ADAT MASYARAKAT INDIA

Sebelum Majlis Perkahwinan Sebelum majlis perkahwinan berlangsung, terdapat beberapa perkara penting yang perlu dijalankan terlebih dahulu, antaranya : Kad Jemputan Kad jemputan memainkan peranan yang penting dalam perkahwinan masyarakat India. Kad jemputan ini dibuat berdasarkan almanak Hindu. Sekiranya terdapat kesilapan, bermakna perkahwinan tidak dapat dijalankan dengan lancar. Kad jemputan yang telah dicetak disapu dengan serbuk kunyit cair sebagai lambang keharmonian. Beberapa keping kad jemputan dalam bilangan ganjil akan dibawa bersama ke kuil untuk dibawa bersembahyang ( arccanai). Kad diletakkan di atas dulang bersama sirih, wang ringgit, kelapa, pinang dan sebagainya sebagai lambang kekayaan. Upacara ini dinamakan sebagai paanam paaku. Kemudian dulang akan dibawa ke rumah pengantin perempuan untuk diberi kepada pengantin lelaki dan begitulah sebaliknya. Pada masa yang sama sirih pinang akan diberikan sebagai tanda jemputan perkahwinan secara rasmi. Penyediaan Thaali ( Tjrumaanggalyam) Thaali atau tjirumaangalyam merupakan lambang suci perkahwinan yang dikalungkan pada leher kedua-dua pengantin. Pada thaali itu diikat segumpal benang putih yang disapu dengan kunyit. Terdapat pelbagai jenis thaal i yang digunakan oleh masyarakat India seperti lingath thaali, pottut thaali, tennant thaali dan sebagainya. Ini disebabkan terdapat pelbagai suku di kalangan masyarakat India. Adat penyediaan thaali ini dilakukan tujuh atau sembilan hari sebelum hari perkahwinan. Pihak lelaki akan membawa emas, cendana, kumkum, sirih pinang, kelapa dan bayaran u ntuk pembuat thaali. Ini adalah untuk memastikan tukang thaali mengetahui hari yang sesuai untuk membuat thaali. Tiga hari sebelum perkahwinan, thaali akan diambil dan diletakkan di tempat sembahyang atas suruhan pembuat thaali. Pihak pengantin adalah dila rang untuk menawar perkhidmatan yang dilakukan oleh pembuat thaali. Selepas itu upacara sembahyang dilakukan dan ini dinamakan sebagai thaalippadaiyal. Dalam upacara itu bubur manis dan nasi manis disediakan termasuklah dhoti dan sari untuk pasangan penga ntin. Secara umumnya thaali tidak diwajibkan diperbuat daripada emas. Ini kerana thaali masih boleh dibuat daripada kunyit yang dikatakan lebih selamat dan tidak dicuri orang. Mukuurtta Kaal Adat ini dilakukan lima hari sebelum hari perkahwinan dilangsun gkan. Adat mukuurtta kaal ini diadakan pada hari yang baik mengikut firasat masyarakat India. Untuk menjalankan adat tersebut sebatang pokok yang masih muda dan lurus akan ditebang untuk dijadikan mukurtta kaal. Batang pokok tersebut berukuran dua atau tig a meter dan mempunyai lilitan batang antara 20 hingga 30 sentimeter. Adat mendirikan mukuurtta kaal adalah sebagai menandakan perkahwinan akan dilangsungkan di rumah tersebut. Bahan -bahan lazim seperti sirih pinang, kum kum, kunyit dan sebagainya disediak an. Ahli-ahli keluarga pengantin akan bermohon pada Tuhan supaya perkahwinan dapat dilangsungkan tanpa gangguan. Batang kayu diambil dan dibersihkan serta dibuang kulitnya. Lima orang perempuan yang sudah berkahwin akan menyapukan kunyit cair dan kumkum pa da batang kayu tersebut dari pangkal hingga hujung. Kemudian hujung kayu diikat dengan daun ara atau mangga menggunakan kain bewarna merah. Kayu akan dipacak sedalam setengah meter dan bahan-bahan tadi akan dimasukkan ke dalam lubang tersebut sebagai lamba ng kekayaan. Kemudian upacara sembahyang dilakukan oleh pengantin beserta lima orang perempuan tersebut. Sebanyak sembilan jenis bijirin ditabur pada batang kayu dan lampu minyak dinyalakan. Pada masa yang sama pengantin berikrar akan menjaga alam sekitar sebagai lambang persahabatan dengan alam sekitar. Kebiasaannya adat mendirikan mukuurtta kaal dilakukan di rumah pengantin lelaki.

