ADAT MASYARAKAT INDIA

Sebelum Majlis Perkahwinan Sebelum majlis perkahwinan berlangsung, terdapat beberapa perkara penting yang perlu dijalankan terlebih dahulu, antaranya : Kad Jemputan Kad jemputan memainkan peranan yang penting dalam perkahwinan masyarakat India. Kad jemputan ini dibuat berdasarkan almanak Hindu. Sekiranya terdapat kesilapan, bermakna perkahwinan tidak dapat dijalankan dengan lancar. Kad jemputan yang telah dicetak disapu dengan serbuk kunyit cair sebagai lambang keharmonian. Beberapa keping kad jemputan dalam bilangan ganjil akan dibawa bersama ke kuil untuk dibawa bersembahyang ( arccanai). Kad diletakkan di atas dulang bersama sirih, wang ringgit, kelapa, pinang dan sebagainya sebagai lambang kekayaan. Upacara ini dinamakan sebagai paanam paaku. Kemudian dulang akan dibawa ke rumah pengantin perempuan untuk diberi kepada pengantin lelaki dan begitulah sebaliknya. Pada masa yang sama sirih pinang akan diberikan sebagai tanda jemputan perkahwinan secara rasmi. Penyediaan Thaali ( Tjrumaanggalyam) Thaali atau tjirumaangalyam merupakan lambang suci perkahwinan yang dikalungkan pada leher kedua-dua pengantin. Pada thaali itu diikat segumpal benang putih yang disapu dengan kunyit. Terdapat pelbagai jenis thaal i yang digunakan oleh masyarakat India seperti lingath thaali, pottut thaali, tennant thaali dan sebagainya. Ini disebabkan terdapat pelbagai suku di kalangan masyarakat India. Adat penyediaan thaali ini dilakukan tujuh atau sembilan hari sebelum hari perkahwinan. Pihak lelaki akan membawa emas, cendana, kumkum, sirih pinang, kelapa dan bayaran u ntuk pembuat thaali. Ini adalah untuk memastikan tukang thaali mengetahui hari yang sesuai untuk membuat thaali. Tiga hari sebelum perkahwinan, thaali akan diambil dan diletakkan di tempat sembahyang atas suruhan pembuat thaali. Pihak pengantin adalah dila rang untuk menawar perkhidmatan yang dilakukan oleh pembuat thaali. Selepas itu upacara sembahyang dilakukan dan ini dinamakan sebagai thaalippadaiyal. Dalam upacara itu bubur manis dan nasi manis disediakan termasuklah dhoti dan sari untuk pasangan penga ntin. Secara umumnya thaali tidak diwajibkan diperbuat daripada emas. Ini kerana thaali masih boleh dibuat daripada kunyit yang dikatakan lebih selamat dan tidak dicuri orang. Mukuurtta Kaal Adat ini dilakukan lima hari sebelum hari perkahwinan dilangsun gkan. Adat mukuurtta kaal ini diadakan pada hari yang baik mengikut firasat masyarakat India. Untuk menjalankan adat tersebut sebatang pokok yang masih muda dan lurus akan ditebang untuk dijadikan mukurtta kaal. Batang pokok tersebut berukuran dua atau tig a meter dan mempunyai lilitan batang antara 20 hingga 30 sentimeter. Adat mendirikan mukuurtta kaal adalah sebagai menandakan perkahwinan akan dilangsungkan di rumah tersebut. Bahan -bahan lazim seperti sirih pinang, kum kum, kunyit dan sebagainya disediak an. Ahli-ahli keluarga pengantin akan bermohon pada Tuhan supaya perkahwinan dapat dilangsungkan tanpa gangguan. Batang kayu diambil dan dibersihkan serta dibuang kulitnya. Lima orang perempuan yang sudah berkahwin akan menyapukan kunyit cair dan kumkum pa da batang kayu tersebut dari pangkal hingga hujung. Kemudian hujung kayu diikat dengan daun ara atau mangga menggunakan kain bewarna merah. Kayu akan dipacak sedalam setengah meter dan bahan-bahan tadi akan dimasukkan ke dalam lubang tersebut sebagai lamba ng kekayaan. Kemudian upacara sembahyang dilakukan oleh pengantin beserta lima orang perempuan tersebut. Sebanyak sembilan jenis bijirin ditabur pada batang kayu dan lampu minyak dinyalakan. Pada masa yang sama pengantin berikrar akan menjaga alam sekitar sebagai lambang persahabatan dengan alam sekitar. Kebiasaannya adat mendirikan mukuurtta kaal dilakukan di rumah pengantin lelaki.

