ADAT MASYARAKAT INDIA

Sebelum Majlis Perkahwinan Sebelum majlis perkahwinan berlangsung, terdapat beberapa perkara penting yang perlu dijalankan terlebih dahulu, antaranya : Kad Jemputan Kad jemputan memainkan peranan yang penting dalam perkahwinan masyarakat India. Kad jemputan ini dibuat berdasarkan almanak Hindu. Sekiranya terdapat kesilapan, bermakna perkahwinan tidak dapat dijalankan dengan lancar. Kad jemputan yang telah dicetak disapu dengan serbuk kunyit cair sebagai lambang keharmonian. Beberapa keping kad jemputan dalam bilangan ganjil akan dibawa bersama ke kuil untuk dibawa bersembahyang ( arccanai). Kad diletakkan di atas dulang bersama sirih, wang ringgit, kelapa, pinang dan sebagainya sebagai lambang kekayaan. Upacara ini dinamakan sebagai paanam paaku. Kemudian dulang akan dibawa ke rumah pengantin perempuan untuk diberi kepada pengantin lelaki dan begitulah sebaliknya. Pada masa yang sama sirih pinang akan diberikan sebagai tanda jemputan perkahwinan secara rasmi. Penyediaan Thaali ( Tjrumaanggalyam) Thaali atau tjirumaangalyam merupakan lambang suci perkahwinan yang dikalungkan pada leher kedua-dua pengantin. Pada thaali itu diikat segumpal benang putih yang disapu dengan kunyit. Terdapat pelbagai jenis thaal i yang digunakan oleh masyarakat India seperti lingath thaali, pottut thaali, tennant thaali dan sebagainya. Ini disebabkan terdapat pelbagai suku di kalangan masyarakat India. Adat penyediaan thaali ini dilakukan tujuh atau sembilan hari sebelum hari perkahwinan. Pihak lelaki akan membawa emas, cendana, kumkum, sirih pinang, kelapa dan bayaran u ntuk pembuat thaali. Ini adalah untuk memastikan tukang thaali mengetahui hari yang sesuai untuk membuat thaali. Tiga hari sebelum perkahwinan, thaali akan diambil dan diletakkan di tempat sembahyang atas suruhan pembuat thaali. Pihak pengantin adalah dila rang untuk menawar perkhidmatan yang dilakukan oleh pembuat thaali. Selepas itu upacara sembahyang dilakukan dan ini dinamakan sebagai thaalippadaiyal. Dalam upacara itu bubur manis dan nasi manis disediakan termasuklah dhoti dan sari untuk pasangan penga ntin. Secara umumnya thaali tidak diwajibkan diperbuat daripada emas. Ini kerana thaali masih boleh dibuat daripada kunyit yang dikatakan lebih selamat dan tidak dicuri orang. Mukuurtta Kaal Adat ini dilakukan lima hari sebelum hari perkahwinan dilangsun gkan. Adat mukuurtta kaal ini diadakan pada hari yang baik mengikut firasat masyarakat India. Untuk menjalankan adat tersebut sebatang pokok yang masih muda dan lurus akan ditebang untuk dijadikan mukurtta kaal. Batang pokok tersebut berukuran dua atau tig a meter dan mempunyai lilitan batang antara 20 hingga 30 sentimeter. Adat mendirikan mukuurtta kaal adalah sebagai menandakan perkahwinan akan dilangsungkan di rumah tersebut. Bahan -bahan lazim seperti sirih pinang, kum kum, kunyit dan sebagainya disediak an. Ahli-ahli keluarga pengantin akan bermohon pada Tuhan supaya perkahwinan dapat dilangsungkan tanpa gangguan. Batang kayu diambil dan dibersihkan serta dibuang kulitnya. Lima orang perempuan yang sudah berkahwin akan menyapukan kunyit cair dan kumkum pa da batang kayu tersebut dari pangkal hingga hujung. Kemudian hujung kayu diikat dengan daun ara atau mangga menggunakan kain bewarna merah. Kayu akan dipacak sedalam setengah meter dan bahan-bahan tadi akan dimasukkan ke dalam lubang tersebut sebagai lamba ng kekayaan. Kemudian upacara sembahyang dilakukan oleh pengantin beserta lima orang perempuan tersebut. Sebanyak sembilan jenis bijirin ditabur pada batang kayu dan lampu minyak dinyalakan. Pada masa yang sama pengantin berikrar akan menjaga alam sekitar sebagai lambang persahabatan dengan alam sekitar. Kebiasaannya adat mendirikan mukuurtta kaal dilakukan di rumah pengantin lelaki.