Thaali iaitu rantai suci perkahwinan hanya boleh ditanggal oleh seorang isteri setelah suamiya meninggal dunia. Sepanjang mayat berada di dalam rumah. Air tersebut diperolehi dari sungai. Mayat seterusnya dimandikan oleh orang yang tel ah berumur. si isteri hendaklah duduk di sebelah si mati dan dijirus dengan sebuyung air semasa mayat suaminya dimandikan. Mata dan mulut mayat juga perlu ditu tup rapat. tetapi kembali ke alam barzakh . Semasa Kematian Sekiranya seseorang itu telah meninggal dunia. Upacara Vaaikkarisi . Kaki dan tangan mayat perlu diluruskan. Ini dilakukan seolah -olah menunjukkan si suami membuangkan thaali dari leher balu. Belakang tapak tangan digunakan untuk menyapu minyak ini dan bukannya menggunakan tapak tangan sebagaimana lazimnya. Upacara Menanggalkan Thaali Thaali vaangutal merupakan upacara menanggalkan thaali semasa berlakunya sesebuah kematian dalam sesebuah keluarga. Setelah itu barulah si mati dibalut dengan menggunakan kain. tiruvaasakam dan seumpamanya dinyanyikan serta diimainkan sehingga ke tanah perkuburan. Sapuan minyak ini dilakukan oleh ahli keluarga dan diikuti oleh saudara mara terdekat. Mayat yang sudah dibersihkan itu akan diletakkan di ruang tamu sebagai langkah menghormati tetamu. Untuk melaksanakan upacara ini. Untuk menunjukkan kesedihan. pelbagai adat tertentu akan dilakukan. Buyung yang berisi air akan ditutup dengan menggunakan kain dhoti untuk mengelakkan habuk memasuki air tersebut.KEMATIAN Bagi masyarakat India. bun ga dan susu yang dibawa oleh seorang perempuan lain. gambar -gambar yang tergantung diterbalikkan dan barang -barang perhiasan dibawa keluar dari ruang tamu. Kepala mayat dihadapkan ke arah selatan dan sebuah lampu miny ak atau kaamaatci amman vilakku dipasang dinyalakan. perigi atau sumber -sumber air yang lain. Kemenyan dan kapur barus diasap sebagai simbol ketenangan jiwa si mati. Air mawar direnjis dan mayat turut diasapkan dengan kemenyan yang dibakar supaya tidak berbau. Kemudian sebiji kelapa terbelah dua dan sirih pinang diletakkan berhampiran si mati. si mati perlu dijaga dengan sebaiknya. Sebelum dimandikan. kecuali air paip. Tujuannya agar roh si mati sentisa tenang dan aman. minyak dan araippu digunakan untuk disapukan pada kepala sebagai mandian terak hir. mereka mempercayai konsep kela hiran semula. Kemudian bunga akan dikalungkan pada leher balu dan kemudian bunga tersebut dikalungkan pada si mati. Sirih pinang ditumbuk dan dimasukkan ke dalam mulut dan lubang hidung akan disumbatkan dengan kapas. Balu tersebut dikehendaki meletakkan kalungan bunga ke dalam dulang yang berisi minyak. si mati akan dipakaikan dengan pakaian baru iaitu sari bagi mayat perempuan dan dhoti bagi mayat lelaki. ibu jari tangan dan kaki diikat dengan kain putih dan diletakkan ke dada. Serbuk suci atau tiruniiru disapu pada dahi si mati sebelum disembahyang. mayat akan di bakar atau dikebumikan. Selepas dimandikan. mayat akan diletakkan di ruang tamu. Dalam masyarakat India. Dalam upacara tersebut. iaitu kematian adalah ibarat tidur dan mereka akan bangun selepas tidur. Lagu-lagu suci seperti teevaaram. Mayat akan dimandikan terlebih dahulu dan dibaringkan di atas katil di ruang tamu atau halaman r umah. Kaum lelaki yang mempunyai hubungan kekeluargaan dengan si mati sahaja boleh membawa air dalam jumlah yang ganjil. kunyit disapu pada mata untuk membunuh kuman dan seterusnya duit syiling diletakkan di atas dahi. di mana jasad akan hancur. Kaum wanita pula akan menyambut air tersebut yang digunakan untuk memandikan mayat. seterusnya seorang wanita yang sudah be rusia dan mempunyai hubungan kekeluargaan akan memegang tangan si mati sambil mengalungkan kalungan bunga ke leher balu dan proses ini dilakukan sebanyak tiga kali. Sarjana India juga menyatakan kematian adalah perpisahan roh dan jasad. Thaali itu seterusnya akan dimasukkan ke dalam dulang dan disimpan dalam rumah.

beras akan diarak dari kiri ke kanan.Setelah dimandi dan dihias dengan cantik. Ada juga yang memasukkan bijirin ke lubang tersebut. semua yang hadir perlu ke rumah si mati untuk upacara penyempurnaan adat pengebumian sebelum balik ke rumah. Sekiranya s i mati mempunyai cucu atau cicit. pada pusingan ketiga. Sebelum itu pembawa kollic catti dikehendaki mencukur rambut. Duit syiling yang diletakkan di dalam dulang yang sama dibalut dengan kain putih. Satu lubang akan dibuat di bahagian kepala dan susu akan dicurahkan pada lubang tersebut. Ada juga yang mencukur janggut atau misai sebagai menggantikan rambut. bahan-bahan tersebut ditabur dan setiap bahan -bahan tadi mempunyai perlambangan yang tersendiri. Keranda akan ditutup dan diangkat untuk dibawa ke tanah perkuburan. Oleh itu si mati dipercayai berada di dalam perut Dewi Bumi. C ucu atau cicit tersebut dikehendaki mengelilingi mayat mengikut lawan jam sebanyak tiga kali. Ini menunjukkan bahawa mereka akan hidup lebih bahagia seperti rambut yang baru tumbuh. biji sawi dan bijan. mereka dikehendaki memegang neippantam. Kemudian keranda diletakkan bersebelahan dengan kubur bagi mayat yang dikebumikan atau diletakkan di atas kayu api unyuk dibakar. Ini dilakukan oleh kaum perempuan sahaja. Kemudian ke dalam mulut mayat akan dimasukkan sedikit makanan sebagai menandakan pemberian terakhir dan inilah yang dinamakan vaaikkarisi. Keranda akan dige rakkan beberapa kali sebelum menghampiri liang lahad. Setelah mayat dikebumikan. Ini adalah seperti pergerakan bayi yang berada di dalam kandungan. Pada masa yang sama lagu -lagu suci dimainkan. Pengebumian Mayat orang India akan diusung ke tanah perkuburan dengan menggunakan pengusung. Pada masa yang sama sebuah nyiru diisikan dengan bahan -bahan seperti padi goreng. Setelah itu upacara sembahyang dilakukan oleh semua yang berada di situ. Upacara vaaikkarisi akan dilakukan oleh kaum lelaki di tanah perkuburan pula. Kemudian tiga batang kayu yang menyala diba kar dan disusun ke tanah satu persatu. Seseorang yang membawa kollic catti mengiringi mayat. Anak sulung melakukan untuk bapa yang telah meni nggal dunia dan anak bongsu untuk ibu. satu bentuk manusia akan dilukis di atas kubur. Kapur barus dimasukkan bersama supaya mayat tidak berbau. Pergerakan dimulakan dengan dengan mengubah bahagaian kaki ke kubur dan kemudian bahagian kepala. mayat akan dimasukkan ke dalam keranda. pengusung perlu membayar duit kepada penyelenggara sebagai upah mengorek liang lahad. Pembawa Kollic catti atau buyung dikehendaki mengelilingi mayat sebanyak tiga kali menurut arah jam. Sebelum dimasukkan ke dalam mulut mayat. Kollic Catti Kollic catti bermaksud periuk tanah liat yang me ngandungi api. Kollic catti dibawa oleh ahli keluarga si mati samada anak ataupun bapa. Periuk tersebut diangkat dengan menggunakan pelepah kelapa yang dibelah tiga di bahagian hujung dan diikat pada periuk. Kemudian diikuti oleh pengurus m ayat yang akan menebuk kollic catti dengan menyebut 'sorkam seer. lalu diambil oleh pengurus kubur sebagai tanda keizinan mayat dikebumikan. Beberapa batang kayu kecil akan dibalut di bahagian hujung dengan menggunakan kain yang disapu dengan minyak sapi dan dinyalakan. Apabila tiba di tanah perkuburan. justeru itu kaum perempuan amat dilarang turut serta ke tanah perkuburan. kaiulaasam seer' berulang kali. Duit syiling dimasukkan ke dalam dhoti dan diletakkan di antara kaki mayat. pembawa kollic catti berada di hadapan mayat dan duduk melutut tetapi tidak menghadap mayat. Saudara mara yang terdekat akan memberi sari atau dhoti kepada si mati sebagai hadiah terakhir. pada masa yang sama ucapan tenna adudaiya shinanee pottri disebut beberapa kali sebagai menandakan upacara tersebut telah direstui oleh tuhan. Ahli -ahli keluarga akan mengelilingi mayat mengikut lawan jam sebanyak tiga kali sebagai tanda penghormatan. Neip bermaksud minyak sapi dan pantam adalah obor. Upacara ini dilakukan untuk mengurangkan kesedihan keluarga si mati. Makanan yang akan dimasukkan ke dalam mulut mayat berupa beras yang diletakkan di dalam sebuah dulang dan diletakkan berhampiran kepala mayat. Sepanjang perjalanan. Selesai upacara tersebut. .

