ADAT MASYARAKAT INDIA

Sebelum Majlis Perkahwinan Sebelum majlis perkahwinan berlangsung, terdapat beberapa perkara penting yang perlu dijalankan terlebih dahulu, antaranya : Kad Jemputan Kad jemputan memainkan peranan yang penting dalam perkahwinan masyarakat India. Kad jemputan ini dibuat berdasarkan almanak Hindu. Sekiranya terdapat kesilapan, bermakna perkahwinan tidak dapat dijalankan dengan lancar. Kad jemputan yang telah dicetak disapu dengan serbuk kunyit cair sebagai lambang keharmonian. Beberapa keping kad jemputan dalam bilangan ganjil akan dibawa bersama ke kuil untuk dibawa bersembahyang ( arccanai). Kad diletakkan di atas dulang bersama sirih, wang ringgit, kelapa, pinang dan sebagainya sebagai lambang kekayaan. Upacara ini dinamakan sebagai paanam paaku. Kemudian dulang akan dibawa ke rumah pengantin perempuan untuk diberi kepada pengantin lelaki dan begitulah sebaliknya. Pada masa yang sama sirih pinang akan diberikan sebagai tanda jemputan perkahwinan secara rasmi. Penyediaan Thaali ( Tjrumaanggalyam) Thaali atau tjirumaangalyam merupakan lambang suci perkahwinan yang dikalungkan pada leher kedua-dua pengantin. Pada thaali itu diikat segumpal benang putih yang disapu dengan kunyit. Terdapat pelbagai jenis thaal i yang digunakan oleh masyarakat India seperti lingath thaali, pottut thaali, tennant thaali dan sebagainya. Ini disebabkan terdapat pelbagai suku di kalangan masyarakat India. Adat penyediaan thaali ini dilakukan tujuh atau sembilan hari sebelum hari perkahwinan. Pihak lelaki akan membawa emas, cendana, kumkum, sirih pinang, kelapa dan bayaran u ntuk pembuat thaali. Ini adalah untuk memastikan tukang thaali mengetahui hari yang sesuai untuk membuat thaali. Tiga hari sebelum perkahwinan, thaali akan diambil dan diletakkan di tempat sembahyang atas suruhan pembuat thaali. Pihak pengantin adalah dila rang untuk menawar perkhidmatan yang dilakukan oleh pembuat thaali. Selepas itu upacara sembahyang dilakukan dan ini dinamakan sebagai thaalippadaiyal. Dalam upacara itu bubur manis dan nasi manis disediakan termasuklah dhoti dan sari untuk pasangan penga ntin. Secara umumnya thaali tidak diwajibkan diperbuat daripada emas. Ini kerana thaali masih boleh dibuat daripada kunyit yang dikatakan lebih selamat dan tidak dicuri orang. Mukuurtta Kaal Adat ini dilakukan lima hari sebelum hari perkahwinan dilangsun gkan. Adat mukuurtta kaal ini diadakan pada hari yang baik mengikut firasat masyarakat India. Untuk menjalankan adat tersebut sebatang pokok yang masih muda dan lurus akan ditebang untuk dijadikan mukurtta kaal. Batang pokok tersebut berukuran dua atau tig a meter dan mempunyai lilitan batang antara 20 hingga 30 sentimeter. Adat mendirikan mukuurtta kaal adalah sebagai menandakan perkahwinan akan dilangsungkan di rumah tersebut. Bahan -bahan lazim seperti sirih pinang, kum kum, kunyit dan sebagainya disediak an. Ahli-ahli keluarga pengantin akan bermohon pada Tuhan supaya perkahwinan dapat dilangsungkan tanpa gangguan. Batang kayu diambil dan dibersihkan serta dibuang kulitnya. Lima orang perempuan yang sudah berkahwin akan menyapukan kunyit cair dan kumkum pa da batang kayu tersebut dari pangkal hingga hujung. Kemudian hujung kayu diikat dengan daun ara atau mangga menggunakan kain bewarna merah. Kayu akan dipacak sedalam setengah meter dan bahan-bahan tadi akan dimasukkan ke dalam lubang tersebut sebagai lamba ng kekayaan. Kemudian upacara sembahyang dilakukan oleh pengantin beserta lima orang perempuan tersebut. Sebanyak sembilan jenis bijirin ditabur pada batang kayu dan lampu minyak dinyalakan. Pada masa yang sama pengantin berikrar akan menjaga alam sekitar sebagai lambang persahabatan dengan alam sekitar. Kebiasaannya adat mendirikan mukuurtta kaal dilakukan di rumah pengantin lelaki.

