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Planning governance, institutional &

regulatory framework

Harun al-Rasyid LUBIS


Transportation Research Group, ITB

http://personal.ftsl.itb.ac.id/halubis/

Expert & Technical Meeting Roadmap Mengatasi Kemacetan Jakarta


Balitbang Kementerian Perhubungan , Jakarta 25 November 2010
Tata urut

 Mobilitas dan aksesibilitas

 Komentar thdp 17 Langkah

 Concept of Integration & Integrated Strategy

 Planning Process & Decision Making

 Badan Otorita

2
Apa Yang Terjadi ?
Moda Split
Faktor Pendorong: - Jabodetabek
globalization & urbanization

3
Club of Jakarta:
Semula 2014  2011 Gridlocked ?
Ilustrasi Utilisasi Jumlah Kendaraan Terhadap
Luas Jalan di DKI Jakarta

50
Luas (juta m2)

45
40
35
30
25
20
15
1994
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
2010
2012
2014
jalan
Tahun kend.
4
Apa yang sudah dilakukan ? ...

5
MRT/Subway+KA
3 STRATEGI
PTM PENGEMBANGAN
ANGKUTAN UMUM LRT/Monorail
MASSAL

BRT/Busway

Pembatasan Penggunaan
Kendaraan Bermotor
POLA
Road Pricing/ERP
TRANSPORTASI PEMBATASAN
MAKRO LALU LINTAS
Pembatasan Parkir
(PTM)
Fasilitas Park n Ride

ATCS

Pelebaran Jln/FO/UP
PENINGKATAN
KAPASITAS
JARINGAN Pengemb. Jaringan Jln

Pedestrianisasi
PENYELESAIAN JARINGAN UTAMA
(JALAN TOL DALAM WILAYAH DKI JAKARTA)

Bandara
PLUIT
Soekarno- Hatta
RAWA KEMAYORAN
SUNTER
Akses
BUAYA
W1 DURI PULO Priok

TOMANG

TANAH ABANG

PULO GEBANG
KP. MELAYU
Ke Tangerang
CASABLANCA

W2
ULUJAMI
CAWANG
Jaringan Jalan Tol yang perlu dipercepat Ke Bekasi
Akses Priok : Dalam proses perencanaan & pelaksanaan
pembangunan (dana pinjaman JBIC), DKI
bantu pembebasan lahan. Sudah
W1 : Lahan sudah bebas. Ke Serpong terbangun
PS. MINGGU
Pemegang konsesi PT. Bangun Cipta, tapi TM. MINI
belum ada realisasi.
W2 : Sebagian lahan belum bebas. Kajian Dep. PU September 2005 menghasilkan bahwa
Pemegang konsesi PT. Jasa Marga Kinerja Jaringan Jalan Tahun 2010(Kondisi “Do-Nothing”) :
• Beban yang sangat tinggi pada ruas-ruas jalan arah radial (Tol
Catatan : Bandara & Tol Tomang)
• Percepatan pembangunan W1 & W2 akan menolong distribusi lalu lintas dari • Jalan Tol Dalam Kota (segmen Cawang-Tomang) sudah saturated
arah Barat ke dan dari Jakarta serta akses Bandara. • Outer Ring Road sudah sangat dibutuhkan.
• Percepatan Akses Priok akan menolong lalu lintas barang dari dan ke KETERANGAN :
Pelabuhan Tj. Priok, sekaligus menolong lalu lintas jalan tol Inner Ring Road Ke Bogor = TOL TELAH BEROPERASI
= TOL DALAM PELAKSANAAN /TELAH
(angkutan barang sudah langsung lewat Akses Priok) DIRENCANAKAN 7
Ref-3, Paket C Project
JARINGAN KA JABOTABEK MASA DEPAN
Ancol
Tanjungpriok
Kampungbandan
Angke
Jakartakota

Duri Kemayoran
Tangerang
Monas Gambir Pasarsenen

Manggarai Jatinegara Bekasi

Serpong Tanahabang

Depok
Existing Track
Citayam Nambo MRT/Busway
Double Double Track
New Loop Line
Airport Railway
Bogor
PENGEMBANGAN JALAN BERTINGKAT/ ELEVATED
( 6 RUAS JALAN TOL DALAM KOTA)

