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ADAT PERKAHWINAN KAUM INDIA

ADAT PERKAHWINAN KAUM INDIA

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Published by: Pirathip Thip on Apr 12, 2011
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ADAT MASYARAKAT INDIA

Sebelum Majlis Perkahwinan Sebelum majlis perkahwinan berlangsung, terdapat beberapa perkara penting yang perlu dijalankan terlebih dahulu, antaranya : Kad Jemputan Kad jemputan memainkan peranan yang penting dalam perkahwinan masyarakat India. Kad jemputan ini dibuat berdasarkan almanak Hindu. Sekiranya terdapat kesilapan, bermakna perkahwinan tidak dapat dijalankan dengan lancar. Kad jemputan yang telah dicetak disapu dengan serbuk kunyit cair sebagai lambang keharmonian. Beberapa keping kad jemputan dalam bilangan ganjil akan dibawa bersama ke kuil untuk dibawa bersembahyang ( arccanai). Kad diletakkan di atas dulang bersama sirih, wang ringgit, kelapa, pinang dan sebagainya sebagai lambang kekayaan. Upacara ini dinamakan sebagai paanam paaku. Kemudian dulang akan dibawa ke rumah pengantin perempuan untuk diberi kepada pengantin lelaki dan begitulah sebaliknya. Pada masa yang sama sirih pinang akan diberikan sebagai tanda jemputan perkahwinan secara rasmi. Penyediaan Thaali ( Tjrumaanggalyam) Thaali atau tjirumaangalyam merupakan lambang suci perkahwinan yang dikalungkan pada leher kedua-dua pengantin. Pada thaali itu diikat segumpal benang putih yang disapu dengan kunyit. Terdapat pelbagai jenis thaal i yang digunakan oleh masyarakat India seperti lingath thaali, pottut thaali, tennant thaali dan sebagainya. Ini disebabkan terdapat pelbagai suku di kalangan masyarakat India. Adat penyediaan thaali ini dilakukan tujuh atau sembilan hari sebelum hari perkahwinan. Pihak lelaki akan membawa emas, cendana, kumkum, sirih pinang, kelapa dan bayaran u ntuk pembuat thaali. Ini adalah untuk memastikan tukang thaali mengetahui hari yang sesuai untuk membuat thaali. Tiga hari sebelum perkahwinan, thaali akan diambil dan diletakkan di tempat sembahyang atas suruhan pembuat thaali. Pihak pengantin adalah dila rang untuk menawar perkhidmatan yang dilakukan oleh pembuat thaali. Selepas itu upacara sembahyang dilakukan dan ini dinamakan sebagai thaalippadaiyal. Dalam upacara itu bubur manis dan nasi manis disediakan termasuklah dhoti dan sari untuk pasangan penga ntin. Secara umumnya thaali tidak diwajibkan diperbuat daripada emas. Ini kerana thaali masih boleh dibuat daripada kunyit yang dikatakan lebih selamat dan tidak dicuri orang. Mukuurtta Kaal Adat ini dilakukan lima hari sebelum hari perkahwinan dilangsun gkan. Adat mukuurtta kaal ini diadakan pada hari yang baik mengikut firasat masyarakat India. Untuk menjalankan adat tersebut sebatang pokok yang masih muda dan lurus akan ditebang untuk dijadikan mukurtta kaal. Batang pokok tersebut berukuran dua atau tig a meter dan mempunyai lilitan batang antara 20 hingga 30 sentimeter. Adat mendirikan mukuurtta kaal adalah sebagai menandakan perkahwinan akan dilangsungkan di rumah tersebut. Bahan -bahan lazim seperti sirih pinang, kum kum, kunyit dan sebagainya disediak an. Ahli-ahli keluarga pengantin akan bermohon pada Tuhan supaya perkahwinan dapat dilangsungkan tanpa gangguan. Batang kayu diambil dan dibersihkan serta dibuang kulitnya. Lima orang perempuan yang sudah berkahwin akan menyapukan kunyit cair dan kumkum pa da batang kayu tersebut dari pangkal hingga hujung. Kemudian hujung kayu diikat dengan daun ara atau mangga menggunakan kain bewarna merah. Kayu akan dipacak sedalam setengah meter dan bahan-bahan tadi akan dimasukkan ke dalam lubang tersebut sebagai lamba ng kekayaan. Kemudian upacara sembahyang dilakukan oleh pengantin beserta lima orang perempuan tersebut. Sebanyak sembilan jenis bijirin ditabur pada batang kayu dan lampu minyak dinyalakan. Pada masa yang sama pengantin berikrar akan menjaga alam sekitar sebagai lambang persahabatan dengan alam sekitar. Kebiasaannya adat mendirikan mukuurtta kaal dilakukan di rumah pengantin lelaki.

