ADAT MASYARAKAT INDIA

Sebelum Majlis Perkahwinan Sebelum majlis perkahwinan berlangsung, terdapat beberapa perkara penting yang perlu dijalankan terlebih dahulu, antaranya : Kad Jemputan Kad jemputan memainkan peranan yang penting dalam perkahwinan masyarakat India. Kad jemputan ini dibuat berdasarkan almanak Hindu. Sekiranya terdapat kesilapan, bermakna perkahwinan tidak dapat dijalankan dengan lancar. Kad jemputan yang telah dicetak disapu dengan serbuk kunyit cair sebagai lambang keharmonian. Beberapa keping kad jemputan dalam bilangan ganjil akan dibawa bersama ke kuil untuk dibawa bersembahyang ( arccanai). Kad diletakkan di atas dulang bersama sirih, wang ringgit, kelapa, pinang dan sebagainya sebagai lambang kekayaan. Upacara ini dinamakan sebagai paanam paaku. Kemudian dulang akan dibawa ke rumah pengantin perempuan untuk diberi kepada pengantin lelaki dan begitulah sebaliknya. Pada masa yang sama sirih pinang akan diberikan sebagai tanda jemputan perkahwinan secara rasmi. Penyediaan Thaali ( Tjrumaanggalyam) Thaali atau tjirumaangalyam merupakan lambang suci perkahwinan yang dikalungkan pada leher kedua-dua pengantin. Pada thaali itu diikat segumpal benang putih yang disapu dengan kunyit. Terdapat pelbagai jenis thaal i yang digunakan oleh masyarakat India seperti lingath thaali, pottut thaali, tennant thaali dan sebagainya. Ini disebabkan terdapat pelbagai suku di kalangan masyarakat India. Adat penyediaan thaali ini dilakukan tujuh atau sembilan hari sebelum hari perkahwinan. Pihak lelaki akan membawa emas, cendana, kumkum, sirih pinang, kelapa dan bayaran u ntuk pembuat thaali. Ini adalah untuk memastikan tukang thaali mengetahui hari yang sesuai untuk membuat thaali. Tiga hari sebelum perkahwinan, thaali akan diambil dan diletakkan di tempat sembahyang atas suruhan pembuat thaali. Pihak pengantin adalah dila rang untuk menawar perkhidmatan yang dilakukan oleh pembuat thaali. Selepas itu upacara sembahyang dilakukan dan ini dinamakan sebagai thaalippadaiyal. Dalam upacara itu bubur manis dan nasi manis disediakan termasuklah dhoti dan sari untuk pasangan penga ntin. Secara umumnya thaali tidak diwajibkan diperbuat daripada emas. Ini kerana thaali masih boleh dibuat daripada kunyit yang dikatakan lebih selamat dan tidak dicuri orang. Mukuurtta Kaal Adat ini dilakukan lima hari sebelum hari perkahwinan dilangsun gkan. Adat mukuurtta kaal ini diadakan pada hari yang baik mengikut firasat masyarakat India. Untuk menjalankan adat tersebut sebatang pokok yang masih muda dan lurus akan ditebang untuk dijadikan mukurtta kaal. Batang pokok tersebut berukuran dua atau tig a meter dan mempunyai lilitan batang antara 20 hingga 30 sentimeter. Adat mendirikan mukuurtta kaal adalah sebagai menandakan perkahwinan akan dilangsungkan di rumah tersebut. Bahan -bahan lazim seperti sirih pinang, kum kum, kunyit dan sebagainya disediak an. Ahli-ahli keluarga pengantin akan bermohon pada Tuhan supaya perkahwinan dapat dilangsungkan tanpa gangguan. Batang kayu diambil dan dibersihkan serta dibuang kulitnya. Lima orang perempuan yang sudah berkahwin akan menyapukan kunyit cair dan kumkum pa da batang kayu tersebut dari pangkal hingga hujung. Kemudian hujung kayu diikat dengan daun ara atau mangga menggunakan kain bewarna merah. Kayu akan dipacak sedalam setengah meter dan bahan-bahan tadi akan dimasukkan ke dalam lubang tersebut sebagai lamba ng kekayaan. Kemudian upacara sembahyang dilakukan oleh pengantin beserta lima orang perempuan tersebut. Sebanyak sembilan jenis bijirin ditabur pada batang kayu dan lampu minyak dinyalakan. Pada masa yang sama pengantin berikrar akan menjaga alam sekitar sebagai lambang persahabatan dengan alam sekitar. Kebiasaannya adat mendirikan mukuurtta kaal dilakukan di rumah pengantin lelaki.