Sepanjang mayat berada di dalam rumah. ibu jari tangan dan kaki diikat dengan kain putih dan diletakkan ke dada. tetapi kembali ke alam barzakh . Ini dilakukan seolah -olah menunjukkan si suami membuangkan thaali dari leher balu. di mana jasad akan hancur. bun ga dan susu yang dibawa oleh seorang perempuan lain. Upacara Menanggalkan Thaali Thaali vaangutal merupakan upacara menanggalkan thaali semasa berlakunya sesebuah kematian dalam sesebuah keluarga. si isteri hendaklah duduk di sebelah si mati dan dijirus dengan sebuyung air semasa mayat suaminya dimandikan. Mayat yang sudah dibersihkan itu akan diletakkan di ruang tamu sebagai langkah menghormati tetamu. mayat akan di bakar atau dikebumikan. mayat akan diletakkan di ruang tamu. Sapuan minyak ini dilakukan oleh ahli keluarga dan diikuti oleh saudara mara terdekat. Kaum wanita pula akan menyambut air tersebut yang digunakan untuk memandikan mayat. Kaki dan tangan mayat perlu diluruskan. Mayat seterusnya dimandikan oleh orang yang tel ah berumur. Sebelum dimandikan. Air tersebut diperolehi dari sungai. Serbuk suci atau tiruniiru disapu pada dahi si mati sebelum disembahyang. Tujuannya agar roh si mati sentisa tenang dan aman. Setelah itu barulah si mati dibalut dengan menggunakan kain. mereka mempercayai konsep kela hiran semula. Air mawar direnjis dan mayat turut diasapkan dengan kemenyan yang dibakar supaya tidak berbau. si mati akan dipakaikan dengan pakaian baru iaitu sari bagi mayat perempuan dan dhoti bagi mayat lelaki. Lagu-lagu suci seperti teevaaram. Semasa Kematian Sekiranya seseorang itu telah meninggal dunia. Upacara Vaaikkarisi . Mayat akan dimandikan terlebih dahulu dan dibaringkan di atas katil di ruang tamu atau halaman r umah. tiruvaasakam dan seumpamanya dinyanyikan serta diimainkan sehingga ke tanah perkuburan. Thaali itu seterusnya akan dimasukkan ke dalam dulang dan disimpan dalam rumah. Untuk melaksanakan upacara ini. Untuk menunjukkan kesedihan. seterusnya seorang wanita yang sudah be rusia dan mempunyai hubungan kekeluargaan akan memegang tangan si mati sambil mengalungkan kalungan bunga ke leher balu dan proses ini dilakukan sebanyak tiga kali. perigi atau sumber -sumber air yang lain. Buyung yang berisi air akan ditutup dengan menggunakan kain dhoti untuk mengelakkan habuk memasuki air tersebut. Dalam masyarakat India. pelbagai adat tertentu akan dilakukan. Selepas dimandikan. kunyit disapu pada mata untuk membunuh kuman dan seterusnya duit syiling diletakkan di atas dahi. Kemudian sebiji kelapa terbelah dua dan sirih pinang diletakkan berhampiran si mati. Kemudian bunga akan dikalungkan pada leher balu dan kemudian bunga tersebut dikalungkan pada si mati. gambar -gambar yang tergantung diterbalikkan dan barang -barang perhiasan dibawa keluar dari ruang tamu. si mati perlu dijaga dengan sebaiknya. Belakang tapak tangan digunakan untuk menyapu minyak ini dan bukannya menggunakan tapak tangan sebagaimana lazimnya. Thaali iaitu rantai suci perkahwinan hanya boleh ditanggal oleh seorang isteri setelah suamiya meninggal dunia. Kepala mayat dihadapkan ke arah selatan dan sebuah lampu miny ak atau kaamaatci amman vilakku dipasang dinyalakan. kecuali air paip. iaitu kematian adalah ibarat tidur dan mereka akan bangun selepas tidur. Sirih pinang ditumbuk dan dimasukkan ke dalam mulut dan lubang hidung akan disumbatkan dengan kapas. Mata dan mulut mayat juga perlu ditu tup rapat. minyak dan araippu digunakan untuk disapukan pada kepala sebagai mandian terak hir.KEMATIAN Bagi masyarakat India. Kemenyan dan kapur barus diasap sebagai simbol ketenangan jiwa si mati. Sarjana India juga menyatakan kematian adalah perpisahan roh dan jasad. Dalam upacara tersebut. Balu tersebut dikehendaki meletakkan kalungan bunga ke dalam dulang yang berisi minyak. Kaum lelaki yang mempunyai hubungan kekeluargaan dengan si mati sahaja boleh membawa air dalam jumlah yang ganjil.

Sebelum dimasukkan ke dalam mulut mayat. Kemudian ke dalam mulut mayat akan dimasukkan sedikit makanan sebagai menandakan pemberian terakhir dan inilah yang dinamakan vaaikkarisi. Ada juga yang mencukur janggut atau misai sebagai menggantikan rambut. Kemudian keranda diletakkan bersebelahan dengan kubur bagi mayat yang dikebumikan atau diletakkan di atas kayu api unyuk dibakar. Kollic catti dibawa oleh ahli keluarga si mati samada anak ataupun bapa. Sekiranya s i mati mempunyai cucu atau cicit. Kemudian diikuti oleh pengurus m ayat yang akan menebuk kollic catti dengan menyebut 'sorkam seer. pada pusingan ketiga. Satu lubang akan dibuat di bahagian kepala dan susu akan dicurahkan pada lubang tersebut. Selesai upacara tersebut. biji sawi dan bijan. Pembawa Kollic catti atau buyung dikehendaki mengelilingi mayat sebanyak tiga kali menurut arah jam. satu bentuk manusia akan dilukis di atas kubur. Oleh itu si mati dipercayai berada di dalam perut Dewi Bumi. Keranda akan ditutup dan diangkat untuk dibawa ke tanah perkuburan. Periuk tersebut diangkat dengan menggunakan pelepah kelapa yang dibelah tiga di bahagian hujung dan diikat pada periuk. Kapur barus dimasukkan bersama supaya mayat tidak berbau. Kollic Catti Kollic catti bermaksud periuk tanah liat yang me ngandungi api. Apabila tiba di tanah perkuburan. Anak sulung melakukan untuk bapa yang telah meni nggal dunia dan anak bongsu untuk ibu. Upacara ini dilakukan untuk mengurangkan kesedihan keluarga si mati. Pada masa yang sama sebuah nyiru diisikan dengan bahan -bahan seperti padi goreng. semua yang hadir perlu ke rumah si mati untuk upacara penyempurnaan adat pengebumian sebelum balik ke rumah. Ahli -ahli keluarga akan mengelilingi mayat mengikut lawan jam sebanyak tiga kali sebagai tanda penghormatan. lalu diambil oleh pengurus kubur sebagai tanda keizinan mayat dikebumikan. pengusung perlu membayar duit kepada penyelenggara sebagai upah mengorek liang lahad. kaiulaasam seer' berulang kali. bahan-bahan tersebut ditabur dan setiap bahan -bahan tadi mempunyai perlambangan yang tersendiri. mereka dikehendaki memegang neippantam. Ini menunjukkan bahawa mereka akan hidup lebih bahagia seperti rambut yang baru tumbuh. . Pengebumian Mayat orang India akan diusung ke tanah perkuburan dengan menggunakan pengusung. Setelah itu upacara sembahyang dilakukan oleh semua yang berada di situ. justeru itu kaum perempuan amat dilarang turut serta ke tanah perkuburan. Seseorang yang membawa kollic catti mengiringi mayat. pembawa kollic catti berada di hadapan mayat dan duduk melutut tetapi tidak menghadap mayat. Neip bermaksud minyak sapi dan pantam adalah obor. Kemudian tiga batang kayu yang menyala diba kar dan disusun ke tanah satu persatu. Ini dilakukan oleh kaum perempuan sahaja. pada masa yang sama ucapan tenna adudaiya shinanee pottri disebut beberapa kali sebagai menandakan upacara tersebut telah direstui oleh tuhan. Setelah mayat dikebumikan. Pergerakan dimulakan dengan dengan mengubah bahagaian kaki ke kubur dan kemudian bahagian kepala. Pada masa yang sama lagu -lagu suci dimainkan. beras akan diarak dari kiri ke kanan.Setelah dimandi dan dihias dengan cantik. Makanan yang akan dimasukkan ke dalam mulut mayat berupa beras yang diletakkan di dalam sebuah dulang dan diletakkan berhampiran kepala mayat. C ucu atau cicit tersebut dikehendaki mengelilingi mayat mengikut lawan jam sebanyak tiga kali. Beberapa batang kayu kecil akan dibalut di bahagian hujung dengan menggunakan kain yang disapu dengan minyak sapi dan dinyalakan. Duit syiling dimasukkan ke dalam dhoti dan diletakkan di antara kaki mayat. Keranda akan dige rakkan beberapa kali sebelum menghampiri liang lahad. Duit syiling yang diletakkan di dalam dulang yang sama dibalut dengan kain putih. mayat akan dimasukkan ke dalam keranda. Ada juga yang memasukkan bijirin ke lubang tersebut. Sebelum itu pembawa kollic catti dikehendaki mencukur rambut. Saudara mara yang terdekat akan memberi sari atau dhoti kepada si mati sebagai hadiah terakhir. Ini adalah seperti pergerakan bayi yang berada di dalam kandungan. Sepanjang perjalanan. Upacara vaaikkarisi akan dilakukan oleh kaum lelaki di tanah perkuburan pula.