Mayat akan dimandikan terlebih dahulu dan dibaringkan di atas katil di ruang tamu atau halaman r umah. Upacara Menanggalkan Thaali Thaali vaangutal merupakan upacara menanggalkan thaali semasa berlakunya sesebuah kematian dalam sesebuah keluarga. perigi atau sumber -sumber air yang lain. Balu tersebut dikehendaki meletakkan kalungan bunga ke dalam dulang yang berisi minyak. Sapuan minyak ini dilakukan oleh ahli keluarga dan diikuti oleh saudara mara terdekat. gambar -gambar yang tergantung diterbalikkan dan barang -barang perhiasan dibawa keluar dari ruang tamu. Serbuk suci atau tiruniiru disapu pada dahi si mati sebelum disembahyang. Mayat seterusnya dimandikan oleh orang yang tel ah berumur. Mayat yang sudah dibersihkan itu akan diletakkan di ruang tamu sebagai langkah menghormati tetamu. Buyung yang berisi air akan ditutup dengan menggunakan kain dhoti untuk mengelakkan habuk memasuki air tersebut. mayat akan diletakkan di ruang tamu. Lagu-lagu suci seperti teevaaram. mereka mempercayai konsep kela hiran semula. Kaum lelaki yang mempunyai hubungan kekeluargaan dengan si mati sahaja boleh membawa air dalam jumlah yang ganjil. Kepala mayat dihadapkan ke arah selatan dan sebuah lampu miny ak atau kaamaatci amman vilakku dipasang dinyalakan. si isteri hendaklah duduk di sebelah si mati dan dijirus dengan sebuyung air semasa mayat suaminya dimandikan. si mati akan dipakaikan dengan pakaian baru iaitu sari bagi mayat perempuan dan dhoti bagi mayat lelaki. Sepanjang mayat berada di dalam rumah. Air mawar direnjis dan mayat turut diasapkan dengan kemenyan yang dibakar supaya tidak berbau. Thaali iaitu rantai suci perkahwinan hanya boleh ditanggal oleh seorang isteri setelah suamiya meninggal dunia. Upacara Vaaikkarisi . Kemudian bunga akan dikalungkan pada leher balu dan kemudian bunga tersebut dikalungkan pada si mati. tiruvaasakam dan seumpamanya dinyanyikan serta diimainkan sehingga ke tanah perkuburan. si mati perlu dijaga dengan sebaiknya. Kemenyan dan kapur barus diasap sebagai simbol ketenangan jiwa si mati. Air tersebut diperolehi dari sungai. Dalam upacara tersebut. seterusnya seorang wanita yang sudah be rusia dan mempunyai hubungan kekeluargaan akan memegang tangan si mati sambil mengalungkan kalungan bunga ke leher balu dan proses ini dilakukan sebanyak tiga kali. Semasa Kematian Sekiranya seseorang itu telah meninggal dunia. Sarjana India juga menyatakan kematian adalah perpisahan roh dan jasad. Sirih pinang ditumbuk dan dimasukkan ke dalam mulut dan lubang hidung akan disumbatkan dengan kapas. Tujuannya agar roh si mati sentisa tenang dan aman. mayat akan di bakar atau dikebumikan. kecuali air paip.KEMATIAN Bagi masyarakat India. Kaum wanita pula akan menyambut air tersebut yang digunakan untuk memandikan mayat. iaitu kematian adalah ibarat tidur dan mereka akan bangun selepas tidur. Mata dan mulut mayat juga perlu ditu tup rapat. di mana jasad akan hancur. Dalam masyarakat India. Belakang tapak tangan digunakan untuk menyapu minyak ini dan bukannya menggunakan tapak tangan sebagaimana lazimnya. Ini dilakukan seolah -olah menunjukkan si suami membuangkan thaali dari leher balu. Setelah itu barulah si mati dibalut dengan menggunakan kain. minyak dan araippu digunakan untuk disapukan pada kepala sebagai mandian terak hir. Sebelum dimandikan. ibu jari tangan dan kaki diikat dengan kain putih dan diletakkan ke dada. Untuk melaksanakan upacara ini. pelbagai adat tertentu akan dilakukan. Thaali itu seterusnya akan dimasukkan ke dalam dulang dan disimpan dalam rumah. Kemudian sebiji kelapa terbelah dua dan sirih pinang diletakkan berhampiran si mati. kunyit disapu pada mata untuk membunuh kuman dan seterusnya duit syiling diletakkan di atas dahi. tetapi kembali ke alam barzakh . Selepas dimandikan. Kaki dan tangan mayat perlu diluruskan. Untuk menunjukkan kesedihan. bun ga dan susu yang dibawa oleh seorang perempuan lain.

Seseorang yang membawa kollic catti mengiringi mayat. Kollic Catti Kollic catti bermaksud periuk tanah liat yang me ngandungi api. pengusung perlu membayar duit kepada penyelenggara sebagai upah mengorek liang lahad. Satu lubang akan dibuat di bahagian kepala dan susu akan dicurahkan pada lubang tersebut. kaiulaasam seer' berulang kali. beras akan diarak dari kiri ke kanan. Keranda akan dige rakkan beberapa kali sebelum menghampiri liang lahad. justeru itu kaum perempuan amat dilarang turut serta ke tanah perkuburan. Sepanjang perjalanan. Keranda akan ditutup dan diangkat untuk dibawa ke tanah perkuburan. satu bentuk manusia akan dilukis di atas kubur. mayat akan dimasukkan ke dalam keranda. pembawa kollic catti berada di hadapan mayat dan duduk melutut tetapi tidak menghadap mayat. semua yang hadir perlu ke rumah si mati untuk upacara penyempurnaan adat pengebumian sebelum balik ke rumah. Kemudian keranda diletakkan bersebelahan dengan kubur bagi mayat yang dikebumikan atau diletakkan di atas kayu api unyuk dibakar. Sebelum itu pembawa kollic catti dikehendaki mencukur rambut. pada masa yang sama ucapan tenna adudaiya shinanee pottri disebut beberapa kali sebagai menandakan upacara tersebut telah direstui oleh tuhan. Apabila tiba di tanah perkuburan. Upacara vaaikkarisi akan dilakukan oleh kaum lelaki di tanah perkuburan pula. Pada masa yang sama lagu -lagu suci dimainkan. Anak sulung melakukan untuk bapa yang telah meni nggal dunia dan anak bongsu untuk ibu. Ini dilakukan oleh kaum perempuan sahaja. Duit syiling yang diletakkan di dalam dulang yang sama dibalut dengan kain putih. mereka dikehendaki memegang neippantam. lalu diambil oleh pengurus kubur sebagai tanda keizinan mayat dikebumikan. Ini menunjukkan bahawa mereka akan hidup lebih bahagia seperti rambut yang baru tumbuh. Kollic catti dibawa oleh ahli keluarga si mati samada anak ataupun bapa. Duit syiling dimasukkan ke dalam dhoti dan diletakkan di antara kaki mayat. C ucu atau cicit tersebut dikehendaki mengelilingi mayat mengikut lawan jam sebanyak tiga kali. Pada masa yang sama sebuah nyiru diisikan dengan bahan -bahan seperti padi goreng.Setelah dimandi dan dihias dengan cantik. Neip bermaksud minyak sapi dan pantam adalah obor. Setelah itu upacara sembahyang dilakukan oleh semua yang berada di situ. Ada juga yang memasukkan bijirin ke lubang tersebut. Upacara ini dilakukan untuk mengurangkan kesedihan keluarga si mati. Pergerakan dimulakan dengan dengan mengubah bahagaian kaki ke kubur dan kemudian bahagian kepala. Kemudian diikuti oleh pengurus m ayat yang akan menebuk kollic catti dengan menyebut 'sorkam seer. Setelah mayat dikebumikan. Periuk tersebut diangkat dengan menggunakan pelepah kelapa yang dibelah tiga di bahagian hujung dan diikat pada periuk. . pada pusingan ketiga. Kemudian tiga batang kayu yang menyala diba kar dan disusun ke tanah satu persatu. biji sawi dan bijan. Pembawa Kollic catti atau buyung dikehendaki mengelilingi mayat sebanyak tiga kali menurut arah jam. Selesai upacara tersebut. Oleh itu si mati dipercayai berada di dalam perut Dewi Bumi. Ahli -ahli keluarga akan mengelilingi mayat mengikut lawan jam sebanyak tiga kali sebagai tanda penghormatan. Pengebumian Mayat orang India akan diusung ke tanah perkuburan dengan menggunakan pengusung. Ada juga yang mencukur janggut atau misai sebagai menggantikan rambut. Beberapa batang kayu kecil akan dibalut di bahagian hujung dengan menggunakan kain yang disapu dengan minyak sapi dan dinyalakan. Makanan yang akan dimasukkan ke dalam mulut mayat berupa beras yang diletakkan di dalam sebuah dulang dan diletakkan berhampiran kepala mayat. Kemudian ke dalam mulut mayat akan dimasukkan sedikit makanan sebagai menandakan pemberian terakhir dan inilah yang dinamakan vaaikkarisi. Saudara mara yang terdekat akan memberi sari atau dhoti kepada si mati sebagai hadiah terakhir. Sebelum dimasukkan ke dalam mulut mayat. Kapur barus dimasukkan bersama supaya mayat tidak berbau. Sekiranya s i mati mempunyai cucu atau cicit. Ini adalah seperti pergerakan bayi yang berada di dalam kandungan. bahan-bahan tersebut ditabur dan setiap bahan -bahan tadi mempunyai perlambangan yang tersendiri.