Untuk melaksanakan upacara ini. mereka mempercayai konsep kela hiran semula.KEMATIAN Bagi masyarakat India. Upacara Vaaikkarisi . Kemudian bunga akan dikalungkan pada leher balu dan kemudian bunga tersebut dikalungkan pada si mati. Serbuk suci atau tiruniiru disapu pada dahi si mati sebelum disembahyang. gambar -gambar yang tergantung diterbalikkan dan barang -barang perhiasan dibawa keluar dari ruang tamu. pelbagai adat tertentu akan dilakukan. Sebelum dimandikan. Mayat akan dimandikan terlebih dahulu dan dibaringkan di atas katil di ruang tamu atau halaman r umah. Sirih pinang ditumbuk dan dimasukkan ke dalam mulut dan lubang hidung akan disumbatkan dengan kapas. Dalam masyarakat India. Sarjana India juga menyatakan kematian adalah perpisahan roh dan jasad. Sapuan minyak ini dilakukan oleh ahli keluarga dan diikuti oleh saudara mara terdekat. Kaki dan tangan mayat perlu diluruskan. Tujuannya agar roh si mati sentisa tenang dan aman. tiruvaasakam dan seumpamanya dinyanyikan serta diimainkan sehingga ke tanah perkuburan. Dalam upacara tersebut. si isteri hendaklah duduk di sebelah si mati dan dijirus dengan sebuyung air semasa mayat suaminya dimandikan. mayat akan di bakar atau dikebumikan. Selepas dimandikan. Semasa Kematian Sekiranya seseorang itu telah meninggal dunia. Mayat seterusnya dimandikan oleh orang yang tel ah berumur. Untuk menunjukkan kesedihan. perigi atau sumber -sumber air yang lain. Thaali itu seterusnya akan dimasukkan ke dalam dulang dan disimpan dalam rumah. Lagu-lagu suci seperti teevaaram. si mati akan dipakaikan dengan pakaian baru iaitu sari bagi mayat perempuan dan dhoti bagi mayat lelaki. Kemenyan dan kapur barus diasap sebagai simbol ketenangan jiwa si mati. Sepanjang mayat berada di dalam rumah. Kepala mayat dihadapkan ke arah selatan dan sebuah lampu miny ak atau kaamaatci amman vilakku dipasang dinyalakan. tetapi kembali ke alam barzakh . mayat akan diletakkan di ruang tamu. Upacara Menanggalkan Thaali Thaali vaangutal merupakan upacara menanggalkan thaali semasa berlakunya sesebuah kematian dalam sesebuah keluarga. Mata dan mulut mayat juga perlu ditu tup rapat. Kemudian sebiji kelapa terbelah dua dan sirih pinang diletakkan berhampiran si mati. Balu tersebut dikehendaki meletakkan kalungan bunga ke dalam dulang yang berisi minyak. Thaali iaitu rantai suci perkahwinan hanya boleh ditanggal oleh seorang isteri setelah suamiya meninggal dunia. Buyung yang berisi air akan ditutup dengan menggunakan kain dhoti untuk mengelakkan habuk memasuki air tersebut. Kaum lelaki yang mempunyai hubungan kekeluargaan dengan si mati sahaja boleh membawa air dalam jumlah yang ganjil. Setelah itu barulah si mati dibalut dengan menggunakan kain. di mana jasad akan hancur. iaitu kematian adalah ibarat tidur dan mereka akan bangun selepas tidur. bun ga dan susu yang dibawa oleh seorang perempuan lain. seterusnya seorang wanita yang sudah be rusia dan mempunyai hubungan kekeluargaan akan memegang tangan si mati sambil mengalungkan kalungan bunga ke leher balu dan proses ini dilakukan sebanyak tiga kali. kunyit disapu pada mata untuk membunuh kuman dan seterusnya duit syiling diletakkan di atas dahi. Air tersebut diperolehi dari sungai. si mati perlu dijaga dengan sebaiknya. Air mawar direnjis dan mayat turut diasapkan dengan kemenyan yang dibakar supaya tidak berbau. Kaum wanita pula akan menyambut air tersebut yang digunakan untuk memandikan mayat. Mayat yang sudah dibersihkan itu akan diletakkan di ruang tamu sebagai langkah menghormati tetamu. Ini dilakukan seolah -olah menunjukkan si suami membuangkan thaali dari leher balu. kecuali air paip. Belakang tapak tangan digunakan untuk menyapu minyak ini dan bukannya menggunakan tapak tangan sebagaimana lazimnya. ibu jari tangan dan kaki diikat dengan kain putih dan diletakkan ke dada. minyak dan araippu digunakan untuk disapukan pada kepala sebagai mandian terak hir.

mereka dikehendaki memegang neippantam. Sebelum itu pembawa kollic catti dikehendaki mencukur rambut. Neip bermaksud minyak sapi dan pantam adalah obor. Keranda akan ditutup dan diangkat untuk dibawa ke tanah perkuburan. Pergerakan dimulakan dengan dengan mengubah bahagaian kaki ke kubur dan kemudian bahagian kepala. pembawa kollic catti berada di hadapan mayat dan duduk melutut tetapi tidak menghadap mayat. Kemudian diikuti oleh pengurus m ayat yang akan menebuk kollic catti dengan menyebut 'sorkam seer. Ini adalah seperti pergerakan bayi yang berada di dalam kandungan. bahan-bahan tersebut ditabur dan setiap bahan -bahan tadi mempunyai perlambangan yang tersendiri. Setelah mayat dikebumikan. pada masa yang sama ucapan tenna adudaiya shinanee pottri disebut beberapa kali sebagai menandakan upacara tersebut telah direstui oleh tuhan. pengusung perlu membayar duit kepada penyelenggara sebagai upah mengorek liang lahad. Pada masa yang sama sebuah nyiru diisikan dengan bahan -bahan seperti padi goreng. Ini menunjukkan bahawa mereka akan hidup lebih bahagia seperti rambut yang baru tumbuh. Duit syiling dimasukkan ke dalam dhoti dan diletakkan di antara kaki mayat. Makanan yang akan dimasukkan ke dalam mulut mayat berupa beras yang diletakkan di dalam sebuah dulang dan diletakkan berhampiran kepala mayat. Upacara ini dilakukan untuk mengurangkan kesedihan keluarga si mati. Kollic Catti Kollic catti bermaksud periuk tanah liat yang me ngandungi api. biji sawi dan bijan.Setelah dimandi dan dihias dengan cantik. Ada juga yang memasukkan bijirin ke lubang tersebut. Sebelum dimasukkan ke dalam mulut mayat. beras akan diarak dari kiri ke kanan. Satu lubang akan dibuat di bahagian kepala dan susu akan dicurahkan pada lubang tersebut. Sepanjang perjalanan. Ini dilakukan oleh kaum perempuan sahaja. Setelah itu upacara sembahyang dilakukan oleh semua yang berada di situ. Keranda akan dige rakkan beberapa kali sebelum menghampiri liang lahad. mayat akan dimasukkan ke dalam keranda. Sekiranya s i mati mempunyai cucu atau cicit. Saudara mara yang terdekat akan memberi sari atau dhoti kepada si mati sebagai hadiah terakhir. Beberapa batang kayu kecil akan dibalut di bahagian hujung dengan menggunakan kain yang disapu dengan minyak sapi dan dinyalakan. Pada masa yang sama lagu -lagu suci dimainkan. Kemudian ke dalam mulut mayat akan dimasukkan sedikit makanan sebagai menandakan pemberian terakhir dan inilah yang dinamakan vaaikkarisi. Pembawa Kollic catti atau buyung dikehendaki mengelilingi mayat sebanyak tiga kali menurut arah jam. Ahli -ahli keluarga akan mengelilingi mayat mengikut lawan jam sebanyak tiga kali sebagai tanda penghormatan. lalu diambil oleh pengurus kubur sebagai tanda keizinan mayat dikebumikan. Pengebumian Mayat orang India akan diusung ke tanah perkuburan dengan menggunakan pengusung. Kapur barus dimasukkan bersama supaya mayat tidak berbau. pada pusingan ketiga. Kemudian keranda diletakkan bersebelahan dengan kubur bagi mayat yang dikebumikan atau diletakkan di atas kayu api unyuk dibakar. Apabila tiba di tanah perkuburan. Seseorang yang membawa kollic catti mengiringi mayat. satu bentuk manusia akan dilukis di atas kubur. justeru itu kaum perempuan amat dilarang turut serta ke tanah perkuburan. C ucu atau cicit tersebut dikehendaki mengelilingi mayat mengikut lawan jam sebanyak tiga kali. Periuk tersebut diangkat dengan menggunakan pelepah kelapa yang dibelah tiga di bahagian hujung dan diikat pada periuk. semua yang hadir perlu ke rumah si mati untuk upacara penyempurnaan adat pengebumian sebelum balik ke rumah. Upacara vaaikkarisi akan dilakukan oleh kaum lelaki di tanah perkuburan pula. Selesai upacara tersebut. Duit syiling yang diletakkan di dalam dulang yang sama dibalut dengan kain putih. Kemudian tiga batang kayu yang menyala diba kar dan disusun ke tanah satu persatu. Ada juga yang mencukur janggut atau misai sebagai menggantikan rambut. kaiulaasam seer' berulang kali. Kollic catti dibawa oleh ahli keluarga si mati samada anak ataupun bapa. Anak sulung melakukan untuk bapa yang telah meni nggal dunia dan anak bongsu untuk ibu. . Oleh itu si mati dipercayai berada di dalam perut Dewi Bumi.