Mandi Selepas Bersalin . kapur sirih yang dicairkan. Seterusnya para cumanggali akan mencelupkan ibu jarinya ke dalam dulang tersebut dan mencalitkan ke dahi ibu dan anak. Ia bertujuan untuk mengelakkan bala atau sebarang malapetaka dariapada berlaku. Menyapu Madu Bayi yang baru dilahirkan juga akan disapu madu bercampur minyak sapi pada lidahnya. Di samping madu. dulang yang mengandungi serbuk kunyit. Membisikkan Nama Tuhan Sebaik sahaja bayi dilahirkan. Minyak savvennai yang merupakan campuran minyak bijan. minyak lenga dan mambu juga kadangkala digunakan. ketujuh dan sebagainya iaitu pada bilangan hari ganjil.KELAHIRAN Semasa Bersalin Waktu kelahiran adalah penting bagi masyarakat India dimana ia akan dicatat dengan tepat bagi menentukan bintang bayi mengikut almanak Hindu. air gula juga boleh digunakan. isi dulang aalati dibuang. kelima. Namun begitu adat ini disesuaikan dengan hanya membisikkannya sebaik sahaja melihat bayi tersebut kerana perubatan moden tidak membenarkan sesiapa memasuki bilik bersalin. sirih dan kapur barus yang dinyalakan diangkat dan diputar tiga kali mengikut arah jam dan juga lawan jam. Bahan -bahan ini dimasukkan bersama untuk mengelak dari dikorek oleh binatang liar dan tidak digunakan oleh ahli sihir. Potong Tali Pusat Tali pusat yang dipotong akan ditanam bersama uri dan tembuni di sekitar kawasan rumah bersama duit tembaga. Kegunaan minyak ini dipercayai boleh membawa kec antikan dan supaya bayi tidak diserang sebarang penyakit. Setitik minyak bijan yang dicampur dengan sedikit susu ibu dan disapu ke mulut bayi akan bertindak menjadi pelawas dal am sistem penghadaman dan membantu tumbesaran bayi tersebut. Membawa Bayi Pulang Ke Rumah Bayi yang dilahirkan di hospital akan dibawa pulang ke rumah pada hari ketiga. Ia bertujuan untuk membawa rahmat kepada bayi tersebut. sami atau sesiapa sahaja yang berpengetahuan tinggi mengenai agama Hindu akan membisikkan Gayatri Mantiram iaitu sejenis mantera Tuhan di telinga bayi sebelum tali pusat dipotong. Bagi upacara aalati ini. Dulang juga dilambai sebanyak tiga kali. Setelah ibu dan anak masuk ke dalam rumah. fizikal dan rohani bayi sehingga dewasa. Sebelum bayi dibawa ma suk ke rumah upacara aalati dilakukan. Bintang bayi ini akan menentukan mental. serbuk kunyit. garam dan pinang. Madu pula dikatakan dapat melembutkan lidah bayi dan memudahkan bayi bertutur. Bisikan nama Tuhan pada telinga bayi adalah untuk membolehkan bayi tadi mendengar nama Tuhan sebelum mendengar apa -apa yang lain. arang.

si ibu akan mandi selang sehari selepas bersalin. Memberi Nama Sebaik sahaja bayi berusia enam belas hari. ibu yang baru bersalin tidak dibenarkan mandi selama dua minggu atas sebab -sebab kesihatan akibat fizikal ibu yang lemah kerana pembedahan dan kesan kelahiran. Nama-nama yang dipilih lazimnya berdasarkan almanak dengan mengikut tarikh kelahiran bayi. Air tersebut digunakan untuk mandi. Mandian ini dilakukan dengan menyiram ke seluruh badan bayi dengan menggunakan ai r suam yang kadangkala dicampur dengan bahan -bahan herba. upacara pemberian nama dilakukan. ikan kering dan sebagainya. Ia bertujuan agar bayi tersebut menjadi seorang yang berguna. Selesai dimandikan. Beberapa bahan seperti serbuk kunyit. Akhir sekali bayi akan dibedung dengan kain bertujuan untuk meluruskan anggota badan bayi. mereka diasingkan dari ahli keluarga yang lain di sebuah bilik khas yang sentiasa dijaga kebersihannya. kas -kas dan kacang hijau yang ditumbuk digunakan sebagai pembersih badan bayi bertujuan untuk mengelakkan penyakit kulit dan melicinkan kulit bayi. Nama -nama tokoh sejarawan. Setelah itu bayi diasapkan dengan asap kemenyan. Upacara dimulakan dengan mengadakan upacara sembahyang sebagai tanda kesyukuran. dan disapu dengan bedak yang diperbuat dari tepung beras supaya tidak dihinggapi ruam. kening dan telinga turut diurut. . urutan perlahan dilakukan pada tubuh bayi dan t ulang belakang bayi supaya tidak bengkok. Bagi tujuan kecantikan. Bagi i bu yang bersalin normal. telur rebus. Bayi kemudiannya dimasukkan ke dalam buaia n dan namanya diumumkan pada orang ramai. Saudara mara yang hadir akan memberi pelbagai hadiah dan upacara diakhiri dengan jamuan dan upacara sembahyang bagi mendoakan kesejahteraan bayi. Jika proses bersalin secara pembedahan. orang luar dilarang melawat mereka kecuali untuk tujuan perubatan. Terdapat juga upacara memuja Dewi Pecciyamman dan Dewi Kaatteeri dilakukan oleh segelintir masyarakat India. Ia bertujuan untuk mengelak penyakit sawan atau kuning. nenek moyang serta yang berkaitan dengan agama Hindu juga dipilih bagi bayi tersebut kerana nama yang dipilih ini akan mempengaruhi perwatakannya kelak. Mendodoi Bayi Amalan mendodoi bayi merupakan upacara yang paling penting dalam masyarakat India. minyak bijan. bayi ditonggengkan dengan mengangkat kedua belah kaki sambil menepuk bahagian punggung untuk mengeluarkan kahak. Ketika bayi dimandikan. Bagi dua minggu pertama. Upacara mendodoi ini juga dikenali sebagai taalaattu bermaksud penggoyangan lidah. Rambut ibu akan dikeringkan dengan segera dengan asap kemenyan bagi mengelak kan sakit kepala.Apabila bayi dan ibu kembali ke rumah. Namun amalan ini semakin berkurangan dilakukan dan hanya diamalkan oleh generasi tua sahaja. Bahan bahan persembahan juga disediakan seperti kari ayam betina. Bayi pula kebiasaanya dimandikan pada waktu petang oleh seorang wanita yang berpengalaman. Beberapa herba dan dedaun seperti aadatoodai dididihkan bersama air. Upacara dimulakan dengan ucapan aaraaro aariraro atau cerita-cerita nasihat. Susu juga digunakan sebagai bahan utama untuk melembutkan kulit bayi. hidung. Up acara pemujaan dilakukan dengan membersihkan sekeliling rumah dan memasang lampu minyak di keliling rumah. Ia dilakukan dengan memasukkan bayi ke dalam buaian dan dikendalikan oleh ahli keluarga yang tertua yang a rif tentang agama dan perkara yang berkaitan dengan dewa-dewa. selsema dan juga untuk menyegarkan tubuh badan selepas bersalin.

