

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specify that such menus are applicable for

those who dine in groups of twin or more.

• Banquet menus

A banquet menu is a menu that is pre-selected by the

organizers of the meal. Banquet menus may offer
anything from cocktail snacks, coffee and tea breaks to set
meals which range from simple two- course set meals to
elaborate events offering many courses or a buffet.

6.3.3 Children’s menu

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These menus are specially created to cater to families with

young toddlers. Thus, these menus usually have the
following characteristics:

 Usually an a la carte menu that lists smaller

portions of food with a corresponding lower
 Offers child-friendly food, that is, food that
is likely to be popular with children, e.g.
French fries, ice cream, spaghetti, fried
chicken, etc.
 A colourful format with cartoon characters
and may include colouring activities or puzzles
to occupy the children’s attention.

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6.3.4 Festive and Promotional menus

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• Festive menus
 These menus are specially created for festive
occasions such as St.Valentine’s Day,
Thanksgiving, Christmas, Chinese New Year,
 Such menus are used for short periods only-
from a single evening to a fortnight
 These menus may take the from of an a la
carte, a set or buffet menu.

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• Promotional menus

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 These menus are specially created for ad-

hoc occasions that may feature famous
chefs (e.g. Chef Alain Ducasse) or the
seasonal availability of a food item (e.g.
asparagus season, Shanghai Hairy Crab).
 Such menus are used for specified periods
only- anywhere from one evening to a
 These menus may take the from of an a’ la
carte, a set or buffet menu

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The Verbal Menu

Menus may also be verbally presented. In fine-dining restaurants service

staff may verbally inform customers of daily specials. A prime example of a verbal
menu is that used in Morton’s of Chicago- an upscale specialty steakhouse concept
from America.

In this restaurant, servers use a gueridon and verbally present selection of

different raw meat cuts as well as fish, live Maine lobsters and vegetables to
diners. After the presentation, the servers leave the customer with a copy of the a la
carte- just in case they forget what was said!