ADAT MASYARAKAT INDIA

Sebelum Majlis Perkahwinan Sebelum majlis perkahwinan berlangsung, terdapat beberapa perkara penting yang perlu dijalankan terlebih dahulu, antaranya : Kad Jemputan Kad jemputan memainkan peranan yang penting dalam perkahwinan masyarakat India. Kad jemputan ini dibuat berdasarkan almanak Hindu. Sekiranya terdapat kesilapan, bermakna perkahwinan tidak dapat dijalankan dengan lancar. Kad jemputan yang telah dicetak disapu dengan serbuk kunyit cair sebagai lambang keharmonian. Beberapa keping kad jemputan dalam bilangan ganjil akan dibawa bersama ke kuil untuk dibawa bersembahyang ( arccanai). Kad diletakkan di atas dulang bersama sirih, wang ringgit, kelapa, pinang dan sebagainya sebagai lambang kekayaan. Upacara ini dinamakan sebagai paanam paaku. Kemudian dulang akan dibawa ke rumah pengantin perempuan untuk diberi kepada pengantin lelaki dan begitulah sebaliknya. Pada masa yang sama sirih pinang akan diberikan sebagai tanda jemputan perkahwinan secara rasmi. Penyediaan Thaali ( Tjrumaanggalyam) Thaali atau tjirumaangalyam merupakan lambang suci perkahwinan yang dikalungkan pada leher kedua-dua pengantin. Pada thaali itu diikat segumpal benang putih yang disapu dengan kunyit. Terdapat pelbagai jenis thaal i yang digunakan oleh masyarakat India seperti lingath thaali, pottut thaali, tennant thaali dan sebagainya. Ini disebabkan terdapat pelbagai suku di kalangan masyarakat India. Adat penyediaan thaali ini dilakukan tujuh atau sembilan hari sebelum hari perkahwinan. Pihak lelaki akan membawa emas, cendana, kumkum, sirih pinang, kelapa dan bayaran u ntuk pembuat thaali. Ini adalah untuk memastikan tukang thaali mengetahui hari yang sesuai untuk membuat thaali. Tiga hari sebelum perkahwinan, thaali akan diambil dan diletakkan di tempat sembahyang atas suruhan pembuat thaali. Pihak pengantin adalah dila rang untuk menawar perkhidmatan yang dilakukan oleh pembuat thaali. Selepas itu upacara sembahyang dilakukan dan ini dinamakan sebagai thaalippadaiyal. Dalam upacara itu bubur manis dan nasi manis disediakan termasuklah dhoti dan sari untuk pasangan penga ntin. Secara umumnya thaali tidak diwajibkan diperbuat daripada emas. Ini kerana thaali masih boleh dibuat daripada kunyit yang dikatakan lebih selamat dan tidak dicuri orang. Mukuurtta Kaal Adat ini dilakukan lima hari sebelum hari perkahwinan dilangsun gkan. Adat mukuurtta kaal ini diadakan pada hari yang baik mengikut firasat masyarakat India. Untuk menjalankan adat tersebut sebatang pokok yang masih muda dan lurus akan ditebang untuk dijadikan mukurtta kaal. Batang pokok tersebut berukuran dua atau tig a meter dan mempunyai lilitan batang antara 20 hingga 30 sentimeter. Adat mendirikan mukuurtta kaal adalah sebagai menandakan perkahwinan akan dilangsungkan di rumah tersebut. Bahan -bahan lazim seperti sirih pinang, kum kum, kunyit dan sebagainya disediak an. Ahli-ahli keluarga pengantin akan bermohon pada Tuhan supaya perkahwinan dapat dilangsungkan tanpa gangguan. Batang kayu diambil dan dibersihkan serta dibuang kulitnya. Lima orang perempuan yang sudah berkahwin akan menyapukan kunyit cair dan kumkum pa da batang kayu tersebut dari pangkal hingga hujung. Kemudian hujung kayu diikat dengan daun ara atau mangga menggunakan kain bewarna merah. Kayu akan dipacak sedalam setengah meter dan bahan-bahan tadi akan dimasukkan ke dalam lubang tersebut sebagai lamba ng kekayaan. Kemudian upacara sembahyang dilakukan oleh pengantin beserta lima orang perempuan tersebut. Sebanyak sembilan jenis bijirin ditabur pada batang kayu dan lampu minyak dinyalakan. Pada masa yang sama pengantin berikrar akan menjaga alam sekitar sebagai lambang persahabatan dengan alam sekitar. Kebiasaannya adat mendirikan mukuurtta kaal dilakukan di rumah pengantin lelaki.

