ADAT MASYARAKAT INDIA

Sebelum Majlis Perkahwinan Sebelum majlis perkahwinan berlangsung, terdapat beberapa perkara penting yang perlu dijalankan terlebih dahulu, antaranya : Kad Jemputan Kad jemputan memainkan peranan yang penting dalam perkahwinan masyarakat India. Kad jemputan ini dibuat berdasarkan almanak Hindu. Sekiranya terdapat kesilapan, bermakna perkahwinan tidak dapat dijalankan dengan lancar. Kad jemputan yang telah dicetak disapu dengan serbuk kunyit cair sebagai lambang keharmonian. Beberapa keping kad jemputan dalam bilangan ganjil akan dibawa bersama ke kuil untuk dibawa bersembahyang ( arccanai). Kad diletakkan di atas dulang bersama sirih, wang ringgit, kelapa, pinang dan sebagainya sebagai lambang kekayaan. Upacara ini dinamakan sebagai paanam paaku. Kemudian dulang akan dibawa ke rumah pengantin perempuan untuk diberi kepada pengantin lelaki dan begitulah sebaliknya. Pada masa yang sama sirih pinang akan diberikan sebagai tanda jemputan perkahwinan secara rasmi. Penyediaan Thaali ( Tjrumaanggalyam) Thaali atau tjirumaangalyam merupakan lambang suci perkahwinan yang dikalungkan pada leher kedua-dua pengantin. Pada thaali itu diikat segumpal benang putih yang disapu dengan kunyit. Terdapat pelbagai jenis thaal i yang digunakan oleh masyarakat India seperti lingath thaali, pottut thaali, tennant thaali dan sebagainya. Ini disebabkan terdapat pelbagai suku di kalangan masyarakat India. Adat penyediaan thaali ini dilakukan tujuh atau sembilan hari sebelum hari perkahwinan. Pihak lelaki akan membawa emas, cendana, kumkum, sirih pinang, kelapa dan bayaran u ntuk pembuat thaali. Ini adalah untuk memastikan tukang thaali mengetahui hari yang sesuai untuk membuat thaali. Tiga hari sebelum perkahwinan, thaali akan diambil dan diletakkan di tempat sembahyang atas suruhan pembuat thaali. Pihak pengantin adalah dila rang untuk menawar perkhidmatan yang dilakukan oleh pembuat thaali. Selepas itu upacara sembahyang dilakukan dan ini dinamakan sebagai thaalippadaiyal. Dalam upacara itu bubur manis dan nasi manis disediakan termasuklah dhoti dan sari untuk pasangan penga ntin. Secara umumnya thaali tidak diwajibkan diperbuat daripada emas. Ini kerana thaali masih boleh dibuat daripada kunyit yang dikatakan lebih selamat dan tidak dicuri orang. Mukuurtta Kaal Adat ini dilakukan lima hari sebelum hari perkahwinan dilangsun gkan. Adat mukuurtta kaal ini diadakan pada hari yang baik mengikut firasat masyarakat India. Untuk menjalankan adat tersebut sebatang pokok yang masih muda dan lurus akan ditebang untuk dijadikan mukurtta kaal. Batang pokok tersebut berukuran dua atau tig a meter dan mempunyai lilitan batang antara 20 hingga 30 sentimeter. Adat mendirikan mukuurtta kaal adalah sebagai menandakan perkahwinan akan dilangsungkan di rumah tersebut. Bahan -bahan lazim seperti sirih pinang, kum kum, kunyit dan sebagainya disediak an. Ahli-ahli keluarga pengantin akan bermohon pada Tuhan supaya perkahwinan dapat dilangsungkan tanpa gangguan. Batang kayu diambil dan dibersihkan serta dibuang kulitnya. Lima orang perempuan yang sudah berkahwin akan menyapukan kunyit cair dan kumkum pa da batang kayu tersebut dari pangkal hingga hujung. Kemudian hujung kayu diikat dengan daun ara atau mangga menggunakan kain bewarna merah. Kayu akan dipacak sedalam setengah meter dan bahan-bahan tadi akan dimasukkan ke dalam lubang tersebut sebagai lamba ng kekayaan. Kemudian upacara sembahyang dilakukan oleh pengantin beserta lima orang perempuan tersebut. Sebanyak sembilan jenis bijirin ditabur pada batang kayu dan lampu minyak dinyalakan. Pada masa yang sama pengantin berikrar akan menjaga alam sekitar sebagai lambang persahabatan dengan alam sekitar. Kebiasaannya adat mendirikan mukuurtta kaal dilakukan di rumah pengantin lelaki.