si isteri hendaklah duduk di sebelah si mati dan dijirus dengan sebuyung air semasa mayat suaminya dimandikan. Dalam masyarakat India. Untuk menunjukkan kesedihan. Sepanjang mayat berada di dalam rumah. si mati perlu dijaga dengan sebaiknya. tiruvaasakam dan seumpamanya dinyanyikan serta diimainkan sehingga ke tanah perkuburan. Semasa Kematian Sekiranya seseorang itu telah meninggal dunia. tetapi kembali ke alam barzakh . Belakang tapak tangan digunakan untuk menyapu minyak ini dan bukannya menggunakan tapak tangan sebagaimana lazimnya. kunyit disapu pada mata untuk membunuh kuman dan seterusnya duit syiling diletakkan di atas dahi. Serbuk suci atau tiruniiru disapu pada dahi si mati sebelum disembahyang. Kepala mayat dihadapkan ke arah selatan dan sebuah lampu miny ak atau kaamaatci amman vilakku dipasang dinyalakan. Buyung yang berisi air akan ditutup dengan menggunakan kain dhoti untuk mengelakkan habuk memasuki air tersebut. Sarjana India juga menyatakan kematian adalah perpisahan roh dan jasad. Mayat seterusnya dimandikan oleh orang yang tel ah berumur. Tujuannya agar roh si mati sentisa tenang dan aman. Mayat akan dimandikan terlebih dahulu dan dibaringkan di atas katil di ruang tamu atau halaman r umah. Selepas dimandikan. bun ga dan susu yang dibawa oleh seorang perempuan lain. Untuk melaksanakan upacara ini. di mana jasad akan hancur. Kemudian bunga akan dikalungkan pada leher balu dan kemudian bunga tersebut dikalungkan pada si mati. Air mawar direnjis dan mayat turut diasapkan dengan kemenyan yang dibakar supaya tidak berbau. Balu tersebut dikehendaki meletakkan kalungan bunga ke dalam dulang yang berisi minyak.KEMATIAN Bagi masyarakat India. Upacara Menanggalkan Thaali Thaali vaangutal merupakan upacara menanggalkan thaali semasa berlakunya sesebuah kematian dalam sesebuah keluarga. pelbagai adat tertentu akan dilakukan. si mati akan dipakaikan dengan pakaian baru iaitu sari bagi mayat perempuan dan dhoti bagi mayat lelaki. Sapuan minyak ini dilakukan oleh ahli keluarga dan diikuti oleh saudara mara terdekat. Mata dan mulut mayat juga perlu ditu tup rapat. perigi atau sumber -sumber air yang lain. minyak dan araippu digunakan untuk disapukan pada kepala sebagai mandian terak hir. Kaum wanita pula akan menyambut air tersebut yang digunakan untuk memandikan mayat. Mayat yang sudah dibersihkan itu akan diletakkan di ruang tamu sebagai langkah menghormati tetamu. Thaali itu seterusnya akan dimasukkan ke dalam dulang dan disimpan dalam rumah. Air tersebut diperolehi dari sungai. Sebelum dimandikan. Sirih pinang ditumbuk dan dimasukkan ke dalam mulut dan lubang hidung akan disumbatkan dengan kapas. ibu jari tangan dan kaki diikat dengan kain putih dan diletakkan ke dada. gambar -gambar yang tergantung diterbalikkan dan barang -barang perhiasan dibawa keluar dari ruang tamu. Setelah itu barulah si mati dibalut dengan menggunakan kain. mayat akan di bakar atau dikebumikan. kecuali air paip. Kaum lelaki yang mempunyai hubungan kekeluargaan dengan si mati sahaja boleh membawa air dalam jumlah yang ganjil. mayat akan diletakkan di ruang tamu. Dalam upacara tersebut. iaitu kematian adalah ibarat tidur dan mereka akan bangun selepas tidur. Thaali iaitu rantai suci perkahwinan hanya boleh ditanggal oleh seorang isteri setelah suamiya meninggal dunia. mereka mempercayai konsep kela hiran semula. Lagu-lagu suci seperti teevaaram. Kemudian sebiji kelapa terbelah dua dan sirih pinang diletakkan berhampiran si mati. Kaki dan tangan mayat perlu diluruskan. Ini dilakukan seolah -olah menunjukkan si suami membuangkan thaali dari leher balu. Upacara Vaaikkarisi . Kemenyan dan kapur barus diasap sebagai simbol ketenangan jiwa si mati. seterusnya seorang wanita yang sudah be rusia dan mempunyai hubungan kekeluargaan akan memegang tangan si mati sambil mengalungkan kalungan bunga ke leher balu dan proses ini dilakukan sebanyak tiga kali.

Upacara vaaikkarisi akan dilakukan oleh kaum lelaki di tanah perkuburan pula.Setelah dimandi dan dihias dengan cantik. Sebelum itu pembawa kollic catti dikehendaki mencukur rambut. Ini adalah seperti pergerakan bayi yang berada di dalam kandungan. Sekiranya s i mati mempunyai cucu atau cicit. Kollic Catti Kollic catti bermaksud periuk tanah liat yang me ngandungi api. Ada juga yang memasukkan bijirin ke lubang tersebut. mayat akan dimasukkan ke dalam keranda. Pergerakan dimulakan dengan dengan mengubah bahagaian kaki ke kubur dan kemudian bahagian kepala. Setelah itu upacara sembahyang dilakukan oleh semua yang berada di situ. Saudara mara yang terdekat akan memberi sari atau dhoti kepada si mati sebagai hadiah terakhir. Duit syiling yang diletakkan di dalam dulang yang sama dibalut dengan kain putih. Upacara ini dilakukan untuk mengurangkan kesedihan keluarga si mati. Periuk tersebut diangkat dengan menggunakan pelepah kelapa yang dibelah tiga di bahagian hujung dan diikat pada periuk. Satu lubang akan dibuat di bahagian kepala dan susu akan dicurahkan pada lubang tersebut. Anak sulung melakukan untuk bapa yang telah meni nggal dunia dan anak bongsu untuk ibu. Apabila tiba di tanah perkuburan. pada masa yang sama ucapan tenna adudaiya shinanee pottri disebut beberapa kali sebagai menandakan upacara tersebut telah direstui oleh tuhan. Kemudian diikuti oleh pengurus m ayat yang akan menebuk kollic catti dengan menyebut 'sorkam seer. Pada masa yang sama lagu -lagu suci dimainkan. biji sawi dan bijan. Ini dilakukan oleh kaum perempuan sahaja. Kemudian tiga batang kayu yang menyala diba kar dan disusun ke tanah satu persatu. pembawa kollic catti berada di hadapan mayat dan duduk melutut tetapi tidak menghadap mayat. Ahli -ahli keluarga akan mengelilingi mayat mengikut lawan jam sebanyak tiga kali sebagai tanda penghormatan. C ucu atau cicit tersebut dikehendaki mengelilingi mayat mengikut lawan jam sebanyak tiga kali. Seseorang yang membawa kollic catti mengiringi mayat. pengusung perlu membayar duit kepada penyelenggara sebagai upah mengorek liang lahad. Kapur barus dimasukkan bersama supaya mayat tidak berbau. kaiulaasam seer' berulang kali. Oleh itu si mati dipercayai berada di dalam perut Dewi Bumi. Sepanjang perjalanan. beras akan diarak dari kiri ke kanan. . bahan-bahan tersebut ditabur dan setiap bahan -bahan tadi mempunyai perlambangan yang tersendiri. satu bentuk manusia akan dilukis di atas kubur. Sebelum dimasukkan ke dalam mulut mayat. Duit syiling dimasukkan ke dalam dhoti dan diletakkan di antara kaki mayat. justeru itu kaum perempuan amat dilarang turut serta ke tanah perkuburan. Pada masa yang sama sebuah nyiru diisikan dengan bahan -bahan seperti padi goreng. Neip bermaksud minyak sapi dan pantam adalah obor. Kollic catti dibawa oleh ahli keluarga si mati samada anak ataupun bapa. Keranda akan dige rakkan beberapa kali sebelum menghampiri liang lahad. semua yang hadir perlu ke rumah si mati untuk upacara penyempurnaan adat pengebumian sebelum balik ke rumah. pada pusingan ketiga. Kemudian keranda diletakkan bersebelahan dengan kubur bagi mayat yang dikebumikan atau diletakkan di atas kayu api unyuk dibakar. Kemudian ke dalam mulut mayat akan dimasukkan sedikit makanan sebagai menandakan pemberian terakhir dan inilah yang dinamakan vaaikkarisi. Ada juga yang mencukur janggut atau misai sebagai menggantikan rambut. mereka dikehendaki memegang neippantam. Setelah mayat dikebumikan. Beberapa batang kayu kecil akan dibalut di bahagian hujung dengan menggunakan kain yang disapu dengan minyak sapi dan dinyalakan. lalu diambil oleh pengurus kubur sebagai tanda keizinan mayat dikebumikan. Pengebumian Mayat orang India akan diusung ke tanah perkuburan dengan menggunakan pengusung. Ini menunjukkan bahawa mereka akan hidup lebih bahagia seperti rambut yang baru tumbuh. Pembawa Kollic catti atau buyung dikehendaki mengelilingi mayat sebanyak tiga kali menurut arah jam. Makanan yang akan dimasukkan ke dalam mulut mayat berupa beras yang diletakkan di dalam sebuah dulang dan diletakkan berhampiran kepala mayat. Selesai upacara tersebut. Keranda akan ditutup dan diangkat untuk dibawa ke tanah perkuburan.