mayat akan di bakar atau dikebumikan. si isteri hendaklah duduk di sebelah si mati dan dijirus dengan sebuyung air semasa mayat suaminya dimandikan. si mati akan dipakaikan dengan pakaian baru iaitu sari bagi mayat perempuan dan dhoti bagi mayat lelaki. di mana jasad akan hancur. Mayat yang sudah dibersihkan itu akan diletakkan di ruang tamu sebagai langkah menghormati tetamu. Thaali itu seterusnya akan dimasukkan ke dalam dulang dan disimpan dalam rumah. gambar -gambar yang tergantung diterbalikkan dan barang -barang perhiasan dibawa keluar dari ruang tamu. Sirih pinang ditumbuk dan dimasukkan ke dalam mulut dan lubang hidung akan disumbatkan dengan kapas. pelbagai adat tertentu akan dilakukan. minyak dan araippu digunakan untuk disapukan pada kepala sebagai mandian terak hir. Air tersebut diperolehi dari sungai. Kemudian bunga akan dikalungkan pada leher balu dan kemudian bunga tersebut dikalungkan pada si mati. Selepas dimandikan. Mata dan mulut mayat juga perlu ditu tup rapat. iaitu kematian adalah ibarat tidur dan mereka akan bangun selepas tidur. seterusnya seorang wanita yang sudah be rusia dan mempunyai hubungan kekeluargaan akan memegang tangan si mati sambil mengalungkan kalungan bunga ke leher balu dan proses ini dilakukan sebanyak tiga kali. Setelah itu barulah si mati dibalut dengan menggunakan kain. perigi atau sumber -sumber air yang lain. Buyung yang berisi air akan ditutup dengan menggunakan kain dhoti untuk mengelakkan habuk memasuki air tersebut. Dalam masyarakat India. si mati perlu dijaga dengan sebaiknya. ibu jari tangan dan kaki diikat dengan kain putih dan diletakkan ke dada. Serbuk suci atau tiruniiru disapu pada dahi si mati sebelum disembahyang. Sepanjang mayat berada di dalam rumah. Semasa Kematian Sekiranya seseorang itu telah meninggal dunia. Upacara Vaaikkarisi . tiruvaasakam dan seumpamanya dinyanyikan serta diimainkan sehingga ke tanah perkuburan. Untuk melaksanakan upacara ini. Kemudian sebiji kelapa terbelah dua dan sirih pinang diletakkan berhampiran si mati. mereka mempercayai konsep kela hiran semula.KEMATIAN Bagi masyarakat India. Mayat akan dimandikan terlebih dahulu dan dibaringkan di atas katil di ruang tamu atau halaman r umah. Dalam upacara tersebut. Balu tersebut dikehendaki meletakkan kalungan bunga ke dalam dulang yang berisi minyak. Air mawar direnjis dan mayat turut diasapkan dengan kemenyan yang dibakar supaya tidak berbau. Tujuannya agar roh si mati sentisa tenang dan aman. kunyit disapu pada mata untuk membunuh kuman dan seterusnya duit syiling diletakkan di atas dahi. Mayat seterusnya dimandikan oleh orang yang tel ah berumur. Upacara Menanggalkan Thaali Thaali vaangutal merupakan upacara menanggalkan thaali semasa berlakunya sesebuah kematian dalam sesebuah keluarga. Sarjana India juga menyatakan kematian adalah perpisahan roh dan jasad. Sapuan minyak ini dilakukan oleh ahli keluarga dan diikuti oleh saudara mara terdekat. Kemenyan dan kapur barus diasap sebagai simbol ketenangan jiwa si mati. kecuali air paip. Kaum wanita pula akan menyambut air tersebut yang digunakan untuk memandikan mayat. Thaali iaitu rantai suci perkahwinan hanya boleh ditanggal oleh seorang isteri setelah suamiya meninggal dunia. tetapi kembali ke alam barzakh . Ini dilakukan seolah -olah menunjukkan si suami membuangkan thaali dari leher balu. mayat akan diletakkan di ruang tamu. Sebelum dimandikan. Kepala mayat dihadapkan ke arah selatan dan sebuah lampu miny ak atau kaamaatci amman vilakku dipasang dinyalakan. bun ga dan susu yang dibawa oleh seorang perempuan lain. Belakang tapak tangan digunakan untuk menyapu minyak ini dan bukannya menggunakan tapak tangan sebagaimana lazimnya. Kaki dan tangan mayat perlu diluruskan. Untuk menunjukkan kesedihan. Kaum lelaki yang mempunyai hubungan kekeluargaan dengan si mati sahaja boleh membawa air dalam jumlah yang ganjil. Lagu-lagu suci seperti teevaaram.

pada pusingan ketiga. Ini dilakukan oleh kaum perempuan sahaja. Satu lubang akan dibuat di bahagian kepala dan susu akan dicurahkan pada lubang tersebut. Ahli -ahli keluarga akan mengelilingi mayat mengikut lawan jam sebanyak tiga kali sebagai tanda penghormatan. Kemudian keranda diletakkan bersebelahan dengan kubur bagi mayat yang dikebumikan atau diletakkan di atas kayu api unyuk dibakar. justeru itu kaum perempuan amat dilarang turut serta ke tanah perkuburan. Ada juga yang memasukkan bijirin ke lubang tersebut. mayat akan dimasukkan ke dalam keranda. mereka dikehendaki memegang neippantam. Kemudian tiga batang kayu yang menyala diba kar dan disusun ke tanah satu persatu. Sebelum dimasukkan ke dalam mulut mayat. bahan-bahan tersebut ditabur dan setiap bahan -bahan tadi mempunyai perlambangan yang tersendiri. Kollic Catti Kollic catti bermaksud periuk tanah liat yang me ngandungi api. Beberapa batang kayu kecil akan dibalut di bahagian hujung dengan menggunakan kain yang disapu dengan minyak sapi dan dinyalakan. satu bentuk manusia akan dilukis di atas kubur. Pada masa yang sama sebuah nyiru diisikan dengan bahan -bahan seperti padi goreng. Pembawa Kollic catti atau buyung dikehendaki mengelilingi mayat sebanyak tiga kali menurut arah jam. Pengebumian Mayat orang India akan diusung ke tanah perkuburan dengan menggunakan pengusung. Anak sulung melakukan untuk bapa yang telah meni nggal dunia dan anak bongsu untuk ibu. Selesai upacara tersebut. Ini menunjukkan bahawa mereka akan hidup lebih bahagia seperti rambut yang baru tumbuh. Seseorang yang membawa kollic catti mengiringi mayat. . Pada masa yang sama lagu -lagu suci dimainkan. Neip bermaksud minyak sapi dan pantam adalah obor. Saudara mara yang terdekat akan memberi sari atau dhoti kepada si mati sebagai hadiah terakhir. beras akan diarak dari kiri ke kanan. lalu diambil oleh pengurus kubur sebagai tanda keizinan mayat dikebumikan. Setelah mayat dikebumikan. Setelah itu upacara sembahyang dilakukan oleh semua yang berada di situ. Periuk tersebut diangkat dengan menggunakan pelepah kelapa yang dibelah tiga di bahagian hujung dan diikat pada periuk. Sebelum itu pembawa kollic catti dikehendaki mencukur rambut. Oleh itu si mati dipercayai berada di dalam perut Dewi Bumi. Ini adalah seperti pergerakan bayi yang berada di dalam kandungan. Duit syiling dimasukkan ke dalam dhoti dan diletakkan di antara kaki mayat. pengusung perlu membayar duit kepada penyelenggara sebagai upah mengorek liang lahad. Makanan yang akan dimasukkan ke dalam mulut mayat berupa beras yang diletakkan di dalam sebuah dulang dan diletakkan berhampiran kepala mayat. Kemudian diikuti oleh pengurus m ayat yang akan menebuk kollic catti dengan menyebut 'sorkam seer. Upacara ini dilakukan untuk mengurangkan kesedihan keluarga si mati. biji sawi dan bijan. Keranda akan dige rakkan beberapa kali sebelum menghampiri liang lahad. Kemudian ke dalam mulut mayat akan dimasukkan sedikit makanan sebagai menandakan pemberian terakhir dan inilah yang dinamakan vaaikkarisi. kaiulaasam seer' berulang kali. Apabila tiba di tanah perkuburan. pembawa kollic catti berada di hadapan mayat dan duduk melutut tetapi tidak menghadap mayat. Pergerakan dimulakan dengan dengan mengubah bahagaian kaki ke kubur dan kemudian bahagian kepala. Sekiranya s i mati mempunyai cucu atau cicit. Kollic catti dibawa oleh ahli keluarga si mati samada anak ataupun bapa. C ucu atau cicit tersebut dikehendaki mengelilingi mayat mengikut lawan jam sebanyak tiga kali. Ada juga yang mencukur janggut atau misai sebagai menggantikan rambut. Sepanjang perjalanan. pada masa yang sama ucapan tenna adudaiya shinanee pottri disebut beberapa kali sebagai menandakan upacara tersebut telah direstui oleh tuhan. Upacara vaaikkarisi akan dilakukan oleh kaum lelaki di tanah perkuburan pula.Setelah dimandi dan dihias dengan cantik. Keranda akan ditutup dan diangkat untuk dibawa ke tanah perkuburan. Kapur barus dimasukkan bersama supaya mayat tidak berbau. Duit syiling yang diletakkan di dalam dulang yang sama dibalut dengan kain putih. semua yang hadir perlu ke rumah si mati untuk upacara penyempurnaan adat pengebumian sebelum balik ke rumah.