Membawa Bayi Pulang Ke Rumah Bayi yang dilahirkan di hospital akan dibawa pulang ke rumah pada hari ketiga. Ia bertujuan untuk membawa rahmat kepada bayi tersebut. Bahan -bahan ini dimasukkan bersama untuk mengelak dari dikorek oleh binatang liar dan tidak digunakan oleh ahli sihir. Menyapu Madu Bayi yang baru dilahirkan juga akan disapu madu bercampur minyak sapi pada lidahnya. sirih dan kapur barus yang dinyalakan diangkat dan diputar tiga kali mengikut arah jam dan juga lawan jam. serbuk kunyit. Bisikan nama Tuhan pada telinga bayi adalah untuk membolehkan bayi tadi mendengar nama Tuhan sebelum mendengar apa -apa yang lain. Seterusnya para cumanggali akan mencelupkan ibu jarinya ke dalam dulang tersebut dan mencalitkan ke dahi ibu dan anak. Mandi Selepas Bersalin . sami atau sesiapa sahaja yang berpengetahuan tinggi mengenai agama Hindu akan membisikkan Gayatri Mantiram iaitu sejenis mantera Tuhan di telinga bayi sebelum tali pusat dipotong. Madu pula dikatakan dapat melembutkan lidah bayi dan memudahkan bayi bertutur. fizikal dan rohani bayi sehingga dewasa. Ia bertujuan untuk mengelakkan bala atau sebarang malapetaka dariapada berlaku. Sebelum bayi dibawa ma suk ke rumah upacara aalati dilakukan. Kegunaan minyak ini dipercayai boleh membawa kec antikan dan supaya bayi tidak diserang sebarang penyakit. arang. kelima. Namun begitu adat ini disesuaikan dengan hanya membisikkannya sebaik sahaja melihat bayi tersebut kerana perubatan moden tidak membenarkan sesiapa memasuki bilik bersalin. ketujuh dan sebagainya iaitu pada bilangan hari ganjil. Setitik minyak bijan yang dicampur dengan sedikit susu ibu dan disapu ke mulut bayi akan bertindak menjadi pelawas dal am sistem penghadaman dan membantu tumbesaran bayi tersebut. Membisikkan Nama Tuhan Sebaik sahaja bayi dilahirkan. dulang yang mengandungi serbuk kunyit. minyak lenga dan mambu juga kadangkala digunakan. kapur sirih yang dicairkan. garam dan pinang. isi dulang aalati dibuang. Bagi upacara aalati ini. Setelah ibu dan anak masuk ke dalam rumah.KELAHIRAN Semasa Bersalin Waktu kelahiran adalah penting bagi masyarakat India dimana ia akan dicatat dengan tepat bagi menentukan bintang bayi mengikut almanak Hindu. Di samping madu. air gula juga boleh digunakan. Dulang juga dilambai sebanyak tiga kali. Bintang bayi ini akan menentukan mental. Minyak savvennai yang merupakan campuran minyak bijan. Potong Tali Pusat Tali pusat yang dipotong akan ditanam bersama uri dan tembuni di sekitar kawasan rumah bersama duit tembaga.