tiruvaasakam dan seumpamanya dinyanyikan serta diimainkan sehingga ke tanah perkuburan. tetapi kembali ke alam barzakh . Kemudian bunga akan dikalungkan pada leher balu dan kemudian bunga tersebut dikalungkan pada si mati. pelbagai adat tertentu akan dilakukan. Mayat seterusnya dimandikan oleh orang yang tel ah berumur. minyak dan araippu digunakan untuk disapukan pada kepala sebagai mandian terak hir. mayat akan diletakkan di ruang tamu. Upacara Menanggalkan Thaali Thaali vaangutal merupakan upacara menanggalkan thaali semasa berlakunya sesebuah kematian dalam sesebuah keluarga. seterusnya seorang wanita yang sudah be rusia dan mempunyai hubungan kekeluargaan akan memegang tangan si mati sambil mengalungkan kalungan bunga ke leher balu dan proses ini dilakukan sebanyak tiga kali. mayat akan di bakar atau dikebumikan. Balu tersebut dikehendaki meletakkan kalungan bunga ke dalam dulang yang berisi minyak. mereka mempercayai konsep kela hiran semula. Thaali iaitu rantai suci perkahwinan hanya boleh ditanggal oleh seorang isteri setelah suamiya meninggal dunia. si isteri hendaklah duduk di sebelah si mati dan dijirus dengan sebuyung air semasa mayat suaminya dimandikan.KEMATIAN Bagi masyarakat India. kunyit disapu pada mata untuk membunuh kuman dan seterusnya duit syiling diletakkan di atas dahi. Serbuk suci atau tiruniiru disapu pada dahi si mati sebelum disembahyang. Dalam upacara tersebut. Kaum wanita pula akan menyambut air tersebut yang digunakan untuk memandikan mayat. Setelah itu barulah si mati dibalut dengan menggunakan kain. perigi atau sumber -sumber air yang lain. si mati perlu dijaga dengan sebaiknya. ibu jari tangan dan kaki diikat dengan kain putih dan diletakkan ke dada. Sirih pinang ditumbuk dan dimasukkan ke dalam mulut dan lubang hidung akan disumbatkan dengan kapas. Air tersebut diperolehi dari sungai. Sepanjang mayat berada di dalam rumah. Sarjana India juga menyatakan kematian adalah perpisahan roh dan jasad. Air mawar direnjis dan mayat turut diasapkan dengan kemenyan yang dibakar supaya tidak berbau. Dalam masyarakat India. Kemudian sebiji kelapa terbelah dua dan sirih pinang diletakkan berhampiran si mati. gambar -gambar yang tergantung diterbalikkan dan barang -barang perhiasan dibawa keluar dari ruang tamu. Kaum lelaki yang mempunyai hubungan kekeluargaan dengan si mati sahaja boleh membawa air dalam jumlah yang ganjil. Kemenyan dan kapur barus diasap sebagai simbol ketenangan jiwa si mati. si mati akan dipakaikan dengan pakaian baru iaitu sari bagi mayat perempuan dan dhoti bagi mayat lelaki. Kepala mayat dihadapkan ke arah selatan dan sebuah lampu miny ak atau kaamaatci amman vilakku dipasang dinyalakan. Tujuannya agar roh si mati sentisa tenang dan aman. Upacara Vaaikkarisi . Sapuan minyak ini dilakukan oleh ahli keluarga dan diikuti oleh saudara mara terdekat. Thaali itu seterusnya akan dimasukkan ke dalam dulang dan disimpan dalam rumah. iaitu kematian adalah ibarat tidur dan mereka akan bangun selepas tidur. Mayat yang sudah dibersihkan itu akan diletakkan di ruang tamu sebagai langkah menghormati tetamu. Ini dilakukan seolah -olah menunjukkan si suami membuangkan thaali dari leher balu. Kaki dan tangan mayat perlu diluruskan. di mana jasad akan hancur. Mata dan mulut mayat juga perlu ditu tup rapat. Untuk menunjukkan kesedihan. Belakang tapak tangan digunakan untuk menyapu minyak ini dan bukannya menggunakan tapak tangan sebagaimana lazimnya. Mayat akan dimandikan terlebih dahulu dan dibaringkan di atas katil di ruang tamu atau halaman r umah. Lagu-lagu suci seperti teevaaram. Semasa Kematian Sekiranya seseorang itu telah meninggal dunia. kecuali air paip. Selepas dimandikan. bun ga dan susu yang dibawa oleh seorang perempuan lain. Untuk melaksanakan upacara ini. Buyung yang berisi air akan ditutup dengan menggunakan kain dhoti untuk mengelakkan habuk memasuki air tersebut. Sebelum dimandikan.

Duit syiling dimasukkan ke dalam dhoti dan diletakkan di antara kaki mayat. kaiulaasam seer' berulang kali. Duit syiling yang diletakkan di dalam dulang yang sama dibalut dengan kain putih. Upacara vaaikkarisi akan dilakukan oleh kaum lelaki di tanah perkuburan pula. Selesai upacara tersebut. Keranda akan dige rakkan beberapa kali sebelum menghampiri liang lahad. bahan-bahan tersebut ditabur dan setiap bahan -bahan tadi mempunyai perlambangan yang tersendiri. Seseorang yang membawa kollic catti mengiringi mayat. Ini menunjukkan bahawa mereka akan hidup lebih bahagia seperti rambut yang baru tumbuh. Setelah mayat dikebumikan. pembawa kollic catti berada di hadapan mayat dan duduk melutut tetapi tidak menghadap mayat. Periuk tersebut diangkat dengan menggunakan pelepah kelapa yang dibelah tiga di bahagian hujung dan diikat pada periuk. Makanan yang akan dimasukkan ke dalam mulut mayat berupa beras yang diletakkan di dalam sebuah dulang dan diletakkan berhampiran kepala mayat. Sebelum dimasukkan ke dalam mulut mayat. . Kemudian ke dalam mulut mayat akan dimasukkan sedikit makanan sebagai menandakan pemberian terakhir dan inilah yang dinamakan vaaikkarisi. beras akan diarak dari kiri ke kanan. pengusung perlu membayar duit kepada penyelenggara sebagai upah mengorek liang lahad. Ini adalah seperti pergerakan bayi yang berada di dalam kandungan. Upacara ini dilakukan untuk mengurangkan kesedihan keluarga si mati. mayat akan dimasukkan ke dalam keranda. Ada juga yang memasukkan bijirin ke lubang tersebut. Sepanjang perjalanan. Kemudian tiga batang kayu yang menyala diba kar dan disusun ke tanah satu persatu. Sekiranya s i mati mempunyai cucu atau cicit. Beberapa batang kayu kecil akan dibalut di bahagian hujung dengan menggunakan kain yang disapu dengan minyak sapi dan dinyalakan. Anak sulung melakukan untuk bapa yang telah meni nggal dunia dan anak bongsu untuk ibu. pada pusingan ketiga. Pada masa yang sama lagu -lagu suci dimainkan. Setelah itu upacara sembahyang dilakukan oleh semua yang berada di situ. semua yang hadir perlu ke rumah si mati untuk upacara penyempurnaan adat pengebumian sebelum balik ke rumah. Kollic catti dibawa oleh ahli keluarga si mati samada anak ataupun bapa. Apabila tiba di tanah perkuburan. biji sawi dan bijan. Kemudian diikuti oleh pengurus m ayat yang akan menebuk kollic catti dengan menyebut 'sorkam seer.Setelah dimandi dan dihias dengan cantik. Pergerakan dimulakan dengan dengan mengubah bahagaian kaki ke kubur dan kemudian bahagian kepala. Neip bermaksud minyak sapi dan pantam adalah obor. satu bentuk manusia akan dilukis di atas kubur. Pengebumian Mayat orang India akan diusung ke tanah perkuburan dengan menggunakan pengusung. C ucu atau cicit tersebut dikehendaki mengelilingi mayat mengikut lawan jam sebanyak tiga kali. lalu diambil oleh pengurus kubur sebagai tanda keizinan mayat dikebumikan. Satu lubang akan dibuat di bahagian kepala dan susu akan dicurahkan pada lubang tersebut. Ada juga yang mencukur janggut atau misai sebagai menggantikan rambut. Kollic Catti Kollic catti bermaksud periuk tanah liat yang me ngandungi api. Kapur barus dimasukkan bersama supaya mayat tidak berbau. Ahli -ahli keluarga akan mengelilingi mayat mengikut lawan jam sebanyak tiga kali sebagai tanda penghormatan. Pembawa Kollic catti atau buyung dikehendaki mengelilingi mayat sebanyak tiga kali menurut arah jam. justeru itu kaum perempuan amat dilarang turut serta ke tanah perkuburan. Ini dilakukan oleh kaum perempuan sahaja. mereka dikehendaki memegang neippantam. pada masa yang sama ucapan tenna adudaiya shinanee pottri disebut beberapa kali sebagai menandakan upacara tersebut telah direstui oleh tuhan. Pada masa yang sama sebuah nyiru diisikan dengan bahan -bahan seperti padi goreng. Oleh itu si mati dipercayai berada di dalam perut Dewi Bumi. Kemudian keranda diletakkan bersebelahan dengan kubur bagi mayat yang dikebumikan atau diletakkan di atas kayu api unyuk dibakar. Sebelum itu pembawa kollic catti dikehendaki mencukur rambut. Keranda akan ditutup dan diangkat untuk dibawa ke tanah perkuburan. Saudara mara yang terdekat akan memberi sari atau dhoti kepada si mati sebagai hadiah terakhir.