on o on. mu c. n coun y. In n o y nc m cul u ² uc mp c c o ¤ ¡  ¢ ¥¥ ¥¤ ¤ ¦ ¦  ¥ ¥ ¢¡ ¥¤  ¦ ¦¢ ¡ ¡¢  ¡ £  ¦¤¢ ¦¢© £ ¦ ¦¡¢ ¢ ¨ ¥   ¦  ¦© ¤ ¢©   ¥¡  ¥© ¦ ¢  ¦¤¤¢¤¡¥¤ ¦¡   ¦    ¢ ¢¤ ¢   ¦     ¦ ¦   o In n o l . oo n cu om po common l y. o m o In om . nc . yog n In n cu n ² p o oun      ¡   [ l g on u l y c l c u . l g on . g on y om ¤ ¦¥ ¢ ¥   ¦¥¤ ¦¡¢ ¢ ¢¡ ¦  ¦©    ¥ ¥  ¥¤ ¦¡   ¤ ¦   ¢ ¥   ¢© ¡¢ ¦ ¤ ¢¡  ¢¡     ¢¡¢ ¥¤ ¢¢© £ ¦ ¦ ¥ ¦¥¤ £ ¢¡¢        ¢© ¥ ¦ ¢ ¢ ¢© ¡¢ ¢    ¡ ¦ ¦ ¢© ¦ ¥© ¥  ¢ ¦   ¦  ¡£ ¡¢££¥¤  ¦  ¤ ¦ ¤ £ ¢¡ ¢ ¥©  ¡ ¦ ¥  ¢  ¦¤  ¥   ¢¡  ¢ ¦ ¥ ¦ ¦  ¦¥¤       ¦¥¤ ¦¤ ¦ ¥ ¦ c l ¤¢ ¦   ¥¢¤ © ¥¢ £ ¢   g ¦  ¦ ¦ ¦¡ ¦© n © ¡ ¦¢ ¦¥¤¢ c ncycl op ¥ ¦ ¥ ¦   p g . l l m n o In ' l g on .500 y . u -cul u p ll o [1] l m ll nn ol .# #(# & " ' & $ ' $ n p # # !% #"! $ ] ¢©  ¡ ¤ ¦  ¢¡¢ ¥¥¤  ¥£ ¡£ ¦ ¦© ¢¢ ¦© ¦ ©    ¢¡ ¢ ¢ ¤ ¦¤ ¢ ¥ ¢© ¢  ¥ ¡ ¥© ¤¢¤¡ ¢¡    ¥     ¥ ¦¥ ¥ ¥   ¥ ¥ ¦¥¤ ¢©   ©  ¡ ¦ £   ". u n pl c o pl c cul u o In n m lg m on o In n u con n n n on o n "ol l ng c l on o [2] c o 8000 C n con nuou co [3] S o o 5. gn cl nc £  ¡ £¢ In ' l ngu g . ¥¤¢ ¥¨¥   ¦ § ¦¥¤ £ ¢¡ o In F om ¢ ¢¢¡£ ¢© Cul u ump o: n y m.

Jainism and Sikhism. Today.[10] Sikhism. and other family members abide by them. In recent years. Important family relations extend as far as gotra. India is one of the most religiously diverse nations in the world.[4] Main articles: Religion in India and Indian religions India is the birth place of Hinduism. Buddhism. Arranged marriage in India and Women in India . India has had a prevailing tradition of the joint family system.Clo -up of a statu dep ctingMaitreya at the Thikse Monastery in Ladakh. Hinduism and Buddhism are the world's third. India is also the birthplace for theLingayat and Ahmadiyya faiths. A bride during a traditionalHindu wedding ceremony in Punjab. Islam is practiced by around 13% of all Indians. the eldest male member is the head in the joint Indian family system.6 billion followers. Zoroastrianism. the mainly patrilinear lineage or clan [11] assigned to a Hindu at birth. The religion of 80% of the people is Hinduism. Usually. etc.and fourth-largest religions respectively. in have l 1 0 0) . Jainism and especially Buddhism areinfluential not only in India but across the world. In rural areas & sometime in urban areas as well. a far more powerful division isthe traditional Hindu bifurcation into non-polluting and polluting occupations[11] Strict social taboos have . collectively known as Indian religions.[11] However. This is reinforced by the fact that many believe gods and spirits have an integral and [11] functional role in determining their life. Dharmic religions. the chil dren¶s spouses and their offspring. The [11] patriarch often resolves family issues. It is a system under which extended members of a family ± parents. Religion still plays a central and definitive role in the life of m any of its people. traditional Indian culture is defined by relatively strict social hierarchy.5 or 2. Several differences such as religion divide the culture. [11] governed these groups for thousands of years. in recent times. Makar. such asHinduism and Buddhism. However. Christianity. Family plays a significant role in the Indian culture. many fami ies especially in urban areas. children are reminded of their roles and places in society. it is s [11] common that three or four generations of the family live under the same roof. According to Eugene M. also known as Dharmic religions are a major form of world religions along withAbrahamic ones.[5] Indian religions. an respected industry consultant. [6][9] followers altogether. with over 2 billion [6][7][8] and possibly as many as 2. Judaism and the Bahá'í Faith are also influential but their numbers are smaller. India. are indigenous to India. He also mentions that from an [11] early age. He makes all important decisions and rules. ± live together. children. [edit] Family Main articles: Hindu joint family. with some of the most deeply religious societies and cultures. Despite the strong role of religion in Indian life. atheism and agnostics also have visible influence along with a self -ascribed tolerance to other people. particularly in [11] cities. For generations. some of these lines have blurred and sometimes even disappeared.