AKSES TANJUNG PRIOK


AIRPORT PLUIT

RAWA KEMAYORAN
BUAYA SUNTER
2
3.4 km

2.3 km 1
TOMANG
7.8 km
TANGERANG 3
4
3.8 km
KE MERAK PULO GEBANG
KP. MELAYU
5

KE BEKASI
ULUJAMI
2.7 km CAWANG
6
KE BEKASI/CIKAMPEK

PS. MINGGU
SERPONG TM. MINI

KETERANGAN :
KETERANGAN : 1 Sunter - Pulo Gebang
= TOL TELAH BEROPERASI 2 Rawa Buaya – Sunter
= TOL DALAM PELAKSANAAN /TELAH DIRENCANAKAN 3 Kemayoran - Kp. Melayu
6 Ruas Usulan :
= JALUR MELALUI ARTERI 4 Kp Melayu - Tomang - Duri Pulo
= JALUR MELALUI KALI SENTIONG 5 Ulujami - Tanah Abang
= JALUR MELALUI LAHAN PT KAI 6 Pasar Minggu - Casablanca
= JALUR MELALUI BANJIR KANAL BARAT
KE BOGOR
9
Mobility:
Efficient movement of people and goods

Accessibility:
ability to reach opportunities
Shanghai
Road
Overpass
– a transport
solution !!
They say...

R. Shanthini
06 Feb 2010
Challenges:

… Public Transport can help


and resolve … but how ?
• Improve Riding
Habit ?
• Integrated
Strategy

12
Moda
Bandung
Splitvs- Jabodetabek
Jabodetabek

mobil
(24)

mobil sepeda
(10) motor
sepeda (36)
motor Angkuta
(24)
Umum

Potential demand Vs. Carrying capacity of P/T ?


13
14
15
VISION: KEBERLAJUTAN
Moda Split - Jabodetabek
YANG SEBENARNYA

ENERGI TERBARUKAN +
ANGKUTAN BERBASIS LISTRIK +
Walk able Urbanism 16
Tanjung Priok

Loop-line railway KRL

3,43 km Kampung Bandan

Beos
1,44 km

Angke Rajawali

1,23 km 1,93 km
TO Tangerang Duri

Kemayoran

1,43 km

Senen

3,63 km
1,57 km

Sentiong

Tanah Abang
0,97 km
Kramat

Karet Dukuh Atas


1,94 km 1,83 km
Mampang
0,89 km Pondok jati
TO Bekasi

Manggarai
1,74 km 1,24 km
TO Serpong
1,43 km

2,65 km Jatinegara
TANJUNGPRIOK
KAMPUNGBANDANBARU
JAKARTAKOTA ANCOL
ANGKE

DURI JAYAKARTA
RAJAWALI
GROGOL MANGGABESAR
PESING KEMAYORAN
SAWAHBESAR
BANDARA PASARSENEN
BOJONGINDAH JUANDA
RAWABUAYA
GAMBIR
KALIDERES TANAHABANG GANGSENTIONG
PORIS GONDANGDIA
PALMERAH
BATUCEPER KRAMAT
CIKINI
KEBAYORAN MANGGARAI
PONDOKJATI
PONDOKBITUNG
TANGERANG TEBET

MAMPANG
DUKUH
KARET
JURANGMANGU CAWANG JATINEGARA
SUDIMARA DURENKALIBATA
KLENDER
PASARMINGGUBARU
RAWABUNTU KLENDERBARU
PASARMINGGU
CAKUNG
SERPONG TANJUNGBARAT

LENTENGAGUNG

UNIV. PANCASILA KRANJI

UNIV. INDONESIA
BEKASI
RENCANA JALUR BARU PONDOKCINA
JALAN LAYANG KA DEPOKBARU

JEMBATAN PENYEBERANGAN DEPOK NAMBO


DEPO
JAYAKARTA PEMBANGUNAN STASIUN, KRL CITAYAM
PERON DAN ATAPNYA CIBINONG
PENINGKATAN EMPLASEMEN BOJONGGEDE
CILEBUT
STASIUN BARU – AKAN SELESAI 1992
KEBONPEDES
STASIUN BARU – AKAN SELESAI 2003
BOGOR