Namun begitu adat ini disesuaikan dengan hanya membisikkannya sebaik sahaja melihat bayi tersebut kerana perubatan moden tidak membenarkan sesiapa memasuki bilik bersalin. Kegunaan minyak ini dipercayai boleh membawa kec antikan dan supaya bayi tidak diserang sebarang penyakit. Dulang juga dilambai sebanyak tiga kali. minyak lenga dan mambu juga kadangkala digunakan. fizikal dan rohani bayi sehingga dewasa. kelima. Bintang bayi ini akan menentukan mental. Bisikan nama Tuhan pada telinga bayi adalah untuk membolehkan bayi tadi mendengar nama Tuhan sebelum mendengar apa -apa yang lain. sirih dan kapur barus yang dinyalakan diangkat dan diputar tiga kali mengikut arah jam dan juga lawan jam. Bagi upacara aalati ini. Menyapu Madu Bayi yang baru dilahirkan juga akan disapu madu bercampur minyak sapi pada lidahnya. arang. Membawa Bayi Pulang Ke Rumah Bayi yang dilahirkan di hospital akan dibawa pulang ke rumah pada hari ketiga. isi dulang aalati dibuang. sami atau sesiapa sahaja yang berpengetahuan tinggi mengenai agama Hindu akan membisikkan Gayatri Mantiram iaitu sejenis mantera Tuhan di telinga bayi sebelum tali pusat dipotong. dulang yang mengandungi serbuk kunyit. Sebelum bayi dibawa ma suk ke rumah upacara aalati dilakukan. kapur sirih yang dicairkan. Setelah ibu dan anak masuk ke dalam rumah.KELAHIRAN Semasa Bersalin Waktu kelahiran adalah penting bagi masyarakat India dimana ia akan dicatat dengan tepat bagi menentukan bintang bayi mengikut almanak Hindu. Madu pula dikatakan dapat melembutkan lidah bayi dan memudahkan bayi bertutur. Ia bertujuan untuk mengelakkan bala atau sebarang malapetaka dariapada berlaku. Di samping madu. serbuk kunyit. Potong Tali Pusat Tali pusat yang dipotong akan ditanam bersama uri dan tembuni di sekitar kawasan rumah bersama duit tembaga. Minyak savvennai yang merupakan campuran minyak bijan. Ia bertujuan untuk membawa rahmat kepada bayi tersebut. ketujuh dan sebagainya iaitu pada bilangan hari ganjil. Membisikkan Nama Tuhan Sebaik sahaja bayi dilahirkan. Setitik minyak bijan yang dicampur dengan sedikit susu ibu dan disapu ke mulut bayi akan bertindak menjadi pelawas dal am sistem penghadaman dan membantu tumbesaran bayi tersebut. Bahan -bahan ini dimasukkan bersama untuk mengelak dari dikorek oleh binatang liar dan tidak digunakan oleh ahli sihir. garam dan pinang. Seterusnya para cumanggali akan mencelupkan ibu jarinya ke dalam dulang tersebut dan mencalitkan ke dahi ibu dan anak. Mandi Selepas Bersalin . air gula juga boleh digunakan.