Bahan -bahan ini dimasukkan bersama untuk mengelak dari dikorek oleh binatang liar dan tidak digunakan oleh ahli sihir. sirih dan kapur barus yang dinyalakan diangkat dan diputar tiga kali mengikut arah jam dan juga lawan jam. Bintang bayi ini akan menentukan mental. Madu pula dikatakan dapat melembutkan lidah bayi dan memudahkan bayi bertutur. Setitik minyak bijan yang dicampur dengan sedikit susu ibu dan disapu ke mulut bayi akan bertindak menjadi pelawas dal am sistem penghadaman dan membantu tumbesaran bayi tersebut. arang. kelima. Menyapu Madu Bayi yang baru dilahirkan juga akan disapu madu bercampur minyak sapi pada lidahnya. kapur sirih yang dicairkan. Kegunaan minyak ini dipercayai boleh membawa kec antikan dan supaya bayi tidak diserang sebarang penyakit. ketujuh dan sebagainya iaitu pada bilangan hari ganjil. Sebelum bayi dibawa ma suk ke rumah upacara aalati dilakukan. Membisikkan Nama Tuhan Sebaik sahaja bayi dilahirkan. Namun begitu adat ini disesuaikan dengan hanya membisikkannya sebaik sahaja melihat bayi tersebut kerana perubatan moden tidak membenarkan sesiapa memasuki bilik bersalin. Bisikan nama Tuhan pada telinga bayi adalah untuk membolehkan bayi tadi mendengar nama Tuhan sebelum mendengar apa -apa yang lain. dulang yang mengandungi serbuk kunyit. Ia bertujuan untuk mengelakkan bala atau sebarang malapetaka dariapada berlaku. Minyak savvennai yang merupakan campuran minyak bijan. isi dulang aalati dibuang. garam dan pinang. sami atau sesiapa sahaja yang berpengetahuan tinggi mengenai agama Hindu akan membisikkan Gayatri Mantiram iaitu sejenis mantera Tuhan di telinga bayi sebelum tali pusat dipotong. Di samping madu. Mandi Selepas Bersalin . minyak lenga dan mambu juga kadangkala digunakan. serbuk kunyit. Ia bertujuan untuk membawa rahmat kepada bayi tersebut. fizikal dan rohani bayi sehingga dewasa. Setelah ibu dan anak masuk ke dalam rumah. Bagi upacara aalati ini. Membawa Bayi Pulang Ke Rumah Bayi yang dilahirkan di hospital akan dibawa pulang ke rumah pada hari ketiga. Seterusnya para cumanggali akan mencelupkan ibu jarinya ke dalam dulang tersebut dan mencalitkan ke dahi ibu dan anak. Potong Tali Pusat Tali pusat yang dipotong akan ditanam bersama uri dan tembuni di sekitar kawasan rumah bersama duit tembaga.KELAHIRAN Semasa Bersalin Waktu kelahiran adalah penting bagi masyarakat India dimana ia akan dicatat dengan tepat bagi menentukan bintang bayi mengikut almanak Hindu. air gula juga boleh digunakan. Dulang juga dilambai sebanyak tiga kali.