air gula juga boleh digunakan. Setelah ibu dan anak masuk ke dalam rumah. ketujuh dan sebagainya iaitu pada bilangan hari ganjil. Kegunaan minyak ini dipercayai boleh membawa kec antikan dan supaya bayi tidak diserang sebarang penyakit. Di samping madu. kelima. sami atau sesiapa sahaja yang berpengetahuan tinggi mengenai agama Hindu akan membisikkan Gayatri Mantiram iaitu sejenis mantera Tuhan di telinga bayi sebelum tali pusat dipotong. arang. Minyak savvennai yang merupakan campuran minyak bijan. sirih dan kapur barus yang dinyalakan diangkat dan diputar tiga kali mengikut arah jam dan juga lawan jam. Membisikkan Nama Tuhan Sebaik sahaja bayi dilahirkan. kapur sirih yang dicairkan.KELAHIRAN Semasa Bersalin Waktu kelahiran adalah penting bagi masyarakat India dimana ia akan dicatat dengan tepat bagi menentukan bintang bayi mengikut almanak Hindu. Bagi upacara aalati ini. isi dulang aalati dibuang. Menyapu Madu Bayi yang baru dilahirkan juga akan disapu madu bercampur minyak sapi pada lidahnya. Membawa Bayi Pulang Ke Rumah Bayi yang dilahirkan di hospital akan dibawa pulang ke rumah pada hari ketiga. Dulang juga dilambai sebanyak tiga kali. Ia bertujuan untuk mengelakkan bala atau sebarang malapetaka dariapada berlaku. Setitik minyak bijan yang dicampur dengan sedikit susu ibu dan disapu ke mulut bayi akan bertindak menjadi pelawas dal am sistem penghadaman dan membantu tumbesaran bayi tersebut. Seterusnya para cumanggali akan mencelupkan ibu jarinya ke dalam dulang tersebut dan mencalitkan ke dahi ibu dan anak. Bisikan nama Tuhan pada telinga bayi adalah untuk membolehkan bayi tadi mendengar nama Tuhan sebelum mendengar apa -apa yang lain. Namun begitu adat ini disesuaikan dengan hanya membisikkannya sebaik sahaja melihat bayi tersebut kerana perubatan moden tidak membenarkan sesiapa memasuki bilik bersalin. Bintang bayi ini akan menentukan mental. Mandi Selepas Bersalin . Madu pula dikatakan dapat melembutkan lidah bayi dan memudahkan bayi bertutur. dulang yang mengandungi serbuk kunyit. minyak lenga dan mambu juga kadangkala digunakan. fizikal dan rohani bayi sehingga dewasa. serbuk kunyit. Potong Tali Pusat Tali pusat yang dipotong akan ditanam bersama uri dan tembuni di sekitar kawasan rumah bersama duit tembaga. Bahan -bahan ini dimasukkan bersama untuk mengelak dari dikorek oleh binatang liar dan tidak digunakan oleh ahli sihir. Ia bertujuan untuk membawa rahmat kepada bayi tersebut. Sebelum bayi dibawa ma suk ke rumah upacara aalati dilakukan. garam dan pinang.