hidung. Terdapat juga upacara memuja Dewi Pecciyamman dan Dewi Kaatteeri dilakukan oleh segelintir masyarakat India. Ia dilakukan dengan memasukkan bayi ke dalam buaian dan dikendalikan oleh ahli keluarga yang tertua yang a rif tentang agama dan perkara yang berkaitan dengan dewa-dewa. mereka diasingkan dari ahli keluarga yang lain di sebuah bilik khas yang sentiasa dijaga kebersihannya. Upacara dimulakan dengan ucapan aaraaro aariraro atau cerita-cerita nasihat. Bagi i bu yang bersalin normal. minyak bijan. Ia bertujuan agar bayi tersebut menjadi seorang yang berguna. Beberapa bahan seperti serbuk kunyit. Setelah itu bayi diasapkan dengan asap kemenyan. kas -kas dan kacang hijau yang ditumbuk digunakan sebagai pembersih badan bayi bertujuan untuk mengelakkan penyakit kulit dan melicinkan kulit bayi. ibu yang baru bersalin tidak dibenarkan mandi selama dua minggu atas sebab -sebab kesihatan akibat fizikal ibu yang lemah kerana pembedahan dan kesan kelahiran. Bagi tujuan kecantikan. Bahan bahan persembahan juga disediakan seperti kari ayam betina. Mendodoi Bayi Amalan mendodoi bayi merupakan upacara yang paling penting dalam masyarakat India. Upacara mendodoi ini juga dikenali sebagai taalaattu bermaksud penggoyangan lidah. Air tersebut digunakan untuk mandi. si ibu akan mandi selang sehari selepas bersalin. . kening dan telinga turut diurut. upacara pemberian nama dilakukan. Rambut ibu akan dikeringkan dengan segera dengan asap kemenyan bagi mengelak kan sakit kepala. Akhir sekali bayi akan dibedung dengan kain bertujuan untuk meluruskan anggota badan bayi. Bagi dua minggu pertama. Memberi Nama Sebaik sahaja bayi berusia enam belas hari. orang luar dilarang melawat mereka kecuali untuk tujuan perubatan. Saudara mara yang hadir akan memberi pelbagai hadiah dan upacara diakhiri dengan jamuan dan upacara sembahyang bagi mendoakan kesejahteraan bayi. dan disapu dengan bedak yang diperbuat dari tepung beras supaya tidak dihinggapi ruam. Selesai dimandikan. Nama-nama yang dipilih lazimnya berdasarkan almanak dengan mengikut tarikh kelahiran bayi. Bayi pula kebiasaanya dimandikan pada waktu petang oleh seorang wanita yang berpengalaman. Bayi kemudiannya dimasukkan ke dalam buaia n dan namanya diumumkan pada orang ramai. Beberapa herba dan dedaun seperti aadatoodai dididihkan bersama air. Ketika bayi dimandikan. ikan kering dan sebagainya.Apabila bayi dan ibu kembali ke rumah. bayi ditonggengkan dengan mengangkat kedua belah kaki sambil menepuk bahagian punggung untuk mengeluarkan kahak. Up acara pemujaan dilakukan dengan membersihkan sekeliling rumah dan memasang lampu minyak di keliling rumah. Nama -nama tokoh sejarawan. telur rebus. nenek moyang serta yang berkaitan dengan agama Hindu juga dipilih bagi bayi tersebut kerana nama yang dipilih ini akan mempengaruhi perwatakannya kelak. urutan perlahan dilakukan pada tubuh bayi dan t ulang belakang bayi supaya tidak bengkok. Ia bertujuan untuk mengelak penyakit sawan atau kuning. Upacara dimulakan dengan mengadakan upacara sembahyang sebagai tanda kesyukuran. Namun amalan ini semakin berkurangan dilakukan dan hanya diamalkan oleh generasi tua sahaja. Jika proses bersalin secara pembedahan. Susu juga digunakan sebagai bahan utama untuk melembutkan kulit bayi. selsema dan juga untuk menyegarkan tubuh badan selepas bersalin. Mandian ini dilakukan dengan menyiram ke seluruh badan bayi dengan menggunakan ai r suam yang kadangkala dicampur dengan bahan -bahan herba.

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India is one of the most religiously diverse nations in the world. in have l 1 0 0) .and fourth-largest religions respectively.Jainism and Sikhism. ± live together. many fami ies especially in urban areas. Makar. India is also the birthplace for theLingayat and Ahmadiyya faiths. In rural areas & sometime in urban areas as well. He makes all important decisions and rules. in recent times. In recent years. The religion of 80% of the people is Hinduism. Today. and other family members abide by them.[10] Sikhism. Family plays a significant role in the Indian culture. A bride during a traditionalHindu wedding ceremony in Punjab. some of these lines have blurred and sometimes even disappeared. [6][9] followers altogether. [11] governed these groups for thousands of years. Arranged marriage in India and Women in India . Judaism and the Bahá'í Faith are also influential but their numbers are smaller. Christianity. Despite the strong role of religion in Indian life.6 billion followers. Hinduism and Buddhism are the world's third.[11] However. the chil dren¶s spouses and their offspring.5 or 2. children. [edit] Family Main articles: Hindu joint family.[5] Indian religions. also known as Dharmic religions are a major form of world religions along withAbrahamic ones. For generations.Clo -up of a statu dep ctingMaitreya at the Thikse Monastery in Ladakh. Islam is practiced by around 13% of all Indians. with some of the most deeply religious societies and cultures. with over 2 billion [6][7][8] and possibly as many as 2. It is a system under which extended members of a family ± parents. such asHinduism and Buddhism. atheism and agnostics also have visible influence along with a self -ascribed tolerance to other people. a far more powerful division isthe traditional Hindu bifurcation into non-polluting and polluting occupations[11] Strict social taboos have . Buddhism. particularly in [11] cities. India has had a prevailing tradition of the joint family system. Zoroastrianism. traditional Indian culture is defined by relatively strict social hierarchy. India. He also mentions that from an [11] early age. Dharmic religions. Important family relations extend as far as gotra. the eldest male member is the head in the joint Indian family system. the mainly patrilinear lineage or clan [11] assigned to a Hindu at birth. etc. Religion still plays a central and definitive role in the life of m any of its people. children are reminded of their roles and places in society. it is s [11] common that three or four generations of the family live under the same roof.[4] Main articles: Religion in India and Indian religions India is the birth place of Hinduism. are indigenous to India. Several differences such as religion divide the culture. However. Jainism and especially Buddhism areinfluential not only in India but across the world. According to Eugene M. Usually. This is reinforced by the fact that many believe gods and spirits have an integral and [11] functional role in determining their life. an respected industry consultant. collectively known as Indian religions. The [11] patriarch often resolves family issues.