Arranged matches are made after taking into account factors such as age. [edit] Festivals Radha and gopikas celebrating Holi. the marriage is thought to be for life. height. obeisance. The threenational holidays in India. The divorce rates have risen significantly in recent years: " pinion is divided over what the phenomenon means: for traditionalists the rising numbers portend the breakdown of society while. In Indian and Nepali culture. Buddhists and Sikhs. [13] In India. reverential salutation. Taken literally. Even today. They get around by not letting the [12] authorities know the arrangements of money. known as the "festival of colors". Diwali. and respect. the word is spoken at the beginning of written or verbal communication. Popular religious festivals include the Hindu festivals ofNavratri. arranged marriages have been the tradition in Indian society. the vast majority of Indians have their marriages planned by their parents and other respected family -members. with the consent of the bride and groom. [edit] Marriage For centuries. Jains. Ganesh Chaturthi. It is commonly used in India and Nepal by Hindus. Vanakkam (Tamil or Asssalamu alaikum (Urdu / Persian Sat Shri Akal (Punjabi) is a common spoken greeting or salutation in the Indian subcontinent. and many continue to use this outside the Indian subcontinent. the Republic Day and the Gandhi Jayanti.1% compared with about 50% in theUnited States.stopped abiding by the extended family system and have started living as a nuclear family. the Independence Day. In addition. Durga puja. in literal terms Namaste refers to 'That which is of God in me bows to that which is of God in you'. As explained by an Indian scholar. many states and regions have local festivals depending on prevalent religious and linguistic demographics. and (te): "to you". Holi. The word is derived from Sanskrit (namah): to bow. [15] they speak of a healthy new empowerment for women. being a multi-cultural and multi-religious society. However. Namaskar or Namaskara or Namaskaram.[14] The arranged marriages generally have a much lower divorce rate. Main article: Festivals in India India." [edit] Namaste Namaste. which has been outlawedby the Indian government. but Indian society and culture still promotes and maintains it. personal values and tastes. They also demand dowry. are celebrated with zeal and enthusiasm across India. the same hands fol ed gesture is made d usually wordlessly upon departure. for some modernists. 2 2 2 3 . it means "I bow to you". their astrological compatibility of the couples'horoscopes. the castes and the backgrounds of their families (wealth. and the divorce rate is extremely low ² 1. celebrates holidays and festivals of various religions. social standing . Namaskar is considered a slightly more formal version than Namaste but both express deep respect.

from the Indian epic . India's wil life has been the subj ct of numerous other tal and fabl suc as thePanc tantra and the Jataka tal . Animal husbandry in India and Cattl in religion . S veral harvest festival . 6 57 7 5B 4 A4 7 5 57 5 A4 [ it] Names and l nguage 7894 4 76A@ 54 4 6 7 5 5 6 6 6 5 5 4 76 87 8 7 5 7894 4 7894 4 4 4 5 7894 4 894 4 7 6 5 7 7 7 7894 4 7 7 . Sikhs and Jains. Indian names are based on a variety of sy tems andnaming conventions. suc as Guru Nanak Jay nti. For this reason.Rakshabandhan and Dussehra. theDree Festival is one of the tribal festival of India c l ted by the Ap tanis of the Ziro vall y ofArunac l Pradesh. suc Eid ul-Fitr. Pongal and Onam. ' M in articl : Indian cuisine The Food in India is cl ified into three major c tegories."Nuakhai" are al o fairly popul . cows are revered in Hindu [18] culture and feeding a cow is seen as an act of worship. ted by Buddhists and Hindus. 4 Cows depicted in the decorated goppuram of the Kap l 6544 7 5 A4 [ it] Animal warar templ in Chennai. Common name for wil British colonialists to the English l nguage. Baiskhi are c l ted with full fanfare by Sikhs a Hindu. Raj . the cow is regarded as a symbol ofahimsa (non-viol nc ).[16] In Hinduism. ttva. and Thamas stands for on. and Buddh Purnima. mother goddess [17] and bringer of good fortune and wealth. Notabl exampl Certain festival in India are c l include Diwali. Sikh Festival . are c l ted by Muslims ac oss India. S S tva whic stand for bal nc . India's popul tion sp The varied and ric wil life of India has had a p ofound imp ct on the region's popul ness in India isJungl whic was adopted by the culture. Adding colors to nd the culture of India. The word has been al o made famous in The Jungl Book by Rudy Kipling. I l mic festival . he woul be taking food whic woul A 4 6 57 584 7 A 4 55 7 7 57 4 7 55 7 4 4 6 A4 [ it] Cuisine 87 54 4 5 4 4 4 6 7 4 8 A 76 7 84A 6 54 A8 7 A 6 A 54 4 5 44 S al o: Wil life of India. whic vary by religion and c te and may come from region to region. whic is c l ted by Hindus. and Tamas. suc as S nkranthi. Names are al o influenc awide variety of l nguages. Food is consumed according to the lifestyl of the p King has to be aggressive to defend his c ountry. ted by multipl religions. Raj stands for p ion. whic is the easternmost state of India. Eid aland c l Ramadan. For exampl : A indulgenc .