Bagi upacara aalati ini. Minyak savvennai yang merupakan campuran minyak bijan. Setelah ibu dan anak masuk ke dalam rumah. Kegunaan minyak ini dipercayai boleh membawa kec antikan dan supaya bayi tidak diserang sebarang penyakit. dulang yang mengandungi serbuk kunyit. sirih dan kapur barus yang dinyalakan diangkat dan diputar tiga kali mengikut arah jam dan juga lawan jam. isi dulang aalati dibuang. ketujuh dan sebagainya iaitu pada bilangan hari ganjil. kelima. arang. Di samping madu. sami atau sesiapa sahaja yang berpengetahuan tinggi mengenai agama Hindu akan membisikkan Gayatri Mantiram iaitu sejenis mantera Tuhan di telinga bayi sebelum tali pusat dipotong. Seterusnya para cumanggali akan mencelupkan ibu jarinya ke dalam dulang tersebut dan mencalitkan ke dahi ibu dan anak. garam dan pinang. fizikal dan rohani bayi sehingga dewasa.KELAHIRAN Semasa Bersalin Waktu kelahiran adalah penting bagi masyarakat India dimana ia akan dicatat dengan tepat bagi menentukan bintang bayi mengikut almanak Hindu. air gula juga boleh digunakan. Ia bertujuan untuk mengelakkan bala atau sebarang malapetaka dariapada berlaku. Bintang bayi ini akan menentukan mental. Membisikkan Nama Tuhan Sebaik sahaja bayi dilahirkan. Sebelum bayi dibawa ma suk ke rumah upacara aalati dilakukan. kapur sirih yang dicairkan. Dulang juga dilambai sebanyak tiga kali. Bisikan nama Tuhan pada telinga bayi adalah untuk membolehkan bayi tadi mendengar nama Tuhan sebelum mendengar apa -apa yang lain. Madu pula dikatakan dapat melembutkan lidah bayi dan memudahkan bayi bertutur. Menyapu Madu Bayi yang baru dilahirkan juga akan disapu madu bercampur minyak sapi pada lidahnya. Ia bertujuan untuk membawa rahmat kepada bayi tersebut. Potong Tali Pusat Tali pusat yang dipotong akan ditanam bersama uri dan tembuni di sekitar kawasan rumah bersama duit tembaga. Namun begitu adat ini disesuaikan dengan hanya membisikkannya sebaik sahaja melihat bayi tersebut kerana perubatan moden tidak membenarkan sesiapa memasuki bilik bersalin. Mandi Selepas Bersalin . Setitik minyak bijan yang dicampur dengan sedikit susu ibu dan disapu ke mulut bayi akan bertindak menjadi pelawas dal am sistem penghadaman dan membantu tumbesaran bayi tersebut. Membawa Bayi Pulang Ke Rumah Bayi yang dilahirkan di hospital akan dibawa pulang ke rumah pada hari ketiga. minyak lenga dan mambu juga kadangkala digunakan. Bahan -bahan ini dimasukkan bersama untuk mengelak dari dikorek oleh binatang liar dan tidak digunakan oleh ahli sihir. serbuk kunyit.