Kaum wanita pula akan menyambut air tersebut yang digunakan untuk memandikan mayat. kecuali air paip. ibu jari tangan dan kaki diikat dengan kain putih dan diletakkan ke dada. tetapi kembali ke alam barzakh . Sebelum dimandikan. Kaki dan tangan mayat perlu diluruskan. Untuk melaksanakan upacara ini. Dalam masyarakat India. Thaali itu seterusnya akan dimasukkan ke dalam dulang dan disimpan dalam rumah. Kaum lelaki yang mempunyai hubungan kekeluargaan dengan si mati sahaja boleh membawa air dalam jumlah yang ganjil. Mata dan mulut mayat juga perlu ditu tup rapat. Setelah itu barulah si mati dibalut dengan menggunakan kain. iaitu kematian adalah ibarat tidur dan mereka akan bangun selepas tidur. Sapuan minyak ini dilakukan oleh ahli keluarga dan diikuti oleh saudara mara terdekat. Air mawar direnjis dan mayat turut diasapkan dengan kemenyan yang dibakar supaya tidak berbau. kunyit disapu pada mata untuk membunuh kuman dan seterusnya duit syiling diletakkan di atas dahi.KEMATIAN Bagi masyarakat India. Ini dilakukan seolah -olah menunjukkan si suami membuangkan thaali dari leher balu. Sirih pinang ditumbuk dan dimasukkan ke dalam mulut dan lubang hidung akan disumbatkan dengan kapas. Kepala mayat dihadapkan ke arah selatan dan sebuah lampu miny ak atau kaamaatci amman vilakku dipasang dinyalakan. Lagu-lagu suci seperti teevaaram. si mati akan dipakaikan dengan pakaian baru iaitu sari bagi mayat perempuan dan dhoti bagi mayat lelaki. Upacara Vaaikkarisi . bun ga dan susu yang dibawa oleh seorang perempuan lain. Mayat akan dimandikan terlebih dahulu dan dibaringkan di atas katil di ruang tamu atau halaman r umah. Mayat seterusnya dimandikan oleh orang yang tel ah berumur. Buyung yang berisi air akan ditutup dengan menggunakan kain dhoti untuk mengelakkan habuk memasuki air tersebut. Sepanjang mayat berada di dalam rumah. Mayat yang sudah dibersihkan itu akan diletakkan di ruang tamu sebagai langkah menghormati tetamu. Tujuannya agar roh si mati sentisa tenang dan aman. tiruvaasakam dan seumpamanya dinyanyikan serta diimainkan sehingga ke tanah perkuburan. Balu tersebut dikehendaki meletakkan kalungan bunga ke dalam dulang yang berisi minyak. Air tersebut diperolehi dari sungai. si mati perlu dijaga dengan sebaiknya. Dalam upacara tersebut. mereka mempercayai konsep kela hiran semula. Selepas dimandikan. Untuk menunjukkan kesedihan. Belakang tapak tangan digunakan untuk menyapu minyak ini dan bukannya menggunakan tapak tangan sebagaimana lazimnya. gambar -gambar yang tergantung diterbalikkan dan barang -barang perhiasan dibawa keluar dari ruang tamu. Kemenyan dan kapur barus diasap sebagai simbol ketenangan jiwa si mati. pelbagai adat tertentu akan dilakukan. Upacara Menanggalkan Thaali Thaali vaangutal merupakan upacara menanggalkan thaali semasa berlakunya sesebuah kematian dalam sesebuah keluarga. mayat akan di bakar atau dikebumikan. perigi atau sumber -sumber air yang lain. si isteri hendaklah duduk di sebelah si mati dan dijirus dengan sebuyung air semasa mayat suaminya dimandikan. seterusnya seorang wanita yang sudah be rusia dan mempunyai hubungan kekeluargaan akan memegang tangan si mati sambil mengalungkan kalungan bunga ke leher balu dan proses ini dilakukan sebanyak tiga kali. di mana jasad akan hancur. minyak dan araippu digunakan untuk disapukan pada kepala sebagai mandian terak hir. Kemudian bunga akan dikalungkan pada leher balu dan kemudian bunga tersebut dikalungkan pada si mati. Sarjana India juga menyatakan kematian adalah perpisahan roh dan jasad. Semasa Kematian Sekiranya seseorang itu telah meninggal dunia. Kemudian sebiji kelapa terbelah dua dan sirih pinang diletakkan berhampiran si mati. Serbuk suci atau tiruniiru disapu pada dahi si mati sebelum disembahyang. Thaali iaitu rantai suci perkahwinan hanya boleh ditanggal oleh seorang isteri setelah suamiya meninggal dunia. mayat akan diletakkan di ruang tamu.

Sebelum itu pembawa kollic catti dikehendaki mencukur rambut. Ini adalah seperti pergerakan bayi yang berada di dalam kandungan. Ini menunjukkan bahawa mereka akan hidup lebih bahagia seperti rambut yang baru tumbuh. Setelah itu upacara sembahyang dilakukan oleh semua yang berada di situ. Ini dilakukan oleh kaum perempuan sahaja. Keranda akan dige rakkan beberapa kali sebelum menghampiri liang lahad. Pergerakan dimulakan dengan dengan mengubah bahagaian kaki ke kubur dan kemudian bahagian kepala. Pengebumian Mayat orang India akan diusung ke tanah perkuburan dengan menggunakan pengusung. Anak sulung melakukan untuk bapa yang telah meni nggal dunia dan anak bongsu untuk ibu. Kemudian keranda diletakkan bersebelahan dengan kubur bagi mayat yang dikebumikan atau diletakkan di atas kayu api unyuk dibakar. Seseorang yang membawa kollic catti mengiringi mayat. Periuk tersebut diangkat dengan menggunakan pelepah kelapa yang dibelah tiga di bahagian hujung dan diikat pada periuk.Setelah dimandi dan dihias dengan cantik. Duit syiling yang diletakkan di dalam dulang yang sama dibalut dengan kain putih. Selesai upacara tersebut. mereka dikehendaki memegang neippantam. Saudara mara yang terdekat akan memberi sari atau dhoti kepada si mati sebagai hadiah terakhir. lalu diambil oleh pengurus kubur sebagai tanda keizinan mayat dikebumikan. Upacara vaaikkarisi akan dilakukan oleh kaum lelaki di tanah perkuburan pula. Ahli -ahli keluarga akan mengelilingi mayat mengikut lawan jam sebanyak tiga kali sebagai tanda penghormatan. Makanan yang akan dimasukkan ke dalam mulut mayat berupa beras yang diletakkan di dalam sebuah dulang dan diletakkan berhampiran kepala mayat. Apabila tiba di tanah perkuburan. mayat akan dimasukkan ke dalam keranda. Kollic Catti Kollic catti bermaksud periuk tanah liat yang me ngandungi api. beras akan diarak dari kiri ke kanan. C ucu atau cicit tersebut dikehendaki mengelilingi mayat mengikut lawan jam sebanyak tiga kali. Sepanjang perjalanan. semua yang hadir perlu ke rumah si mati untuk upacara penyempurnaan adat pengebumian sebelum balik ke rumah. pembawa kollic catti berada di hadapan mayat dan duduk melutut tetapi tidak menghadap mayat. kaiulaasam seer' berulang kali. Ada juga yang memasukkan bijirin ke lubang tersebut. Oleh itu si mati dipercayai berada di dalam perut Dewi Bumi. Pembawa Kollic catti atau buyung dikehendaki mengelilingi mayat sebanyak tiga kali menurut arah jam. . Kollic catti dibawa oleh ahli keluarga si mati samada anak ataupun bapa. biji sawi dan bijan. bahan-bahan tersebut ditabur dan setiap bahan -bahan tadi mempunyai perlambangan yang tersendiri. pada pusingan ketiga. Sekiranya s i mati mempunyai cucu atau cicit. Kemudian diikuti oleh pengurus m ayat yang akan menebuk kollic catti dengan menyebut 'sorkam seer. Kapur barus dimasukkan bersama supaya mayat tidak berbau. Kemudian ke dalam mulut mayat akan dimasukkan sedikit makanan sebagai menandakan pemberian terakhir dan inilah yang dinamakan vaaikkarisi. Beberapa batang kayu kecil akan dibalut di bahagian hujung dengan menggunakan kain yang disapu dengan minyak sapi dan dinyalakan. Satu lubang akan dibuat di bahagian kepala dan susu akan dicurahkan pada lubang tersebut. Pada masa yang sama sebuah nyiru diisikan dengan bahan -bahan seperti padi goreng. Kemudian tiga batang kayu yang menyala diba kar dan disusun ke tanah satu persatu. Duit syiling dimasukkan ke dalam dhoti dan diletakkan di antara kaki mayat. Upacara ini dilakukan untuk mengurangkan kesedihan keluarga si mati. satu bentuk manusia akan dilukis di atas kubur. Keranda akan ditutup dan diangkat untuk dibawa ke tanah perkuburan. justeru itu kaum perempuan amat dilarang turut serta ke tanah perkuburan. Ada juga yang mencukur janggut atau misai sebagai menggantikan rambut. Neip bermaksud minyak sapi dan pantam adalah obor. Setelah mayat dikebumikan. pada masa yang sama ucapan tenna adudaiya shinanee pottri disebut beberapa kali sebagai menandakan upacara tersebut telah direstui oleh tuhan. Sebelum dimasukkan ke dalam mulut mayat. pengusung perlu membayar duit kepada penyelenggara sebagai upah mengorek liang lahad. Pada masa yang sama lagu -lagu suci dimainkan.