Ref-1, PROGRAM PEMBANGUNAN JABOTABEK MARET


19
Stasiun pada Green Line
Jarak : 14,3 Km

1. Stadion Madya
2. Palmerah
3. Pejompongan
4. Karet Interchange
5. Sudirman-Dukuh Atas
6. Setiabudi Utara
7. Kuningan Sentral
8. Taman Rasuna
9. Casablanca Interchange
Monorail 10.
11.
Grand Melia
Gatot Subroto
Route 12.
13.
Satria Mandala
Komdak
14. SCBD
15. Gelora Senayan
16. Plasa Senayan

Stasiun pada Blue Line


Jarak : 9,7 Km ; 11 sta s/d Tanah Abang
Jarak : 13,5 Km ; 15 stasiun s/d Taman Anggrek)

1. Kampung Melayu
2. Tebet
3. Dr. Saharjo
4. Menteng Dalam
5. Casablanca Interchange
6. Ambassador
7. Sudirman-WTC
8. Menara Batavia
9. Karet Interchange
10. Kebon Kacang
11. Tanah Abang
12. Cideng
13. Tarakan
14. Tomang
15. Mall Taman Anggrek
Feeder Line Location Map : Central Jakarta Light Rail Transit Proposed Project
Rail – Airport integration at
Amsterdam Schipol airport

The station and airport are one structure


23
Moda Split
TOD -Hub
Jabodetabek
Terminal

24
$120 million

R. Shanthini
06 Feb 2010
KOMENTAR & TANGGAPAN
THD 17 LANGKAH
Instrument
Fokus Regulasi
Pengembangan Kesukarelaan
Pasar &
dan Peningkatan (Voluntary)
Penegakan Hukum

Sistem 5, 7,8,10,13,
2, 3, 6,
Transportasi 14,15, 17 1 Erp
9,16

Sistem Aktifitas 18 Pindah


(Land Use) Ibukota
Kelembagaan
dan SDM 4, 11 12 Masterplan

1. Memberlakukan Electronic Road Pricing (ERP).


2. Jalur busway tetap disterilisasi terutama di empat jalur yang sebelumnya disterilisasi Pemda DKI.
3. Kebijakan perpakiran dan penegakan hukum tegas terutama untuk kendaraan parker di bahu jalan yang dekat dengan jalur busway.
4. Memperbaiki fasilitas jalan maka Pemda DKI sudah menerapkan multiyears contract untuk perbaikan jalan.
5. Untuk busway akan ditambah lagi dua jalur dan akan mulai beroperasi akhir tahun ini dan tahun depan akan tamba dua jalur lagi.
6. Adanya pembicaraan serius mengenai harga gas khusus untuk transportasi.
7. Pemerintah meminta Pemda DKI restrukturisasi angkutan dalam hal pemakaian bus-bus kecil yang tidak efisien.
8. Mengoptimalkan kereta api di Jabodetabek
9. Polisi mendapat tugas menertibkan angkutan liar untuk mengurangi tekanan pada titik-titik dimana mereka menunggu penumpang.
10. Mempercepat pembangunan Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) yang tahun depan sudah mulai konstruksi untuk jalur Lebak Bulus-Hotel Indonesia.
11. Pembentukan otoritas transportasi Jabodetabek.
12. Untuk mendukung otoritas transportasi itu, akan direvisi rencana induk transportasi terpadu.
13. Proyek double-track jalur kereta api terutama ke Cikarang.
14. Mempercepat proyek lingkar luar dalam Kereta Api yang akan diintegrasikan dengan sistem angkutan massal di Jakarta.
15. Jalan tol tambahan berupa enam ruas jalan tol layang.
16. Traffic restraints / Ownershiip restraint 27
17. Park and Ride
Tanggapan Terkait 17 Langkah (1)
No. Tanggapan
1. -Belum ada PP
-Kerancuan ERP dengan pungutan Tol
-Pengenaan pajak ganda
-Jalan adalah publik goods