orang luar dilarang melawat mereka kecuali untuk tujuan perubatan. Mendodoi Bayi Amalan mendodoi bayi merupakan upacara yang paling penting dalam masyarakat India. telur rebus. Ia bertujuan agar bayi tersebut menjadi seorang yang berguna. Setelah itu bayi diasapkan dengan asap kemenyan. ikan kering dan sebagainya. Upacara mendodoi ini juga dikenali sebagai taalaattu bermaksud penggoyangan lidah. si ibu akan mandi selang sehari selepas bersalin. Susu juga digunakan sebagai bahan utama untuk melembutkan kulit bayi. Terdapat juga upacara memuja Dewi Pecciyamman dan Dewi Kaatteeri dilakukan oleh segelintir masyarakat India. Rambut ibu akan dikeringkan dengan segera dengan asap kemenyan bagi mengelak kan sakit kepala. kening dan telinga turut diurut. Ketika bayi dimandikan. Beberapa bahan seperti serbuk kunyit. Ia bertujuan untuk mengelak penyakit sawan atau kuning. Bahan bahan persembahan juga disediakan seperti kari ayam betina. ibu yang baru bersalin tidak dibenarkan mandi selama dua minggu atas sebab -sebab kesihatan akibat fizikal ibu yang lemah kerana pembedahan dan kesan kelahiran. Jika proses bersalin secara pembedahan. Ia dilakukan dengan memasukkan bayi ke dalam buaian dan dikendalikan oleh ahli keluarga yang tertua yang a rif tentang agama dan perkara yang berkaitan dengan dewa-dewa. urutan perlahan dilakukan pada tubuh bayi dan t ulang belakang bayi supaya tidak bengkok. Selesai dimandikan. Bayi kemudiannya dimasukkan ke dalam buaia n dan namanya diumumkan pada orang ramai. selsema dan juga untuk menyegarkan tubuh badan selepas bersalin. Nama -nama tokoh sejarawan. Namun amalan ini semakin berkurangan dilakukan dan hanya diamalkan oleh generasi tua sahaja. mereka diasingkan dari ahli keluarga yang lain di sebuah bilik khas yang sentiasa dijaga kebersihannya. minyak bijan. upacara pemberian nama dilakukan. Bayi pula kebiasaanya dimandikan pada waktu petang oleh seorang wanita yang berpengalaman. hidung. Upacara dimulakan dengan ucapan aaraaro aariraro atau cerita-cerita nasihat. Saudara mara yang hadir akan memberi pelbagai hadiah dan upacara diakhiri dengan jamuan dan upacara sembahyang bagi mendoakan kesejahteraan bayi.Apabila bayi dan ibu kembali ke rumah. Air tersebut digunakan untuk mandi. Nama-nama yang dipilih lazimnya berdasarkan almanak dengan mengikut tarikh kelahiran bayi. Bagi tujuan kecantikan. bayi ditonggengkan dengan mengangkat kedua belah kaki sambil menepuk bahagian punggung untuk mengeluarkan kahak. Bagi i bu yang bersalin normal. Memberi Nama Sebaik sahaja bayi berusia enam belas hari. Beberapa herba dan dedaun seperti aadatoodai dididihkan bersama air. Bagi dua minggu pertama. . Upacara dimulakan dengan mengadakan upacara sembahyang sebagai tanda kesyukuran. nenek moyang serta yang berkaitan dengan agama Hindu juga dipilih bagi bayi tersebut kerana nama yang dipilih ini akan mempengaruhi perwatakannya kelak. Mandian ini dilakukan dengan menyiram ke seluruh badan bayi dengan menggunakan ai r suam yang kadangkala dicampur dengan bahan -bahan herba. Akhir sekali bayi akan dibedung dengan kain bertujuan untuk meluruskan anggota badan bayi. Up acara pemujaan dilakukan dengan membersihkan sekeliling rumah dan memasang lampu minyak di keliling rumah. kas -kas dan kacang hijau yang ditumbuk digunakan sebagai pembersih badan bayi bertujuan untuk mengelakkan penyakit kulit dan melicinkan kulit bayi. dan disapu dengan bedak yang diperbuat dari tepung beras supaya tidak dihinggapi ruam.

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The [11] patriarch often resolves family issues. Usually. many fami ies especially in urban areas. and other family members abide by them. Arranged marriage in India and Women in India . He makes all important decisions and rules. in have l 1 0 0) .[11] However. it is s [11] common that three or four generations of the family live under the same roof. an respected industry consultant. [11] governed these groups for thousands of years. For generations. particularly in [11] cities.[10] Sikhism. In rural areas & sometime in urban areas as well. etc. the chil dren¶s spouses and their offspring. A bride during a traditionalHindu wedding ceremony in Punjab. However. India is also the birthplace for theLingayat and Ahmadiyya faiths. such asHinduism and Buddhism. [edit] Family Main articles: Hindu joint family. Judaism and the Bahá'í Faith are also influential but their numbers are smaller. Several differences such as religion divide the culture. some of these lines have blurred and sometimes even disappeared. India. Christianity. with some of the most deeply religious societies and cultures. This is reinforced by the fact that many believe gods and spirits have an integral and [11] functional role in determining their life. the mainly patrilinear lineage or clan [11] assigned to a Hindu at birth. India is one of the most religiously diverse nations in the world. Important family relations extend as far as gotra. with over 2 billion [6][7][8] and possibly as many as 2. The religion of 80% of the people is Hinduism. Zoroastrianism.[5] Indian religions. It is a system under which extended members of a family ± parents. children. India has had a prevailing tradition of the joint family system.Clo -up of a statu dep ctingMaitreya at the Thikse Monastery in Ladakh. atheism and agnostics also have visible influence along with a self -ascribed tolerance to other people.and fourth-largest religions respectively. a far more powerful division isthe traditional Hindu bifurcation into non-polluting and polluting occupations[11] Strict social taboos have . Despite the strong role of religion in Indian life. in recent times. According to Eugene M. ± live together.Jainism and Sikhism. Religion still plays a central and definitive role in the life of m any of its people. Buddhism. [6][9] followers altogether.[4] Main articles: Religion in India and Indian religions India is the birth place of Hinduism. the eldest male member is the head in the joint Indian family system.5 or 2. also known as Dharmic religions are a major form of world religions along withAbrahamic ones. He also mentions that from an [11] early age. Family plays a significant role in the Indian culture. Makar. In recent years. children are reminded of their roles and places in society. Today. Jainism and especially Buddhism areinfluential not only in India but across the world. Dharmic religions. collectively known as Indian religions. are indigenous to India.6 billion followers. traditional Indian culture is defined by relatively strict social hierarchy. Hinduism and Buddhism are the world's third. Islam is practiced by around 13% of all Indians.