Ia bertujuan untuk membawa rahmat kepada bayi tersebut. Potong Tali Pusat Tali pusat yang dipotong akan ditanam bersama uri dan tembuni di sekitar kawasan rumah bersama duit tembaga. ketujuh dan sebagainya iaitu pada bilangan hari ganjil. Bagi upacara aalati ini. isi dulang aalati dibuang. garam dan pinang. kapur sirih yang dicairkan. sirih dan kapur barus yang dinyalakan diangkat dan diputar tiga kali mengikut arah jam dan juga lawan jam. Ia bertujuan untuk mengelakkan bala atau sebarang malapetaka dariapada berlaku. Namun begitu adat ini disesuaikan dengan hanya membisikkannya sebaik sahaja melihat bayi tersebut kerana perubatan moden tidak membenarkan sesiapa memasuki bilik bersalin. Madu pula dikatakan dapat melembutkan lidah bayi dan memudahkan bayi bertutur. Kegunaan minyak ini dipercayai boleh membawa kec antikan dan supaya bayi tidak diserang sebarang penyakit. dulang yang mengandungi serbuk kunyit.KELAHIRAN Semasa Bersalin Waktu kelahiran adalah penting bagi masyarakat India dimana ia akan dicatat dengan tepat bagi menentukan bintang bayi mengikut almanak Hindu. Bahan -bahan ini dimasukkan bersama untuk mengelak dari dikorek oleh binatang liar dan tidak digunakan oleh ahli sihir. Membisikkan Nama Tuhan Sebaik sahaja bayi dilahirkan. Bisikan nama Tuhan pada telinga bayi adalah untuk membolehkan bayi tadi mendengar nama Tuhan sebelum mendengar apa -apa yang lain. Dulang juga dilambai sebanyak tiga kali. Mandi Selepas Bersalin . Di samping madu. Setitik minyak bijan yang dicampur dengan sedikit susu ibu dan disapu ke mulut bayi akan bertindak menjadi pelawas dal am sistem penghadaman dan membantu tumbesaran bayi tersebut. serbuk kunyit. Setelah ibu dan anak masuk ke dalam rumah. Bintang bayi ini akan menentukan mental. Minyak savvennai yang merupakan campuran minyak bijan. minyak lenga dan mambu juga kadangkala digunakan. Sebelum bayi dibawa ma suk ke rumah upacara aalati dilakukan. Menyapu Madu Bayi yang baru dilahirkan juga akan disapu madu bercampur minyak sapi pada lidahnya. arang. Membawa Bayi Pulang Ke Rumah Bayi yang dilahirkan di hospital akan dibawa pulang ke rumah pada hari ketiga. sami atau sesiapa sahaja yang berpengetahuan tinggi mengenai agama Hindu akan membisikkan Gayatri Mantiram iaitu sejenis mantera Tuhan di telinga bayi sebelum tali pusat dipotong. Seterusnya para cumanggali akan mencelupkan ibu jarinya ke dalam dulang tersebut dan mencalitkan ke dahi ibu dan anak. fizikal dan rohani bayi sehingga dewasa. kelima. air gula juga boleh digunakan.