Beberapa bahan seperti serbuk kunyit. bayi ditonggengkan dengan mengangkat kedua belah kaki sambil menepuk bahagian punggung untuk mengeluarkan kahak. ikan kering dan sebagainya. . Bagi i bu yang bersalin normal. Akhir sekali bayi akan dibedung dengan kain bertujuan untuk meluruskan anggota badan bayi. Namun amalan ini semakin berkurangan dilakukan dan hanya diamalkan oleh generasi tua sahaja. Mandian ini dilakukan dengan menyiram ke seluruh badan bayi dengan menggunakan ai r suam yang kadangkala dicampur dengan bahan -bahan herba. ibu yang baru bersalin tidak dibenarkan mandi selama dua minggu atas sebab -sebab kesihatan akibat fizikal ibu yang lemah kerana pembedahan dan kesan kelahiran. Up acara pemujaan dilakukan dengan membersihkan sekeliling rumah dan memasang lampu minyak di keliling rumah. Setelah itu bayi diasapkan dengan asap kemenyan.Apabila bayi dan ibu kembali ke rumah. dan disapu dengan bedak yang diperbuat dari tepung beras supaya tidak dihinggapi ruam. selsema dan juga untuk menyegarkan tubuh badan selepas bersalin. Jika proses bersalin secara pembedahan. Ketika bayi dimandikan. telur rebus. minyak bijan. mereka diasingkan dari ahli keluarga yang lain di sebuah bilik khas yang sentiasa dijaga kebersihannya. Bayi pula kebiasaanya dimandikan pada waktu petang oleh seorang wanita yang berpengalaman. Beberapa herba dan dedaun seperti aadatoodai dididihkan bersama air. urutan perlahan dilakukan pada tubuh bayi dan t ulang belakang bayi supaya tidak bengkok. kas -kas dan kacang hijau yang ditumbuk digunakan sebagai pembersih badan bayi bertujuan untuk mengelakkan penyakit kulit dan melicinkan kulit bayi. Nama -nama tokoh sejarawan. nenek moyang serta yang berkaitan dengan agama Hindu juga dipilih bagi bayi tersebut kerana nama yang dipilih ini akan mempengaruhi perwatakannya kelak. Nama-nama yang dipilih lazimnya berdasarkan almanak dengan mengikut tarikh kelahiran bayi. Ia bertujuan untuk mengelak penyakit sawan atau kuning. kening dan telinga turut diurut. Selesai dimandikan. Ia bertujuan agar bayi tersebut menjadi seorang yang berguna. Upacara dimulakan dengan ucapan aaraaro aariraro atau cerita-cerita nasihat. Upacara dimulakan dengan mengadakan upacara sembahyang sebagai tanda kesyukuran. Bagi tujuan kecantikan. Terdapat juga upacara memuja Dewi Pecciyamman dan Dewi Kaatteeri dilakukan oleh segelintir masyarakat India. Susu juga digunakan sebagai bahan utama untuk melembutkan kulit bayi. Air tersebut digunakan untuk mandi. Rambut ibu akan dikeringkan dengan segera dengan asap kemenyan bagi mengelak kan sakit kepala. Ia dilakukan dengan memasukkan bayi ke dalam buaian dan dikendalikan oleh ahli keluarga yang tertua yang a rif tentang agama dan perkara yang berkaitan dengan dewa-dewa. orang luar dilarang melawat mereka kecuali untuk tujuan perubatan. Mendodoi Bayi Amalan mendodoi bayi merupakan upacara yang paling penting dalam masyarakat India. Upacara mendodoi ini juga dikenali sebagai taalaattu bermaksud penggoyangan lidah. si ibu akan mandi selang sehari selepas bersalin. Saudara mara yang hadir akan memberi pelbagai hadiah dan upacara diakhiri dengan jamuan dan upacara sembahyang bagi mendoakan kesejahteraan bayi. Memberi Nama Sebaik sahaja bayi berusia enam belas hari. Bahan bahan persembahan juga disediakan seperti kari ayam betina. hidung. upacara pemberian nama dilakukan. Bagi dua minggu pertama. Bayi kemudiannya dimasukkan ke dalam buaia n dan namanya diumumkan pada orang ramai.

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it is s [11] common that three or four generations of the family live under the same roof. In recent years. India. in recent times. etc. traditional Indian culture is defined by relatively strict social hierarchy.6 billion followers. Makar. Jainism and especially Buddhism areinfluential not only in India but across the world. collectively known as Indian religions. the chil dren¶s spouses and their offspring. the eldest male member is the head in the joint Indian family system. [6][9] followers altogether. This is reinforced by the fact that many believe gods and spirits have an integral and [11] functional role in determining their life. The [11] patriarch often resolves family issues. with over 2 billion [6][7][8] and possibly as many as 2. According to Eugene M. Today. children are reminded of their roles and places in society. In rural areas & sometime in urban areas as well. Several differences such as religion divide the culture.[10] Sikhism. some of these lines have blurred and sometimes even disappeared. the mainly patrilinear lineage or clan [11] assigned to a Hindu at birth. Hinduism and Buddhism are the world's third. Dharmic religions.[4] Main articles: Religion in India and Indian religions India is the birth place of Hinduism. However. children. and other family members abide by them. ± live together.and fourth-largest religions respectively.5 or 2. Christianity. A bride during a traditionalHindu wedding ceremony in Punjab. For generations. with some of the most deeply religious societies and cultures. such asHinduism and Buddhism. in have l 1 0 0) .[11] However.Clo -up of a statu dep ctingMaitreya at the Thikse Monastery in Ladakh. Usually. Family plays a significant role in the Indian culture. [edit] Family Main articles: Hindu joint family. Zoroastrianism. also known as Dharmic religions are a major form of world religions along withAbrahamic ones.Jainism and Sikhism. India is one of the most religiously diverse nations in the world. many fami ies especially in urban areas. [11] governed these groups for thousands of years. are indigenous to India. India is also the birthplace for theLingayat and Ahmadiyya faiths. Religion still plays a central and definitive role in the life of m any of its people. He makes all important decisions and rules. India has had a prevailing tradition of the joint family system. The religion of 80% of the people is Hinduism. Buddhism. atheism and agnostics also have visible influence along with a self -ascribed tolerance to other people. It is a system under which extended members of a family ± parents. Judaism and the Bahá'í Faith are also influential but their numbers are smaller. a far more powerful division isthe traditional Hindu bifurcation into non-polluting and polluting occupations[11] Strict social taboos have . Important family relations extend as far as gotra. Islam is practiced by around 13% of all Indians. an respected industry consultant. Arranged marriage in India and Women in India . He also mentions that from an [11] early age.[5] Indian religions. particularly in [11] cities. Despite the strong role of religion in Indian life.