2. Perlu koordinasi antara Pemprov DKI dgn Polisi dan konsekuensinya butuh dana tambahan

3. -Penertiban parkir di pinggir jalan


-Pembangunan park & ride

4. Terkait dengan pengelolaan keuangan negara

5. -Mekanisme kerjasama Pemprov DKI dgn penyedia jasa layanan


- sosialisasi peran angkutan umum
-Pengurangan ruang gerak kendaraan pribadi

6. -Keseragaman harga jual PT Pertamina dan PT PGN


-Coverage jaringan gas PT PGN masih terlalu sempit
-Sebagian besar gas telah dijual ke luar negeri

7. Mekanisme subsidi khususnya angmum yg dikelola perorangan

8. -Integrasi tarif KA dgn sistem tranportasi secara keseluruhan


-Integrasi antara stasiun dengan area sekitarnya
-Integrasi KA jabodetabek sebagai backbone dan moda jalan sebagai feeder
28
Tanggapan
No.
Terkait 17 Langkah
Tanggapan
(2)
9. -Butuh koordinasi dgn Pemprov terkait dana tambahan operasi lapangan
-Menimbulkan masalah sosial

10. -Butuh dana besar dan penyediaan lahan


-Integrasi MRT dengan moda lainnya
-Implementasi konsep TOD
-Mekanisme penyesuaian tarif dan pemberian subsidi

11. -Pendelegasian wewenang Dishub dan Kemenhub ke Otoritas Transportasi Jabodetabek


-Diperlukan personil yang punya otorita dan punya waktu utk koordinasi
-Mekanisme pendanaan

12. Perlu updating, yang paling penting implementasinya di lapangan

13. -Kesulitan pembebasan lahan


-Ada aturan pemberi pinjaman sebelum lahan bebas 100%, tender blm bisa dumulai

14. -Idem poin 8(optimasi KA jabodetabek)

15. -Pengadaan lahan yg semakin sulit dan mahal


-Dilematis, karena malah bisa menambah kendaraan pribadi
-Pembangunan infrastruktur untuk pengoperasian kendaraan tidak bermotor

16. -Batasi penggunaan kendaraan bermotor: idem dengan point 1 (ERP)

17. -Sediakan parkir dekat stasiun KA Jabodetabek: idem dengan point 3 (Pembenahan perparkiran)

29
Challenge: how to maintain public transport share?

Modal share of Public Transport (PT)


Desirable path

feasible unfeasible

difficult

Expected path feasible

Critical stage GDP per capita

 The dynamics of urban transport system moves towards shifting


public transport share to private modes as the income rises

 When public transport share drops to very low level, reversing it


through policy intervention is very difficult (due to unfavorable
land-use condition)
INTEGRATED APPRAISAL & STRATEGY

•An appraisal methodology which is consistent


across modes and policy instruments helps to
improve decision-making.

•Care must be taken to ensure that it captures all


impacts and that all impacts receive equal
consideration irrespective of whether they can be
easily quantified and valued.

31
Concept of Integration
( 2 schools of thought)

 Physical ( Engineering & Design, … then Land Use,


Landscape Control)

 Institutional
(as market & behavior needs to be controlled too )

Coordination become a MUST !!


(n.) The state of being coordinate, or of equal rank, dignity, power, etc.
(n.) The act of coordinating; the act of putting in the same order, class, rank,
dignity, etc.; as, the coordination of the executive, the legislative, and the
judicial authority in forming a government; the act of regulating and
combining so as to produce harmonious results; harmonious adjustment;
as, a coordination of functions.
Goals of integration in public transport:
 make attractive conditions of travelling by public
transport;
 make possibility for cooperation for all operators of
public transport
 …...Sustainability of the city functions : social
and economics

What elements to be integrated :


1. Physical ( Transport only ,
TOD / Home-Transit-office)
2. Operations (Operators)
3. Ticketing
4. Image
5. Funding 33
The Design of Integrated Transport
Strategies (May, Kelly and Shepherd, 2004)
Integration can occur in five broad ways:
1. integration between policy instruments involving
different modes;
2. integration between policy instruments involving
infrastructure provision, management, information
and pricing;
3. integration between transport measures and land
use planning measures;

4. integration with other policy areas such as health


and education; and
5. integration between authorities within a
conurbation.