. Namun amalan ini semakin berkurangan dilakukan dan hanya diamalkan oleh generasi tua sahaja. Beberapa herba dan dedaun seperti aadatoodai dididihkan bersama air. Mendodoi Bayi Amalan mendodoi bayi merupakan upacara yang paling penting dalam masyarakat India. Nama-nama yang dipilih lazimnya berdasarkan almanak dengan mengikut tarikh kelahiran bayi. Air tersebut digunakan untuk mandi. dan disapu dengan bedak yang diperbuat dari tepung beras supaya tidak dihinggapi ruam. Bayi kemudiannya dimasukkan ke dalam buaia n dan namanya diumumkan pada orang ramai. mereka diasingkan dari ahli keluarga yang lain di sebuah bilik khas yang sentiasa dijaga kebersihannya. Upacara dimulakan dengan mengadakan upacara sembahyang sebagai tanda kesyukuran. Bagi tujuan kecantikan. Bayi pula kebiasaanya dimandikan pada waktu petang oleh seorang wanita yang berpengalaman. si ibu akan mandi selang sehari selepas bersalin. kas -kas dan kacang hijau yang ditumbuk digunakan sebagai pembersih badan bayi bertujuan untuk mengelakkan penyakit kulit dan melicinkan kulit bayi. Rambut ibu akan dikeringkan dengan segera dengan asap kemenyan bagi mengelak kan sakit kepala. bayi ditonggengkan dengan mengangkat kedua belah kaki sambil menepuk bahagian punggung untuk mengeluarkan kahak. Nama -nama tokoh sejarawan. urutan perlahan dilakukan pada tubuh bayi dan t ulang belakang bayi supaya tidak bengkok. Jika proses bersalin secara pembedahan. Ketika bayi dimandikan. orang luar dilarang melawat mereka kecuali untuk tujuan perubatan. ibu yang baru bersalin tidak dibenarkan mandi selama dua minggu atas sebab -sebab kesihatan akibat fizikal ibu yang lemah kerana pembedahan dan kesan kelahiran. Beberapa bahan seperti serbuk kunyit. Mandian ini dilakukan dengan menyiram ke seluruh badan bayi dengan menggunakan ai r suam yang kadangkala dicampur dengan bahan -bahan herba. minyak bijan. hidung. Upacara dimulakan dengan ucapan aaraaro aariraro atau cerita-cerita nasihat. telur rebus. Upacara mendodoi ini juga dikenali sebagai taalaattu bermaksud penggoyangan lidah. nenek moyang serta yang berkaitan dengan agama Hindu juga dipilih bagi bayi tersebut kerana nama yang dipilih ini akan mempengaruhi perwatakannya kelak. Up acara pemujaan dilakukan dengan membersihkan sekeliling rumah dan memasang lampu minyak di keliling rumah. upacara pemberian nama dilakukan. Ia dilakukan dengan memasukkan bayi ke dalam buaian dan dikendalikan oleh ahli keluarga yang tertua yang a rif tentang agama dan perkara yang berkaitan dengan dewa-dewa. Bagi dua minggu pertama. Susu juga digunakan sebagai bahan utama untuk melembutkan kulit bayi. Saudara mara yang hadir akan memberi pelbagai hadiah dan upacara diakhiri dengan jamuan dan upacara sembahyang bagi mendoakan kesejahteraan bayi. Terdapat juga upacara memuja Dewi Pecciyamman dan Dewi Kaatteeri dilakukan oleh segelintir masyarakat India. Ia bertujuan untuk mengelak penyakit sawan atau kuning. ikan kering dan sebagainya.Apabila bayi dan ibu kembali ke rumah. selsema dan juga untuk menyegarkan tubuh badan selepas bersalin. Memberi Nama Sebaik sahaja bayi berusia enam belas hari. Selesai dimandikan. Akhir sekali bayi akan dibedung dengan kain bertujuan untuk meluruskan anggota badan bayi. Bagi i bu yang bersalin normal. Setelah itu bayi diasapkan dengan asap kemenyan. Ia bertujuan agar bayi tersebut menjadi seorang yang berguna. Bahan bahan persembahan juga disediakan seperti kari ayam betina. kening dan telinga turut diurut.

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with over 2 billion [6][7][8] and possibly as many as 2. Important family relations extend as far as gotra. children are reminded of their roles and places in society.[10] Sikhism. Buddhism. Christianity. particularly in [11] cities. the eldest male member is the head in the joint Indian family system. Jainism and especially Buddhism areinfluential not only in India but across the world. However.and fourth-largest religions respectively. also known as Dharmic religions are a major form of world religions along withAbrahamic ones. Family plays a significant role in the Indian culture. in recent times.[5] Indian religions. For generations.Clo -up of a statu dep ctingMaitreya at the Thikse Monastery in Ladakh. India is also the birthplace for theLingayat and Ahmadiyya faiths. traditional Indian culture is defined by relatively strict social hierarchy. Hinduism and Buddhism are the world's third. Despite the strong role of religion in Indian life. Islam is practiced by around 13% of all Indians. [11] governed these groups for thousands of years. Zoroastrianism.[11] However. In recent years. He makes all important decisions and rules. Today. This is reinforced by the fact that many believe gods and spirits have an integral and [11] functional role in determining their life. Several differences such as religion divide the culture. Arranged marriage in India and Women in India . India. Dharmic religions. The religion of 80% of the people is Hinduism. are indigenous to India. etc. [edit] Family Main articles: Hindu joint family.[4] Main articles: Religion in India and Indian religions India is the birth place of Hinduism. India has had a prevailing tradition of the joint family system.6 billion followers. with some of the most deeply religious societies and cultures. it is s [11] common that three or four generations of the family live under the same roof. a far more powerful division isthe traditional Hindu bifurcation into non-polluting and polluting occupations[11] Strict social taboos have . According to Eugene M. It is a system under which extended members of a family ± parents. [6][9] followers altogether. In rural areas & sometime in urban areas as well. such asHinduism and Buddhism. Religion still plays a central and definitive role in the life of m any of its people. Makar. and other family members abide by them. India is one of the most religiously diverse nations in the world. He also mentions that from an [11] early age. an respected industry consultant. the chil dren¶s spouses and their offspring.Jainism and Sikhism. the mainly patrilinear lineage or clan [11] assigned to a Hindu at birth. many fami ies especially in urban areas. Usually. some of these lines have blurred and sometimes even disappeared. collectively known as Indian religions. Judaism and the Bahá'í Faith are also influential but their numbers are smaller. children. ± live together. The [11] patriarch often resolves family issues. in have l 1 0 0) . atheism and agnostics also have visible influence along with a self -ascribed tolerance to other people.5 or 2. A bride during a traditionalHindu wedding ceremony in Punjab.