Selesai dimandikan. Memberi Nama Sebaik sahaja bayi berusia enam belas hari. urutan perlahan dilakukan pada tubuh bayi dan t ulang belakang bayi supaya tidak bengkok. selsema dan juga untuk menyegarkan tubuh badan selepas bersalin. ibu yang baru bersalin tidak dibenarkan mandi selama dua minggu atas sebab -sebab kesihatan akibat fizikal ibu yang lemah kerana pembedahan dan kesan kelahiran. kening dan telinga turut diurut. mereka diasingkan dari ahli keluarga yang lain di sebuah bilik khas yang sentiasa dijaga kebersihannya. Bagi dua minggu pertama. orang luar dilarang melawat mereka kecuali untuk tujuan perubatan. Upacara dimulakan dengan ucapan aaraaro aariraro atau cerita-cerita nasihat. nenek moyang serta yang berkaitan dengan agama Hindu juga dipilih bagi bayi tersebut kerana nama yang dipilih ini akan mempengaruhi perwatakannya kelak. Beberapa bahan seperti serbuk kunyit. Rambut ibu akan dikeringkan dengan segera dengan asap kemenyan bagi mengelak kan sakit kepala. upacara pemberian nama dilakukan. Ia dilakukan dengan memasukkan bayi ke dalam buaian dan dikendalikan oleh ahli keluarga yang tertua yang a rif tentang agama dan perkara yang berkaitan dengan dewa-dewa. . Upacara mendodoi ini juga dikenali sebagai taalaattu bermaksud penggoyangan lidah. Beberapa herba dan dedaun seperti aadatoodai dididihkan bersama air. kas -kas dan kacang hijau yang ditumbuk digunakan sebagai pembersih badan bayi bertujuan untuk mengelakkan penyakit kulit dan melicinkan kulit bayi. Ketika bayi dimandikan. Akhir sekali bayi akan dibedung dengan kain bertujuan untuk meluruskan anggota badan bayi. Jika proses bersalin secara pembedahan. Bagi tujuan kecantikan. Upacara dimulakan dengan mengadakan upacara sembahyang sebagai tanda kesyukuran. Terdapat juga upacara memuja Dewi Pecciyamman dan Dewi Kaatteeri dilakukan oleh segelintir masyarakat India. Ia bertujuan untuk mengelak penyakit sawan atau kuning. bayi ditonggengkan dengan mengangkat kedua belah kaki sambil menepuk bahagian punggung untuk mengeluarkan kahak. minyak bijan. Nama-nama yang dipilih lazimnya berdasarkan almanak dengan mengikut tarikh kelahiran bayi. Saudara mara yang hadir akan memberi pelbagai hadiah dan upacara diakhiri dengan jamuan dan upacara sembahyang bagi mendoakan kesejahteraan bayi. si ibu akan mandi selang sehari selepas bersalin. Bagi i bu yang bersalin normal. Nama -nama tokoh sejarawan. Bayi kemudiannya dimasukkan ke dalam buaia n dan namanya diumumkan pada orang ramai. Air tersebut digunakan untuk mandi. Namun amalan ini semakin berkurangan dilakukan dan hanya diamalkan oleh generasi tua sahaja. Susu juga digunakan sebagai bahan utama untuk melembutkan kulit bayi. Setelah itu bayi diasapkan dengan asap kemenyan.Apabila bayi dan ibu kembali ke rumah. Ia bertujuan agar bayi tersebut menjadi seorang yang berguna. telur rebus. Bayi pula kebiasaanya dimandikan pada waktu petang oleh seorang wanita yang berpengalaman. ikan kering dan sebagainya. hidung. dan disapu dengan bedak yang diperbuat dari tepung beras supaya tidak dihinggapi ruam. Up acara pemujaan dilakukan dengan membersihkan sekeliling rumah dan memasang lampu minyak di keliling rumah. Mendodoi Bayi Amalan mendodoi bayi merupakan upacara yang paling penting dalam masyarakat India. Mandian ini dilakukan dengan menyiram ke seluruh badan bayi dengan menggunakan ai r suam yang kadangkala dicampur dengan bahan -bahan herba. Bahan bahan persembahan juga disediakan seperti kari ayam betina.

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an respected industry consultant. Despite the strong role of religion in Indian life. It is a system under which extended members of a family ± parents. Islam is practiced by around 13% of all Indians. Important family relations extend as far as gotra. Judaism and the Bahá'í Faith are also influential but their numbers are smaller. particularly in [11] cities. The [11] patriarch often resolves family issues. ± live together. He also mentions that from an [11] early age.5 or 2. many fami ies especially in urban areas. also known as Dharmic religions are a major form of world religions along withAbrahamic ones. and other family members abide by them. India. Dharmic religions. India is one of the most religiously diverse nations in the world. Hinduism and Buddhism are the world's third. [edit] Family Main articles: Hindu joint family. Christianity. India has had a prevailing tradition of the joint family system. children. However. In rural areas & sometime in urban areas as well.and fourth-largest religions respectively. Religion still plays a central and definitive role in the life of m any of its people. it is s [11] common that three or four generations of the family live under the same roof. a far more powerful division isthe traditional Hindu bifurcation into non-polluting and polluting occupations[11] Strict social taboos have . India is also the birthplace for theLingayat and Ahmadiyya faiths. the mainly patrilinear lineage or clan [11] assigned to a Hindu at birth.[10] Sikhism. Family plays a significant role in the Indian culture.Clo -up of a statu dep ctingMaitreya at the Thikse Monastery in Ladakh. Jainism and especially Buddhism areinfluential not only in India but across the world.[11] However. the chil dren¶s spouses and their offspring. in recent times. According to Eugene M. with over 2 billion [6][7][8] and possibly as many as 2. The religion of 80% of the people is Hinduism. children are reminded of their roles and places in society. in have l 1 0 0) . etc. A bride during a traditionalHindu wedding ceremony in Punjab. some of these lines have blurred and sometimes even disappeared. Buddhism. Today.[4] Main articles: Religion in India and Indian religions India is the birth place of Hinduism.[5] Indian religions.6 billion followers. He makes all important decisions and rules. Usually. Zoroastrianism. atheism and agnostics also have visible influence along with a self -ascribed tolerance to other people. For generations.Jainism and Sikhism. [6][9] followers altogether. This is reinforced by the fact that many believe gods and spirits have an integral and [11] functional role in determining their life. [11] governed these groups for thousands of years. collectively known as Indian religions. the eldest male member is the head in the joint Indian family system. In recent years. traditional Indian culture is defined by relatively strict social hierarchy. Arranged marriage in India and Women in India . with some of the most deeply religious societies and cultures. such asHinduism and Buddhism. Several differences such as religion divide the culture. are indigenous to India. Makar.