such as the Persians. India is known for its love for food andspices. set out to find new trade routes with India leading to the Age of Discovery. Thamasic food or known as Static foods is to be taken only if its required. Indian Spices and Herbs were one of the most sought after trade commodities. western and north -eastern. Kheer is a traditional Indian sweet dish. lamb.give much passion and that aggressiveness which is required. southern. Mughals. such aschicken tikka made with Indian ingredients. like consumption of Alcohol. Uttar Pradeshi thali (platter) withNaan bread. The multiple varieties of Indian cuisine are characterized by their sophisticated and subtle use of many Spices and Herbs. and other meats. eastern. Cuisine across India has also been influenced by various cultural groups that entered India throughout history. and are used to enhance he flavor of a dish and t create unique flavors and aromas. Shahi paneer. he would prefer a Satvic food or known as Sattvic diet. Generally.[21] The popularity of curry. Indian cuisine varies from region to region. Each family of this cuisine is characterized by a wide assortment of dishes and cooking techniques. Though the tandoor originated in Central Asia. fish. such asVasco da Gama and Christopher Columbus.[19] [20] Indian cuisine is one of the most popular cuisines across the globe. across Asia has often led to the dish being labeled as the "pan -Asian" dish. and European colonists. which would help to keep his mind in balance. This the is reason why in many Indians try to abstain drinking. reflecting the varied ² demographics of the country. Despite this diversity.[22] [edit] Clothing . Varied uses of spices are an integral part of food preparation. Indian tandoori dishes. The Spice trade between India and Europe led to the rise and dominance of Arab traders to such an extent that European explorers. some unifying threads emerge. When a person tries to lead his life in want of self realisaiton. enjoy widespread popular ity. and it plays a role ineveryday life as well as in festivals. Though a significant portion of Indian food is vegetarian. many traditional Indian dishes also include:chicken. goat. and Salad. Raita. Daal. Historically. which originated in India. Indian cuisine can be split into 5 categories northern.

Consequently.[29] By 2nd century AD. Draped clothing styles remained popular with India's Hindu population while the [31] Muslims increasingly adopted tailored garments. Ancient Vedic texts mention clothes made from barks and leaves (kn wn as o phataka). India's large clothing and handicrafts industry was left paralyzed so as to make place for British industrial cloth. Some Indian traditions consider thebindi to be representative of thethird eye. Traditional clothing in India greatly varies across different parts of the country and is influenced immensely by local culture. Indian dress etiquette discourages exposure of skin and wearing transparent or tight clothes. geography and climate.[30] Stitched clothing in India was developed before 10th [30] century AD and was further popularized in 15th century by Muslim empires in India. the red bindi (orsindoor) was worn only by the married Hindu women.[27] India's clothing styles have continuously evolved over the course of the country's history. During the British Raj.[25] Worn by women on their foreh ead. Popular styles of dress include draped garme nts such as sari for women and dhoti or lungi for men. are also popular. In 5th century BC. in addition.[26] Traditionally. a person's social status is perceived to be symbolized by his or her attire. Greek historian Herodotus describes the richness of the quality of Indian cotton clothes. the bindi is considered to be a highly auspicious mark in Hindu religion. muslins manufactured in southern India were imported by the Roman Empire and silk cloth was one of the major exports of ancient India along with Indian spices.[24] Since India's weather is mostly hot and rainy. majority of Indians wear sandals.Illustration of different styles ofSari & clothing worn by women in India. The 11th century BC Rig-veda mentions dyed and embroidered garments (known as paridhan and pesas respectively) and thus highlights the development of [28] sophisticated garment m anufacturing techniques during the Vedic age. stitched clothes such aschuridar for women and kurta-pyjama and Europeanstyle trousers and shirts for men. In India. but now it has become a part of women's fashion.[23] Most Indian clothes are made fromcotton which is ideal for the region's hot weather. Indian independence movement leader Mahatma Gandhi successfully advocated for what he .

The Vedic accent is marked by underscores and vertical overscores in red. measuring the dates of Vedas came in later days. tvija ). all modern Indo-Aryan languages. yajñasya .1. the Rigvedic Sanskrit is one of the oldest attestations of anyIndo-Iranian language..[36] Words originating in Sanskrit are estimated to constitute roughly fifty percent of the vocabulary of modern Indo -Aryan languages. Tam l literature has existed for over two thousandyears[40] and the earliest ep grap c records found date from around the third century BC. or indirectly via m ddle Indo languages (tadbhava words). In Ancient India the time was divided in Four yugas. and one of the earliest attested members of theIndo-European language fam ly the fam ly which includes . early 19th century.[41] Another major Dravidian -1st m llennium AD. one of India's major classical languages. increasing involvement of women in the fashion industry and changing Indian attitudes towards multiculturalism. is a "Sanskritized register" of theKhariboli dialect. Aum(3) .termed as khadi clothing ² light colored hand -woven clothes ² so as to decrease [32] reliance of the Indian people on British industrial goods. pura .1 (agni .. descends from Proto-Dravidian languages which was spoken around the third m llennium BC in peninsular India. have borrowed many words t -Aryan either directly from Sanskrit ( atsama words).[42][43][44][45] The Ashoka rock edictfound at Brahmagiri (dated to 230 BC) has [46] been suggested to contain a word in identifiable Kannada. The calendar which most Indians follows goes in accordance to this."). In addition. There by. Time is always referred as Kaala C hakra in India. [34] With its oldest core dating back to as early as 1500 BC. i e . the first line has the opening words of RV. Sanskrit has had a profound impact on the languages and literature of India. C CD C C C C C C C CD C C CD C C C C .[38][39] Tam l. India's most spoken language. These developments played a p votal role in the fusion of Indian and Western clothing styles.[33] [edit] Languages and literature [edit] H story Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari. Malayalam and Kannada. and language. [35] English and most European languages. Munda languages and Dravidian languages. The 1980s was marked by a widespread modification to Indian clothing fashions which was characterized by a large-scale growth of fashion sc hools in India. the Bengali language arose from the eastern M ddle Indic languages and its roots are traced to the 5th century BC Ardhamagadhi language. the Satavahana and Kadamba periods and hence has a history of over 2000 years. deva .[37] and the literary forms of (Dravidian)Telugu.H ndi. Kannada is attested ep grap cally from the m d literary Old Kannada flourished in the 9th to 10th centuryRashtrakuta Dynasty.1.[36] Part of the Eastern Indo-Aryan languages.ta . After a scribal benediction (" r ga é yanama . Preold Kannada (or Purava HaleGannada) was the language ofBanavasi in the early Common Era.