are celebrated with zeal and enthusiasm across India. in literal terms Namaste refers to 'That which is of God in me bows to that which is of God in you'. celebrates holidays and festivals of various religions. [15] they speak of a healthy new empowerment for women. height. the castes and the backgrounds of their families (wealth. 2 2 2 3 .[14] The arranged marriages generally have a much lower divorce rate. and the divorce rate is extremely low ² 1. Popular religious festivals include the Hindu festivals ofNavratri. Namaskar or Namaskara or Namaskaram. The word is derived from Sanskrit (namah): to bow. reverential salutation. [edit] Festivals Radha and gopikas celebrating Holi. They also demand dowry. social standing . with the consent of the bride and groom. Namaskar is considered a slightly more formal version than Namaste but both express deep respect. The threenational holidays in India. Vanakkam (Tamil or Asssalamu alaikum (Urdu / Persian Sat Shri Akal (Punjabi) is a common spoken greeting or salutation in the Indian subcontinent. and respect. many states and regions have local festivals depending on prevalent religious and linguistic demographics. It is commonly used in India and Nepal by Hindus. being a multi-cultural and multi-religious society. and (te): "to you". Durga puja. Taken literally. the vast majority of Indians have their marriages planned by their parents and other respected family -members. the marriage is thought to be for life. Ganesh Chaturthi. it means "I bow to you". In addition. the same hands fol ed gesture is made d usually wordlessly upon departure. obeisance. [edit] Marriage For centuries. Jains. Main article: Festivals in India India. which has been outlawedby the Indian government. the Republic Day and the Gandhi Jayanti. Diwali. Even today. They get around by not letting the [12] authorities know the arrangements of money. arranged marriages have been the tradition in Indian society. Holi. known as the "festival of colors". and many continue to use this outside the Indian subcontinent. Arranged matches are made after taking into account factors such as age. However. but Indian society and culture still promotes and maintains it. The divorce rates have risen significantly in recent years: " pinion is divided over what the phenomenon means: for traditionalists the rising numbers portend the breakdown of society while. for some modernists. their astrological compatibility of the couples'horoscopes. Buddhists and Sikhs.1% compared with about 50% in theUnited States." [edit] Namaste Namaste. personal values and tastes. [13] In India. the word is spoken at the beginning of written or verbal communication. As explained by an Indian scholar. the Independence Day. In Indian and Nepali culture.stopped abiding by the extended family system and have started living as a nuclear family.

For this reason. Common name for wil British colonialists to the English l nguage. ted by Buddhists and Hindus. Names are al o influenc awide variety of l nguages. suc as Guru Nanak Jay nti. S veral harvest festival . Indian names are based on a variety of sy tems andnaming conventions. Raj stands for p ion. whic vary by religion and c te and may come from region to region. suc as S nkranthi. Adding colors to nd the culture of India. the cow is regarded as a symbol ofahimsa (non-viol nc ). theDree Festival is one of the tribal festival of India c l ted by the Ap tanis of the Ziro vall y ofArunac l Pradesh. whic is c l ted by Hindus. Food is consumed according to the lifestyl of the p King has to be aggressive to defend his c ountry. Eid aland c l Ramadan. Pongal and Onam. whic is the easternmost state of India. I l mic festival . ted by multipl religions.Rakshabandhan and Dussehra. 6 57 7 5B 4 A4 7 5 57 5 A4 [ it] Names and l nguage 7894 4 76A@ 54 4 6 7 5 5 6 6 6 5 5 4 76 87 8 7 5 7894 4 7894 4 4 4 5 7894 4 894 4 7 6 5 7 7 7 7894 4 7 7 . India's wil life has been the subj ct of numerous other tal and fabl suc as thePanc tantra and the Jataka tal . Sikhs and Jains. Raj . ' M in articl : Indian cuisine The Food in India is cl ified into three major c tegories. S S tva whic stand for bal nc . Animal husbandry in India and Cattl in religion . and Buddh Purnima. and Tamas. suc Eid ul-Fitr. ttva. mother goddess [17] and bringer of good fortune and wealth. he woul be taking food whic woul A 4 6 57 584 7 A 4 55 7 7 57 4 7 55 7 4 4 6 A4 [ it] Cuisine 87 54 4 5 4 4 4 6 7 4 8 A 76 7 84A 6 54 A8 7 A 6 A 54 4 5 44 S al o: Wil life of India. 4 Cows depicted in the decorated goppuram of the Kap l 6544 7 5 A4 [ it] Animal warar templ in Chennai. The word has been al o made famous in The Jungl Book by Rudy Kipling."Nuakhai" are al o fairly popul . are c l ted by Muslims ac oss India. from the Indian epic . India's popul tion sp The varied and ric wil life of India has had a p ofound imp ct on the region's popul ness in India isJungl whic was adopted by the culture. and Thamas stands for on. cows are revered in Hindu [18] culture and feeding a cow is seen as an act of worship. Notabl exampl Certain festival in India are c l include Diwali.[16] In Hinduism. For exampl : A indulgenc . Baiskhi are c l ted with full fanfare by Sikhs a Hindu. Sikh Festival .

Though the tandoor originated in Central Asia. Indian tandoori dishes. India is known for its love for food andspices. Each family of this cuisine is characterized by a wide assortment of dishes and cooking techniques. such aschicken tikka made with Indian ingredients. goat. and European colonists. Despite this diversity. such asVasco da Gama and Christopher Columbus. Historically. Daal. The multiple varieties of Indian cuisine are characterized by their sophisticated and subtle use of many Spices and Herbs. southern. eastern. such as the Persians. many traditional Indian dishes also include:chicken. Generally. he would prefer a Satvic food or known as Sattvic diet. western and north -eastern.[21] The popularity of curry. Shahi paneer. Mughals. and other meats. Varied uses of spices are an integral part of food preparation. and are used to enhance he flavor of a dish and t create unique flavors and aromas. reflecting the varied ² demographics of the country. The Spice trade between India and Europe led to the rise and dominance of Arab traders to such an extent that European explorers. and Salad. some unifying threads emerge.give much passion and that aggressiveness which is required. fish. like consumption of Alcohol. which would help to keep his mind in balance. across Asia has often led to the dish being labeled as the "pan -Asian" dish. Kheer is a traditional Indian sweet dish. When a person tries to lead his life in want of self realisaiton. Though a significant portion of Indian food is vegetarian. Uttar Pradeshi thali (platter) withNaan bread. Indian Spices and Herbs were one of the most sought after trade commodities. This the is reason why in many Indians try to abstain drinking.[19] [20] Indian cuisine is one of the most popular cuisines across the globe. enjoy widespread popular ity. Cuisine across India has also been influenced by various cultural groups that entered India throughout history. Indian cuisine varies from region to region.[22] [edit] Clothing . Thamasic food or known as Static foods is to be taken only if its required. set out to find new trade routes with India leading to the Age of Discovery. Indian cuisine can be split into 5 categories northern. Raita. lamb. which originated in India. and it plays a role ineveryday life as well as in festivals.