Mandian ini dilakukan dengan menyiram ke seluruh badan bayi dengan menggunakan ai r suam yang kadangkala dicampur dengan bahan -bahan herba. Beberapa bahan seperti serbuk kunyit. Setelah itu bayi diasapkan dengan asap kemenyan. orang luar dilarang melawat mereka kecuali untuk tujuan perubatan. Bayi kemudiannya dimasukkan ke dalam buaia n dan namanya diumumkan pada orang ramai. Bahan bahan persembahan juga disediakan seperti kari ayam betina. minyak bijan. hidung. Rambut ibu akan dikeringkan dengan segera dengan asap kemenyan bagi mengelak kan sakit kepala. dan disapu dengan bedak yang diperbuat dari tepung beras supaya tidak dihinggapi ruam. Upacara dimulakan dengan ucapan aaraaro aariraro atau cerita-cerita nasihat. Memberi Nama Sebaik sahaja bayi berusia enam belas hari. . Namun amalan ini semakin berkurangan dilakukan dan hanya diamalkan oleh generasi tua sahaja. Susu juga digunakan sebagai bahan utama untuk melembutkan kulit bayi. Bagi tujuan kecantikan. ibu yang baru bersalin tidak dibenarkan mandi selama dua minggu atas sebab -sebab kesihatan akibat fizikal ibu yang lemah kerana pembedahan dan kesan kelahiran. Bagi dua minggu pertama. Upacara mendodoi ini juga dikenali sebagai taalaattu bermaksud penggoyangan lidah. Mendodoi Bayi Amalan mendodoi bayi merupakan upacara yang paling penting dalam masyarakat India.Apabila bayi dan ibu kembali ke rumah. telur rebus. Nama-nama yang dipilih lazimnya berdasarkan almanak dengan mengikut tarikh kelahiran bayi. Air tersebut digunakan untuk mandi. Ia dilakukan dengan memasukkan bayi ke dalam buaian dan dikendalikan oleh ahli keluarga yang tertua yang a rif tentang agama dan perkara yang berkaitan dengan dewa-dewa. nenek moyang serta yang berkaitan dengan agama Hindu juga dipilih bagi bayi tersebut kerana nama yang dipilih ini akan mempengaruhi perwatakannya kelak. Bagi i bu yang bersalin normal. Nama -nama tokoh sejarawan. Ia bertujuan agar bayi tersebut menjadi seorang yang berguna. Upacara dimulakan dengan mengadakan upacara sembahyang sebagai tanda kesyukuran. Beberapa herba dan dedaun seperti aadatoodai dididihkan bersama air. Akhir sekali bayi akan dibedung dengan kain bertujuan untuk meluruskan anggota badan bayi. ikan kering dan sebagainya. Ketika bayi dimandikan. upacara pemberian nama dilakukan. Ia bertujuan untuk mengelak penyakit sawan atau kuning. Selesai dimandikan. Jika proses bersalin secara pembedahan. si ibu akan mandi selang sehari selepas bersalin. kas -kas dan kacang hijau yang ditumbuk digunakan sebagai pembersih badan bayi bertujuan untuk mengelakkan penyakit kulit dan melicinkan kulit bayi. bayi ditonggengkan dengan mengangkat kedua belah kaki sambil menepuk bahagian punggung untuk mengeluarkan kahak. selsema dan juga untuk menyegarkan tubuh badan selepas bersalin. mereka diasingkan dari ahli keluarga yang lain di sebuah bilik khas yang sentiasa dijaga kebersihannya. Saudara mara yang hadir akan memberi pelbagai hadiah dan upacara diakhiri dengan jamuan dan upacara sembahyang bagi mendoakan kesejahteraan bayi. Up acara pemujaan dilakukan dengan membersihkan sekeliling rumah dan memasang lampu minyak di keliling rumah. urutan perlahan dilakukan pada tubuh bayi dan t ulang belakang bayi supaya tidak bengkok. Terdapat juga upacara memuja Dewi Pecciyamman dan Dewi Kaatteeri dilakukan oleh segelintir masyarakat India. Bayi pula kebiasaanya dimandikan pada waktu petang oleh seorang wanita yang berpengalaman. kening dan telinga turut diurut.

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In rural areas & sometime in urban areas as well. children. and other family members abide by them. Usually. He makes all important decisions and rules. Judaism and the Bahá'í Faith are also influential but their numbers are smaller. atheism and agnostics also have visible influence along with a self -ascribed tolerance to other people. However. Hinduism and Buddhism are the world's third.[11] However.6 billion followers. ± live together. etc. In recent years. the eldest male member is the head in the joint Indian family system. A bride during a traditionalHindu wedding ceremony in Punjab.[5] Indian religions. [11] governed these groups for thousands of years. many fami ies especially in urban areas. the mainly patrilinear lineage or clan [11] assigned to a Hindu at birth. This is reinforced by the fact that many believe gods and spirits have an integral and [11] functional role in determining their life. For generations. with over 2 billion [6][7][8] and possibly as many as 2. Religion still plays a central and definitive role in the life of m any of its people. Today. some of these lines have blurred and sometimes even disappeared.and fourth-largest religions respectively. Buddhism. an respected industry consultant. Several differences such as religion divide the culture. such asHinduism and Buddhism. Important family relations extend as far as gotra.[10] Sikhism. India has had a prevailing tradition of the joint family system. it is s [11] common that three or four generations of the family live under the same roof.Clo -up of a statu dep ctingMaitreya at the Thikse Monastery in Ladakh. with some of the most deeply religious societies and cultures. the chil dren¶s spouses and their offspring. [6][9] followers altogether. in have l 1 0 0) . also known as Dharmic religions are a major form of world religions along withAbrahamic ones. The [11] patriarch often resolves family issues. It is a system under which extended members of a family ± parents. Arranged marriage in India and Women in India . Islam is practiced by around 13% of all Indians. India is one of the most religiously diverse nations in the world. Despite the strong role of religion in Indian life. Makar. a far more powerful division isthe traditional Hindu bifurcation into non-polluting and polluting occupations[11] Strict social taboos have . According to Eugene M. Dharmic religions. Family plays a significant role in the Indian culture.Jainism and Sikhism. India. in recent times.5 or 2. are indigenous to India. Jainism and especially Buddhism areinfluential not only in India but across the world. India is also the birthplace for theLingayat and Ahmadiyya faiths. Christianity. Zoroastrianism. The religion of 80% of the people is Hinduism. collectively known as Indian religions.[4] Main articles: Religion in India and Indian religions India is the birth place of Hinduism. traditional Indian culture is defined by relatively strict social hierarchy. particularly in [11] cities. children are reminded of their roles and places in society. [edit] Family Main articles: Hindu joint family. He also mentions that from an [11] early age.