Main article: Festivals in India India. the Republic Day and the Gandhi Jayanti. it means "I bow to you". Even today. [13] In India.[14] The arranged marriages generally have a much lower divorce rate. social standing . and (te): "to you". However. [edit] Festivals Radha and gopikas celebrating Holi. They also demand dowry. personal values and tastes. Namaskar or Namaskara or Namaskaram. their astrological compatibility of the couples'horoscopes. Namaskar is considered a slightly more formal version than Namaste but both express deep respect. in literal terms Namaste refers to 'That which is of God in me bows to that which is of God in you'. 2 2 2 3 . The threenational holidays in India. Taken literally. reverential salutation. arranged marriages have been the tradition in Indian society. the same hands fol ed gesture is made d usually wordlessly upon departure. with the consent of the bride and groom. the marriage is thought to be for life. many states and regions have local festivals depending on prevalent religious and linguistic demographics. As explained by an Indian scholar. height. and many continue to use this outside the Indian subcontinent. celebrates holidays and festivals of various religions. the vast majority of Indians have their marriages planned by their parents and other respected family -members. and respect. which has been outlawedby the Indian government. being a multi-cultural and multi-religious society. but Indian society and culture still promotes and maintains it. for some modernists. Jains. They get around by not letting the [12] authorities know the arrangements of money. are celebrated with zeal and enthusiasm across India. In Indian and Nepali culture. Holi." [edit] Namaste Namaste.1% compared with about 50% in theUnited States. Diwali. In addition. [edit] Marriage For centuries. The divorce rates have risen significantly in recent years: " pinion is divided over what the phenomenon means: for traditionalists the rising numbers portend the breakdown of society while. Buddhists and Sikhs. the castes and the backgrounds of their families (wealth. The word is derived from Sanskrit (namah): to bow. Arranged matches are made after taking into account factors such as age. obeisance. Vanakkam (Tamil or Asssalamu alaikum (Urdu / Persian Sat Shri Akal (Punjabi) is a common spoken greeting or salutation in the Indian subcontinent. the Independence Day. [15] they speak of a healthy new empowerment for women. and the divorce rate is extremely low ² 1.stopped abiding by the extended family system and have started living as a nuclear family. known as the "festival of colors". Durga puja. the word is spoken at the beginning of written or verbal communication. It is commonly used in India and Nepal by Hindus. Ganesh Chaturthi. Popular religious festivals include the Hindu festivals ofNavratri.

Names are al o influenc awide variety of l nguages. he woul be taking food whic woul A 4 6 57 584 7 A 4 55 7 7 57 4 7 55 7 4 4 6 A4 [ it] Cuisine 87 54 4 5 4 4 4 6 7 4 8 A 76 7 84A 6 54 A8 7 A 6 A 54 4 5 44 S al o: Wil life of India. 4 Cows depicted in the decorated goppuram of the Kap l 6544 7 5 A4 [ it] Animal warar templ in Chennai. the cow is regarded as a symbol ofahimsa (non-viol nc ). I l mic festival . ttva. whic is the easternmost state of India. S S tva whic stand for bal nc . mother goddess [17] and bringer of good fortune and wealth. whic is c l ted by Hindus. Pongal and Onam. Adding colors to nd the culture of India. India's wil life has been the subj ct of numerous other tal and fabl suc as thePanc tantra and the Jataka tal . ted by Buddhists and Hindus. ' M in articl : Indian cuisine The Food in India is cl ified into three major c tegories. from the Indian epic . whic vary by religion and c te and may come from region to region. For exampl : A indulgenc . The word has been al o made famous in The Jungl Book by Rudy Kipling. suc as Guru Nanak Jay nti. and Thamas stands for on. theDree Festival is one of the tribal festival of India c l ted by the Ap tanis of the Ziro vall y ofArunac l Pradesh. Notabl exampl Certain festival in India are c l include Diwali. India's popul tion sp The varied and ric wil life of India has had a p ofound imp ct on the region's popul ness in India isJungl whic was adopted by the culture. Common name for wil British colonialists to the English l nguage. Food is consumed according to the lifestyl of the p King has to be aggressive to defend his c ountry. Sikhs and Jains. For this reason. Animal husbandry in India and Cattl in religion . Indian names are based on a variety of sy tems andnaming conventions. cows are revered in Hindu [18] culture and feeding a cow is seen as an act of worship. suc Eid ul-Fitr. ted by multipl religions. Baiskhi are c l ted with full fanfare by Sikhs a Hindu. Raj stands for p ion.[16] In Hinduism.Rakshabandhan and Dussehra. are c l ted by Muslims ac oss India."Nuakhai" are al o fairly popul . S veral harvest festival . Eid aland c l Ramadan. 6 57 7 5B 4 A4 7 5 57 5 A4 [ it] Names and l nguage 7894 4 76A@ 54 4 6 7 5 5 6 6 6 5 5 4 76 87 8 7 5 7894 4 7894 4 4 4 5 7894 4 894 4 7 6 5 7 7 7 7894 4 7 7 . suc as S nkranthi. and Tamas. Sikh Festival . and Buddh Purnima. Raj .

Each family of this cuisine is characterized by a wide assortment of dishes and cooking techniques.[21] The popularity of curry. Uttar Pradeshi thali (platter) withNaan bread. such asVasco da Gama and Christopher Columbus. Varied uses of spices are an integral part of food preparation. many traditional Indian dishes also include:chicken. and other meats.give much passion and that aggressiveness which is required. like consumption of Alcohol. The Spice trade between India and Europe led to the rise and dominance of Arab traders to such an extent that European explorers. Historically. Shahi paneer. enjoy widespread popular ity. This the is reason why in many Indians try to abstain drinking. across Asia has often led to the dish being labeled as the "pan -Asian" dish. southern. Daal. eastern. such aschicken tikka made with Indian ingredients. he would prefer a Satvic food or known as Sattvic diet. Indian cuisine can be split into 5 categories northern.[22] [edit] Clothing . which would help to keep his mind in balance. The multiple varieties of Indian cuisine are characterized by their sophisticated and subtle use of many Spices and Herbs. Cuisine across India has also been influenced by various cultural groups that entered India throughout history. fish. and are used to enhance he flavor of a dish and t create unique flavors and aromas. reflecting the varied ² demographics of the country. some unifying threads emerge. such as the Persians. lamb. and Salad. When a person tries to lead his life in want of self realisaiton. Kheer is a traditional Indian sweet dish. Though the tandoor originated in Central Asia. Indian cuisine varies from region to region. Generally. Despite this diversity. set out to find new trade routes with India leading to the Age of Discovery. western and north -eastern. Indian tandoori dishes.[19] [20] Indian cuisine is one of the most popular cuisines across the globe. Though a significant portion of Indian food is vegetarian. Thamasic food or known as Static foods is to be taken only if its required. Indian Spices and Herbs were one of the most sought after trade commodities. India is known for its love for food andspices. and European colonists. goat. Mughals. which originated in India. Raita. and it plays a role ineveryday life as well as in festivals.