Ancient Vedic texts mention clothes made from barks and leaves (kn wn as o phataka). In India. Greek historian Herodotus describes the richness of the quality of Indian cotton clothes. are also popular.[27] India's clothing styles have continuously evolved over the course of the country's history. in addition. Consequently. In 5th century BC. the bindi is considered to be a highly auspicious mark in Hindu religion. majority of Indians wear sandals. Draped clothing styles remained popular with India's Hindu population while the [31] Muslims increasingly adopted tailored garments. Traditional clothing in India greatly varies across different parts of the country and is influenced immensely by local culture.[23] Most Indian clothes are made fromcotton which is ideal for the region's hot weather.[24] Since India's weather is mostly hot and rainy. The 11th century BC Rig-veda mentions dyed and embroidered garments (known as paridhan and pesas respectively) and thus highlights the development of [28] sophisticated garment m anufacturing techniques during the Vedic age. Indian independence movement leader Mahatma Gandhi successfully advocated for what he .[30] Stitched clothing in India was developed before 10th [30] century AD and was further popularized in 15th century by Muslim empires in India.[29] By 2nd century AD. the red bindi (orsindoor) was worn only by the married Hindu women. stitched clothes such aschuridar for women and kurta-pyjama and Europeanstyle trousers and shirts for men. a person's social status is perceived to be symbolized by his or her attire. Indian dress etiquette discourages exposure of skin and wearing transparent or tight clothes.[25] Worn by women on their foreh ead. but now it has become a part of women's fashion. Popular styles of dress include draped garme nts such as sari for women and dhoti or lungi for men. Some Indian traditions consider thebindi to be representative of thethird eye. geography and climate. India's large clothing and handicrafts industry was left paralyzed so as to make place for British industrial cloth. muslins manufactured in southern India were imported by the Roman Empire and silk cloth was one of the major exports of ancient India along with Indian spices. During the British Raj.[26] Traditionally.Illustration of different styles ofSari & clothing worn by women in India.

all modern Indo-Aryan languages.[41] Another major Dravidian -1st m llennium AD.. The Vedic accent is marked by underscores and vertical overscores in red. After a scribal benediction (" r ga é yanama . India's most spoken language.ta . i e . The calendar which most Indians follows goes in accordance to this.[33] [edit] Languages and literature [edit] H story Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari. Tam l literature has existed for over two thousandyears[40] and the earliest ep grap c records found date from around the third century BC. the Bengali language arose from the eastern M ddle Indic languages and its roots are traced to the 5th century BC Ardhamagadhi language. and language. In addition.[42][43][44][45] The Ashoka rock edictfound at Brahmagiri (dated to 230 BC) has [46] been suggested to contain a word in identifiable Kannada. [34] With its oldest core dating back to as early as 1500 BC. The 1980s was marked by a widespread modification to Indian clothing fashions which was characterized by a large-scale growth of fashion sc hools in India.1."). deva . descends from Proto-Dravidian languages which was spoken around the third m llennium BC in peninsular India. measuring the dates of Vedas came in later days. or indirectly via m ddle Indo languages (tadbhava words). Aum(3) . Sanskrit has had a profound impact on the languages and literature of India.[38][39] Tam l. is a "Sanskritized register" of theKhariboli dialect.termed as khadi clothing ² light colored hand -woven clothes ² so as to decrease [32] reliance of the Indian people on British industrial goods. In Ancient India the time was divided in Four yugas.[36] Words originating in Sanskrit are estimated to constitute roughly fifty percent of the vocabulary of modern Indo -Aryan languages. one of India's major classical languages. have borrowed many words t -Aryan either directly from Sanskrit ( atsama words).. These developments played a p votal role in the fusion of Indian and Western clothing styles. and one of the earliest attested members of theIndo-European language fam ly the fam ly which includes . the Satavahana and Kadamba periods and hence has a history of over 2000 years. Kannada is attested ep grap cally from the m d literary Old Kannada flourished in the 9th to 10th centuryRashtrakuta Dynasty. There by. [35] English and most European languages. pura . C CD C C C C C C C CD C C CD C C C C . Malayalam and Kannada. increasing involvement of women in the fashion industry and changing Indian attitudes towards multiculturalism.1 (agni . Munda languages and Dravidian languages.1.H ndi. the first line has the opening words of RV. tvija ). yajñasya . Preold Kannada (or Purava HaleGannada) was the language ofBanavasi in the early Common Era. the Rigvedic Sanskrit is one of the oldest attestations of anyIndo-Iranian language. Time is always referred as Kaala C hakra in India.[37] and the literary forms of (Dravidian)Telugu. early 19th century.[36] Part of the Eastern Indo-Aryan languages.

Kannada Pampa Bharata. five in Bengali. Manuscript illustration of theBattle of Kurukshetra -known epics of The R m ya a and the Mah bh rata are the oldest preserved and well India. Telugu. Manimekalai. Marathi and Tamil. 4th c. The Ramayana consists of 24. In addition to these two great Indian epics. these are theSahitya Akademi Fellowshipand the Jnanpith Award. and Malayalam Adhyathmaramayanam. AD). there are two major literary awards. Ravana. Urdu and Oriya and two in Tamil.Hindi is the most spoken language in India. [edit] Performing arts [edit] Dance Main article: Dance in India .[48] [edit] Epics . there are five major epics in the classica Tamil language ² l Silappatikaram.[49] and tells the story of Rama (anincarnation of the Hindu preserver -god Vishnu). Civaka-cintamani. Versions have been adopted as the epics of Southeast Asian countries like Thailand. three each in Marathi. as well as unrelated epics include the TamilRamavataram. six in Hindi. Seven Jnanpith awards each have been awarded in Kannada.[51] Other regional variations of these. Hindi Ramacharitamanasa. four in Malayalam. Valayapathi and Kundalakesi.000 verses in seven books (k as) and 500 cantos (sargas).According to 2001 India census. The earliest parts of the [50] Mahabharata text date to 400 BC and is estimated to have reached its final form by the early Gupta period (ca. Gujarati. Malaysia and Indonesia. This epic played a pivotal role in establishing the role of dhárma as a [50] principal ideal guiding force for Hindu way of life. followed by Bengali..[47] In contemporary Indian literature. whose wife Sita is abducted by thedemon king of Lanka.