which has been outlawedby the Indian government. Namaskar is considered a slightly more formal version than Namaste but both express deep respect. Buddhists and Sikhs. and the divorce rate is extremely low ² 1. are celebrated with zeal and enthusiasm across India. As explained by an Indian scholar. Namaskar or Namaskara or Namaskaram. In addition. The word is derived from Sanskrit (namah): to bow. the word is spoken at the beginning of written or verbal communication. arranged marriages have been the tradition in Indian society. the castes and the backgrounds of their families (wealth. known as the "festival of colors". It is commonly used in India and Nepal by Hindus. and respect. obeisance. being a multi-cultural and multi-religious society. 2 2 2 3 . many states and regions have local festivals depending on prevalent religious and linguistic demographics. The divorce rates have risen significantly in recent years: " pinion is divided over what the phenomenon means: for traditionalists the rising numbers portend the breakdown of society while. Ganesh Chaturthi. their astrological compatibility of the couples'horoscopes. Durga puja. the Independence Day. in literal terms Namaste refers to 'That which is of God in me bows to that which is of God in you'. Even today.[14] The arranged marriages generally have a much lower divorce rate. it means "I bow to you". the marriage is thought to be for life. social standing . They get around by not letting the [12] authorities know the arrangements of money. [edit] Festivals Radha and gopikas celebrating Holi.stopped abiding by the extended family system and have started living as a nuclear family." [edit] Namaste Namaste.1% compared with about 50% in theUnited States. height. Popular religious festivals include the Hindu festivals ofNavratri. reverential salutation. Arranged matches are made after taking into account factors such as age. the Republic Day and the Gandhi Jayanti. with the consent of the bride and groom. celebrates holidays and festivals of various religions. Jains. Vanakkam (Tamil or Asssalamu alaikum (Urdu / Persian Sat Shri Akal (Punjabi) is a common spoken greeting or salutation in the Indian subcontinent. Main article: Festivals in India India. and (te): "to you". They also demand dowry. and many continue to use this outside the Indian subcontinent. In Indian and Nepali culture. for some modernists. However. personal values and tastes. [13] In India. The threenational holidays in India. the vast majority of Indians have their marriages planned by their parents and other respected family -members. but Indian society and culture still promotes and maintains it. Diwali. Taken literally. the same hands fol ed gesture is made d usually wordlessly upon departure. [15] they speak of a healthy new empowerment for women. Holi. [edit] Marriage For centuries.

[16] In Hinduism. S veral harvest festival . ted by multipl religions. are c l ted by Muslims ac oss India. Raj . The word has been al o made famous in The Jungl Book by Rudy Kipling. whic vary by religion and c te and may come from region to region. suc as S nkranthi. Animal husbandry in India and Cattl in religion .Rakshabandhan and Dussehra. whic is the easternmost state of India. Food is consumed according to the lifestyl of the p King has to be aggressive to defend his c ountry. Raj stands for p ion. Indian names are based on a variety of sy tems andnaming conventions. Pongal and Onam. Eid aland c l Ramadan. Baiskhi are c l ted with full fanfare by Sikhs a Hindu. For exampl : A indulgenc . the cow is regarded as a symbol ofahimsa (non-viol nc ). 4 Cows depicted in the decorated goppuram of the Kap l 6544 7 5 A4 [ it] Animal warar templ in Chennai. ttva. theDree Festival is one of the tribal festival of India c l ted by the Ap tanis of the Ziro vall y ofArunac l Pradesh. Names are al o influenc awide variety of l nguages. ' M in articl : Indian cuisine The Food in India is cl ified into three major c tegories. Sikh Festival . India's popul tion sp The varied and ric wil life of India has had a p ofound imp ct on the region's popul ness in India isJungl whic was adopted by the culture. 6 57 7 5B 4 A4 7 5 57 5 A4 [ it] Names and l nguage 7894 4 76A@ 54 4 6 7 5 5 6 6 6 5 5 4 76 87 8 7 5 7894 4 7894 4 4 4 5 7894 4 894 4 7 6 5 7 7 7 7894 4 7 7 . ted by Buddhists and Hindus. suc Eid ul-Fitr. Common name for wil British colonialists to the English l nguage. and Thamas stands for on. mother goddess [17] and bringer of good fortune and wealth. and Tamas. I l mic festival ."Nuakhai" are al o fairly popul . S S tva whic stand for bal nc . cows are revered in Hindu [18] culture and feeding a cow is seen as an act of worship. Adding colors to nd the culture of India. Notabl exampl Certain festival in India are c l include Diwali. Sikhs and Jains. and Buddh Purnima. whic is c l ted by Hindus. For this reason. from the Indian epic . India's wil life has been the subj ct of numerous other tal and fabl suc as thePanc tantra and the Jataka tal . suc as Guru Nanak Jay nti. he woul be taking food whic woul A 4 6 57 584 7 A 4 55 7 7 57 4 7 55 7 4 4 6 A4 [ it] Cuisine 87 54 4 5 4 4 4 6 7 4 8 A 76 7 84A 6 54 A8 7 A 6 A 54 4 5 44 S al o: Wil life of India.

Uttar Pradeshi thali (platter) withNaan bread. India is known for its love for food andspices.[21] The popularity of curry. The multiple varieties of Indian cuisine are characterized by their sophisticated and subtle use of many Spices and Herbs. Cuisine across India has also been influenced by various cultural groups that entered India throughout history. such aschicken tikka made with Indian ingredients. Kheer is a traditional Indian sweet dish. and it plays a role ineveryday life as well as in festivals. which would help to keep his mind in balance.give much passion and that aggressiveness which is required. This the is reason why in many Indians try to abstain drinking. Despite this diversity. and Salad. Indian tandoori dishes. western and north -eastern. enjoy widespread popular ity. Each family of this cuisine is characterized by a wide assortment of dishes and cooking techniques. some unifying threads emerge. When a person tries to lead his life in want of self realisaiton. such as the Persians. The Spice trade between India and Europe led to the rise and dominance of Arab traders to such an extent that European explorers. such asVasco da Gama and Christopher Columbus. many traditional Indian dishes also include:chicken. lamb. he would prefer a Satvic food or known as Sattvic diet. Thamasic food or known as Static foods is to be taken only if its required. and European colonists. Daal. Shahi paneer. across Asia has often led to the dish being labeled as the "pan -Asian" dish. Indian Spices and Herbs were one of the most sought after trade commodities. Though a significant portion of Indian food is vegetarian. Historically. which originated in India. Varied uses of spices are an integral part of food preparation. like consumption of Alcohol.[22] [edit] Clothing . Generally. Mughals. and other meats. reflecting the varied ² demographics of the country. southern. Raita. Indian cuisine varies from region to region. fish. goat. Indian cuisine can be split into 5 categories northern. and are used to enhance he flavor of a dish and t create unique flavors and aromas. set out to find new trade routes with India leading to the Age of Discovery. Though the tandoor originated in Central Asia. eastern.[19] [20] Indian cuisine is one of the most popular cuisines across the globe.