Draped clothing styles remained popular with India's Hindu population while the [31] Muslims increasingly adopted tailored garments. in addition.[30] Stitched clothing in India was developed before 10th [30] century AD and was further popularized in 15th century by Muslim empires in India.[26] Traditionally.[24] Since India's weather is mostly hot and rainy.[27] India's clothing styles have continuously evolved over the course of the country's history. During the British Raj. are also popular. the red bindi (orsindoor) was worn only by the married Hindu women. Indian independence movement leader Mahatma Gandhi successfully advocated for what he . Traditional clothing in India greatly varies across different parts of the country and is influenced immensely by local culture. Popular styles of dress include draped garme nts such as sari for women and dhoti or lungi for men. Ancient Vedic texts mention clothes made from barks and leaves (kn wn as o phataka). India's large clothing and handicrafts industry was left paralyzed so as to make place for British industrial cloth. Some Indian traditions consider thebindi to be representative of thethird eye. a person's social status is perceived to be symbolized by his or her attire. muslins manufactured in southern India were imported by the Roman Empire and silk cloth was one of the major exports of ancient India along with Indian spices. majority of Indians wear sandals. geography and climate.Illustration of different styles ofSari & clothing worn by women in India.[29] By 2nd century AD.[23] Most Indian clothes are made fromcotton which is ideal for the region's hot weather. the bindi is considered to be a highly auspicious mark in Hindu religion. The 11th century BC Rig-veda mentions dyed and embroidered garments (known as paridhan and pesas respectively) and thus highlights the development of [28] sophisticated garment m anufacturing techniques during the Vedic age. Indian dress etiquette discourages exposure of skin and wearing transparent or tight clothes.[25] Worn by women on their foreh ead. In 5th century BC. In India. Greek historian Herodotus describes the richness of the quality of Indian cotton clothes. stitched clothes such aschuridar for women and kurta-pyjama and Europeanstyle trousers and shirts for men. but now it has become a part of women's fashion. Consequently.

1. the Satavahana and Kadamba periods and hence has a history of over 2000 years. i e . measuring the dates of Vedas came in later days. pura . The calendar which most Indians follows goes in accordance to this. After a scribal benediction (" r ga é yanama ... Aum(3) .[38][39] Tam l.[36] Part of the Eastern Indo-Aryan languages. have borrowed many words t -Aryan either directly from Sanskrit ( atsama words).[33] [edit] Languages and literature [edit] H story Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari. The Vedic accent is marked by underscores and vertical overscores in red.termed as khadi clothing ² light colored hand -woven clothes ² so as to decrease [32] reliance of the Indian people on British industrial goods.1. Kannada is attested ep grap cally from the m d literary Old Kannada flourished in the 9th to 10th centuryRashtrakuta Dynasty. In Ancient India the time was divided in Four yugas. increasing involvement of women in the fashion industry and changing Indian attitudes towards multiculturalism. C CD C C C C C C C CD C C CD C C C C . one of India's major classical languages. Munda languages and Dravidian languages. and one of the earliest attested members of theIndo-European language fam ly the fam ly which includes .H ndi. Preold Kannada (or Purava HaleGannada) was the language ofBanavasi in the early Common Era. There by. all modern Indo-Aryan languages. the Rigvedic Sanskrit is one of the oldest attestations of anyIndo-Iranian language. early 19th century. India's most spoken language. deva . yajñasya . Time is always referred as Kaala C hakra in India.[41] Another major Dravidian -1st m llennium AD.[37] and the literary forms of (Dravidian)Telugu. Sanskrit has had a profound impact on the languages and literature of India."). the first line has the opening words of RV. These developments played a p votal role in the fusion of Indian and Western clothing styles.[36] Words originating in Sanskrit are estimated to constitute roughly fifty percent of the vocabulary of modern Indo -Aryan languages. is a "Sanskritized register" of theKhariboli dialect. tvija ). Tam l literature has existed for over two thousandyears[40] and the earliest ep grap c records found date from around the third century BC.ta . Malayalam and Kannada.1 (agni . the Bengali language arose from the eastern M ddle Indic languages and its roots are traced to the 5th century BC Ardhamagadhi language. or indirectly via m ddle Indo languages (tadbhava words). descends from Proto-Dravidian languages which was spoken around the third m llennium BC in peninsular India. In addition. The 1980s was marked by a widespread modification to Indian clothing fashions which was characterized by a large-scale growth of fashion sc hools in India. [34] With its oldest core dating back to as early as 1500 BC.[42][43][44][45] The Ashoka rock edictfound at Brahmagiri (dated to 230 BC) has [46] been suggested to contain a word in identifiable Kannada. [35] English and most European languages. and language.

Ravana. four in Malayalam. Manuscript illustration of theBattle of Kurukshetra -known epics of The R m ya a and the Mah bh rata are the oldest preserved and well India.[47] In contemporary Indian literature.Hindi is the most spoken language in India.According to 2001 India census. there are five major epics in the classica Tamil language ² l Silappatikaram. Telugu. Seven Jnanpith awards each have been awarded in Kannada.. six in Hindi. Malaysia and Indonesia. Urdu and Oriya and two in Tamil. 4th c. followed by Bengali. Kannada Pampa Bharata. This epic played a pivotal role in establishing the role of dhárma as a [50] principal ideal guiding force for Hindu way of life.000 verses in seven books (k as) and 500 cantos (sargas). Gujarati. Valayapathi and Kundalakesi. there are two major literary awards. as well as unrelated epics include the TamilRamavataram.[49] and tells the story of Rama (anincarnation of the Hindu preserver -god Vishnu). AD).[51] Other regional variations of these. [edit] Performing arts [edit] Dance Main article: Dance in India . Versions have been adopted as the epics of Southeast Asian countries like Thailand. The Ramayana consists of 24.[48] [edit] Epics . Civaka-cintamani. In addition to these two great Indian epics. The earliest parts of the [50] Mahabharata text date to 400 BC and is estimated to have reached its final form by the early Gupta period (ca. whose wife Sita is abducted by thedemon king of Lanka. five in Bengali. Manimekalai. and Malayalam Adhyathmaramayanam. these are theSahitya Akademi Fellowshipand the Jnanpith Award. Hindi Ramacharitamanasa. three each in Marathi. Marathi and Tamil.