[15] they speak of a healthy new empowerment for women. Even today. The threenational holidays in India. the word is spoken at the beginning of written or verbal communication. [edit] Marriage For centuries. height. known as the "festival of colors". In Indian and Nepali culture. Main article: Festivals in India India. It is commonly used in India and Nepal by Hindus. and (te): "to you". Popular religious festivals include the Hindu festivals ofNavratri. but Indian society and culture still promotes and maintains it." [edit] Namaste Namaste. Jains. social standing . Namaskar is considered a slightly more formal version than Namaste but both express deep respect. the Republic Day and the Gandhi Jayanti. the vast majority of Indians have their marriages planned by their parents and other respected family -members. celebrates holidays and festivals of various religions. They get around by not letting the [12] authorities know the arrangements of money. the castes and the backgrounds of their families (wealth. Arranged matches are made after taking into account factors such as age. Buddhists and Sikhs.[14] The arranged marriages generally have a much lower divorce rate. the marriage is thought to be for life. The divorce rates have risen significantly in recent years: " pinion is divided over what the phenomenon means: for traditionalists the rising numbers portend the breakdown of society while. [13] In India. with the consent of the bride and groom. 2 2 2 3 . and the divorce rate is extremely low ² 1. being a multi-cultural and multi-religious society. Vanakkam (Tamil or Asssalamu alaikum (Urdu / Persian Sat Shri Akal (Punjabi) is a common spoken greeting or salutation in the Indian subcontinent.stopped abiding by the extended family system and have started living as a nuclear family. arranged marriages have been the tradition in Indian society. for some modernists. [edit] Festivals Radha and gopikas celebrating Holi. Holi. obeisance. They also demand dowry. In addition. However. which has been outlawedby the Indian government. Namaskar or Namaskara or Namaskaram. Durga puja. Taken literally. Diwali. it means "I bow to you". reverential salutation. are celebrated with zeal and enthusiasm across India. many states and regions have local festivals depending on prevalent religious and linguistic demographics. personal values and tastes. in literal terms Namaste refers to 'That which is of God in me bows to that which is of God in you'. the same hands fol ed gesture is made d usually wordlessly upon departure. As explained by an Indian scholar. their astrological compatibility of the couples'horoscopes. the Independence Day. and respect.1% compared with about 50% in theUnited States. The word is derived from Sanskrit (namah): to bow. and many continue to use this outside the Indian subcontinent. Ganesh Chaturthi.

I l mic festival . 4 Cows depicted in the decorated goppuram of the Kap l 6544 7 5 A4 [ it] Animal warar templ in Chennai. ted by multipl religions. mother goddess [17] and bringer of good fortune and wealth. whic is c l ted by Hindus. suc as Guru Nanak Jay nti. Notabl exampl Certain festival in India are c l include Diwali. India's wil life has been the subj ct of numerous other tal and fabl suc as thePanc tantra and the Jataka tal ."Nuakhai" are al o fairly popul . ted by Buddhists and Hindus. Pongal and Onam. Sikh Festival . and Thamas stands for on. and Buddh Purnima. and Tamas. suc Eid ul-Fitr.[16] In Hinduism. are c l ted by Muslims ac oss India. India's popul tion sp The varied and ric wil life of India has had a p ofound imp ct on the region's popul ness in India isJungl whic was adopted by the culture. Animal husbandry in India and Cattl in religion . cows are revered in Hindu [18] culture and feeding a cow is seen as an act of worship. Raj stands for p ion. suc as S nkranthi. the cow is regarded as a symbol ofahimsa (non-viol nc ). whic vary by religion and c te and may come from region to region. S veral harvest festival . For exampl : A indulgenc . Sikhs and Jains. Indian names are based on a variety of sy tems andnaming conventions. Adding colors to nd the culture of India. For this reason. ' M in articl : Indian cuisine The Food in India is cl ified into three major c tegories. from the Indian epic . Eid aland c l Ramadan. he woul be taking food whic woul A 4 6 57 584 7 A 4 55 7 7 57 4 7 55 7 4 4 6 A4 [ it] Cuisine 87 54 4 5 4 4 4 6 7 4 8 A 76 7 84A 6 54 A8 7 A 6 A 54 4 5 44 S al o: Wil life of India. whic is the easternmost state of India.Rakshabandhan and Dussehra. ttva. Baiskhi are c l ted with full fanfare by Sikhs a Hindu. Names are al o influenc awide variety of l nguages. theDree Festival is one of the tribal festival of India c l ted by the Ap tanis of the Ziro vall y ofArunac l Pradesh. Food is consumed according to the lifestyl of the p King has to be aggressive to defend his c ountry. S S tva whic stand for bal nc . The word has been al o made famous in The Jungl Book by Rudy Kipling. Common name for wil British colonialists to the English l nguage. Raj . 6 57 7 5B 4 A4 7 5 57 5 A4 [ it] Names and l nguage 7894 4 76A@ 54 4 6 7 5 5 6 6 6 5 5 4 76 87 8 7 5 7894 4 7894 4 4 4 5 7894 4 894 4 7 6 5 7 7 7 7894 4 7 7 .

across Asia has often led to the dish being labeled as the "pan -Asian" dish. lamb. fish. Despite this diversity. Historically. reflecting the varied ² demographics of the country. Kheer is a traditional Indian sweet dish. which would help to keep his mind in balance. When a person tries to lead his life in want of self realisaiton. such as the Persians. This the is reason why in many Indians try to abstain drinking. The multiple varieties of Indian cuisine are characterized by their sophisticated and subtle use of many Spices and Herbs.[19] [20] Indian cuisine is one of the most popular cuisines across the globe. like consumption of Alcohol. Varied uses of spices are an integral part of food preparation. Though the tandoor originated in Central Asia. Uttar Pradeshi thali (platter) withNaan bread. some unifying threads emerge. Though a significant portion of Indian food is vegetarian. Thamasic food or known as Static foods is to be taken only if its required. southern. enjoy widespread popular ity. goat. which originated in India. many traditional Indian dishes also include:chicken. Indian tandoori dishes. such aschicken tikka made with Indian ingredients. and it plays a role ineveryday life as well as in festivals. Cuisine across India has also been influenced by various cultural groups that entered India throughout history. Indian cuisine varies from region to region. and European colonists. Daal. Indian cuisine can be split into 5 categories northern. and other meats. Indian Spices and Herbs were one of the most sought after trade commodities. Shahi paneer. India is known for its love for food andspices.[22] [edit] Clothing . and are used to enhance he flavor of a dish and t create unique flavors and aromas. western and north -eastern. eastern.[21] The popularity of curry. such asVasco da Gama and Christopher Columbus.give much passion and that aggressiveness which is required. he would prefer a Satvic food or known as Sattvic diet. and Salad. Raita. Generally. Each family of this cuisine is characterized by a wide assortment of dishes and cooking techniques. Mughals. set out to find new trade routes with India leading to the Age of Discovery. The Spice trade between India and Europe led to the rise and dominance of Arab traders to such an extent that European explorers.