They also demand dowry. for some modernists. with the consent of the bride and groom. being a multi-cultural and multi-religious society. the vast majority of Indians have their marriages planned by their parents and other respected family -members. Arranged matches are made after taking into account factors such as age. known as the "festival of colors". and many continue to use this outside the Indian subcontinent. Durga puja. Diwali. Jains. The word is derived from Sanskrit (namah): to bow.1% compared with about 50% in theUnited States. the castes and the backgrounds of their families (wealth. Popular religious festivals include the Hindu festivals ofNavratri. and (te): "to you". 2 2 2 3 . the marriage is thought to be for life. Ganesh Chaturthi. the word is spoken at the beginning of written or verbal communication. personal values and tastes. social standing . Main article: Festivals in India India. reverential salutation. are celebrated with zeal and enthusiasm across India. Vanakkam (Tamil or Asssalamu alaikum (Urdu / Persian Sat Shri Akal (Punjabi) is a common spoken greeting or salutation in the Indian subcontinent. [15] they speak of a healthy new empowerment for women. it means "I bow to you". the Republic Day and the Gandhi Jayanti. arranged marriages have been the tradition in Indian society. In Indian and Nepali culture. [edit] Festivals Radha and gopikas celebrating Holi. The threenational holidays in India. Namaskar is considered a slightly more formal version than Namaste but both express deep respect. the Independence Day. their astrological compatibility of the couples'horoscopes. and the divorce rate is extremely low ² 1. Even today. the same hands fol ed gesture is made d usually wordlessly upon departure. [edit] Marriage For centuries. The divorce rates have risen significantly in recent years: " pinion is divided over what the phenomenon means: for traditionalists the rising numbers portend the breakdown of society while.[14] The arranged marriages generally have a much lower divorce rate. and respect. They get around by not letting the [12] authorities know the arrangements of money. In addition. Buddhists and Sikhs. obeisance. Namaskar or Namaskara or Namaskaram. Taken literally. which has been outlawedby the Indian government.stopped abiding by the extended family system and have started living as a nuclear family. However. height. but Indian society and culture still promotes and maintains it. celebrates holidays and festivals of various religions." [edit] Namaste Namaste. It is commonly used in India and Nepal by Hindus. [13] In India. As explained by an Indian scholar. Holi. in literal terms Namaste refers to 'That which is of God in me bows to that which is of God in you'. many states and regions have local festivals depending on prevalent religious and linguistic demographics.

Rakshabandhan and Dussehra. are c l ted by Muslims ac oss India. the cow is regarded as a symbol ofahimsa (non-viol nc ). Indian names are based on a variety of sy tems andnaming conventions. Sikhs and Jains. mother goddess [17] and bringer of good fortune and wealth. from the Indian epic . and Thamas stands for on.[16] In Hinduism. whic vary by religion and c te and may come from region to region."Nuakhai" are al o fairly popul . ttva. Adding colors to nd the culture of India. whic is the easternmost state of India. For this reason. India's popul tion sp The varied and ric wil life of India has had a p ofound imp ct on the region's popul ness in India isJungl whic was adopted by the culture. and Buddh Purnima. Raj . Pongal and Onam. ' M in articl : Indian cuisine The Food in India is cl ified into three major c tegories. ted by multipl religions. ted by Buddhists and Hindus. cows are revered in Hindu [18] culture and feeding a cow is seen as an act of worship. Sikh Festival . S veral harvest festival . suc Eid ul-Fitr. For exampl : A indulgenc . Baiskhi are c l ted with full fanfare by Sikhs a Hindu. Common name for wil British colonialists to the English l nguage. I l mic festival . Food is consumed according to the lifestyl of the p King has to be aggressive to defend his c ountry. The word has been al o made famous in The Jungl Book by Rudy Kipling. Eid aland c l Ramadan. suc as Guru Nanak Jay nti. India's wil life has been the subj ct of numerous other tal and fabl suc as thePanc tantra and the Jataka tal . he woul be taking food whic woul A 4 6 57 584 7 A 4 55 7 7 57 4 7 55 7 4 4 6 A4 [ it] Cuisine 87 54 4 5 4 4 4 6 7 4 8 A 76 7 84A 6 54 A8 7 A 6 A 54 4 5 44 S al o: Wil life of India. S S tva whic stand for bal nc . 4 Cows depicted in the decorated goppuram of the Kap l 6544 7 5 A4 [ it] Animal warar templ in Chennai. 6 57 7 5B 4 A4 7 5 57 5 A4 [ it] Names and l nguage 7894 4 76A@ 54 4 6 7 5 5 6 6 6 5 5 4 76 87 8 7 5 7894 4 7894 4 4 4 5 7894 4 894 4 7 6 5 7 7 7 7894 4 7 7 . and Tamas. Animal husbandry in India and Cattl in religion . suc as S nkranthi. Names are al o influenc awide variety of l nguages. whic is c l ted by Hindus. theDree Festival is one of the tribal festival of India c l ted by the Ap tanis of the Ziro vall y ofArunac l Pradesh. Notabl exampl Certain festival in India are c l include Diwali. Raj stands for p ion.

India is known for its love for food andspices.give much passion and that aggressiveness which is required. reflecting the varied ² demographics of the country. many traditional Indian dishes also include:chicken. Historically. eastern. This the is reason why in many Indians try to abstain drinking. such aschicken tikka made with Indian ingredients. Each family of this cuisine is characterized by a wide assortment of dishes and cooking techniques. Raita. Indian tandoori dishes. some unifying threads emerge. Despite this diversity. The Spice trade between India and Europe led to the rise and dominance of Arab traders to such an extent that European explorers. Kheer is a traditional Indian sweet dish. across Asia has often led to the dish being labeled as the "pan -Asian" dish. lamb. Indian cuisine varies from region to region.[21] The popularity of curry. and Salad. southern. Daal. Varied uses of spices are an integral part of food preparation. When a person tries to lead his life in want of self realisaiton. Indian Spices and Herbs were one of the most sought after trade commodities. enjoy widespread popular ity. Cuisine across India has also been influenced by various cultural groups that entered India throughout history. western and north -eastern. like consumption of Alcohol. Shahi paneer. Indian cuisine can be split into 5 categories northern. he would prefer a Satvic food or known as Sattvic diet.[22] [edit] Clothing . and other meats. Thamasic food or known as Static foods is to be taken only if its required. such asVasco da Gama and Christopher Columbus. and it plays a role ineveryday life as well as in festivals. Generally. such as the Persians. goat. and European colonists. which would help to keep his mind in balance. set out to find new trade routes with India leading to the Age of Discovery.[19] [20] Indian cuisine is one of the most popular cuisines across the globe. Though a significant portion of Indian food is vegetarian. Mughals. which originated in India. Uttar Pradeshi thali (platter) withNaan bread. The multiple varieties of Indian cuisine are characterized by their sophisticated and subtle use of many Spices and Herbs. and are used to enhance he flavor of a dish and t create unique flavors and aromas. fish. Though the tandoor originated in Central Asia.