Seven Jnanpith awards each have been awarded in Kannada. there are two major literary awards. Hindi Ramacharitamanasa.. Kannada Pampa Bharata. Malaysia and Indonesia. The earliest parts of the [50] Mahabharata text date to 400 BC and is estimated to have reached its final form by the early Gupta period (ca. four in Malayalam. Versions have been adopted as the epics of Southeast Asian countries like Thailand. Civaka-cintamani. these are theSahitya Akademi Fellowshipand the Jnanpith Award.[48] [edit] Epics . Urdu and Oriya and two in Tamil.[51] Other regional variations of these. Marathi and Tamil. AD). Valayapathi and Kundalakesi. six in Hindi. there are five major epics in the classica Tamil language ² l Silappatikaram. as well as unrelated epics include the TamilRamavataram.According to 2001 India census. three each in Marathi. [edit] Performing arts [edit] Dance Main article: Dance in India . 4th c. followed by Bengali. five in Bengali. Manimekalai.[49] and tells the story of Rama (anincarnation of the Hindu preserver -god Vishnu). Manuscript illustration of theBattle of Kurukshetra -known epics of The R m ya a and the Mah bh rata are the oldest preserved and well India.Hindi is the most spoken language in India. In addition to these two great Indian epics.000 verses in seven books (k as) and 500 cantos (sargas). This epic played a pivotal role in establishing the role of dhárma as a [50] principal ideal guiding force for Hindu way of life. The Ramayana consists of 24. whose wife Sita is abducted by thedemon king of Lanka. Ravana.[47] In contemporary Indian literature. Gujarati. Telugu. and Malayalam Adhyathmaramayanam.

Dance.[54] N ty ch rya M ni M dhava Ch ky r is credited for reviving the age old drama tradition from extinction. India's classical music tradition is heavily influenced by Hindu texts. classical music. S The earliest account of Indian musical hymns is found in the 1000 BC maveda. pop. manipuri of Manipur.[55][56] [edit] Music Main article: Music of India folk. and The music of India includes multiple varieties of religious.nown folk dances are the bhangra of the Punjab.the Odishi of Orissa. Vikramorva ya and M lavik gnimitra. following those of Bhasa.Odissi performer from Odisha Indian dance too has diverse folk and classical forms. Eight dance forms. only about 1. It strictly follows theNatya Shastra. Mandra and Atisw r. Tritiya. E . These are: bharatanatyam of the state of Tamil Nadu. the ghoomar of Rajasthan.[58] Purandaradasa is considered the "father of carnatic music" Karnataka sangeeta ( pitamaha). have been accorded classical dance statusby India's National Academy of Music. sung to a rhythmic cycle ortala. Bhasa's Swapnav savadatta and Panchar tra. popular. in descending order.[59][60][61] He concluded his songs with a salutation to Lord Purandara Vittala and is believed to have composed as many as 475.000 are known today.[62] [59][63] However. asKrusht. Panchavadyam temple music in Kerala. Among the well.000 year t old Kutiyattam of Kerala. Kalidasa's plays like Shakuntala and Meghadoota are some of the older plays. the bihu of Assam. These refer to the notes of a flute.000 songs in the Kannada language. He started to perform the Kalidasa plays like Abhijñ na kuntala. kathak of Uttar Pradesh. kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh.[52][53] [edit] Drama and theater Main article: Theatre in India Indian drama and theater has a long history alongside its music and dance. Both the Hindustani classical music and the Carnatic classical musicsystems are based on the melodic mode (known asR ga). He was known for mastery ofRasa Abhinaya. which was the only fixed frequency instrument. the chhau of Jharkhand. Harsha's Nagananda. One of the oldest surviving theatre traditions of he world is the 2. It includes two distinct styles: Carnatic and Hindustani music. Dwitiya. the dandiya and garba of Gujarat. Chaturth. many with narrative forms andmythological elements.[57] It proposed a tonal structure consisting of seven notes. odissi of the state of Odisha and the sattriya of Assam. the Yakshagana of Karnataka and lavani of Maharashtra and Dekhnni of Goa. kathakali and mohiniattam of Kerala. and Drama. Pratham. The oldest preserved examples of Indian music are the melodies of the Samaveda that are still sung in certain Vedic rauta sacrifices. which were named. These principles were refined in then tya stra (200 BC) and the dattilam (300 AD).

Mughal painting are some notable Genres of Indian Art.[64] Indipop is one of the most popular contemporary styles of Indian music which is either a fusion ofIndian folk. S. classical or Sufi music with Western musical traditions. Jehangir Art Gallery Mumbai. classical painters from medieval India. international recognition. Jamini Roy and B. Tanjore painting. Filmi refers to the wide range of music written and performed for mainstreamIndian cinema. Mysore Palace has on display a few good Indian paintings. Atul Dodiya. Most early and medieval art in India is Hindu. Husain. Raza.[65] [edit] Visual arts Main article: Indian art [edit] Painting Main article: Indian painting The Jataka tales from Ajanta Caves. A freshly made coloured flour design Rangoli) is still a common sight outside ( Raja Ravi Varma is one the the doorstep of many (mostly South Indian) Indian homes. and accounts for more than 70 percent of all music sales in the country. Rajput painting. Geeta Vadhera. Bose Krishnamacnahri. Mysore painting. H. F. Bagh. [edit] Sculpture .Prominent contemporary Indian musical forms includedfilmi and Indipop. M. The earliest Indian paintings were the rock paintings ofpre-historic times. These recent artists have acquired . Buddhist or Jain. Madhubani painting.Venkatappa[66] are some modern painters. Devajyoti Ray and Shibu Natesan represent a new era of Indian artwhere global art shows direct amalgamation with Indian classical styles. the petroglyphst it was common for households to paint their doorways or indoor rooms where guests resided. primarily Bollywood. Ellora and Sittanavasal and temple paintings testify to a love of naturalism. Cave paintings from Ajanta. Among the present day artists. whileNandalal Bose.