Setitik minyak bijan yang dicampur dengan sedikit susu ibu dan disapu ke mulut bayi akan bertindak menjadi pelawas dal am sistem penghadaman dan membantu tumbesaran bayi tersebut. Kegunaan minyak ini dipercayai boleh membawa kec antikan dan supaya bayi tidak diserang sebarang penyakit. Potong Tali Pusat Tali pusat yang dipotong akan ditanam bersama uri dan tembuni di sekitar kawasan rumah bersama duit tembaga.KELAHIRAN Semasa Bersalin Waktu kelahiran adalah penting bagi masyarakat India dimana ia akan dicatat dengan tepat bagi menentukan bintang bayi mengikut almanak Hindu. Madu pula dikatakan dapat melembutkan lidah bayi dan memudahkan bayi bertutur. Setelah ibu dan anak masuk ke dalam rumah. Namun begitu adat ini disesuaikan dengan hanya membisikkannya sebaik sahaja melihat bayi tersebut kerana perubatan moden tidak membenarkan sesiapa memasuki bilik bersalin. Bahan -bahan ini dimasukkan bersama untuk mengelak dari dikorek oleh binatang liar dan tidak digunakan oleh ahli sihir. sirih dan kapur barus yang dinyalakan diangkat dan diputar tiga kali mengikut arah jam dan juga lawan jam. Membisikkan Nama Tuhan Sebaik sahaja bayi dilahirkan. serbuk kunyit. Bisikan nama Tuhan pada telinga bayi adalah untuk membolehkan bayi tadi mendengar nama Tuhan sebelum mendengar apa -apa yang lain. Bintang bayi ini akan menentukan mental. Minyak savvennai yang merupakan campuran minyak bijan. Ia bertujuan untuk mengelakkan bala atau sebarang malapetaka dariapada berlaku. kelima. Membawa Bayi Pulang Ke Rumah Bayi yang dilahirkan di hospital akan dibawa pulang ke rumah pada hari ketiga. garam dan pinang. kapur sirih yang dicairkan. dulang yang mengandungi serbuk kunyit. Menyapu Madu Bayi yang baru dilahirkan juga akan disapu madu bercampur minyak sapi pada lidahnya. Sebelum bayi dibawa ma suk ke rumah upacara aalati dilakukan. Seterusnya para cumanggali akan mencelupkan ibu jarinya ke dalam dulang tersebut dan mencalitkan ke dahi ibu dan anak. arang. Dulang juga dilambai sebanyak tiga kali. minyak lenga dan mambu juga kadangkala digunakan. sami atau sesiapa sahaja yang berpengetahuan tinggi mengenai agama Hindu akan membisikkan Gayatri Mantiram iaitu sejenis mantera Tuhan di telinga bayi sebelum tali pusat dipotong. air gula juga boleh digunakan. ketujuh dan sebagainya iaitu pada bilangan hari ganjil. isi dulang aalati dibuang. Bagi upacara aalati ini. Ia bertujuan untuk membawa rahmat kepada bayi tersebut. Di samping madu. Mandi Selepas Bersalin . fizikal dan rohani bayi sehingga dewasa.