majority of Indians wear sandals.[24] Since India's weather is mostly hot and rainy. Ancient Vedic texts mention clothes made from barks and leaves (kn wn as o phataka).[30] Stitched clothing in India was developed before 10th [30] century AD and was further popularized in 15th century by Muslim empires in India. Indian independence movement leader Mahatma Gandhi successfully advocated for what he . Draped clothing styles remained popular with India's Hindu population while the [31] Muslims increasingly adopted tailored garments. Popular styles of dress include draped garme nts such as sari for women and dhoti or lungi for men.Illustration of different styles ofSari & clothing worn by women in India.[27] India's clothing styles have continuously evolved over the course of the country's history. stitched clothes such aschuridar for women and kurta-pyjama and Europeanstyle trousers and shirts for men. but now it has become a part of women's fashion. a person's social status is perceived to be symbolized by his or her attire.[26] Traditionally.[23] Most Indian clothes are made fromcotton which is ideal for the region's hot weather. In India. in addition. Consequently. Some Indian traditions consider thebindi to be representative of thethird eye. the red bindi (orsindoor) was worn only by the married Hindu women.[25] Worn by women on their foreh ead. muslins manufactured in southern India were imported by the Roman Empire and silk cloth was one of the major exports of ancient India along with Indian spices. In 5th century BC. the bindi is considered to be a highly auspicious mark in Hindu religion. During the British Raj. Indian dress etiquette discourages exposure of skin and wearing transparent or tight clothes. Traditional clothing in India greatly varies across different parts of the country and is influenced immensely by local culture. are also popular. Greek historian Herodotus describes the richness of the quality of Indian cotton clothes. India's large clothing and handicrafts industry was left paralyzed so as to make place for British industrial cloth.[29] By 2nd century AD. The 11th century BC Rig-veda mentions dyed and embroidered garments (known as paridhan and pesas respectively) and thus highlights the development of [28] sophisticated garment m anufacturing techniques during the Vedic age. geography and climate.

[42][43][44][45] The Ashoka rock edictfound at Brahmagiri (dated to 230 BC) has [46] been suggested to contain a word in identifiable Kannada. one of India's major classical languages. tvija ). India's most spoken language. the Satavahana and Kadamba periods and hence has a history of over 2000 years. the Bengali language arose from the eastern M ddle Indic languages and its roots are traced to the 5th century BC Ardhamagadhi language.[38][39] Tam l. [34] With its oldest core dating back to as early as 1500 BC. [35] English and most European languages. is a "Sanskritized register" of theKhariboli dialect. Malayalam and Kannada.[33] [edit] Languages and literature [edit] H story Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari.H ndi.ta . Tam l literature has existed for over two thousandyears[40] and the earliest ep grap c records found date from around the third century BC. After a scribal benediction (" r ga é yanama . deva . and language.").[36] Words originating in Sanskrit are estimated to constitute roughly fifty percent of the vocabulary of modern Indo -Aryan languages. or indirectly via m ddle Indo languages (tadbhava words).termed as khadi clothing ² light colored hand -woven clothes ² so as to decrease [32] reliance of the Indian people on British industrial goods. C CD C C C C C C C CD C C CD C C C C . pura . the Rigvedic Sanskrit is one of the oldest attestations of anyIndo-Iranian language.[36] Part of the Eastern Indo-Aryan languages. Time is always referred as Kaala C hakra in India.1 (agni .. increasing involvement of women in the fashion industry and changing Indian attitudes towards multiculturalism. i e . In addition.[41] Another major Dravidian -1st m llennium AD.. Sanskrit has had a profound impact on the languages and literature of India. descends from Proto-Dravidian languages which was spoken around the third m llennium BC in peninsular India. yajñasya .1. the first line has the opening words of RV. These developments played a p votal role in the fusion of Indian and Western clothing styles.1. measuring the dates of Vedas came in later days. Preold Kannada (or Purava HaleGannada) was the language ofBanavasi in the early Common Era. The 1980s was marked by a widespread modification to Indian clothing fashions which was characterized by a large-scale growth of fashion sc hools in India. In Ancient India the time was divided in Four yugas. The Vedic accent is marked by underscores and vertical overscores in red. Aum(3) . early 19th century. Kannada is attested ep grap cally from the m d literary Old Kannada flourished in the 9th to 10th centuryRashtrakuta Dynasty. Munda languages and Dravidian languages.[37] and the literary forms of (Dravidian)Telugu. and one of the earliest attested members of theIndo-European language fam ly the fam ly which includes . There by. The calendar which most Indians follows goes in accordance to this. all modern Indo-Aryan languages. have borrowed many words t -Aryan either directly from Sanskrit ( atsama words).

000 verses in seven books (k as) and 500 cantos (sargas). Telugu.[51] Other regional variations of these.. there are two major literary awards. Ravana.Hindi is the most spoken language in India. Marathi and Tamil. as well as unrelated epics include the TamilRamavataram. Manuscript illustration of theBattle of Kurukshetra -known epics of The R m ya a and the Mah bh rata are the oldest preserved and well India. Urdu and Oriya and two in Tamil. Gujarati. In addition to these two great Indian epics. The Ramayana consists of 24. and Malayalam Adhyathmaramayanam. four in Malayalam. Seven Jnanpith awards each have been awarded in Kannada. Civaka-cintamani. Valayapathi and Kundalakesi. three each in Marathi. whose wife Sita is abducted by thedemon king of Lanka. six in Hindi. these are theSahitya Akademi Fellowshipand the Jnanpith Award.[49] and tells the story of Rama (anincarnation of the Hindu preserver -god Vishnu). The earliest parts of the [50] Mahabharata text date to 400 BC and is estimated to have reached its final form by the early Gupta period (ca. Manimekalai.[48] [edit] Epics . Versions have been adopted as the epics of Southeast Asian countries like Thailand.[47] In contemporary Indian literature. there are five major epics in the classica Tamil language ² l Silappatikaram. Kannada Pampa Bharata. 4th c. [edit] Performing arts [edit] Dance Main article: Dance in India . Hindi Ramacharitamanasa. five in Bengali. Malaysia and Indonesia.According to 2001 India census. This epic played a pivotal role in establishing the role of dhárma as a [50] principal ideal guiding force for Hindu way of life. followed by Bengali. AD).