Rajasthan The first sculptures in India date back to theIndus Valley civilization. display a very strong blend of Indian and ClassicalHellenistic or possibly even Greco. Later.The 5th century Buddhistvishvakarma cave at Ellora. Main article: Sculpture in India Marble Sculpture of female. Sculptures produced in the northwest. The pink sandstone sculptures of Mathura evolved almost simultaneously. Duringthe Gupta period (4th to 6th century) sculpture reached a very high standard in execution and delicacy in modeling. ca 1450. where stone and bronze figures have been discovered. Some huge shrines. such as the one at Ellora were not constructed by using blocks but carved out of solid rock. schist. or clay. These styles and others elsewhere in India evolved leading to classical Indian art that contributed to Buddhist and Hindu sculpture throughout Southeast Central and East Asia. [edit] Architecture Main article: Architecture of India F . in stucco. India produced some extremely intricate bronzes as well as temple carvings. Buddhism. and Jainism developed further.oman influence. as Hinduism. Maharashtra.

rooms. The Umaid Bhawan Palace in Rajasthan. Religion and kingship do not seem to have played an important role in the planning and layout of these towns. influencing town planning. the Hoysaleswara Templeat Halebidu. It is unclear which system is older. constantly absorbing new ideas. Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple at Srirangam. Though Vastu is conceptually similar to Feng Shui in that it also tries to harmonize the flow of energy. and . but they contain certain similarities. architecture. Konark. Indian architecture encompasses a multitude of expressions over space and time. several Buddhist architectural complexes. one of the largest private residences in the world. and the Buddha stupa Bhattiprolu. the Sun Temple. The result is an evolving range of architectural production that nonetheless retains a certain amount of continuity across history.[68] The traditional system ofVaastu Shastra serves as India's version ofFeng Shui. through the house. Feng Shui is m ore commonly used throughout the world. the Kesava Temple at Somanathapura. materials. and ergonomics. Some of its earliest production are found in the Indus Valley Civilization (2600 ±1900 BC) which is characterised by well planned cities and houses. such as the caves of Ajanta and Ellora and the monumental Sanchi Stupa were built. b . the Taj Mahal in Agra is a prime example of Indo-Islamic architecture.[67] Considered to be an "unrivaled architectural wonder". are to e placed. (Chinna Lanja dibba and Vikramarka kota dibba) at Borobudur and otherBuddhist and Hindu temples indicate strong Indian influence on South East Asian architecture. During the period of the Mauryan and Gupta empires and their successors. Angkor Wat. as they are built in styles almost identical to traditional Indian religious buildings. etc. South India produced several Hindu temples like Chennakesava Temple at Belur. Brihadeeswara Temple Thanjavur. (also called life -force or Prana in Sanskrit and Chi/Ki in Chinese/Japanese). it differs in the details. such as the exact directions in which various objects. Later on.

TheIndia national cricket team won the 1983 Cricket World Cupand the 2007 ICC World Twenty20 and shared . Recent creations such as the Lotus Temple. or gopuram is noted for its intricacy and majesty. and the various modern urban developments of India likeChandigarh. Gol Gumbaz. 1 silver and 2 bronze medals at the Olympic games. and Kho kho. Indian architecture was adapted to allow the traditions of the new religion. and are often used as the stereotypical symbols of India. played in New Delhi. Cricket is the most popular Sport in India.[69][70][71][72] where its early form in the 6th century was known as Other games which originated in India and continue to remain popular in wide parts of northern India include Kabaddi. the 2002 ICC Champions Trophywith Sri Lanka. The central spire is also sometimes called avimanam. It hosted a spectacular display of Indian culture and heritage to the entire world during the opening ceremony of the games. such as European Gothic. [edit] Sports and Martial arts Main article: Sports in India The annual Snake boat raceis performed during Onam Celebrations on the Pamba River at Aranmula near Pathanamthitta. a Twenty20 competition. the Duleep Trophy. due to the spread of Buddhism. Cities are extremely compact and densely populated. Domestic competitions include theRanji Trophy. Indian architecture has influenced eastern and southeastern Asia. empire. BCCI conducts the Indian Premier League. temple tower or pagoda and temple gate or torana. used extensively in East Asia and South East Asia. Mumbai'sNariman Point is famous for its Art Deco buildings. have become famous symbols of Asian culture.Fatehpur Sikri. and mixing of several other styles. The Victoria Memorial or the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminusare notable examples. A number of Indian architectural features such as the temple mound or stupa. [edit] Indian martial arts Main article: Indian martial arts . the Irani Trophy and the Challenger Series. In addition. Contemporary Indian architect ure is more cosmopolitan. are notable. and theIndia national field hockey teamwon the 1975 Men's Hockey World Cup and 8 gold. Gilli-danda. Field Hockey is the national Sport in India. Chess is commonly believed to have originated in northwestern India during the Gupta chaturanga. Taj Mahal. Red Fort of Delhi are creations of this era. the Deodhar Trophy.With the advent of Islamic influence from the west. Traditional southern Indian games include Snake boat raceand Kuttiyum kolum. The colonial rule of the British Empire saw the development of Indo-Saracenic style. India is the host of 2010 Commonwealth Games. Qutub Minar. The southern temple gate. temple spire or sikhara.

A distinctive factor of Indian martial arts is the heavy emphasis laid [78] on meditation (dhy na) as a tool to remove fear. the musti yuddha evolved in 1100 AD and focussed on mental. as well as finger movements in thenata dances. The Dhanur Veda was first described in the 5th century BCVi u R Pur a[73] and is also mentioned in both of the major ancient Indian epics. the Dhanur Veda tradition was an influential fighting arts style which considered th bow and the arrow to be the e supreme weapons.[80] [edit] Popular media . According to some historical accounts. In addition. In this form martial arts.[76] In northern India. Indian martial arts techniques have had a profound impact on other martial arts styles across Asia. Indian Buddhist monk Bodhidharma was one of the main founders of theShaolin Kungfu. The ancient Tamil Sangam literature mentions that between 400 BC and 600 AD. one of the oldest and most prominent forms of Indian martial arts. [77] physical and spiritual training. sword (val) and shield (kedaham). which was later used in martial arts. These elements of yoga. a series of sharp body movements so as t gain control o over various parts of the body miapayattu). A bamboo staff is used as the main weapon. various stages of physical training includeayurvedic massage with sesame oil to impart suppleness to the body ( uzichil). including a variety of spinning ( [75] styles. One of the best known forms of ancient Indian martial arts is the Kalarippayattu from Kerala. were later [79] incorporated into various martial arts.Kalarippayattu. soldiers from southern India received special martial arts training which revolved primarily around the use of spear (vel). traces its roots to the Sangam period in southern India.[75] Silambam is unique among Indian martial arts because it uses complex footwork techniques kaaladi). which was developed around 200 AD. complex sword fighting techniques ( (paliyankam).[74] Silambam. doubt and anxiety. This ancient fighting style originated in southern India in 12th century BC and [73] is regarded as one of the oldest surviving martial arts. the m ya a and Mah bh rata. while various mudra finger movements were taught inYogacara Buddhism. The 3rd century BCYoga Sutras of Patanjalitaught how to meditate single-mindedly on points located inside one's body. and.