Bagi tujuan kecantikan. Mandian ini dilakukan dengan menyiram ke seluruh badan bayi dengan menggunakan ai r suam yang kadangkala dicampur dengan bahan -bahan herba. Bagi dua minggu pertama. dan disapu dengan bedak yang diperbuat dari tepung beras supaya tidak dihinggapi ruam. Air tersebut digunakan untuk mandi. Upacara dimulakan dengan mengadakan upacara sembahyang sebagai tanda kesyukuran. upacara pemberian nama dilakukan. Mendodoi Bayi Amalan mendodoi bayi merupakan upacara yang paling penting dalam masyarakat India. Beberapa bahan seperti serbuk kunyit. telur rebus. Ketika bayi dimandikan. hidung. Namun amalan ini semakin berkurangan dilakukan dan hanya diamalkan oleh generasi tua sahaja. kening dan telinga turut diurut. Rambut ibu akan dikeringkan dengan segera dengan asap kemenyan bagi mengelak kan sakit kepala. Ia bertujuan agar bayi tersebut menjadi seorang yang berguna. Ia dilakukan dengan memasukkan bayi ke dalam buaian dan dikendalikan oleh ahli keluarga yang tertua yang a rif tentang agama dan perkara yang berkaitan dengan dewa-dewa. ibu yang baru bersalin tidak dibenarkan mandi selama dua minggu atas sebab -sebab kesihatan akibat fizikal ibu yang lemah kerana pembedahan dan kesan kelahiran. Up acara pemujaan dilakukan dengan membersihkan sekeliling rumah dan memasang lampu minyak di keliling rumah. orang luar dilarang melawat mereka kecuali untuk tujuan perubatan. Bagi i bu yang bersalin normal. Upacara mendodoi ini juga dikenali sebagai taalaattu bermaksud penggoyangan lidah. minyak bijan. Ia bertujuan untuk mengelak penyakit sawan atau kuning. bayi ditonggengkan dengan mengangkat kedua belah kaki sambil menepuk bahagian punggung untuk mengeluarkan kahak. Beberapa herba dan dedaun seperti aadatoodai dididihkan bersama air. . Akhir sekali bayi akan dibedung dengan kain bertujuan untuk meluruskan anggota badan bayi. urutan perlahan dilakukan pada tubuh bayi dan t ulang belakang bayi supaya tidak bengkok. Bayi pula kebiasaanya dimandikan pada waktu petang oleh seorang wanita yang berpengalaman. selsema dan juga untuk menyegarkan tubuh badan selepas bersalin. si ibu akan mandi selang sehari selepas bersalin. Terdapat juga upacara memuja Dewi Pecciyamman dan Dewi Kaatteeri dilakukan oleh segelintir masyarakat India. Bayi kemudiannya dimasukkan ke dalam buaia n dan namanya diumumkan pada orang ramai. Saudara mara yang hadir akan memberi pelbagai hadiah dan upacara diakhiri dengan jamuan dan upacara sembahyang bagi mendoakan kesejahteraan bayi. Nama-nama yang dipilih lazimnya berdasarkan almanak dengan mengikut tarikh kelahiran bayi. ikan kering dan sebagainya. mereka diasingkan dari ahli keluarga yang lain di sebuah bilik khas yang sentiasa dijaga kebersihannya. Upacara dimulakan dengan ucapan aaraaro aariraro atau cerita-cerita nasihat. Setelah itu bayi diasapkan dengan asap kemenyan. Selesai dimandikan. Bahan bahan persembahan juga disediakan seperti kari ayam betina. kas -kas dan kacang hijau yang ditumbuk digunakan sebagai pembersih badan bayi bertujuan untuk mengelakkan penyakit kulit dan melicinkan kulit bayi. Nama -nama tokoh sejarawan. nenek moyang serta yang berkaitan dengan agama Hindu juga dipilih bagi bayi tersebut kerana nama yang dipilih ini akan mempengaruhi perwatakannya kelak. Susu juga digunakan sebagai bahan utama untuk melembutkan kulit bayi.Apabila bayi dan ibu kembali ke rumah. Jika proses bersalin secara pembedahan. Memberi Nama Sebaik sahaja bayi berusia enam belas hari.

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the mainly patrilinear lineage or clan [11] assigned to a Hindu at birth.Jainism and Sikhism. A bride during a traditionalHindu wedding ceremony in Punjab. Arranged marriage in India and Women in India . Zoroastrianism.[11] However. Today. For generations. Jainism and especially Buddhism areinfluential not only in India but across the world. are indigenous to India. In recent years. a far more powerful division isthe traditional Hindu bifurcation into non-polluting and polluting occupations[11] Strict social taboos have .and fourth-largest religions respectively. Islam is practiced by around 13% of all Indians. Christianity. Buddhism.[4] Main articles: Religion in India and Indian religions India is the birth place of Hinduism. with over 2 billion [6][7][8] and possibly as many as 2. The [11] patriarch often resolves family issues. and other family members abide by them. many fami ies especially in urban areas. This is reinforced by the fact that many believe gods and spirits have an integral and [11] functional role in determining their life. the eldest male member is the head in the joint Indian family system. in have l 1 0 0) . ± live together. India is also the birthplace for theLingayat and Ahmadiyya faiths. in recent times. atheism and agnostics also have visible influence along with a self -ascribed tolerance to other people. traditional Indian culture is defined by relatively strict social hierarchy. [11] governed these groups for thousands of years. also known as Dharmic religions are a major form of world religions along withAbrahamic ones. with some of the most deeply religious societies and cultures. However.[10] Sikhism. Family plays a significant role in the Indian culture. Hinduism and Buddhism are the world's third. Judaism and the Bahá'í Faith are also influential but their numbers are smaller.5 or 2. collectively known as Indian religions.6 billion followers. Several differences such as religion divide the culture. etc.[5] Indian religions. Despite the strong role of religion in Indian life. [6][9] followers altogether. the chil dren¶s spouses and their offspring. particularly in [11] cities. He makes all important decisions and rules. He also mentions that from an [11] early age. children. Religion still plays a central and definitive role in the life of m any of its people. India has had a prevailing tradition of the joint family system. It is a system under which extended members of a family ± parents. Dharmic religions.Clo -up of a statu dep ctingMaitreya at the Thikse Monastery in Ladakh. India is one of the most religiously diverse nations in the world. Makar. an respected industry consultant. India. some of these lines have blurred and sometimes even disappeared. Usually. such asHinduism and Buddhism. In rural areas & sometime in urban areas as well. Important family relations extend as far as gotra. According to Eugene M. [edit] Family Main articles: Hindu joint family. children are reminded of their roles and places in society. it is s [11] common that three or four generations of the family live under the same roof. The religion of 80% of the people is Hinduism.