the bindi is considered to be a highly auspicious mark in Hindu religion. muslins manufactured in southern India were imported by the Roman Empire and silk cloth was one of the major exports of ancient India along with Indian spices.[23] Most Indian clothes are made fromcotton which is ideal for the region's hot weather. geography and climate. Ancient Vedic texts mention clothes made from barks and leaves (kn wn as o phataka). In 5th century BC.[30] Stitched clothing in India was developed before 10th [30] century AD and was further popularized in 15th century by Muslim empires in India.[29] By 2nd century AD. The 11th century BC Rig-veda mentions dyed and embroidered garments (known as paridhan and pesas respectively) and thus highlights the development of [28] sophisticated garment m anufacturing techniques during the Vedic age. majority of Indians wear sandals. but now it has become a part of women's fashion. a person's social status is perceived to be symbolized by his or her attire. Some Indian traditions consider thebindi to be representative of thethird eye. are also popular. stitched clothes such aschuridar for women and kurta-pyjama and Europeanstyle trousers and shirts for men. Greek historian Herodotus describes the richness of the quality of Indian cotton clothes. Consequently. Indian dress etiquette discourages exposure of skin and wearing transparent or tight clothes. in addition. Popular styles of dress include draped garme nts such as sari for women and dhoti or lungi for men.[27] India's clothing styles have continuously evolved over the course of the country's history. In India. Traditional clothing in India greatly varies across different parts of the country and is influenced immensely by local culture.[26] Traditionally.[24] Since India's weather is mostly hot and rainy. Draped clothing styles remained popular with India's Hindu population while the [31] Muslims increasingly adopted tailored garments. the red bindi (orsindoor) was worn only by the married Hindu women. Indian independence movement leader Mahatma Gandhi successfully advocated for what he .Illustration of different styles ofSari & clothing worn by women in India. India's large clothing and handicrafts industry was left paralyzed so as to make place for British industrial cloth.[25] Worn by women on their foreh ead. During the British Raj.

Tam l literature has existed for over two thousandyears[40] and the earliest ep grap c records found date from around the third century BC.[38][39] Tam l."). or indirectly via m ddle Indo languages (tadbhava words). and one of the earliest attested members of theIndo-European language fam ly the fam ly which includes . [34] With its oldest core dating back to as early as 1500 BC. Munda languages and Dravidian languages. In Ancient India the time was divided in Four yugas.ta .[36] Part of the Eastern Indo-Aryan languages. the Satavahana and Kadamba periods and hence has a history of over 2000 years. The calendar which most Indians follows goes in accordance to this. [35] English and most European languages. measuring the dates of Vedas came in later days. is a "Sanskritized register" of theKhariboli dialect. Time is always referred as Kaala C hakra in India. one of India's major classical languages. These developments played a p votal role in the fusion of Indian and Western clothing styles. and language.1 (agni . descends from Proto-Dravidian languages which was spoken around the third m llennium BC in peninsular India. Kannada is attested ep grap cally from the m d literary Old Kannada flourished in the 9th to 10th centuryRashtrakuta Dynasty. the Rigvedic Sanskrit is one of the oldest attestations of anyIndo-Iranian language. C CD C C C C C C C CD C C CD C C C C . the Bengali language arose from the eastern M ddle Indic languages and its roots are traced to the 5th century BC Ardhamagadhi language. India's most spoken language. In addition.. pura .[36] Words originating in Sanskrit are estimated to constitute roughly fifty percent of the vocabulary of modern Indo -Aryan languages. all modern Indo-Aryan languages.. tvija ). increasing involvement of women in the fashion industry and changing Indian attitudes towards multiculturalism. Preold Kannada (or Purava HaleGannada) was the language ofBanavasi in the early Common Era. have borrowed many words t -Aryan either directly from Sanskrit ( atsama words).[42][43][44][45] The Ashoka rock edictfound at Brahmagiri (dated to 230 BC) has [46] been suggested to contain a word in identifiable Kannada. early 19th century.H ndi.termed as khadi clothing ² light colored hand -woven clothes ² so as to decrease [32] reliance of the Indian people on British industrial goods. the first line has the opening words of RV. Aum(3) .[41] Another major Dravidian -1st m llennium AD. deva . yajñasya . The Vedic accent is marked by underscores and vertical overscores in red. After a scribal benediction (" r ga é yanama . Malayalam and Kannada. Sanskrit has had a profound impact on the languages and literature of India.[33] [edit] Languages and literature [edit] H story Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari.1.[37] and the literary forms of (Dravidian)Telugu. The 1980s was marked by a widespread modification to Indian clothing fashions which was characterized by a large-scale growth of fashion sc hools in India. i e .1. There by.

According to 2001 India census. as well as unrelated epics include the TamilRamavataram.[48] [edit] Epics . Manuscript illustration of theBattle of Kurukshetra -known epics of The R m ya a and the Mah bh rata are the oldest preserved and well India. AD). Versions have been adopted as the epics of Southeast Asian countries like Thailand. there are two major literary awards. Urdu and Oriya and two in Tamil. The earliest parts of the [50] Mahabharata text date to 400 BC and is estimated to have reached its final form by the early Gupta period (ca. Seven Jnanpith awards each have been awarded in Kannada. six in Hindi. Hindi Ramacharitamanasa. four in Malayalam. Telugu. and Malayalam Adhyathmaramayanam.[51] Other regional variations of these.[47] In contemporary Indian literature. whose wife Sita is abducted by thedemon king of Lanka. three each in Marathi. [edit] Performing arts [edit] Dance Main article: Dance in India . 4th c. Manimekalai. In addition to these two great Indian epics. Civaka-cintamani.000 verses in seven books (k as) and 500 cantos (sargas). Valayapathi and Kundalakesi. Malaysia and Indonesia. Gujarati.[49] and tells the story of Rama (anincarnation of the Hindu preserver -god Vishnu). followed by Bengali.Hindi is the most spoken language in India. Kannada Pampa Bharata. The Ramayana consists of 24. five in Bengali. Ravana. there are five major epics in the classica Tamil language ² l Silappatikaram. This epic played a pivotal role in establishing the role of dhárma as a [50] principal ideal guiding force for Hindu way of life. Marathi and Tamil. these are theSahitya Akademi Fellowshipand the Jnanpith Award..