Draped clothing styles remained popular with India's Hindu population while the [31] Muslims increasingly adopted tailored garments. Consequently. Traditional clothing in India greatly varies across different parts of the country and is influenced immensely by local culture. In 5th century BC. Indian dress etiquette discourages exposure of skin and wearing transparent or tight clothes. Ancient Vedic texts mention clothes made from barks and leaves (kn wn as o phataka). Some Indian traditions consider thebindi to be representative of thethird eye. Popular styles of dress include draped garme nts such as sari for women and dhoti or lungi for men. India's large clothing and handicrafts industry was left paralyzed so as to make place for British industrial cloth. stitched clothes such aschuridar for women and kurta-pyjama and Europeanstyle trousers and shirts for men.[26] Traditionally. in addition. Greek historian Herodotus describes the richness of the quality of Indian cotton clothes. the bindi is considered to be a highly auspicious mark in Hindu religion.[24] Since India's weather is mostly hot and rainy. During the British Raj. The 11th century BC Rig-veda mentions dyed and embroidered garments (known as paridhan and pesas respectively) and thus highlights the development of [28] sophisticated garment m anufacturing techniques during the Vedic age.[23] Most Indian clothes are made fromcotton which is ideal for the region's hot weather. majority of Indians wear sandals.[27] India's clothing styles have continuously evolved over the course of the country's history. the red bindi (orsindoor) was worn only by the married Hindu women. Indian independence movement leader Mahatma Gandhi successfully advocated for what he .[30] Stitched clothing in India was developed before 10th [30] century AD and was further popularized in 15th century by Muslim empires in India. muslins manufactured in southern India were imported by the Roman Empire and silk cloth was one of the major exports of ancient India along with Indian spices. geography and climate. In India. are also popular.Illustration of different styles ofSari & clothing worn by women in India.[29] By 2nd century AD. a person's social status is perceived to be symbolized by his or her attire. but now it has become a part of women's fashion.[25] Worn by women on their foreh ead.

tvija ).[41] Another major Dravidian -1st m llennium AD. [35] English and most European languages. and language. one of India's major classical languages. yajñasya . have borrowed many words t -Aryan either directly from Sanskrit ( atsama words). These developments played a p votal role in the fusion of Indian and Western clothing styles. is a "Sanskritized register" of theKhariboli dialect. the Bengali language arose from the eastern M ddle Indic languages and its roots are traced to the 5th century BC Ardhamagadhi language. or indirectly via m ddle Indo languages (tadbhava words). Munda languages and Dravidian languages. In addition. measuring the dates of Vedas came in later days. The Vedic accent is marked by underscores and vertical overscores in red.[37] and the literary forms of (Dravidian)Telugu. and one of the earliest attested members of theIndo-European language fam ly the fam ly which includes .termed as khadi clothing ² light colored hand -woven clothes ² so as to decrease [32] reliance of the Indian people on British industrial goods.[33] [edit] Languages and literature [edit] H story Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari. increasing involvement of women in the fashion industry and changing Indian attitudes towards multiculturalism.[38][39] Tam l.[36] Part of the Eastern Indo-Aryan languages. the Satavahana and Kadamba periods and hence has a history of over 2000 years.ta . early 19th century. Time is always referred as Kaala C hakra in India. Aum(3) . C CD C C C C C C C CD C C CD C C C C . Kannada is attested ep grap cally from the m d literary Old Kannada flourished in the 9th to 10th centuryRashtrakuta Dynasty. Malayalam and Kannada. Tam l literature has existed for over two thousandyears[40] and the earliest ep grap c records found date from around the third century BC. There by. pura .").H ndi. The calendar which most Indians follows goes in accordance to this.1. Sanskrit has had a profound impact on the languages and literature of India. deva .[36] Words originating in Sanskrit are estimated to constitute roughly fifty percent of the vocabulary of modern Indo -Aryan languages. Preold Kannada (or Purava HaleGannada) was the language ofBanavasi in the early Common Era.[42][43][44][45] The Ashoka rock edictfound at Brahmagiri (dated to 230 BC) has [46] been suggested to contain a word in identifiable Kannada.1. The 1980s was marked by a widespread modification to Indian clothing fashions which was characterized by a large-scale growth of fashion sc hools in India. all modern Indo-Aryan languages. the Rigvedic Sanskrit is one of the oldest attestations of anyIndo-Iranian language. descends from Proto-Dravidian languages which was spoken around the third m llennium BC in peninsular India.1 (agni .. i e .. India's most spoken language. In Ancient India the time was divided in Four yugas. the first line has the opening words of RV. [34] With its oldest core dating back to as early as 1500 BC. After a scribal benediction (" r ga é yanama .

[edit] Performing arts [edit] Dance Main article: Dance in India . Seven Jnanpith awards each have been awarded in Kannada. The Ramayana consists of 24. Manuscript illustration of theBattle of Kurukshetra -known epics of The R m ya a and the Mah bh rata are the oldest preserved and well India. Valayapathi and Kundalakesi. these are theSahitya Akademi Fellowshipand the Jnanpith Award. there are five major epics in the classica Tamil language ² l Silappatikaram. The earliest parts of the [50] Mahabharata text date to 400 BC and is estimated to have reached its final form by the early Gupta period (ca.[49] and tells the story of Rama (anincarnation of the Hindu preserver -god Vishnu)..000 verses in seven books (k as) and 500 cantos (sargas). whose wife Sita is abducted by thedemon king of Lanka. Versions have been adopted as the epics of Southeast Asian countries like Thailand. followed by Bengali.[47] In contemporary Indian literature. Hindi Ramacharitamanasa. Civaka-cintamani. Telugu. four in Malayalam. three each in Marathi.According to 2001 India census. 4th c. five in Bengali. This epic played a pivotal role in establishing the role of dhárma as a [50] principal ideal guiding force for Hindu way of life. AD).[48] [edit] Epics . In addition to these two great Indian epics. Urdu and Oriya and two in Tamil. there are two major literary awards.[51] Other regional variations of these. Gujarati. Kannada Pampa Bharata. Malaysia and Indonesia. Ravana. Manimekalai. and Malayalam Adhyathmaramayanam.Hindi is the most spoken language in India. as well as unrelated epics include the TamilRamavataram. Marathi and Tamil. six in Hindi.