[52][53] [edit] Drama and theater Main article: Theatre in India Indian drama and theater has a long history alongside its music and dance. One of the oldest surviving theatre traditions of he world is the 2. Eight dance forms.[62] [59][63] However. have been accorded classical dance statusby India's National Academy of Music.[54] N ty ch rya M ni M dhava Ch ky r is credited for reviving the age old drama tradition from extinction. Tritiya. and The music of India includes multiple varieties of religious. These are: bharatanatyam of the state of Tamil Nadu. classical music. Chaturth. odissi of the state of Odisha and the sattriya of Assam. pop.[58] Purandaradasa is considered the "father of carnatic music" Karnataka sangeeta ( pitamaha). Pratham. and Drama. following those of Bhasa. Among the well. He was known for mastery ofRasa Abhinaya. many with narrative forms andmythological elements. kathak of Uttar Pradesh. E . Bhasa's Swapnav savadatta and Panchar tra. in descending order. the ghoomar of Rajasthan. Both the Hindustani classical music and the Carnatic classical musicsystems are based on the melodic mode (known asR ga). Dance. which was the only fixed frequency instrument. Panchavadyam temple music in Kerala. popular. sung to a rhythmic cycle ortala. Mandra and Atisw r. India's classical music tradition is heavily influenced by Hindu texts. which were named. Dwitiya. asKrusht. Harsha's Nagananda. manipuri of Manipur. It includes two distinct styles: Carnatic and Hindustani music.000 year t old Kutiyattam of Kerala. only about 1. Vikramorva ya and M lavik gnimitra. the dandiya and garba of Gujarat. These refer to the notes of a flute.[55][56] [edit] Music Main article: Music of India folk. the chhau of Jharkhand. the bihu of Assam.nown folk dances are the bhangra of the Punjab.[59][60][61] He concluded his songs with a salutation to Lord Purandara Vittala and is believed to have composed as many as 475.the Odishi of Orissa. It strictly follows theNatya Shastra.000 songs in the Kannada language. kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh. These principles were refined in then tya stra (200 BC) and the dattilam (300 AD). S The earliest account of Indian musical hymns is found in the 1000 BC maveda.Odissi performer from Odisha Indian dance too has diverse folk and classical forms.[57] It proposed a tonal structure consisting of seven notes.000 are known today. The oldest preserved examples of Indian music are the melodies of the Samaveda that are still sung in certain Vedic rauta sacrifices. kathakali and mohiniattam of Kerala. Kalidasa's plays like Shakuntala and Meghadoota are some of the older plays. the Yakshagana of Karnataka and lavani of Maharashtra and Dekhnni of Goa. He started to perform the Kalidasa plays like Abhijñ na kuntala.

international recognition. Most early and medieval art in India is Hindu.[64] Indipop is one of the most popular contemporary styles of Indian music which is either a fusion ofIndian folk. and accounts for more than 70 percent of all music sales in the country. Filmi refers to the wide range of music written and performed for mainstreamIndian cinema. F. Buddhist or Jain. the petroglyphst it was common for households to paint their doorways or indoor rooms where guests resided. Bagh. Devajyoti Ray and Shibu Natesan represent a new era of Indian artwhere global art shows direct amalgamation with Indian classical styles. whileNandalal Bose. Jamini Roy and B.Venkatappa[66] are some modern painters. Mysore painting. primarily Bollywood. Among the present day artists. [edit] Sculpture . Raza.Prominent contemporary Indian musical forms includedfilmi and Indipop. Atul Dodiya. Rajput painting. Tanjore painting. Geeta Vadhera.[65] [edit] Visual arts Main article: Indian art [edit] Painting Main article: Indian painting The Jataka tales from Ajanta Caves. Bose Krishnamacnahri. S. These recent artists have acquired . Cave paintings from Ajanta. The earliest Indian paintings were the rock paintings ofpre-historic times. Madhubani painting. Husain. Jehangir Art Gallery Mumbai. Ellora and Sittanavasal and temple paintings testify to a love of naturalism. classical or Sufi music with Western musical traditions. Mysore Palace has on display a few good Indian paintings. M. classical painters from medieval India. H. Mughal painting are some notable Genres of Indian Art. A freshly made coloured flour design Rangoli) is still a common sight outside ( Raja Ravi Varma is one the the doorstep of many (mostly South Indian) Indian homes.

These styles and others elsewhere in India evolved leading to classical Indian art that contributed to Buddhist and Hindu sculpture throughout Southeast Central and East Asia. ca 1450. Sculptures produced in the northwest. Maharashtra. or clay. Duringthe Gupta period (4th to 6th century) sculpture reached a very high standard in execution and delicacy in modeling. [edit] Architecture Main article: Architecture of India F . Buddhism. in stucco. Main article: Sculpture in India Marble Sculpture of female. and Jainism developed further.oman influence. such as the one at Ellora were not constructed by using blocks but carved out of solid rock. The pink sandstone sculptures of Mathura evolved almost simultaneously. as Hinduism.The 5th century Buddhistvishvakarma cave at Ellora. Rajasthan The first sculptures in India date back to theIndus Valley civilization. Later. display a very strong blend of Indian and ClassicalHellenistic or possibly even Greco. India produced some extremely intricate bronzes as well as temple carvings. schist. Some huge shrines. where stone and bronze figures have been discovered.