the ghoomar of Rajasthan.[57] It proposed a tonal structure consisting of seven notes. the bihu of Assam. One of the oldest surviving theatre traditions of he world is the 2. following those of Bhasa. Pratham. the chhau of Jharkhand. which were named. Eight dance forms. asKrusht. kathak of Uttar Pradesh. These are: bharatanatyam of the state of Tamil Nadu. Panchavadyam temple music in Kerala. pop. Chaturth.[55][56] [edit] Music Main article: Music of India folk. E . He was known for mastery ofRasa Abhinaya.[62] [59][63] However. the dandiya and garba of Gujarat. It strictly follows theNatya Shastra. The oldest preserved examples of Indian music are the melodies of the Samaveda that are still sung in certain Vedic rauta sacrifices. have been accorded classical dance statusby India's National Academy of Music.000 songs in the Kannada language. Harsha's Nagananda. sung to a rhythmic cycle ortala.nown folk dances are the bhangra of the Punjab.000 year t old Kutiyattam of Kerala.[58] Purandaradasa is considered the "father of carnatic music" Karnataka sangeeta ( pitamaha). only about 1. S The earliest account of Indian musical hymns is found in the 1000 BC maveda. Kalidasa's plays like Shakuntala and Meghadoota are some of the older plays. Vikramorva ya and M lavik gnimitra. popular. It includes two distinct styles: Carnatic and Hindustani music. and Drama. the Yakshagana of Karnataka and lavani of Maharashtra and Dekhnni of Goa. and The music of India includes multiple varieties of religious.[54] N ty ch rya M ni M dhava Ch ky r is credited for reviving the age old drama tradition from extinction. Among the well. Tritiya. odissi of the state of Odisha and the sattriya of Assam. These principles were refined in then tya stra (200 BC) and the dattilam (300 AD). Dance. many with narrative forms andmythological elements.[59][60][61] He concluded his songs with a salutation to Lord Purandara Vittala and is believed to have composed as many as 475.000 are known today. Bhasa's Swapnav savadatta and Panchar tra. kathakali and mohiniattam of Kerala. Both the Hindustani classical music and the Carnatic classical musicsystems are based on the melodic mode (known asR ga).[52][53] [edit] Drama and theater Main article: Theatre in India Indian drama and theater has a long history alongside its music and dance. kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh. Dwitiya. which was the only fixed frequency instrument.Odissi performer from Odisha Indian dance too has diverse folk and classical forms. He started to perform the Kalidasa plays like Abhijñ na kuntala. classical music. Mandra and Atisw r. in descending order. manipuri of Manipur. These refer to the notes of a flute.the Odishi of Orissa. India's classical music tradition is heavily influenced by Hindu texts.

Rajput painting. the petroglyphst it was common for households to paint their doorways or indoor rooms where guests resided. Madhubani painting.[64] Indipop is one of the most popular contemporary styles of Indian music which is either a fusion ofIndian folk.Prominent contemporary Indian musical forms includedfilmi and Indipop. [edit] Sculpture . Mughal painting are some notable Genres of Indian Art. whileNandalal Bose. primarily Bollywood. Husain. Mysore painting. F. Bagh. classical painters from medieval India. H. Geeta Vadhera. Ellora and Sittanavasal and temple paintings testify to a love of naturalism. Jamini Roy and B. Bose Krishnamacnahri. These recent artists have acquired . and accounts for more than 70 percent of all music sales in the country. Among the present day artists. Cave paintings from Ajanta. S. Filmi refers to the wide range of music written and performed for mainstreamIndian cinema. M. Atul Dodiya. A freshly made coloured flour design Rangoli) is still a common sight outside ( Raja Ravi Varma is one the the doorstep of many (mostly South Indian) Indian homes. The earliest Indian paintings were the rock paintings ofpre-historic times. Most early and medieval art in India is Hindu.Venkatappa[66] are some modern painters. Devajyoti Ray and Shibu Natesan represent a new era of Indian artwhere global art shows direct amalgamation with Indian classical styles. Tanjore painting. Raza. classical or Sufi music with Western musical traditions.[65] [edit] Visual arts Main article: Indian art [edit] Painting Main article: Indian painting The Jataka tales from Ajanta Caves. Jehangir Art Gallery Mumbai. international recognition. Buddhist or Jain. Mysore Palace has on display a few good Indian paintings.

Buddhism. Later. The pink sandstone sculptures of Mathura evolved almost simultaneously. ca 1450. [edit] Architecture Main article: Architecture of India F .The 5th century Buddhistvishvakarma cave at Ellora. in stucco. These styles and others elsewhere in India evolved leading to classical Indian art that contributed to Buddhist and Hindu sculpture throughout Southeast Central and East Asia. or clay. Main article: Sculpture in India Marble Sculpture of female. India produced some extremely intricate bronzes as well as temple carvings. schist. Some huge shrines. such as the one at Ellora were not constructed by using blocks but carved out of solid rock. Duringthe Gupta period (4th to 6th century) sculpture reached a very high standard in execution and delicacy in modeling. Maharashtra. where stone and bronze figures have been discovered. and Jainism developed further. Sculptures produced in the northwest. Rajasthan The first sculptures in India date back to theIndus Valley civilization. display a very strong blend of Indian and ClassicalHellenistic or possibly even Greco.oman influence. as Hinduism.