being a multi-cultural and multi-religious society. Namaskar or Namaskara or Namaskaram. However. in literal terms Namaste refers to 'That which is of God in me bows to that which is of God in you'. They also demand dowry. the vast majority of Indians have their marriages planned by their parents and other respected family -members. obeisance. the word is spoken at the beginning of written or verbal communication. are celebrated with zeal and enthusiasm across India. [edit] Festivals Radha and gopikas celebrating Holi. personal values and tastes. arranged marriages have been the tradition in Indian society. It is commonly used in India and Nepal by Hindus. but Indian society and culture still promotes and maintains it. many states and regions have local festivals depending on prevalent religious and linguistic demographics. with the consent of the bride and groom. Vanakkam (Tamil or Asssalamu alaikum (Urdu / Persian Sat Shri Akal (Punjabi) is a common spoken greeting or salutation in the Indian subcontinent. the Republic Day and the Gandhi Jayanti. Durga puja. celebrates holidays and festivals of various religions. and (te): "to you". and the divorce rate is extremely low ² 1. Main article: Festivals in India India. the same hands fol ed gesture is made d usually wordlessly upon departure. In Indian and Nepali culture. The threenational holidays in India. [13] In India. Even today. which has been outlawedby the Indian government. The word is derived from Sanskrit (namah): to bow. their astrological compatibility of the couples'horoscopes. Namaskar is considered a slightly more formal version than Namaste but both express deep respect. Jains." [edit] Namaste Namaste.1% compared with about 50% in theUnited States. it means "I bow to you". Popular religious festivals include the Hindu festivals ofNavratri. social standing . [15] they speak of a healthy new empowerment for women. They get around by not letting the [12] authorities know the arrangements of money.stopped abiding by the extended family system and have started living as a nuclear family. As explained by an Indian scholar. Diwali. [edit] Marriage For centuries. Arranged matches are made after taking into account factors such as age. height. Ganesh Chaturthi. Taken literally. for some modernists. Holi. the marriage is thought to be for life. 2 2 2 3 . the Independence Day. Buddhists and Sikhs. and many continue to use this outside the Indian subcontinent. reverential salutation. the castes and the backgrounds of their families (wealth. and respect.[14] The arranged marriages generally have a much lower divorce rate. known as the "festival of colors". In addition. The divorce rates have risen significantly in recent years: " pinion is divided over what the phenomenon means: for traditionalists the rising numbers portend the breakdown of society while.

Sikh Festival . and Tamas. Indian names are based on a variety of sy tems andnaming conventions. India's popul tion sp The varied and ric wil life of India has had a p ofound imp ct on the region's popul ness in India isJungl whic was adopted by the culture. whic is c l ted by Hindus. whic vary by religion and c te and may come from region to region. India's wil life has been the subj ct of numerous other tal and fabl suc as thePanc tantra and the Jataka tal . mother goddess [17] and bringer of good fortune and wealth. suc Eid ul-Fitr.Rakshabandhan and Dussehra. For exampl : A indulgenc . For this reason. 6 57 7 5B 4 A4 7 5 57 5 A4 [ it] Names and l nguage 7894 4 76A@ 54 4 6 7 5 5 6 6 6 5 5 4 76 87 8 7 5 7894 4 7894 4 4 4 5 7894 4 894 4 7 6 5 7 7 7 7894 4 7 7 . Raj stands for p ion. Animal husbandry in India and Cattl in religion . Baiskhi are c l ted with full fanfare by Sikhs a Hindu.[16] In Hinduism. 4 Cows depicted in the decorated goppuram of the Kap l 6544 7 5 A4 [ it] Animal warar templ in Chennai. cows are revered in Hindu [18] culture and feeding a cow is seen as an act of worship. Sikhs and Jains. ttva. theDree Festival is one of the tribal festival of India c l ted by the Ap tanis of the Ziro vall y ofArunac l Pradesh. whic is the easternmost state of India. and Buddh Purnima. Food is consumed according to the lifestyl of the p King has to be aggressive to defend his c ountry. Adding colors to nd the culture of India. Eid aland c l Ramadan. are c l ted by Muslims ac oss India. Notabl exampl Certain festival in India are c l include Diwali. the cow is regarded as a symbol ofahimsa (non-viol nc ). S S tva whic stand for bal nc . Raj . and Thamas stands for on. suc as Guru Nanak Jay nti. Common name for wil British colonialists to the English l nguage. he woul be taking food whic woul A 4 6 57 584 7 A 4 55 7 7 57 4 7 55 7 4 4 6 A4 [ it] Cuisine 87 54 4 5 4 4 4 6 7 4 8 A 76 7 84A 6 54 A8 7 A 6 A 54 4 5 44 S al o: Wil life of India. from the Indian epic . ted by Buddhists and Hindus. S veral harvest festival . ' M in articl : Indian cuisine The Food in India is cl ified into three major c tegories. Names are al o influenc awide variety of l nguages."Nuakhai" are al o fairly popul . The word has been al o made famous in The Jungl Book by Rudy Kipling. suc as S nkranthi. ted by multipl religions. Pongal and Onam. I l mic festival .

Despite this diversity. which would help to keep his mind in balance. and other meats. Indian cuisine varies from region to region. lamb. such asVasco da Gama and Christopher Columbus. Mughals. he would prefer a Satvic food or known as Sattvic diet. Indian cuisine can be split into 5 categories northern. Raita. many traditional Indian dishes also include:chicken. across Asia has often led to the dish being labeled as the "pan -Asian" dish.give much passion and that aggressiveness which is required. and European colonists. This the is reason why in many Indians try to abstain drinking. When a person tries to lead his life in want of self realisaiton. eastern. Indian tandoori dishes. Indian Spices and Herbs were one of the most sought after trade commodities. Though the tandoor originated in Central Asia. southern. goat. Uttar Pradeshi thali (platter) withNaan bread. Cuisine across India has also been influenced by various cultural groups that entered India throughout history. Daal. Thamasic food or known as Static foods is to be taken only if its required. and it plays a role ineveryday life as well as in festivals. Generally. and are used to enhance he flavor of a dish and t create unique flavors and aromas. Historically. reflecting the varied ² demographics of the country. like consumption of Alcohol. India is known for its love for food andspices.[19] [20] Indian cuisine is one of the most popular cuisines across the globe. Though a significant portion of Indian food is vegetarian. The multiple varieties of Indian cuisine are characterized by their sophisticated and subtle use of many Spices and Herbs. Shahi paneer. fish. The Spice trade between India and Europe led to the rise and dominance of Arab traders to such an extent that European explorers. enjoy widespread popular ity. which originated in India.[22] [edit] Clothing . Kheer is a traditional Indian sweet dish. western and north -eastern. Each family of this cuisine is characterized by a wide assortment of dishes and cooking techniques. Varied uses of spices are an integral part of food preparation. such aschicken tikka made with Indian ingredients. and Salad. some unifying threads emerge.[21] The popularity of curry. such as the Persians. set out to find new trade routes with India leading to the Age of Discovery.

