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1.

01
INTRODUCTION

ANIMAL ANATOMY

ON FILE ™

Classification 1: animal kingdom

1.01

Vertebrates

®--

Echinoderms

®~---------(J)---

Arthropods

Mollusks

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Annelids

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Roundworms (nematodes)

Flatworms (Platyhelminthes}

®-01------------

Coelenterates

Sponges

1.02
INTRODUCTION

ANIMAL ANATOMY

ON FILE ™

Classification 2: invertebrates
Echinoderms

1.02

Arthropods

Mollusks

Annelids

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Nematodes

PlatYhelminthes@~---------~

Sponges
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6 Gastropods. cephalopods and bivalves (mollusks) 7 Arthropods 7a Insects 7b Crustaceans 7c Spiders and scorpions 7d Centipedes 8 Echinoderms

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I Sponges 2 Coelenterates 1 Flatworms and tapeworms (platyhelminthes) 4 Roundworms (nematodes) 5 Worms and leeches (annelids)

1.03
INTRODUCTION

ANIMAL ANATOMY

ON FILE ™

Classification 3: vertebrates

1.03

Mammals

Birds

Reptiles

Bony fish

I Insects (800,000+) 2 Mollusks (85.000) 3 Other arthropods (80,000) 4 Vertebrates (50,000) 5 Platyhelminthes, nematodes and annelids (25.000) 6 Sponges and coelenterates ( 17,000) 7 Echinoderms (5,000)

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1.05
INTRODUCTION

ANIMAL ANATOMY ON FILE

TM

Animal cell

1.05

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9 Chromatin

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10 Nuclear membrane II Golgi.apparatus 12 Smooth endoplasmic


reticulum

13 Lysosome 14 Cytoplasm

1.06
INTRODUCTION

ANIMAL ANATOMY

ON FILE ™

Levels of organization

1.06

I:

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~----------------------------------------------------------------~@
A Cell (columnar epithelial cell) B Tissue (columnar epithelium) C Organ (gizzard) D System (digestive) E Organism (pigeon)

15

1.07
INTRODUCTION

ANIMAL ANATOMY

ON FILE ™

Body systems

1.07

A. Respiratory (breathing) B Digestive C Transport (circulatory) D Locomotory (movement) E Nervous F Endocrine (hormonal) G Excretory H Reproductive

1.08
INTRODUCTION

ANIMAL ANATOMY ON FILE ™

Pentadactyl limb

1.08

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A Basic pentadactyl pattern B-H Mammalforelimbs B Monkey C Bat Whale E Anteater F Mole G Horse

H Pig

Common name

Sponges

Coelenterates

Flatworms

Roundworms

Segmented worms

Mollusks

External appearance
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Number of cell lay~rs Symmetry Locomotion Number of bQcjyopenlngs Nervous system Digestive system ~x<:retory system Circulatory system Respiratory system Skeletal system
©DIAGRAM

Two None or radial None One None None None None None Spicules, no true system

Two Radial MQstlys~ssile; free flQating One Present Present None None None None

Three Bilateral Muscles; cilia One Present Present Present None None None

Three Bilateral Muscles Two Present Present Present None None None

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3 Crayfi~h. Wi\ter fleas '" Grasshoppers. bynerfiles. begs 5 SCQrplons. spiders

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Class Chilopoda

External appearance

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Number of walking legs I pair per segment

:I> Antennae I pair Mouthparts Mandibles Gas exchange Tracheae


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4 pairs

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perc::h) 3 Amphipians (frogs. sa'amam:l~rs) 4 Reptiles (lizards.


5 Birds 6 Mammals

2 ~!:my fish (trout.

I Carti!1l~in9IJsfish (sharks. rays. dogfish)

Class Chondrichthyes

External appearance

Outer layer Scales

limb structure 2 pairs of fins

Gas exchange Gills

Body temperature Ectotherm

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Scales and slimy skin

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Slimy skin
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2 pairs of legs, Gills; no claws h.mgs

Ectotherm

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Reptilia

Pry, scaly

2 pairs of legs, lungs claws

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Aves

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Feathers, scales on legs

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Horse A Arnerior (front) view B POsterior (back) view C ~ter;" (~iqt:!)view P Dgrsal (top) view E Ventral (bottom) view

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1.13
INTRODUCTION

ANIMAL ANATOMY

ON FILE

TM

Embryonic development

1.13

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A Fish

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B Turtle
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D Pig E Human

A Aston-type sponge (class Calcarea) B Skeleton of Venus's flower basket (class Hexattinellida) C Bath sponge D-F Calcareous spicules G-J Siliceous spicules
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2.03

ANIMAL ANATOMY

ON FILE ™

LOWER GROUPS

Hydra: external form

2.03

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1 4 5 6 7 8 9 Testis Tentacle Column Basal disk Stalk Bud Ovary

2.04 LOWER GROUPS

ANIMAL ANATOMY ON FILE TM

Hydra: internal structure

2.04

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A Internal structUre B Stinging cell (cnidoblast or nematoblast) C Discharged cnidoblast I Mucous cells 2 Mouth 1-4 Ectodermal. cells 1Stinging cell (cnidoblast)

7 Bud SBasaldisk 9 Enteron 10 Mesoglea 11-13 Endodermal cells II Digestive cell

12 Flagellated cell 13 Gland cell 14 Testis 15 Sperm 16 Tentacle 17 Trigger (cnidocil) 18.Operculum 19 Nematocyst 20 Thread