the vast majority of Indians have their marriages planned by their parents and other respected family -members. obeisance.stopped abiding by the extended family system and have started living as a nuclear family. in literal terms Namaste refers to 'That which is of God in me bows to that which is of God in you'. Namaskar is considered a slightly more formal version than Namaste but both express deep respect. Arranged matches are made after taking into account factors such as age. and (te): "to you". with the consent of the bride and groom. Ganesh Chaturthi. In addition. In Indian and Nepali culture. their astrological compatibility of the couples'horoscopes. Even today. They get around by not letting the [12] authorities know the arrangements of money. known as the "festival of colors". Namaskar or Namaskara or Namaskaram. [15] they speak of a healthy new empowerment for women.[14] The arranged marriages generally have a much lower divorce rate. arranged marriages have been the tradition in Indian society. The divorce rates have risen significantly in recent years: " pinion is divided over what the phenomenon means: for traditionalists the rising numbers portend the breakdown of society while. Main article: Festivals in India India. As explained by an Indian scholar. Diwali. However. It is commonly used in India and Nepal by Hindus. The threenational holidays in India. Vanakkam (Tamil or Asssalamu alaikum (Urdu / Persian Sat Shri Akal (Punjabi) is a common spoken greeting or salutation in the Indian subcontinent. being a multi-cultural and multi-religious society. many states and regions have local festivals depending on prevalent religious and linguistic demographics. [edit] Marriage For centuries.1% compared with about 50% in theUnited States. but Indian society and culture still promotes and maintains it. the Republic Day and the Gandhi Jayanti. and the divorce rate is extremely low ² 1. celebrates holidays and festivals of various religions. personal values and tastes. The word is derived from Sanskrit (namah): to bow. They also demand dowry. and many continue to use this outside the Indian subcontinent. Holi. 2 2 2 3 . Popular religious festivals include the Hindu festivals ofNavratri. the same hands fol ed gesture is made d usually wordlessly upon departure. [13] In India. social standing . for some modernists. are celebrated with zeal and enthusiasm across India. the castes and the backgrounds of their families (wealth. Taken literally. the marriage is thought to be for life. Durga puja. the Independence Day." [edit] Namaste Namaste. height. which has been outlawedby the Indian government. Jains. the word is spoken at the beginning of written or verbal communication. and respect. Buddhists and Sikhs. reverential salutation. [edit] Festivals Radha and gopikas celebrating Holi. it means "I bow to you".

For this reason. ted by multipl religions. mother goddess [17] and bringer of good fortune and wealth. Names are al o influenc awide variety of l nguages. S S tva whic stand for bal nc . and Tamas. Sikh Festival . Animal husbandry in India and Cattl in religion . The word has been al o made famous in The Jungl Book by Rudy Kipling. S veral harvest festival . 4 Cows depicted in the decorated goppuram of the Kap l 6544 7 5 A4 [ it] Animal warar templ in Chennai. suc as Guru Nanak Jay nti. suc as S nkranthi.Rakshabandhan and Dussehra. whic is c l ted by Hindus. Baiskhi are c l ted with full fanfare by Sikhs a Hindu. and Thamas stands for on. whic vary by religion and c te and may come from region to region. from the Indian epic . he woul be taking food whic woul A 4 6 57 584 7 A 4 55 7 7 57 4 7 55 7 4 4 6 A4 [ it] Cuisine 87 54 4 5 4 4 4 6 7 4 8 A 76 7 84A 6 54 A8 7 A 6 A 54 4 5 44 S al o: Wil life of India. suc Eid ul-Fitr. Indian names are based on a variety of sy tems andnaming conventions. India's popul tion sp The varied and ric wil life of India has had a p ofound imp ct on the region's popul ness in India isJungl whic was adopted by the culture. Common name for wil British colonialists to the English l nguage. Food is consumed according to the lifestyl of the p King has to be aggressive to defend his c ountry. Pongal and Onam. whic is the easternmost state of India. theDree Festival is one of the tribal festival of India c l ted by the Ap tanis of the Ziro vall y ofArunac l Pradesh. Raj stands for p ion. India's wil life has been the subj ct of numerous other tal and fabl suc as thePanc tantra and the Jataka tal . are c l ted by Muslims ac oss India. 6 57 7 5B 4 A4 7 5 57 5 A4 [ it] Names and l nguage 7894 4 76A@ 54 4 6 7 5 5 6 6 6 5 5 4 76 87 8 7 5 7894 4 7894 4 4 4 5 7894 4 894 4 7 6 5 7 7 7 7894 4 7 7 ."Nuakhai" are al o fairly popul . Notabl exampl Certain festival in India are c l include Diwali. Raj . and Buddh Purnima.[16] In Hinduism. For exampl : A indulgenc . Eid aland c l Ramadan. Sikhs and Jains. I l mic festival . ' M in articl : Indian cuisine The Food in India is cl ified into three major c tegories. ttva. Adding colors to nd the culture of India. ted by Buddhists and Hindus. the cow is regarded as a symbol ofahimsa (non-viol nc ). cows are revered in Hindu [18] culture and feeding a cow is seen as an act of worship.

[22] [edit] Clothing .give much passion and that aggressiveness which is required. Daal. which originated in India. Varied uses of spices are an integral part of food preparation. Historically. such aschicken tikka made with Indian ingredients. Shahi paneer. Cuisine across India has also been influenced by various cultural groups that entered India throughout history. This the is reason why in many Indians try to abstain drinking. southern. Kheer is a traditional Indian sweet dish. and Salad. Though a significant portion of Indian food is vegetarian. across Asia has often led to the dish being labeled as the "pan -Asian" dish. Raita. Each family of this cuisine is characterized by a wide assortment of dishes and cooking techniques. set out to find new trade routes with India leading to the Age of Discovery. goat. enjoy widespread popular ity. Uttar Pradeshi thali (platter) withNaan bread. The multiple varieties of Indian cuisine are characterized by their sophisticated and subtle use of many Spices and Herbs. western and north -eastern. eastern. such as the Persians. fish.[19] [20] Indian cuisine is one of the most popular cuisines across the globe. Indian Spices and Herbs were one of the most sought after trade commodities. Despite this diversity. The Spice trade between India and Europe led to the rise and dominance of Arab traders to such an extent that European explorers. many traditional Indian dishes also include:chicken. Thamasic food or known as Static foods is to be taken only if its required. and are used to enhance he flavor of a dish and t create unique flavors and aromas. Though the tandoor originated in Central Asia.[21] The popularity of curry. India is known for its love for food andspices. like consumption of Alcohol. and other meats. Indian tandoori dishes. Generally. which would help to keep his mind in balance. Mughals. he would prefer a Satvic food or known as Sattvic diet. When a person tries to lead his life in want of self realisaiton. lamb. such asVasco da Gama and Christopher Columbus. reflecting the varied ² demographics of the country. some unifying threads emerge. Indian cuisine varies from region to region. and European colonists. Indian cuisine can be split into 5 categories northern. and it plays a role ineveryday life as well as in festivals.