Indian independence movement leader Mahatma Gandhi successfully advocated for what he . muslins manufactured in southern India were imported by the Roman Empire and silk cloth was one of the major exports of ancient India along with Indian spices. Indian dress etiquette discourages exposure of skin and wearing transparent or tight clothes. During the British Raj. Ancient Vedic texts mention clothes made from barks and leaves (kn wn as o phataka). in addition.[29] By 2nd century AD. the bindi is considered to be a highly auspicious mark in Hindu religion. Draped clothing styles remained popular with India's Hindu population while the [31] Muslims increasingly adopted tailored garments.[23] Most Indian clothes are made fromcotton which is ideal for the region's hot weather.[30] Stitched clothing in India was developed before 10th [30] century AD and was further popularized in 15th century by Muslim empires in India.Illustration of different styles ofSari & clothing worn by women in India. In India. In 5th century BC.[24] Since India's weather is mostly hot and rainy. but now it has become a part of women's fashion. the red bindi (orsindoor) was worn only by the married Hindu women.[25] Worn by women on their foreh ead. Popular styles of dress include draped garme nts such as sari for women and dhoti or lungi for men.[27] India's clothing styles have continuously evolved over the course of the country's history. Traditional clothing in India greatly varies across different parts of the country and is influenced immensely by local culture. India's large clothing and handicrafts industry was left paralyzed so as to make place for British industrial cloth. The 11th century BC Rig-veda mentions dyed and embroidered garments (known as paridhan and pesas respectively) and thus highlights the development of [28] sophisticated garment m anufacturing techniques during the Vedic age. Some Indian traditions consider thebindi to be representative of thethird eye. Greek historian Herodotus describes the richness of the quality of Indian cotton clothes. a person's social status is perceived to be symbolized by his or her attire. geography and climate.[26] Traditionally. majority of Indians wear sandals. Consequently. are also popular. stitched clothes such aschuridar for women and kurta-pyjama and Europeanstyle trousers and shirts for men.

1. Kannada is attested ep grap cally from the m d literary Old Kannada flourished in the 9th to 10th centuryRashtrakuta Dynasty. early 19th century. Preold Kannada (or Purava HaleGannada) was the language ofBanavasi in the early Common Era.[42][43][44][45] The Ashoka rock edictfound at Brahmagiri (dated to 230 BC) has [46] been suggested to contain a word in identifiable Kannada. Aum(3) .termed as khadi clothing ² light colored hand -woven clothes ² so as to decrease [32] reliance of the Indian people on British industrial goods. These developments played a p votal role in the fusion of Indian and Western clothing styles. the Bengali language arose from the eastern M ddle Indic languages and its roots are traced to the 5th century BC Ardhamagadhi language. tvija ). yajñasya . [35] English and most European languages.[36] Part of the Eastern Indo-Aryan languages. the first line has the opening words of RV.[41] Another major Dravidian -1st m llennium AD. the Rigvedic Sanskrit is one of the oldest attestations of anyIndo-Iranian language. Tam l literature has existed for over two thousandyears[40] and the earliest ep grap c records found date from around the third century BC. and language.1 (agni . one of India's major classical languages. India's most spoken language. or indirectly via m ddle Indo languages (tadbhava words). The 1980s was marked by a widespread modification to Indian clothing fashions which was characterized by a large-scale growth of fashion sc hools in India. The calendar which most Indians follows goes in accordance to this.[33] [edit] Languages and literature [edit] H story Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari. Time is always referred as Kaala C hakra in India. descends from Proto-Dravidian languages which was spoken around the third m llennium BC in peninsular India.[37] and the literary forms of (Dravidian)Telugu. Sanskrit has had a profound impact on the languages and literature of India. deva .").. The Vedic accent is marked by underscores and vertical overscores in red. In addition. i e .ta . There by.H ndi. C CD C C C C C C C CD C C CD C C C C . the Satavahana and Kadamba periods and hence has a history of over 2000 years. all modern Indo-Aryan languages. measuring the dates of Vedas came in later days.[38][39] Tam l. increasing involvement of women in the fashion industry and changing Indian attitudes towards multiculturalism.1. have borrowed many words t -Aryan either directly from Sanskrit ( atsama words). [34] With its oldest core dating back to as early as 1500 BC.[36] Words originating in Sanskrit are estimated to constitute roughly fifty percent of the vocabulary of modern Indo -Aryan languages. and one of the earliest attested members of theIndo-European language fam ly the fam ly which includes .. After a scribal benediction (" r ga é yanama . Munda languages and Dravidian languages. is a "Sanskritized register" of theKhariboli dialect. Malayalam and Kannada. pura . In Ancient India the time was divided in Four yugas.

and Malayalam Adhyathmaramayanam. Urdu and Oriya and two in Tamil. This epic played a pivotal role in establishing the role of dhárma as a [50] principal ideal guiding force for Hindu way of life. as well as unrelated epics include the TamilRamavataram. In addition to these two great Indian epics. followed by Bengali.000 verses in seven books (k as) and 500 cantos (sargas). Marathi and Tamil. four in Malayalam. The earliest parts of the [50] Mahabharata text date to 400 BC and is estimated to have reached its final form by the early Gupta period (ca.Hindi is the most spoken language in India. five in Bengali. Kannada Pampa Bharata. 4th c. Telugu. Valayapathi and Kundalakesi.According to 2001 India census. these are theSahitya Akademi Fellowshipand the Jnanpith Award. Malaysia and Indonesia.[48] [edit] Epics . Versions have been adopted as the epics of Southeast Asian countries like Thailand. [edit] Performing arts [edit] Dance Main article: Dance in India . AD). Civaka-cintamani.[47] In contemporary Indian literature. Manimekalai. there are five major epics in the classica Tamil language ² l Silappatikaram. The Ramayana consists of 24. Seven Jnanpith awards each have been awarded in Kannada. Ravana.[49] and tells the story of Rama (anincarnation of the Hindu preserver -god Vishnu).. six in Hindi. Hindi Ramacharitamanasa. whose wife Sita is abducted by thedemon king of Lanka. Gujarati. there are two major literary awards.[51] Other regional variations of these. three each in Marathi. Manuscript illustration of theBattle of Kurukshetra -known epics of The R m ya a and the Mah bh rata are the oldest preserved and well India.