21 Barb

2.05
LOWER GROUPS

ANIMAL ANATOMY

ON FILE ™

Obelia: external form

2.05

I Hydrotheca 2 Feeding polyp 3 Medusa bud


4 5 6 7 8 9 Mouth Tentacle Blastostyle Coenosarc Perisarc Stolon

10 Reproductive polyp II Gonotheca

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B Pan 9f the (:olony I Pnf.!\lmatophore (flo!\t) 2 Lc:mg C:lcl(:tylo~ooid tentacle 3 GC)flophorf.!s 4 Gonozooid S Gastrozooid

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1 Oral disk
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A Pi8~stiv~ sy~t~m p N~rvQl!s mtem I Gut cecum 1 Ant~riQr gut branch 3 Philrynx 4 Philrynx opening

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A Reproductive

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Whole animal Scolex Scolex Region of proliferation Region where testes and ovaries are functional Proglottids full of eggs (ripe or gravid) Proglottid Rostellum Hook Sucker Young proglottid

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I Mouth 2 Prostomium 3 Segmlant .. Spennilthecal openings 5 Femille (oviduct) pp!'lnlng 6 Milita(vas deferens) opening 7 Sperm groove ~ Pilpilla , Clltellum (saddle) 10 Pilired setae (ventro·lateral) II Anus 12 Dorsal surface 13 Ventral surface

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A External view B Sectlon through ~egmeflt 1 Coelom 2 Circular muscle 3 Cuticle .. Intestine 5 Dorsal blood vessel 6 TyphlpsQle 7 Eph:lermis II Nephrigium 9 I-oflgituginal muscle 10 Seta II Protractor muscle 12 Retractor muscle 13 Ventral nerve cord

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A External view B Section to show p<lrClPoqiaC1nq internal structure I PClrapoqium 2 Coelom 3 Dorsal blood vessel 4 Intestine 5 LongituQin,,1 muscle (, C"pillClry ped in pClrClPoqi4m 1NgtgpQQium 8 NeuropoqiUm 9 Transverse pClrapoqial muscle 10 Ventral nerve cord 1I Ventral blood vessel 12 Circular muscle 13 Cuticle 14 NephriQium 1$ NephriQiqpore 16 Setae

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4.19 ARTHROPODS AND ECHINODERMS

ANIMAL ANATOMY ON FILETM

Grasshopper: nervous system

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pelvjcfins Male Female Head Tail Snout Eye Spiracle Lateral line Dorsal fin (anterior) 8 Dorsal fin (posterior) 9 Upper lobe of caudal fin 10 Caudal fin (heterocercal) II Lower lobe of caudal fin 12 Ven1:ralfin 13 Pelvic fin 14 Pectoral fin 15 Gill slit 16 Mouth 17 Nostril 18 Cloaca 19 Clasper 20 Urinogenital sinus 21 Abdominal pore 12 Urinary sinus B C I 2 3 4 5 6 7

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Female I Brain 4 E$ophagus 5 P.igh~lobe of liver 6 OVCiry 7 Kidney 8 Wolffian duct 9 P.ectCiI land g 10 Oviduct II Cloaca 12 Rectum 13 Intestine 14 Spleen IS Pancreas 16 Pyloric part of stomach 17 Cardiac part of stomach 18 Position of left lobe of liver 19 Heart 20 Gill slit 21 Mouth
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6.02 AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES

ANIMAL ANATOMY ON FILE 1M

Frog: skeleton

6.02

19 Rectus aPQominis 20 Pectoralis 21 flexpr c:~rpiLlln~ris Flexor palmllris ~3 Flexor carpi radialis 24 TempPralis 25 Depresspr mllnqibLilae 26 Extensor Qjgitorum communis 27 Biceps 28 Longissimus dorsi 29 COi:Cygeo-iliacus 30 Gluteus 31 llipfibularis 32 Peroneus 33 AbQuctor brevis dorsalis 34 Flexpr Qigitorum 35 Semimembranosus 36 Pyriformis 37 Latissimus dorsl 38 Dorsalis scapulae 39 Extensor carpiulnari

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A Ventral B Dorsal I MylphypiQ 2 Deltoid 3 Coracoradialis 4 Tricep~ brachil $ AQ~h!ctpr 'pngu~ 6 Aqdl.lctpr magnus 7 Gr~c:ilismajpr 8 Gracilis minor 9 Achilles tendon lOT ~rs~lis posticus I I Tarsalis anticus 12 Tibialis anticus I ~ Tipialis ppsticus , .. Gastrpc:nemius 15 Sartprius 16 Vastus externus 17 Rectus anticus
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6.07
AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES

ANIMAL ANATOMY ON FILE ™

Frog: nervous system 1 2

6.07

34
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~----------------------------------------------------------------------~@ IS 8
Ventral view 1-10, Cranial. nerves I Olfactory I 2 Ophthalmic branch of trigeminal V 1Pathetic IV 4 Optic. II 5 Oculomotor III 6 Facial VII 7 Trigeminal V Abducens. VI 9 FacialVII and auditory VIII 10, Glossopharyngeal IX and vagus. X 11-20' Spinal nerves II First 12 Second 11 Third 14 Fourth Fifth 16 Sixth 17 Seventh 1&Eighth 19 Ninth 20iTenth 21' SCiatic nerve 21 Filumterminale 11 Sympathetic nerve cord 24 Sympathetic. ganglion 25 Ramus communicans 26 Spinal cord 17 Hypophysis lS, Infundibulum 19 Pituitary 10 Optic lobe 11 Optic chiasma 32 Cerebral hemisphere 13 Olfactory lobe 34 Eyeball

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