in descending order. Mandra and Atisw r. kathakali and mohiniattam of Kerala. and The music of India includes multiple varieties of religious.[54] N ty ch rya M ni M dhava Ch ky r is credited for reviving the age old drama tradition from extinction. These refer to the notes of a flute. and Drama. One of the oldest surviving theatre traditions of he world is the 2.000 are known today. kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh. have been accorded classical dance statusby India's National Academy of Music.000 songs in the Kannada language. Vikramorva ya and M lavik gnimitra. Among the well. which was the only fixed frequency instrument.[59][60][61] He concluded his songs with a salutation to Lord Purandara Vittala and is believed to have composed as many as 475. India's classical music tradition is heavily influenced by Hindu texts. the ghoomar of Rajasthan. These principles were refined in then tya stra (200 BC) and the dattilam (300 AD).000 year t old Kutiyattam of Kerala.[58] Purandaradasa is considered the "father of carnatic music" Karnataka sangeeta ( pitamaha). He was known for mastery ofRasa Abhinaya. pop. the dandiya and garba of Gujarat. Dance.[55][56] [edit] Music Main article: Music of India folk.the Odishi of Orissa. It strictly follows theNatya Shastra. sung to a rhythmic cycle ortala. the chhau of Jharkhand. only about 1. It includes two distinct styles: Carnatic and Hindustani music. which were named. The oldest preserved examples of Indian music are the melodies of the Samaveda that are still sung in certain Vedic rauta sacrifices.[52][53] [edit] Drama and theater Main article: Theatre in India Indian drama and theater has a long history alongside its music and dance. Kalidasa's plays like Shakuntala and Meghadoota are some of the older plays. the bihu of Assam. Bhasa's Swapnav savadatta and Panchar tra. He started to perform the Kalidasa plays like Abhijñ na kuntala. Dwitiya. many with narrative forms andmythological elements. odissi of the state of Odisha and the sattriya of Assam. the Yakshagana of Karnataka and lavani of Maharashtra and Dekhnni of Goa. Tritiya. kathak of Uttar Pradesh. S The earliest account of Indian musical hymns is found in the 1000 BC maveda. Harsha's Nagananda. following those of Bhasa. classical music. Chaturth. Pratham.nown folk dances are the bhangra of the Punjab. Eight dance forms. These are: bharatanatyam of the state of Tamil Nadu. asKrusht. Panchavadyam temple music in Kerala. E . popular.Odissi performer from Odisha Indian dance too has diverse folk and classical forms. Both the Hindustani classical music and the Carnatic classical musicsystems are based on the melodic mode (known asR ga).[57] It proposed a tonal structure consisting of seven notes.[62] [59][63] However. manipuri of Manipur.

Prominent contemporary Indian musical forms includedfilmi and Indipop. Mysore Palace has on display a few good Indian paintings. Mughal painting are some notable Genres of Indian Art.[64] Indipop is one of the most popular contemporary styles of Indian music which is either a fusion ofIndian folk. Geeta Vadhera. Madhubani painting. classical or Sufi music with Western musical traditions. S. [edit] Sculpture . Husain. The earliest Indian paintings were the rock paintings ofpre-historic times. M. and accounts for more than 70 percent of all music sales in the country. primarily Bollywood. Jamini Roy and B. Rajput painting. Atul Dodiya. Bagh. international recognition. Bose Krishnamacnahri. the petroglyphst it was common for households to paint their doorways or indoor rooms where guests resided. These recent artists have acquired . Filmi refers to the wide range of music written and performed for mainstreamIndian cinema. Ellora and Sittanavasal and temple paintings testify to a love of naturalism. Most early and medieval art in India is Hindu. A freshly made coloured flour design Rangoli) is still a common sight outside ( Raja Ravi Varma is one the the doorstep of many (mostly South Indian) Indian homes. Buddhist or Jain. F. whileNandalal Bose. Tanjore painting. Cave paintings from Ajanta. Jehangir Art Gallery Mumbai. H. Mysore painting. Raza. classical painters from medieval India. Devajyoti Ray and Shibu Natesan represent a new era of Indian artwhere global art shows direct amalgamation with Indian classical styles.[65] [edit] Visual arts Main article: Indian art [edit] Painting Main article: Indian painting The Jataka tales from Ajanta Caves.Venkatappa[66] are some modern painters. Among the present day artists.

These styles and others elsewhere in India evolved leading to classical Indian art that contributed to Buddhist and Hindu sculpture throughout Southeast Central and East Asia. such as the one at Ellora were not constructed by using blocks but carved out of solid rock. [edit] Architecture Main article: Architecture of India F . Duringthe Gupta period (4th to 6th century) sculpture reached a very high standard in execution and delicacy in modeling. Main article: Sculpture in India Marble Sculpture of female. schist.The 5th century Buddhistvishvakarma cave at Ellora. India produced some extremely intricate bronzes as well as temple carvings. Maharashtra.oman influence. and Jainism developed further. in stucco. Rajasthan The first sculptures in India date back to theIndus Valley civilization. The pink sandstone sculptures of Mathura evolved almost simultaneously. ca 1450. or clay. Buddhism. display a very strong blend of Indian and ClassicalHellenistic or possibly even Greco. Sculptures produced in the northwest. Later. where stone and bronze figures have been discovered. as Hinduism. Some huge shrines.