[27] India's clothing styles have continuously evolved over the course of the country's history. Popular styles of dress include draped garme nts such as sari for women and dhoti or lungi for men. Some Indian traditions consider thebindi to be representative of thethird eye.[25] Worn by women on their foreh ead.Illustration of different styles ofSari & clothing worn by women in India.[26] Traditionally. India's large clothing and handicrafts industry was left paralyzed so as to make place for British industrial cloth.[23] Most Indian clothes are made fromcotton which is ideal for the region's hot weather. The 11th century BC Rig-veda mentions dyed and embroidered garments (known as paridhan and pesas respectively) and thus highlights the development of [28] sophisticated garment m anufacturing techniques during the Vedic age. the red bindi (orsindoor) was worn only by the married Hindu women. Consequently. Ancient Vedic texts mention clothes made from barks and leaves (kn wn as o phataka). Indian independence movement leader Mahatma Gandhi successfully advocated for what he . majority of Indians wear sandals. Traditional clothing in India greatly varies across different parts of the country and is influenced immensely by local culture. stitched clothes such aschuridar for women and kurta-pyjama and Europeanstyle trousers and shirts for men. Greek historian Herodotus describes the richness of the quality of Indian cotton clothes. Draped clothing styles remained popular with India's Hindu population while the [31] Muslims increasingly adopted tailored garments. the bindi is considered to be a highly auspicious mark in Hindu religion. but now it has become a part of women's fashion. In India.[29] By 2nd century AD. in addition. muslins manufactured in southern India were imported by the Roman Empire and silk cloth was one of the major exports of ancient India along with Indian spices. During the British Raj.[24] Since India's weather is mostly hot and rainy. Indian dress etiquette discourages exposure of skin and wearing transparent or tight clothes. a person's social status is perceived to be symbolized by his or her attire.[30] Stitched clothing in India was developed before 10th [30] century AD and was further popularized in 15th century by Muslim empires in India. are also popular. In 5th century BC. geography and climate.

have borrowed many words t -Aryan either directly from Sanskrit ( atsama words). one of India's major classical languages. deva . The calendar which most Indians follows goes in accordance to this.. These developments played a p votal role in the fusion of Indian and Western clothing styles..[36] Words originating in Sanskrit are estimated to constitute roughly fifty percent of the vocabulary of modern Indo -Aryan languages. Tam l literature has existed for over two thousandyears[40] and the earliest ep grap c records found date from around the third century BC. pura . Malayalam and Kannada.").termed as khadi clothing ² light colored hand -woven clothes ² so as to decrease [32] reliance of the Indian people on British industrial goods. measuring the dates of Vedas came in later days. descends from Proto-Dravidian languages which was spoken around the third m llennium BC in peninsular India. Aum(3) . [34] With its oldest core dating back to as early as 1500 BC. India's most spoken language.[33] [edit] Languages and literature [edit] H story Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari. the first line has the opening words of RV. There by.ta . the Satavahana and Kadamba periods and hence has a history of over 2000 years. In Ancient India the time was divided in Four yugas. Preold Kannada (or Purava HaleGannada) was the language ofBanavasi in the early Common Era. Kannada is attested ep grap cally from the m d literary Old Kannada flourished in the 9th to 10th centuryRashtrakuta Dynasty. Sanskrit has had a profound impact on the languages and literature of India. is a "Sanskritized register" of theKhariboli dialect. The 1980s was marked by a widespread modification to Indian clothing fashions which was characterized by a large-scale growth of fashion sc hools in India.[41] Another major Dravidian -1st m llennium AD. or indirectly via m ddle Indo languages (tadbhava words). tvija ). early 19th century. and language.[36] Part of the Eastern Indo-Aryan languages.[42][43][44][45] The Ashoka rock edictfound at Brahmagiri (dated to 230 BC) has [46] been suggested to contain a word in identifiable Kannada. Time is always referred as Kaala C hakra in India. increasing involvement of women in the fashion industry and changing Indian attitudes towards multiculturalism. yajñasya .[38][39] Tam l. [35] English and most European languages. C CD C C C C C C C CD C C CD C C C C . The Vedic accent is marked by underscores and vertical overscores in red.1. Munda languages and Dravidian languages. the Bengali language arose from the eastern M ddle Indic languages and its roots are traced to the 5th century BC Ardhamagadhi language.H ndi.1 (agni .1. After a scribal benediction (" r ga é yanama .[37] and the literary forms of (Dravidian)Telugu. In addition. and one of the earliest attested members of theIndo-European language fam ly the fam ly which includes . the Rigvedic Sanskrit is one of the oldest attestations of anyIndo-Iranian language. all modern Indo-Aryan languages. i e .

Manuscript illustration of theBattle of Kurukshetra -known epics of The R m ya a and the Mah bh rata are the oldest preserved and well India. Seven Jnanpith awards each have been awarded in Kannada. Ravana.[47] In contemporary Indian literature. there are five major epics in the classica Tamil language ² l Silappatikaram.[48] [edit] Epics . The earliest parts of the [50] Mahabharata text date to 400 BC and is estimated to have reached its final form by the early Gupta period (ca. followed by Bengali. Hindi Ramacharitamanasa. AD). Malaysia and Indonesia. three each in Marathi. In addition to these two great Indian epics.[49] and tells the story of Rama (anincarnation of the Hindu preserver -god Vishnu). Marathi and Tamil. Civaka-cintamani. Telugu.Hindi is the most spoken language in India. four in Malayalam. as well as unrelated epics include the TamilRamavataram.According to 2001 India census. This epic played a pivotal role in establishing the role of dhárma as a [50] principal ideal guiding force for Hindu way of life.000 verses in seven books (k as) and 500 cantos (sargas). there are two major literary awards. Gujarati. Urdu and Oriya and two in Tamil. Kannada Pampa Bharata. Manimekalai. Valayapathi and Kundalakesi.. The Ramayana consists of 24. [edit] Performing arts [edit] Dance Main article: Dance in India . five in Bengali. whose wife Sita is abducted by thedemon king of Lanka.[51] Other regional variations of these. these are theSahitya Akademi Fellowshipand the Jnanpith Award. six in Hindi. Versions have been adopted as the epics of Southeast Asian countries like Thailand. and Malayalam Adhyathmaramayanam. 4th c.