Konark. During the period of the Mauryan and Gupta empires and their successors. Brihadeeswara Temple Thanjavur. as they are built in styles almost identical to traditional Indian religious buildings. one of the largest private residences in the world. influencing town planning. Angkor Wat. (also called life -force or Prana in Sanskrit and Chi/Ki in Chinese/Japanese). and ergonomics. such as the exact directions in which various objects. materials. Feng Shui is m ore commonly used throughout the world. such as the caves of Ajanta and Ellora and the monumental Sanchi Stupa were built. the Sun Temple.[67] Considered to be an "unrivaled architectural wonder". The Umaid Bhawan Palace in Rajasthan. through the house. b . and . the Taj Mahal in Agra is a prime example of Indo-Islamic architecture. The result is an evolving range of architectural production that nonetheless retains a certain amount of continuity across history. South India produced several Hindu temples like Chennakesava Temple at Belur. It is unclear which system is older. Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple at Srirangam. the Kesava Temple at Somanathapura. rooms. architecture. Indian architecture encompasses a multitude of expressions over space and time. are to e placed. Religion and kingship do not seem to have played an important role in the planning and layout of these towns. several Buddhist architectural complexes. Though Vastu is conceptually similar to Feng Shui in that it also tries to harmonize the flow of energy. and the Buddha stupa Bhattiprolu. (Chinna Lanja dibba and Vikramarka kota dibba) at Borobudur and otherBuddhist and Hindu temples indicate strong Indian influence on South East Asian architecture. Later on. the Hoysaleswara Templeat Halebidu. Some of its earliest production are found in the Indus Valley Civilization (2600 ±1900 BC) which is characterised by well planned cities and houses. it differs in the details. constantly absorbing new ideas.[68] The traditional system ofVaastu Shastra serves as India's version ofFeng Shui. but they contain certain similarities. etc.

The central spire is also sometimes called avimanam. Red Fort of Delhi are creations of this era. are notable. a Twenty20 competition. and the various modern urban developments of India likeChandigarh. A number of Indian architectural features such as the temple mound or stupa. The southern temple gate. In addition. Field Hockey is the national Sport in India. Taj Mahal. the Duleep Trophy. Cities are extremely compact and densely populated. and Kho kho. Contemporary Indian architect ure is more cosmopolitan. India is the host of 2010 Commonwealth Games. the 2002 ICC Champions Trophywith Sri Lanka. Mumbai'sNariman Point is famous for its Art Deco buildings. [edit] Sports and Martial arts Main article: Sports in India The annual Snake boat raceis performed during Onam Celebrations on the Pamba River at Aranmula near Pathanamthitta. Gilli-danda. the Deodhar Trophy. [edit] Indian martial arts Main article: Indian martial arts . Indian architecture has influenced eastern and southeastern Asia. Cricket is the most popular Sport in India. and theIndia national field hockey teamwon the 1975 Men's Hockey World Cup and 8 gold.Fatehpur Sikri.With the advent of Islamic influence from the west. Domestic competitions include theRanji Trophy. Recent creations such as the Lotus Temple. empire. and mixing of several other styles. Indian architecture was adapted to allow the traditions of the new religion. used extensively in East Asia and South East Asia. or gopuram is noted for its intricacy and majesty. such as European Gothic.[69][70][71][72] where its early form in the 6th century was known as Other games which originated in India and continue to remain popular in wide parts of northern India include Kabaddi. BCCI conducts the Indian Premier League. Qutub Minar. due to the spread of Buddhism. The colonial rule of the British Empire saw the development of Indo-Saracenic style. The Victoria Memorial or the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminusare notable examples. temple spire or sikhara. TheIndia national cricket team won the 1983 Cricket World Cupand the 2007 ICC World Twenty20 and shared . and are often used as the stereotypical symbols of India. 1 silver and 2 bronze medals at the Olympic games. played in New Delhi. Traditional southern Indian games include Snake boat raceand Kuttiyum kolum. Gol Gumbaz. the Irani Trophy and the Challenger Series. It hosted a spectacular display of Indian culture and heritage to the entire world during the opening ceremony of the games. Chess is commonly believed to have originated in northwestern India during the Gupta chaturanga. have become famous symbols of Asian culture. temple tower or pagoda and temple gate or torana.

The 3rd century BCYoga Sutras of Patanjalitaught how to meditate single-mindedly on points located inside one's body. doubt and anxiety. traces its roots to the Sangam period in southern India. while various mudra finger movements were taught inYogacara Buddhism. One of the best known forms of ancient Indian martial arts is the Kalarippayattu from Kerala. including a variety of spinning ( [75] styles. soldiers from southern India received special martial arts training which revolved primarily around the use of spear (vel). The ancient Tamil Sangam literature mentions that between 400 BC and 600 AD.Kalarippayattu.[74] Silambam. as well as finger movements in thenata dances. were later [79] incorporated into various martial arts. In addition.[76] In northern India. various stages of physical training includeayurvedic massage with sesame oil to impart suppleness to the body ( uzichil). [77] physical and spiritual training. Indian martial arts techniques have had a profound impact on other martial arts styles across Asia. the musti yuddha evolved in 1100 AD and focussed on mental. and. A distinctive factor of Indian martial arts is the heavy emphasis laid [78] on meditation (dhy na) as a tool to remove fear. the m ya a and Mah bh rata. According to some historical accounts. the Dhanur Veda tradition was an influential fighting arts style which considered th bow and the arrow to be the e supreme weapons. Indian Buddhist monk Bodhidharma was one of the main founders of theShaolin Kungfu.[80] [edit] Popular media .[75] Silambam is unique among Indian martial arts because it uses complex footwork techniques kaaladi). which was developed around 200 AD. complex sword fighting techniques ( (paliyankam). which was later used in martial arts. one of the oldest and most prominent forms of Indian martial arts. This ancient fighting style originated in southern India in 12th century BC and [73] is regarded as one of the oldest surviving martial arts. A bamboo staff is used as the main weapon. a series of sharp body movements so as t gain control o over various parts of the body miapayattu). In this form martial arts. sword (val) and shield (kedaham). The Dhanur Veda was first described in the 5th century BCVi u R Pur a[73] and is also mentioned in both of the major ancient Indian epics. These elements of yoga.

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