manipuri of Manipur. kathak of Uttar Pradesh. Bhasa's Swapnav savadatta and Panchar tra. Among the well.[59][60][61] He concluded his songs with a salutation to Lord Purandara Vittala and is believed to have composed as many as 475. sung to a rhythmic cycle ortala. Dance. These principles were refined in then tya stra (200 BC) and the dattilam (300 AD).Odissi performer from Odisha Indian dance too has diverse folk and classical forms. These are: bharatanatyam of the state of Tamil Nadu.the Odishi of Orissa. classical music. Panchavadyam temple music in Kerala. These refer to the notes of a flute. Dwitiya. and Drama. Chaturth. He started to perform the Kalidasa plays like Abhijñ na kuntala. One of the oldest surviving theatre traditions of he world is the 2. S The earliest account of Indian musical hymns is found in the 1000 BC maveda. Mandra and Atisw r. He was known for mastery ofRasa Abhinaya. Eight dance forms.[57] It proposed a tonal structure consisting of seven notes. in descending order. It includes two distinct styles: Carnatic and Hindustani music. which was the only fixed frequency instrument. The oldest preserved examples of Indian music are the melodies of the Samaveda that are still sung in certain Vedic rauta sacrifices.[55][56] [edit] Music Main article: Music of India folk. It strictly follows theNatya Shastra.000 songs in the Kannada language. pop. the ghoomar of Rajasthan. popular. the Yakshagana of Karnataka and lavani of Maharashtra and Dekhnni of Goa. asKrusht. kathakali and mohiniattam of Kerala. Pratham. Tritiya. the dandiya and garba of Gujarat. which were named. odissi of the state of Odisha and the sattriya of Assam.[52][53] [edit] Drama and theater Main article: Theatre in India Indian drama and theater has a long history alongside its music and dance. following those of Bhasa. India's classical music tradition is heavily influenced by Hindu texts. and The music of India includes multiple varieties of religious. only about 1.nown folk dances are the bhangra of the Punjab. the bihu of Assam. have been accorded classical dance statusby India's National Academy of Music. E . many with narrative forms andmythological elements.000 are known today.[54] N ty ch rya M ni M dhava Ch ky r is credited for reviving the age old drama tradition from extinction.000 year t old Kutiyattam of Kerala. kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh. the chhau of Jharkhand. Kalidasa's plays like Shakuntala and Meghadoota are some of the older plays. Both the Hindustani classical music and the Carnatic classical musicsystems are based on the melodic mode (known asR ga).[58] Purandaradasa is considered the "father of carnatic music" Karnataka sangeeta ( pitamaha). Harsha's Nagananda. Vikramorva ya and M lavik gnimitra.[62] [59][63] However.

M. Mysore Palace has on display a few good Indian paintings. [edit] Sculpture . Tanjore painting. whileNandalal Bose. Most early and medieval art in India is Hindu. H. primarily Bollywood.[65] [edit] Visual arts Main article: Indian art [edit] Painting Main article: Indian painting The Jataka tales from Ajanta Caves. Atul Dodiya.[64] Indipop is one of the most popular contemporary styles of Indian music which is either a fusion ofIndian folk. classical painters from medieval India. the petroglyphst it was common for households to paint their doorways or indoor rooms where guests resided. Filmi refers to the wide range of music written and performed for mainstreamIndian cinema. Jamini Roy and B. Mysore painting. Madhubani painting. Raza. classical or Sufi music with Western musical traditions. Bagh. Cave paintings from Ajanta. A freshly made coloured flour design Rangoli) is still a common sight outside ( Raja Ravi Varma is one the the doorstep of many (mostly South Indian) Indian homes.Venkatappa[66] are some modern painters. Rajput painting. Jehangir Art Gallery Mumbai. Mughal painting are some notable Genres of Indian Art. Devajyoti Ray and Shibu Natesan represent a new era of Indian artwhere global art shows direct amalgamation with Indian classical styles. Buddhist or Jain. and accounts for more than 70 percent of all music sales in the country. These recent artists have acquired .Prominent contemporary Indian musical forms includedfilmi and Indipop. Husain. The earliest Indian paintings were the rock paintings ofpre-historic times. Bose Krishnamacnahri. F. Among the present day artists. Geeta Vadhera. Ellora and Sittanavasal and temple paintings testify to a love of naturalism. S. international recognition.

schist. as Hinduism. Duringthe Gupta period (4th to 6th century) sculpture reached a very high standard in execution and delicacy in modeling. These styles and others elsewhere in India evolved leading to classical Indian art that contributed to Buddhist and Hindu sculpture throughout Southeast Central and East Asia. and Jainism developed further. Main article: Sculpture in India Marble Sculpture of female. or clay. Later. where stone and bronze figures have been discovered.The 5th century Buddhistvishvakarma cave at Ellora. India produced some extremely intricate bronzes as well as temple carvings. Sculptures produced in the northwest. in stucco. The pink sandstone sculptures of Mathura evolved almost simultaneously. such as the one at Ellora were not constructed by using blocks but carved out of solid rock. Buddhism. [edit] Architecture Main article: Architecture of India F . ca 1450. display a very strong blend of Indian and ClassicalHellenistic or possibly even Greco.oman influence. Rajasthan The first sculptures in India date back to theIndus Valley civilization. Some huge shrines. Maharashtra.