Indian architecture encompasses a multitude of expressions over space and time. rooms. Konark. Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple at Srirangam. such as the exact directions in which various objects. the Taj Mahal in Agra is a prime example of Indo-Islamic architecture. Brihadeeswara Temple Thanjavur. b . (also called life -force or Prana in Sanskrit and Chi/Ki in Chinese/Japanese). The Umaid Bhawan Palace in Rajasthan. Feng Shui is m ore commonly used throughout the world. constantly absorbing new ideas. it differs in the details.[67] Considered to be an "unrivaled architectural wonder". several Buddhist architectural complexes. architecture. such as the caves of Ajanta and Ellora and the monumental Sanchi Stupa were built. one of the largest private residences in the world. as they are built in styles almost identical to traditional Indian religious buildings. materials. influencing town planning. Religion and kingship do not seem to have played an important role in the planning and layout of these towns. South India produced several Hindu temples like Chennakesava Temple at Belur. Later on. Some of its earliest production are found in the Indus Valley Civilization (2600 ±1900 BC) which is characterised by well planned cities and houses. the Sun Temple. but they contain certain similarities.[68] The traditional system ofVaastu Shastra serves as India's version ofFeng Shui. are to e placed. The result is an evolving range of architectural production that nonetheless retains a certain amount of continuity across history. the Hoysaleswara Templeat Halebidu. and . (Chinna Lanja dibba and Vikramarka kota dibba) at Borobudur and otherBuddhist and Hindu temples indicate strong Indian influence on South East Asian architecture. It is unclear which system is older. Angkor Wat. During the period of the Mauryan and Gupta empires and their successors. Though Vastu is conceptually similar to Feng Shui in that it also tries to harmonize the flow of energy. the Kesava Temple at Somanathapura. and ergonomics. and the Buddha stupa Bhattiprolu. through the house. etc.

The southern temple gate. and the various modern urban developments of India likeChandigarh. TheIndia national cricket team won the 1983 Cricket World Cupand the 2007 ICC World Twenty20 and shared . BCCI conducts the Indian Premier League. The central spire is also sometimes called avimanam.[69][70][71][72] where its early form in the 6th century was known as Other games which originated in India and continue to remain popular in wide parts of northern India include Kabaddi. Gol Gumbaz. and Kho kho. are notable. Taj Mahal. and are often used as the stereotypical symbols of India. Contemporary Indian architect ure is more cosmopolitan. or gopuram is noted for its intricacy and majesty. and theIndia national field hockey teamwon the 1975 Men's Hockey World Cup and 8 gold. Indian architecture was adapted to allow the traditions of the new religion. Indian architecture has influenced eastern and southeastern Asia. [edit] Sports and Martial arts Main article: Sports in India The annual Snake boat raceis performed during Onam Celebrations on the Pamba River at Aranmula near Pathanamthitta. In addition. a Twenty20 competition. Red Fort of Delhi are creations of this era. Gilli-danda. Mumbai'sNariman Point is famous for its Art Deco buildings. Recent creations such as the Lotus Temple. Field Hockey is the national Sport in India.Fatehpur Sikri. due to the spread of Buddhism. temple spire or sikhara. have become famous symbols of Asian culture. Cities are extremely compact and densely populated. India is the host of 2010 Commonwealth Games. the Irani Trophy and the Challenger Series. the 2002 ICC Champions Trophywith Sri Lanka. Chess is commonly believed to have originated in northwestern India during the Gupta chaturanga. [edit] Indian martial arts Main article: Indian martial arts . played in New Delhi. empire. Cricket is the most popular Sport in India. temple tower or pagoda and temple gate or torana. Qutub Minar.With the advent of Islamic influence from the west. the Deodhar Trophy. such as European Gothic. and mixing of several other styles. It hosted a spectacular display of Indian culture and heritage to the entire world during the opening ceremony of the games. A number of Indian architectural features such as the temple mound or stupa. used extensively in East Asia and South East Asia. the Duleep Trophy. Domestic competitions include theRanji Trophy. 1 silver and 2 bronze medals at the Olympic games. The colonial rule of the British Empire saw the development of Indo-Saracenic style. The Victoria Memorial or the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminusare notable examples. Traditional southern Indian games include Snake boat raceand Kuttiyum kolum.

various stages of physical training includeayurvedic massage with sesame oil to impart suppleness to the body ( uzichil).[75] Silambam is unique among Indian martial arts because it uses complex footwork techniques kaaladi). one of the oldest and most prominent forms of Indian martial arts. Indian martial arts techniques have had a profound impact on other martial arts styles across Asia. [77] physical and spiritual training. as well as finger movements in thenata dances. a series of sharp body movements so as t gain control o over various parts of the body miapayattu). A distinctive factor of Indian martial arts is the heavy emphasis laid [78] on meditation (dhy na) as a tool to remove fear. The ancient Tamil Sangam literature mentions that between 400 BC and 600 AD. traces its roots to the Sangam period in southern India. Indian Buddhist monk Bodhidharma was one of the main founders of theShaolin Kungfu. the m ya a and Mah bh rata. which was later used in martial arts. the Dhanur Veda tradition was an influential fighting arts style which considered th bow and the arrow to be the e supreme weapons. In this form martial arts. This ancient fighting style originated in southern India in 12th century BC and [73] is regarded as one of the oldest surviving martial arts. According to some historical accounts. were later [79] incorporated into various martial arts.[80] [edit] Popular media . One of the best known forms of ancient Indian martial arts is the Kalarippayattu from Kerala. and. the musti yuddha evolved in 1100 AD and focussed on mental. sword (val) and shield (kedaham). which was developed around 200 AD. In addition. doubt and anxiety. A bamboo staff is used as the main weapon. including a variety of spinning ( [75] styles. The 3rd century BCYoga Sutras of Patanjalitaught how to meditate single-mindedly on points located inside one's body.[74] Silambam. complex sword fighting techniques ( (paliyankam). soldiers from southern India received special martial arts training which revolved primarily around the use of spear (vel).[76] In northern India.Kalarippayattu. while various mudra finger movements were taught inYogacara Buddhism. The Dhanur Veda was first described in the 5th century BCVi u R Pur a[73] and is also mentioned in both of the major ancient Indian epics. These elements of yoga.