sung to a rhythmic cycle ortala. India's classical music tradition is heavily influenced by Hindu texts.[62] [59][63] However.nown folk dances are the bhangra of the Punjab. Mandra and Atisw r.[52][53] [edit] Drama and theater Main article: Theatre in India Indian drama and theater has a long history alongside its music and dance. Vikramorva ya and M lavik gnimitra. asKrusht. the bihu of Assam.[59][60][61] He concluded his songs with a salutation to Lord Purandara Vittala and is believed to have composed as many as 475. the Yakshagana of Karnataka and lavani of Maharashtra and Dekhnni of Goa. Dance. Kalidasa's plays like Shakuntala and Meghadoota are some of the older plays. Dwitiya. and The music of India includes multiple varieties of religious. the dandiya and garba of Gujarat. E . These are: bharatanatyam of the state of Tamil Nadu.[57] It proposed a tonal structure consisting of seven notes. Chaturth. Eight dance forms. The oldest preserved examples of Indian music are the melodies of the Samaveda that are still sung in certain Vedic rauta sacrifices. Both the Hindustani classical music and the Carnatic classical musicsystems are based on the melodic mode (known asR ga). popular. It strictly follows theNatya Shastra. classical music. Bhasa's Swapnav savadatta and Panchar tra. which were named.Odissi performer from Odisha Indian dance too has diverse folk and classical forms. These principles were refined in then tya stra (200 BC) and the dattilam (300 AD).000 year t old Kutiyattam of Kerala. kathak of Uttar Pradesh. odissi of the state of Odisha and the sattriya of Assam. only about 1. Tritiya. He started to perform the Kalidasa plays like Abhijñ na kuntala. One of the oldest surviving theatre traditions of he world is the 2.000 songs in the Kannada language. which was the only fixed frequency instrument. Among the well.[54] N ty ch rya M ni M dhava Ch ky r is credited for reviving the age old drama tradition from extinction. the chhau of Jharkhand. the ghoomar of Rajasthan. He was known for mastery ofRasa Abhinaya. These refer to the notes of a flute. pop.000 are known today. manipuri of Manipur. S The earliest account of Indian musical hymns is found in the 1000 BC maveda.[55][56] [edit] Music Main article: Music of India folk. many with narrative forms andmythological elements.the Odishi of Orissa. following those of Bhasa. It includes two distinct styles: Carnatic and Hindustani music. have been accorded classical dance statusby India's National Academy of Music. in descending order.[58] Purandaradasa is considered the "father of carnatic music" Karnataka sangeeta ( pitamaha). kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh. and Drama. Panchavadyam temple music in Kerala. Harsha's Nagananda. Pratham. kathakali and mohiniattam of Kerala.

Prominent contemporary Indian musical forms includedfilmi and Indipop. The earliest Indian paintings were the rock paintings ofpre-historic times. Among the present day artists. Ellora and Sittanavasal and temple paintings testify to a love of naturalism.[65] [edit] Visual arts Main article: Indian art [edit] Painting Main article: Indian painting The Jataka tales from Ajanta Caves. the petroglyphst it was common for households to paint their doorways or indoor rooms where guests resided. Geeta Vadhera. Mughal painting are some notable Genres of Indian Art.Venkatappa[66] are some modern painters. Atul Dodiya. Bose Krishnamacnahri. Mysore painting. M. [edit] Sculpture . international recognition. S. Buddhist or Jain. Husain. These recent artists have acquired . and accounts for more than 70 percent of all music sales in the country. Rajput painting. Tanjore painting. H. Raza. Mysore Palace has on display a few good Indian paintings.[64] Indipop is one of the most popular contemporary styles of Indian music which is either a fusion ofIndian folk. A freshly made coloured flour design Rangoli) is still a common sight outside ( Raja Ravi Varma is one the the doorstep of many (mostly South Indian) Indian homes. primarily Bollywood. Jehangir Art Gallery Mumbai. F. Bagh. Filmi refers to the wide range of music written and performed for mainstreamIndian cinema. classical or Sufi music with Western musical traditions. Devajyoti Ray and Shibu Natesan represent a new era of Indian artwhere global art shows direct amalgamation with Indian classical styles. Madhubani painting. whileNandalal Bose. Jamini Roy and B. classical painters from medieval India. Cave paintings from Ajanta. Most early and medieval art in India is Hindu.

ca 1450. as Hinduism. These styles and others elsewhere in India evolved leading to classical Indian art that contributed to Buddhist and Hindu sculpture throughout Southeast Central and East Asia. Buddhism.oman influence. Sculptures produced in the northwest. where stone and bronze figures have been discovered. Some huge shrines. Duringthe Gupta period (4th to 6th century) sculpture reached a very high standard in execution and delicacy in modeling. Main article: Sculpture in India Marble Sculpture of female. India produced some extremely intricate bronzes as well as temple carvings. schist. in stucco. such as the one at Ellora were not constructed by using blocks but carved out of solid rock.The 5th century Buddhistvishvakarma cave at Ellora. Maharashtra. The pink sandstone sculptures of Mathura evolved almost simultaneously. display a very strong blend of Indian and ClassicalHellenistic or possibly even Greco. [edit] Architecture Main article: Architecture of India F . or clay. Later. Rajasthan The first sculptures in India date back to theIndus Valley civilization. and Jainism developed further.

