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1) TB) icy Peru Poets PSR OM mele emg: Co) Citrate (M-Net Cme- tae) ACR Se ‘NiDI Technical Series N° 10 020 The material presented in this publication has been prepared for the general information of the reader and should not be used or ‘elied on for specific applications without first securing competent advice. ‘The Nickel Development Institute, its members, staff and consultants do not represent or warrant its suitability for any general or specific use and assume no liability or responsiblity of any kind in connection with the information herein. eS Alloys to resist chlorine, hydrogen chloride and hydrochloric acid by C.M. Schillmoller* Gaseous chlorine at low temperatures and in the absence of moisture is not severely corrosive and is commonly handled by carbon steel. Dry hydrogen chloride (HC) behaves in a similar way. However, the strongly acidic hydrochloric acid is harmful to steei. Each of these three substances is discussed under various conditions. Materials considered include the high-nickel alloys, stainless steels, high-molybdenum alloys, titanium, Zirconium and tantalum. CORROSION CHARTS Corrosion is a very complex process. Seemingly unimpor- tant variables, such as small amounts of moisture, impurities, or the presence of metal chlorides, can change the corrosion picture completely. To present corrosion data in concise form, a variety of ‘methods has been proposed. Basically the author is opposed to the presentation of information via simplified charts if Table 1 this alone is used for selecting materials of construction. However, concise and condensed information is valuable in that it presents an overall view of the situation and can be used for screening purposes, thus minimizing the number of materials to be tested or considered. How far can on: go in condensing information and have it be of substantial value? Figures 1, 2and 3 attempt to condense corrosion data so that the general picture can be obtained at a glance. Nickel and high-nickel alloys are among the few proven metallic materials that show good corrosion resistance in chlorine, hydrogen chloride and hydrochloric acid. These alloys are, of course, not new to the chlor alkali industry, being more or less standard selec- tions in caustic, brine and salt processing. Table 1 providesa brief description of the alloys commonly in use, their UNS number (Unified Numbering System) and the tradenames under which they are known. References in the text to Alloy 200, Alloy 400 and so on correspond ‘Alloys commonly used in Cl and HCI systens. Reterence Nominal composition, % ‘ASME UNS Most common Materials intext NiCr Mo—-Cu Fe number number _Tradenames. ‘Noket Nickel Alloy 200 99.6 = — — — = 161-183 NO2200 Nickel 200, Low-carbon nickel Alloy 201 98.6 — 161-183-0201 Nickel 201 ‘Nicket-copper alloys Nickebeopper alloy Aloy 400-67 = 311.5 169:165 NONKOD Monel 400 Nickel-chromiumiron alloys: Nickelchromiumiron aly Alloy 600 76-= 15 ~~ 8 «183-168 NOBEOO Inconel 600 Nickelironchromium alloy Alloy 800. 32—=« 21. 183-407 NDBEOD —_Incoloy 800 Nckeliron-chromium: molybdenumcopper alloy Alloy 625 42-213 BS «30 «163-423 NOBERS—_Incoloy 825 High-molybdenum alloys 'Nekel-chromium malybdenumiton alloy Alloy 625 61-215 8) 3.4K NOES Incone! 625 Nckel-chromium- ‘malyodenumston alloy AloyC-4 63 «1615 275.622 NOSES Hastoloy 4 Nicket-chromiurm ‘malybdenum-ron alloy Alloy C276 5818.15 G«B75-622.NI0276—Hastolloy C276 NickeFion-chromium ‘malyodenum-copper alloy AloyG 482372 «888-622NOBOOT—Hastelloy G Nicket-molyodenum- iron alloy AloyB2 68 8 1B 883622 © N10865 —Hastoloy 8.2 Nove: onal, Inconel, Incloy are rgistred vademarks of The international Neel Co, Hastaloy sa ogetored radomark of Haynes itratonal *Schillmoller Associates, Houston, TX; Consultant to NiDI to the tradenames as the UNS numbering system does not always permit immediate recognition. In the chemical process industries, the common design parameter for tubing, valve trim and internals is 0.075 ‘mmlyear (0.003 iniyr) maximum corrosion rate, while for vessels and pipe, an upper corrosion rate of 0.50 mm/yr (0.020 iniyr) is’ frequently adopted, with a corrosion allowance of 3 to 6 mm (1/8 to 1/4 in. This should provide a safe life often years or more. The charts summarize the limits of usefulness for the various alloys. CHLORINE Gaseous chlorine (Cl) at ambient temperatures and in the absence of moisture is not severely corrosive, and is com- ‘monly handled in carbon steel. Usually, a more resistant alloy such as Alloy 400 or Alloy C-276 is specified for crit ical parts such as valve trim, stem, instrumentation and orifice plates in chlorine pipelines. In contrast, wet chlo: rine is extremely corrosive to steel and nickel alloys, and requires Alloy C-276 or titanium. The upper limit of use fulness of carbon steel in dry chlorine is around 200°C (390°F), at which temperature the protective effects of the corrosion products disappear. ¢ , 700, 7 r 600] ‘Tubes/internals ‘Vessels/pipe eo 1 4 ot hyn co iS be - aoe Foo iene | 00 r 1 i 5 Pt met ‘ef —— | 5 : [unan Ll a invye 000% 0002 90080005 091 ca2 —ao% age O10 mmr 0088 0080 01000380 0290 Oso 100 150 250 Ccorosion rate Figure 1 Upper design limits for various alloys in chlorine. Figure | provides a guide to the selection of various alloys for dry chlorine, and indicates design parameters for tubesyinternals and vessels/pipe components. ‘The surface coating of chlorides on the alloys tends to provide protection up to a temperature level at which ‘melting, vaporization or decomposition removes such films. ‘The corrosion rate appears proportional to the vapor pres: sure of the metal chlorides. Alloy 200 and Alloy 600 are those alloys most commonly used for reactors, coils, agitators and piping in the 250-500°C (480-930°F) range. Carbon steel can still be used below 150°C (300°F). When the plant is not in oper: ation, proper shutdown procedures should be used to keep the units dry or free from chlorine, so as to prevent attack by wet residual chlorine on the steel or nickel. In the case of AISI 304 or 316 stainless steel, which can be used up to 350°C (660°F), the presence of moisture during shut '@ doy WOH sansse 3 %6 “woHeAUaDUOD PIOe DHOIYIOIDAH ov oe oz o ° tS oz $8 nS L (4p) wwe, z, wais6un 00% Kony zt f fa 1 2u0z : | 0 eooxes ort 1989 woos 3 0u0z a eoozes 0111869 woot a (©) @) 005860) (020018 Woot 091 as z ouoz le + 61 ne lod Buyog uJ ou ‘Ad 02> 10 S912y uoysoueD PaHodey IM SIE 4 EN ee Mar 86/30 Cd Ce eRe Oe eae) de Recursos Minerais "CODEMIN" S.A. reer Tea CC) Inco Limited eae Pees) Sea oro Seca ae Bruce anes Sr nem! 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