[67] Considered to be an "unrivaled architectural wonder". Konark. constantly absorbing new ideas. and ergonomics. one of the largest private residences in the world. (Chinna Lanja dibba and Vikramarka kota dibba) at Borobudur and otherBuddhist and Hindu temples indicate strong Indian influence on South East Asian architecture. Indian architecture encompasses a multitude of expressions over space and time. Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple at Srirangam. South India produced several Hindu temples like Chennakesava Temple at Belur. b . influencing town planning. Religion and kingship do not seem to have played an important role in the planning and layout of these towns.[68] The traditional system ofVaastu Shastra serves as India's version ofFeng Shui. Feng Shui is m ore commonly used throughout the world. but they contain certain similarities. the Taj Mahal in Agra is a prime example of Indo-Islamic architecture. and the Buddha stupa Bhattiprolu. Angkor Wat. such as the caves of Ajanta and Ellora and the monumental Sanchi Stupa were built. Brihadeeswara Temple Thanjavur. During the period of the Mauryan and Gupta empires and their successors. materials. Though Vastu is conceptually similar to Feng Shui in that it also tries to harmonize the flow of energy. the Hoysaleswara Templeat Halebidu. (also called life -force or Prana in Sanskrit and Chi/Ki in Chinese/Japanese). rooms. such as the exact directions in which various objects. It is unclear which system is older. as they are built in styles almost identical to traditional Indian religious buildings. are to e placed. Later on. Some of its earliest production are found in the Indus Valley Civilization (2600 ±1900 BC) which is characterised by well planned cities and houses. the Sun Temple. The Umaid Bhawan Palace in Rajasthan. several Buddhist architectural complexes. The result is an evolving range of architectural production that nonetheless retains a certain amount of continuity across history. and . the Kesava Temple at Somanathapura. it differs in the details. through the house. etc. architecture.

1 silver and 2 bronze medals at the Olympic games. Recent creations such as the Lotus Temple. and are often used as the stereotypical symbols of India. A number of Indian architectural features such as the temple mound or stupa. Gilli-danda. empire. The Victoria Memorial or the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminusare notable examples. a Twenty20 competition. The southern temple gate. the Irani Trophy and the Challenger Series. due to the spread of Buddhism. have become famous symbols of Asian culture. temple tower or pagoda and temple gate or torana.With the advent of Islamic influence from the west. The colonial rule of the British Empire saw the development of Indo-Saracenic style. the Duleep Trophy. are notable. Red Fort of Delhi are creations of this era. and mixing of several other styles. TheIndia national cricket team won the 1983 Cricket World Cupand the 2007 ICC World Twenty20 and shared . [edit] Indian martial arts Main article: Indian martial arts . Field Hockey is the national Sport in India.Fatehpur Sikri. Qutub Minar. Cricket is the most popular Sport in India.[69][70][71][72] where its early form in the 6th century was known as Other games which originated in India and continue to remain popular in wide parts of northern India include Kabaddi. Cities are extremely compact and densely populated. played in New Delhi. Traditional southern Indian games include Snake boat raceand Kuttiyum kolum. Chess is commonly believed to have originated in northwestern India during the Gupta chaturanga. It hosted a spectacular display of Indian culture and heritage to the entire world during the opening ceremony of the games. Contemporary Indian architect ure is more cosmopolitan. Gol Gumbaz. [edit] Sports and Martial arts Main article: Sports in India The annual Snake boat raceis performed during Onam Celebrations on the Pamba River at Aranmula near Pathanamthitta. Indian architecture was adapted to allow the traditions of the new religion. Mumbai'sNariman Point is famous for its Art Deco buildings. Indian architecture has influenced eastern and southeastern Asia. used extensively in East Asia and South East Asia. and the various modern urban developments of India likeChandigarh. and theIndia national field hockey teamwon the 1975 Men's Hockey World Cup and 8 gold. the Deodhar Trophy. such as European Gothic. Domestic competitions include theRanji Trophy. India is the host of 2010 Commonwealth Games. or gopuram is noted for its intricacy and majesty. and Kho kho. Taj Mahal. temple spire or sikhara. BCCI conducts the Indian Premier League. In addition. The central spire is also sometimes called avimanam. the 2002 ICC Champions Trophywith Sri Lanka.

In this form martial arts. This ancient fighting style originated in southern India in 12th century BC and [73] is regarded as one of the oldest surviving martial arts. the musti yuddha evolved in 1100 AD and focussed on mental. were later [79] incorporated into various martial arts.[80] [edit] Popular media . The Dhanur Veda was first described in the 5th century BCVi u R Pur a[73] and is also mentioned in both of the major ancient Indian epics. The 3rd century BCYoga Sutras of Patanjalitaught how to meditate single-mindedly on points located inside one's body. Indian martial arts techniques have had a profound impact on other martial arts styles across Asia. sword (val) and shield (kedaham). doubt and anxiety. The ancient Tamil Sangam literature mentions that between 400 BC and 600 AD. including a variety of spinning ( [75] styles.[74] Silambam. the m ya a and Mah bh rata. which was later used in martial arts. These elements of yoga. soldiers from southern India received special martial arts training which revolved primarily around the use of spear (vel). A bamboo staff is used as the main weapon. One of the best known forms of ancient Indian martial arts is the Kalarippayattu from Kerala. and. Indian Buddhist monk Bodhidharma was one of the main founders of theShaolin Kungfu. According to some historical accounts. which was developed around 200 AD. the Dhanur Veda tradition was an influential fighting arts style which considered th bow and the arrow to be the e supreme weapons. while various mudra finger movements were taught inYogacara Buddhism. In addition. various stages of physical training includeayurvedic massage with sesame oil to impart suppleness to the body ( uzichil).Kalarippayattu. A distinctive factor of Indian martial arts is the heavy emphasis laid [78] on meditation (dhy na) as a tool to remove fear. complex sword fighting techniques ( (paliyankam). a series of sharp body movements so as t gain control o over various parts of the body miapayattu). traces its roots to the Sangam period in southern India.[76] In northern India. one of the oldest and most prominent forms of Indian martial arts. [77] physical and spiritual training.[75] Silambam is unique among Indian martial arts because it uses complex footwork techniques kaaladi). as well as finger movements in thenata dances.

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