[54] N ty ch rya M ni M dhava Ch ky r is credited for reviving the age old drama tradition from extinction. odissi of the state of Odisha and the sattriya of Assam. S The earliest account of Indian musical hymns is found in the 1000 BC maveda. Mandra and Atisw r.000 are known today. These principles were refined in then tya stra (200 BC) and the dattilam (300 AD). and The music of India includes multiple varieties of religious.000 year t old Kutiyattam of Kerala. Dwitiya. and Drama. Vikramorva ya and M lavik gnimitra. The oldest preserved examples of Indian music are the melodies of the Samaveda that are still sung in certain Vedic rauta sacrifices. These are: bharatanatyam of the state of Tamil Nadu. popular. These refer to the notes of a flute. many with narrative forms andmythological elements. India's classical music tradition is heavily influenced by Hindu texts. asKrusht.[59][60][61] He concluded his songs with a salutation to Lord Purandara Vittala and is believed to have composed as many as 475. Harsha's Nagananda. kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh. following those of Bhasa.[55][56] [edit] Music Main article: Music of India folk. sung to a rhythmic cycle ortala.[57] It proposed a tonal structure consisting of seven notes. the bihu of Assam. the dandiya and garba of Gujarat.[58] Purandaradasa is considered the "father of carnatic music" Karnataka sangeeta ( pitamaha). It includes two distinct styles: Carnatic and Hindustani music.Odissi performer from Odisha Indian dance too has diverse folk and classical forms.[62] [59][63] However. pop. Eight dance forms. the chhau of Jharkhand.nown folk dances are the bhangra of the Punjab. He started to perform the Kalidasa plays like Abhijñ na kuntala. Panchavadyam temple music in Kerala.000 songs in the Kannada language. Dance. Bhasa's Swapnav savadatta and Panchar tra. It strictly follows theNatya Shastra. manipuri of Manipur. the ghoomar of Rajasthan.the Odishi of Orissa. Chaturth. which was the only fixed frequency instrument.[52][53] [edit] Drama and theater Main article: Theatre in India Indian drama and theater has a long history alongside its music and dance. kathak of Uttar Pradesh. have been accorded classical dance statusby India's National Academy of Music. Among the well. Pratham. classical music. kathakali and mohiniattam of Kerala. which were named. Tritiya. only about 1. in descending order. E . One of the oldest surviving theatre traditions of he world is the 2. Kalidasa's plays like Shakuntala and Meghadoota are some of the older plays. Both the Hindustani classical music and the Carnatic classical musicsystems are based on the melodic mode (known asR ga). He was known for mastery ofRasa Abhinaya. the Yakshagana of Karnataka and lavani of Maharashtra and Dekhnni of Goa.

A freshly made coloured flour design Rangoli) is still a common sight outside ( Raja Ravi Varma is one the the doorstep of many (mostly South Indian) Indian homes. Filmi refers to the wide range of music written and performed for mainstreamIndian cinema. Mughal painting are some notable Genres of Indian Art.[64] Indipop is one of the most popular contemporary styles of Indian music which is either a fusion ofIndian folk. and accounts for more than 70 percent of all music sales in the country. M. Most early and medieval art in India is Hindu. Bagh. H. [edit] Sculpture .[65] [edit] Visual arts Main article: Indian art [edit] Painting Main article: Indian painting The Jataka tales from Ajanta Caves. Jamini Roy and B.Venkatappa[66] are some modern painters. Among the present day artists. Jehangir Art Gallery Mumbai. Mysore Palace has on display a few good Indian paintings. S. Buddhist or Jain. Geeta Vadhera. Raza. primarily Bollywood. Cave paintings from Ajanta. Bose Krishnamacnahri. Devajyoti Ray and Shibu Natesan represent a new era of Indian artwhere global art shows direct amalgamation with Indian classical styles. These recent artists have acquired . whileNandalal Bose. Rajput painting. classical or Sufi music with Western musical traditions. Mysore painting. The earliest Indian paintings were the rock paintings ofpre-historic times. international recognition. Ellora and Sittanavasal and temple paintings testify to a love of naturalism.Prominent contemporary Indian musical forms includedfilmi and Indipop. Madhubani painting. Tanjore painting. classical painters from medieval India. the petroglyphst it was common for households to paint their doorways or indoor rooms where guests resided. Husain. Atul Dodiya. F.

as Hinduism. in stucco. Rajasthan The first sculptures in India date back to theIndus Valley civilization. India produced some extremely intricate bronzes as well as temple carvings.oman influence. or clay. Main article: Sculpture in India Marble Sculpture of female. schist. such as the one at Ellora were not constructed by using blocks but carved out of solid rock. Buddhism.The 5th century Buddhistvishvakarma cave at Ellora. Some huge shrines. ca 1450. Duringthe Gupta period (4th to 6th century) sculpture reached a very high standard in execution and delicacy in modeling. display a very strong blend of Indian and ClassicalHellenistic or possibly even Greco. and Jainism developed further. where stone and bronze figures have been discovered. Sculptures produced in the northwest. The pink sandstone sculptures of Mathura evolved almost simultaneously. [edit] Architecture Main article: Architecture of India F . Maharashtra. Later. These styles and others elsewhere in India evolved leading to classical Indian art that contributed to Buddhist and Hindu sculpture throughout Southeast Central and East Asia.