but they contain certain similarities. Feng Shui is m ore commonly used throughout the world. through the house. influencing town planning. are to e placed. Brihadeeswara Temple Thanjavur. (also called life -force or Prana in Sanskrit and Chi/Ki in Chinese/Japanese). Later on. several Buddhist architectural complexes.[68] The traditional system ofVaastu Shastra serves as India's version ofFeng Shui. materials. The result is an evolving range of architectural production that nonetheless retains a certain amount of continuity across history. such as the caves of Ajanta and Ellora and the monumental Sanchi Stupa were built.[67] Considered to be an "unrivaled architectural wonder". Religion and kingship do not seem to have played an important role in the planning and layout of these towns. the Sun Temple. South India produced several Hindu temples like Chennakesava Temple at Belur. and ergonomics. (Chinna Lanja dibba and Vikramarka kota dibba) at Borobudur and otherBuddhist and Hindu temples indicate strong Indian influence on South East Asian architecture. Konark. Angkor Wat. constantly absorbing new ideas. Though Vastu is conceptually similar to Feng Shui in that it also tries to harmonize the flow of energy. such as the exact directions in which various objects. It is unclear which system is older. The Umaid Bhawan Palace in Rajasthan. the Kesava Temple at Somanathapura. the Taj Mahal in Agra is a prime example of Indo-Islamic architecture. Some of its earliest production are found in the Indus Valley Civilization (2600 ±1900 BC) which is characterised by well planned cities and houses. and . Indian architecture encompasses a multitude of expressions over space and time. b . Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple at Srirangam. it differs in the details. architecture. and the Buddha stupa Bhattiprolu. etc. the Hoysaleswara Templeat Halebidu. one of the largest private residences in the world. During the period of the Mauryan and Gupta empires and their successors. rooms. as they are built in styles almost identical to traditional Indian religious buildings.

Fatehpur Sikri. India is the host of 2010 Commonwealth Games. BCCI conducts the Indian Premier League. the 2002 ICC Champions Trophywith Sri Lanka. the Irani Trophy and the Challenger Series. temple tower or pagoda and temple gate or torana. A number of Indian architectural features such as the temple mound or stupa. and Kho kho. due to the spread of Buddhism. a Twenty20 competition. The Victoria Memorial or the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminusare notable examples. and mixing of several other styles.[69][70][71][72] where its early form in the 6th century was known as Other games which originated in India and continue to remain popular in wide parts of northern India include Kabaddi. The colonial rule of the British Empire saw the development of Indo-Saracenic style. Mumbai'sNariman Point is famous for its Art Deco buildings. and are often used as the stereotypical symbols of India. Red Fort of Delhi are creations of this era. Gilli-danda. The central spire is also sometimes called avimanam. Field Hockey is the national Sport in India.With the advent of Islamic influence from the west. Taj Mahal. Domestic competitions include theRanji Trophy. such as European Gothic. played in New Delhi. Traditional southern Indian games include Snake boat raceand Kuttiyum kolum. Gol Gumbaz. Chess is commonly believed to have originated in northwestern India during the Gupta chaturanga. Qutub Minar. Cricket is the most popular Sport in India. Indian architecture was adapted to allow the traditions of the new religion. the Deodhar Trophy. used extensively in East Asia and South East Asia. [edit] Indian martial arts Main article: Indian martial arts . Contemporary Indian architect ure is more cosmopolitan. or gopuram is noted for its intricacy and majesty. Cities are extremely compact and densely populated. Recent creations such as the Lotus Temple. empire. 1 silver and 2 bronze medals at the Olympic games. In addition. and the various modern urban developments of India likeChandigarh. the Duleep Trophy. Indian architecture has influenced eastern and southeastern Asia. The southern temple gate. and theIndia national field hockey teamwon the 1975 Men's Hockey World Cup and 8 gold. are notable. It hosted a spectacular display of Indian culture and heritage to the entire world during the opening ceremony of the games. [edit] Sports and Martial arts Main article: Sports in India The annual Snake boat raceis performed during Onam Celebrations on the Pamba River at Aranmula near Pathanamthitta. have become famous symbols of Asian culture. TheIndia national cricket team won the 1983 Cricket World Cupand the 2007 ICC World Twenty20 and shared . temple spire or sikhara.

[75] Silambam is unique among Indian martial arts because it uses complex footwork techniques kaaladi). complex sword fighting techniques ( (paliyankam). According to some historical accounts. In this form martial arts. one of the oldest and most prominent forms of Indian martial arts. The Dhanur Veda was first described in the 5th century BCVi u R Pur a[73] and is also mentioned in both of the major ancient Indian epics. doubt and anxiety. A bamboo staff is used as the main weapon. the musti yuddha evolved in 1100 AD and focussed on mental. including a variety of spinning ( [75] styles. In addition. A distinctive factor of Indian martial arts is the heavy emphasis laid [78] on meditation (dhy na) as a tool to remove fear. which was later used in martial arts. were later [79] incorporated into various martial arts.[74] Silambam. which was developed around 200 AD. the m ya a and Mah bh rata. The ancient Tamil Sangam literature mentions that between 400 BC and 600 AD. various stages of physical training includeayurvedic massage with sesame oil to impart suppleness to the body ( uzichil). a series of sharp body movements so as t gain control o over various parts of the body miapayattu).[80] [edit] Popular media . the Dhanur Veda tradition was an influential fighting arts style which considered th bow and the arrow to be the e supreme weapons. and. traces its roots to the Sangam period in southern India. sword (val) and shield (kedaham). while various mudra finger movements were taught inYogacara Buddhism. Indian martial arts techniques have had a profound impact on other martial arts styles across Asia.[76] In northern India.Kalarippayattu. Indian Buddhist monk Bodhidharma was one of the main founders of theShaolin Kungfu. soldiers from southern India received special martial arts training which revolved primarily around the use of spear (vel). The 3rd century BCYoga Sutras of Patanjalitaught how to meditate single-mindedly on points located inside one's body. as well as finger movements in thenata dances. This ancient fighting style originated in southern India in 12th century BC and [73] is regarded as one of the oldest surviving martial arts. One of the best known forms of ancient Indian martial arts is the Kalarippayattu from Kerala. [77] physical and spiritual training. These elements of yoga.

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