asKrusht. India's classical music tradition is heavily influenced by Hindu texts. only about 1. It includes two distinct styles: Carnatic and Hindustani music. the bihu of Assam. the ghoomar of Rajasthan. have been accorded classical dance statusby India's National Academy of Music.[54] N ty ch rya M ni M dhava Ch ky r is credited for reviving the age old drama tradition from extinction. Vikramorva ya and M lavik gnimitra. The oldest preserved examples of Indian music are the melodies of the Samaveda that are still sung in certain Vedic rauta sacrifices. classical music. odissi of the state of Odisha and the sattriya of Assam.000 songs in the Kannada language. which were named. These principles were refined in then tya stra (200 BC) and the dattilam (300 AD). Bhasa's Swapnav savadatta and Panchar tra. Chaturth.000 are known today. These are: bharatanatyam of the state of Tamil Nadu. S The earliest account of Indian musical hymns is found in the 1000 BC maveda. One of the oldest surviving theatre traditions of he world is the 2. the Yakshagana of Karnataka and lavani of Maharashtra and Dekhnni of Goa. E . which was the only fixed frequency instrument. It strictly follows theNatya Shastra. Eight dance forms. in descending order. kathak of Uttar Pradesh.nown folk dances are the bhangra of the Punjab.[58] Purandaradasa is considered the "father of carnatic music" Karnataka sangeeta ( pitamaha). Harsha's Nagananda. and The music of India includes multiple varieties of religious. the dandiya and garba of Gujarat. pop. Kalidasa's plays like Shakuntala and Meghadoota are some of the older plays.Odissi performer from Odisha Indian dance too has diverse folk and classical forms. kathakali and mohiniattam of Kerala. Dwitiya. Both the Hindustani classical music and the Carnatic classical musicsystems are based on the melodic mode (known asR ga). popular.[57] It proposed a tonal structure consisting of seven notes.[62] [59][63] However. the chhau of Jharkhand. Dance. and Drama. Panchavadyam temple music in Kerala. Mandra and Atisw r. Among the well. manipuri of Manipur. kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh. These refer to the notes of a flute. He started to perform the Kalidasa plays like Abhijñ na kuntala. many with narrative forms andmythological elements. Tritiya.[55][56] [edit] Music Main article: Music of India folk. Pratham. He was known for mastery ofRasa Abhinaya.the Odishi of Orissa.[59][60][61] He concluded his songs with a salutation to Lord Purandara Vittala and is believed to have composed as many as 475.000 year t old Kutiyattam of Kerala. sung to a rhythmic cycle ortala. following those of Bhasa.[52][53] [edit] Drama and theater Main article: Theatre in India Indian drama and theater has a long history alongside its music and dance.

Madhubani painting. Jamini Roy and B. Rajput painting. the petroglyphst it was common for households to paint their doorways or indoor rooms where guests resided. Husain.Prominent contemporary Indian musical forms includedfilmi and Indipop. whileNandalal Bose. Bagh. A freshly made coloured flour design Rangoli) is still a common sight outside ( Raja Ravi Varma is one the the doorstep of many (mostly South Indian) Indian homes. M.Venkatappa[66] are some modern painters. Tanjore painting. Raza. Mysore painting. Mysore Palace has on display a few good Indian paintings. and accounts for more than 70 percent of all music sales in the country. Among the present day artists. Geeta Vadhera. Bose Krishnamacnahri. classical or Sufi music with Western musical traditions.[65] [edit] Visual arts Main article: Indian art [edit] Painting Main article: Indian painting The Jataka tales from Ajanta Caves. Atul Dodiya. H. The earliest Indian paintings were the rock paintings ofpre-historic times. Jehangir Art Gallery Mumbai.[64] Indipop is one of the most popular contemporary styles of Indian music which is either a fusion ofIndian folk. S. F. international recognition. classical painters from medieval India. Mughal painting are some notable Genres of Indian Art. Devajyoti Ray and Shibu Natesan represent a new era of Indian artwhere global art shows direct amalgamation with Indian classical styles. [edit] Sculpture . primarily Bollywood. Cave paintings from Ajanta. These recent artists have acquired . Most early and medieval art in India is Hindu. Buddhist or Jain. Ellora and Sittanavasal and temple paintings testify to a love of naturalism. Filmi refers to the wide range of music written and performed for mainstreamIndian cinema.

The 5th century Buddhistvishvakarma cave at Ellora. schist. These styles and others elsewhere in India evolved leading to classical Indian art that contributed to Buddhist and Hindu sculpture throughout Southeast Central and East Asia. Maharashtra. as Hinduism. or clay. Duringthe Gupta period (4th to 6th century) sculpture reached a very high standard in execution and delicacy in modeling. Main article: Sculpture in India Marble Sculpture of female. Later. such as the one at Ellora were not constructed by using blocks but carved out of solid rock. Buddhism. display a very strong blend of Indian and ClassicalHellenistic or possibly even Greco. Some huge shrines. Rajasthan The first sculptures in India date back to theIndus Valley civilization. and Jainism developed further. where stone and bronze figures have been discovered.oman influence. The pink sandstone sculptures of Mathura evolved almost simultaneously. [edit] Architecture Main article: Architecture of India F . ca 1450. in stucco. India produced some extremely intricate bronzes as well as temple carvings. Sculptures produced in the northwest.