are to e placed. Later on. South India produced several Hindu temples like Chennakesava Temple at Belur. and ergonomics.[68] The traditional system ofVaastu Shastra serves as India's version ofFeng Shui.[67] Considered to be an "unrivaled architectural wonder". Indian architecture encompasses a multitude of expressions over space and time. Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple at Srirangam. one of the largest private residences in the world. such as the exact directions in which various objects. Some of its earliest production are found in the Indus Valley Civilization (2600 ±1900 BC) which is characterised by well planned cities and houses. Though Vastu is conceptually similar to Feng Shui in that it also tries to harmonize the flow of energy. Konark. as they are built in styles almost identical to traditional Indian religious buildings. and the Buddha stupa Bhattiprolu. The result is an evolving range of architectural production that nonetheless retains a certain amount of continuity across history. Feng Shui is m ore commonly used throughout the world. etc. and . rooms. Brihadeeswara Temple Thanjavur. Angkor Wat. The Umaid Bhawan Palace in Rajasthan. materials. It is unclear which system is older. such as the caves of Ajanta and Ellora and the monumental Sanchi Stupa were built. the Hoysaleswara Templeat Halebidu. several Buddhist architectural complexes. the Sun Temple. constantly absorbing new ideas. but they contain certain similarities. it differs in the details. through the house. During the period of the Mauryan and Gupta empires and their successors. architecture. Religion and kingship do not seem to have played an important role in the planning and layout of these towns. the Taj Mahal in Agra is a prime example of Indo-Islamic architecture. influencing town planning. b . the Kesava Temple at Somanathapura. (Chinna Lanja dibba and Vikramarka kota dibba) at Borobudur and otherBuddhist and Hindu temples indicate strong Indian influence on South East Asian architecture. (also called life -force or Prana in Sanskrit and Chi/Ki in Chinese/Japanese).

TheIndia national cricket team won the 1983 Cricket World Cupand the 2007 ICC World Twenty20 and shared . played in New Delhi. have become famous symbols of Asian culture. the Duleep Trophy. Contemporary Indian architect ure is more cosmopolitan.[69][70][71][72] where its early form in the 6th century was known as Other games which originated in India and continue to remain popular in wide parts of northern India include Kabaddi. The Victoria Memorial or the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminusare notable examples. In addition. Cities are extremely compact and densely populated. empire. or gopuram is noted for its intricacy and majesty. and mixing of several other styles. [edit] Sports and Martial arts Main article: Sports in India The annual Snake boat raceis performed during Onam Celebrations on the Pamba River at Aranmula near Pathanamthitta. are notable. Traditional southern Indian games include Snake boat raceand Kuttiyum kolum. Field Hockey is the national Sport in India. Domestic competitions include theRanji Trophy. and Kho kho.Fatehpur Sikri. Gol Gumbaz. The colonial rule of the British Empire saw the development of Indo-Saracenic style. due to the spread of Buddhism. The southern temple gate. such as European Gothic. the 2002 ICC Champions Trophywith Sri Lanka. Chess is commonly believed to have originated in northwestern India during the Gupta chaturanga. BCCI conducts the Indian Premier League. and theIndia national field hockey teamwon the 1975 Men's Hockey World Cup and 8 gold. Mumbai'sNariman Point is famous for its Art Deco buildings. and the various modern urban developments of India likeChandigarh. temple tower or pagoda and temple gate or torana. the Deodhar Trophy. Indian architecture has influenced eastern and southeastern Asia. Recent creations such as the Lotus Temple.With the advent of Islamic influence from the west. Red Fort of Delhi are creations of this era. the Irani Trophy and the Challenger Series. used extensively in East Asia and South East Asia. and are often used as the stereotypical symbols of India. Cricket is the most popular Sport in India. [edit] Indian martial arts Main article: Indian martial arts . It hosted a spectacular display of Indian culture and heritage to the entire world during the opening ceremony of the games. a Twenty20 competition. Qutub Minar. temple spire or sikhara. 1 silver and 2 bronze medals at the Olympic games. Gilli-danda. The central spire is also sometimes called avimanam. A number of Indian architectural features such as the temple mound or stupa. Indian architecture was adapted to allow the traditions of the new religion. Taj Mahal. India is the host of 2010 Commonwealth Games.

[74] Silambam.[76] In northern India. which was later used in martial arts. which was developed around 200 AD. complex sword fighting techniques ( (paliyankam). Indian Buddhist monk Bodhidharma was one of the main founders of theShaolin Kungfu. The 3rd century BCYoga Sutras of Patanjalitaught how to meditate single-mindedly on points located inside one's body. were later [79] incorporated into various martial arts. while various mudra finger movements were taught inYogacara Buddhism.[80] [edit] Popular media . According to some historical accounts. the Dhanur Veda tradition was an influential fighting arts style which considered th bow and the arrow to be the e supreme weapons.Kalarippayattu. A bamboo staff is used as the main weapon. soldiers from southern India received special martial arts training which revolved primarily around the use of spear (vel). including a variety of spinning ( [75] styles. One of the best known forms of ancient Indian martial arts is the Kalarippayattu from Kerala. sword (val) and shield (kedaham). A distinctive factor of Indian martial arts is the heavy emphasis laid [78] on meditation (dhy na) as a tool to remove fear. [77] physical and spiritual training. one of the oldest and most prominent forms of Indian martial arts. This ancient fighting style originated in southern India in 12th century BC and [73] is regarded as one of the oldest surviving martial arts. and. various stages of physical training includeayurvedic massage with sesame oil to impart suppleness to the body ( uzichil). as well as finger movements in thenata dances. The Dhanur Veda was first described in the 5th century BCVi u R Pur a[73] and is also mentioned in both of the major ancient Indian epics. Indian martial arts techniques have had a profound impact on other martial arts styles across Asia. a series of sharp body movements so as t gain control o over various parts of the body miapayattu). traces its roots to the Sangam period in southern India. doubt and anxiety.[75] Silambam is unique among Indian martial arts because it uses complex footwork techniques kaaladi). the m ya a and Mah bh rata. The ancient Tamil Sangam literature mentions that between 400 BC and 600 AD. In this form martial arts. the musti yuddha evolved in 1100 AD and focussed on mental. In addition. These elements of yoga.

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