Though Vastu is conceptually similar to Feng Shui in that it also tries to harmonize the flow of energy. the Hoysaleswara Templeat Halebidu. Indian architecture encompasses a multitude of expressions over space and time. Feng Shui is m ore commonly used throughout the world. Religion and kingship do not seem to have played an important role in the planning and layout of these towns. etc. During the period of the Mauryan and Gupta empires and their successors. Brihadeeswara Temple Thanjavur. the Taj Mahal in Agra is a prime example of Indo-Islamic architecture. the Kesava Temple at Somanathapura. and the Buddha stupa Bhattiprolu. b . and . materials. South India produced several Hindu temples like Chennakesava Temple at Belur. several Buddhist architectural complexes.[67] Considered to be an "unrivaled architectural wonder". the Sun Temple. The Umaid Bhawan Palace in Rajasthan. Konark. one of the largest private residences in the world. (Chinna Lanja dibba and Vikramarka kota dibba) at Borobudur and otherBuddhist and Hindu temples indicate strong Indian influence on South East Asian architecture. are to e placed. Angkor Wat. The result is an evolving range of architectural production that nonetheless retains a certain amount of continuity across history. but they contain certain similarities. rooms. influencing town planning. such as the caves of Ajanta and Ellora and the monumental Sanchi Stupa were built. Later on. constantly absorbing new ideas. It is unclear which system is older. as they are built in styles almost identical to traditional Indian religious buildings.[68] The traditional system ofVaastu Shastra serves as India's version ofFeng Shui. such as the exact directions in which various objects. and ergonomics. Some of its earliest production are found in the Indus Valley Civilization (2600 ±1900 BC) which is characterised by well planned cities and houses. architecture. (also called life -force or Prana in Sanskrit and Chi/Ki in Chinese/Japanese). through the house. it differs in the details. Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple at Srirangam.

empire.With the advent of Islamic influence from the west. The colonial rule of the British Empire saw the development of Indo-Saracenic style. Gilli-danda. and Kho kho. [edit] Indian martial arts Main article: Indian martial arts . Recent creations such as the Lotus Temple. It hosted a spectacular display of Indian culture and heritage to the entire world during the opening ceremony of the games. and theIndia national field hockey teamwon the 1975 Men's Hockey World Cup and 8 gold. Indian architecture has influenced eastern and southeastern Asia. Cities are extremely compact and densely populated. Field Hockey is the national Sport in India. TheIndia national cricket team won the 1983 Cricket World Cupand the 2007 ICC World Twenty20 and shared . and are often used as the stereotypical symbols of India. Gol Gumbaz. Domestic competitions include theRanji Trophy. such as European Gothic. used extensively in East Asia and South East Asia. played in New Delhi. the Irani Trophy and the Challenger Series. Qutub Minar. BCCI conducts the Indian Premier League. or gopuram is noted for its intricacy and majesty. and mixing of several other styles. temple spire or sikhara. The Victoria Memorial or the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminusare notable examples. the Deodhar Trophy. A number of Indian architectural features such as the temple mound or stupa. The southern temple gate. due to the spread of Buddhism. Red Fort of Delhi are creations of this era. and the various modern urban developments of India likeChandigarh. have become famous symbols of Asian culture. The central spire is also sometimes called avimanam. Mumbai'sNariman Point is famous for its Art Deco buildings. Contemporary Indian architect ure is more cosmopolitan. the Duleep Trophy.Fatehpur Sikri. India is the host of 2010 Commonwealth Games. Chess is commonly believed to have originated in northwestern India during the Gupta chaturanga. In addition. Cricket is the most popular Sport in India. 1 silver and 2 bronze medals at the Olympic games. are notable. Traditional southern Indian games include Snake boat raceand Kuttiyum kolum. Indian architecture was adapted to allow the traditions of the new religion. Taj Mahal. the 2002 ICC Champions Trophywith Sri Lanka. temple tower or pagoda and temple gate or torana. a Twenty20 competition.[69][70][71][72] where its early form in the 6th century was known as Other games which originated in India and continue to remain popular in wide parts of northern India include Kabaddi. [edit] Sports and Martial arts Main article: Sports in India The annual Snake boat raceis performed during Onam Celebrations on the Pamba River at Aranmula near Pathanamthitta.

One of the best known forms of ancient Indian martial arts is the Kalarippayattu from Kerala. one of the oldest and most prominent forms of Indian martial arts.[74] Silambam. which was developed around 200 AD. doubt and anxiety.[80] [edit] Popular media . These elements of yoga. which was later used in martial arts. the musti yuddha evolved in 1100 AD and focussed on mental. soldiers from southern India received special martial arts training which revolved primarily around the use of spear (vel). According to some historical accounts. Indian Buddhist monk Bodhidharma was one of the main founders of theShaolin Kungfu. various stages of physical training includeayurvedic massage with sesame oil to impart suppleness to the body ( uzichil). A distinctive factor of Indian martial arts is the heavy emphasis laid [78] on meditation (dhy na) as a tool to remove fear. sword (val) and shield (kedaham). The Dhanur Veda was first described in the 5th century BCVi u R Pur a[73] and is also mentioned in both of the major ancient Indian epics. The ancient Tamil Sangam literature mentions that between 400 BC and 600 AD. In this form martial arts.Kalarippayattu. A bamboo staff is used as the main weapon.[75] Silambam is unique among Indian martial arts because it uses complex footwork techniques kaaladi). traces its roots to the Sangam period in southern India. were later [79] incorporated into various martial arts. a series of sharp body movements so as t gain control o over various parts of the body miapayattu). [77] physical and spiritual training. as well as finger movements in thenata dances.[76] In northern India. the Dhanur Veda tradition was an influential fighting arts style which considered th bow and the arrow to be the e supreme weapons. and. The 3rd century BCYoga Sutras of Patanjalitaught how to meditate single-mindedly on points located inside one's body. Indian martial arts techniques have had a profound impact on other martial arts styles across Asia. while various mudra finger movements were taught inYogacara Buddhism. In addition. This ancient fighting style originated in southern India in 12th century BC and [73] is regarded as one of the oldest surviving martial arts. including a variety of spinning ( [75] styles. complex sword fighting techniques ( (paliyankam). the m ya a and Mah bh rata.

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