Indian architecture encompasses a multitude of expressions over space and time. etc. (Chinna Lanja dibba and Vikramarka kota dibba) at Borobudur and otherBuddhist and Hindu temples indicate strong Indian influence on South East Asian architecture. Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple at Srirangam. the Taj Mahal in Agra is a prime example of Indo-Islamic architecture. South India produced several Hindu temples like Chennakesava Temple at Belur.[67] Considered to be an "unrivaled architectural wonder". b . Brihadeeswara Temple Thanjavur. Angkor Wat. The result is an evolving range of architectural production that nonetheless retains a certain amount of continuity across history. It is unclear which system is older. constantly absorbing new ideas. materials. through the house. one of the largest private residences in the world. influencing town planning. Religion and kingship do not seem to have played an important role in the planning and layout of these towns. such as the exact directions in which various objects. and . Feng Shui is m ore commonly used throughout the world. the Sun Temple. Some of its earliest production are found in the Indus Valley Civilization (2600 ±1900 BC) which is characterised by well planned cities and houses. it differs in the details. Though Vastu is conceptually similar to Feng Shui in that it also tries to harmonize the flow of energy. and the Buddha stupa Bhattiprolu. several Buddhist architectural complexes. rooms. as they are built in styles almost identical to traditional Indian religious buildings. Konark. architecture. are to e placed. such as the caves of Ajanta and Ellora and the monumental Sanchi Stupa were built. but they contain certain similarities. and ergonomics. The Umaid Bhawan Palace in Rajasthan. Later on.[68] The traditional system ofVaastu Shastra serves as India's version ofFeng Shui. the Kesava Temple at Somanathapura. During the period of the Mauryan and Gupta empires and their successors. the Hoysaleswara Templeat Halebidu. (also called life -force or Prana in Sanskrit and Chi/Ki in Chinese/Japanese).

Indian architecture was adapted to allow the traditions of the new religion. The central spire is also sometimes called avimanam. The southern temple gate.With the advent of Islamic influence from the west. and the various modern urban developments of India likeChandigarh. a Twenty20 competition. Red Fort of Delhi are creations of this era. [edit] Sports and Martial arts Main article: Sports in India The annual Snake boat raceis performed during Onam Celebrations on the Pamba River at Aranmula near Pathanamthitta.[69][70][71][72] where its early form in the 6th century was known as Other games which originated in India and continue to remain popular in wide parts of northern India include Kabaddi. are notable. have become famous symbols of Asian culture. empire. BCCI conducts the Indian Premier League.Fatehpur Sikri. the Deodhar Trophy. the 2002 ICC Champions Trophywith Sri Lanka. It hosted a spectacular display of Indian culture and heritage to the entire world during the opening ceremony of the games. Cricket is the most popular Sport in India. Qutub Minar. Gilli-danda. TheIndia national cricket team won the 1983 Cricket World Cupand the 2007 ICC World Twenty20 and shared . and Kho kho. Taj Mahal. temple tower or pagoda and temple gate or torana. and are often used as the stereotypical symbols of India. India is the host of 2010 Commonwealth Games. Mumbai'sNariman Point is famous for its Art Deco buildings. due to the spread of Buddhism. Recent creations such as the Lotus Temple. 1 silver and 2 bronze medals at the Olympic games. the Irani Trophy and the Challenger Series. the Duleep Trophy. The colonial rule of the British Empire saw the development of Indo-Saracenic style. Indian architecture has influenced eastern and southeastern Asia. Traditional southern Indian games include Snake boat raceand Kuttiyum kolum. and theIndia national field hockey teamwon the 1975 Men's Hockey World Cup and 8 gold. Chess is commonly believed to have originated in northwestern India during the Gupta chaturanga. Gol Gumbaz. Domestic competitions include theRanji Trophy. A number of Indian architectural features such as the temple mound or stupa. temple spire or sikhara. played in New Delhi. Cities are extremely compact and densely populated. or gopuram is noted for its intricacy and majesty. and mixing of several other styles. [edit] Indian martial arts Main article: Indian martial arts . The Victoria Memorial or the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminusare notable examples. used extensively in East Asia and South East Asia. Contemporary Indian architect ure is more cosmopolitan. Field Hockey is the national Sport in India. such as European Gothic. In addition.

A bamboo staff is used as the main weapon. doubt and anxiety. sword (val) and shield (kedaham). were later [79] incorporated into various martial arts. traces its roots to the Sangam period in southern India. as well as finger movements in thenata dances. one of the oldest and most prominent forms of Indian martial arts. In this form martial arts.[74] Silambam. A distinctive factor of Indian martial arts is the heavy emphasis laid [78] on meditation (dhy na) as a tool to remove fear. Indian Buddhist monk Bodhidharma was one of the main founders of theShaolin Kungfu. soldiers from southern India received special martial arts training which revolved primarily around the use of spear (vel). The Dhanur Veda was first described in the 5th century BCVi u R Pur a[73] and is also mentioned in both of the major ancient Indian epics. the m ya a and Mah bh rata.Kalarippayattu. while various mudra finger movements were taught inYogacara Buddhism. the Dhanur Veda tradition was an influential fighting arts style which considered th bow and the arrow to be the e supreme weapons. including a variety of spinning ( [75] styles. the musti yuddha evolved in 1100 AD and focussed on mental. complex sword fighting techniques ( (paliyankam). [77] physical and spiritual training. One of the best known forms of ancient Indian martial arts is the Kalarippayattu from Kerala. various stages of physical training includeayurvedic massage with sesame oil to impart suppleness to the body ( uzichil). The 3rd century BCYoga Sutras of Patanjalitaught how to meditate single-mindedly on points located inside one's body. which was developed around 200 AD. In addition. According to some historical accounts. which was later used in martial arts.[75] Silambam is unique among Indian martial arts because it uses complex footwork techniques kaaladi). These elements of yoga. Indian martial arts techniques have had a profound impact on other martial arts styles across Asia. a series of sharp body movements so as t gain control o over various parts of the body miapayattu).[76] In northern India. This ancient fighting style originated in southern India in 12th century BC and [73] is regarded as one of the oldest surviving martial arts. and.[80] [edit] Popular media . The ancient Tamil Sangam literature mentions that between 400 BC and 600 AD.

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