34
Barriers to the Implementation of
Integrated Strategies
 Legal and institutional barriers: These include lack of legal powers to
implement a particular instrument, and legal responsibilities which are split
between agencies, limiting the ability of the city authority to implement the
affected instrument.
 Financial barriers: These include budget restrictions limiting the overall
expenditure on the strategy, financial restrictions on specific instruments, and
limitations on the flexibility with which revenues can be used to finance the full
range of instruments.
 Political and cultural barriers: These involve lack of political or public
acceptance of an instrument, restrictions imposed by pressure groups, and cultural
attributes, such as attitudes to enforcement, which influence the effectiveness of
instruments.
 Practical and technological barriers: While cities view legal, financial and
political barriers as the most serious which they face in implementing land use and
transport policy instruments, there may also be practical limitations. For land use
and infrastructure measures these may well include land acquisition. For
management and pricing, enforcement and administration are key issues. For
infrastructure, management and information systems, engineering design and
availability of technology may limit progress. Generally, lack of key skills and
expertise can be a significant barrier to progress, and is aggravated by the rapid
changes in the types of policy being considered.

35
Jakarta Railway Networks: Existing, Under construction and planning
Institutional Setting

 Business as usual (lack coordination)

Individual Local authority (Bakortrans, DTK Jakarta)

 Badan Otorita (Metropolitan Authority)


 under one Province or
 more than one Province
Opsi & Scope :
Tahapan Badan Otorita ( FORUM)

Infrastructure All P/T + road Public


+ Land use transport only
Infrastructure transport
Authority
Public Institutions involved in
integration:
 Central Government (Dephub, Polri,
PU(Binamarga), Dep Keu, DepDagri)
 Pemda DKI (Dishub, Dis PU)
 Local authorities of other cities and
communities around DKI (BODETABEK)

Public Ttransport Operators :


o PT Kereta Api (Daop 1) , PT KCJ
o BLU TransJakarta , PT JMRT
o Other bus operators & paratransyt
o Taxis
39
Transportation Planning Process and Approaches
Source: Dalkie and Soberman (2008)
Metropolitan transport organisations and functions
Cities Organisations Authority Functions
New York Metropolitan All public transport, some bridges 1-10
Transportation and tunnels; New York
Authority (MTA) State portion of Conurbation.

Paris Syndicat des Transports d’Ilede- All public transport; Entire 1-8
France (STIF) conurbation.
Singapore Land transport Authority. All public transport, non-motorized 1-9
modes, highways,
roads bridges, tunnels, parking;
Entire conurbation.
Sao Paulo Metropolitan Transport Agency All public transport, some bridges , 1-9
(Empresa Metropolitan de Transporte highways, modes and Tunnels.
Urbanos de Sao paulo.EMTU).

Lebanon Lebanon County Metropolitan All public transport; 1-5 and


planning Organisation. (LEBCO). Entire conurbation. 7-9
Bangladesh Metropolitan transportation planning All public transport, non-motorized 1-9
organisation. modes, highways,
roads bridges, tunnels, parking;
Entire conurbation.

1. Strategic Planning 6. Infrastructure project implementation


2. Investment, management, operations policy planning 7. Service, operations regulation, enforcement
3. System/corridor planning 8. Strategic service, operations management
4. Financial planning 9. Public Trasnport Service planning
5. Long and short-term priority setting, decision making 10. Daily Public Transport operation, Management
for investment, operating subsidies (Source: Sam Zimmerman , World Bank 2007)
Institutional Set up

PEMERINTAH / PEMDA
Policy/ Strategy
(SHE Regulator)
(Dephub / Dishub)

(Badan Otorita Transport /Regulator)

Economic Regulator Contracting Authority


(Badan Regulator Independen) (Badan Otorita / Konsesi)

Operator
(BUMN, BUMD,
Swasta, Koperasi)
42
FORUM - BMA TRANSPORT AUTHORITY
(Gubernur, Walikota, Bupati2 & Kapolda)
MEMBER/STAKEHOLDERS ROLES
Technical planning committee Provide Land use planning
(BAPEDDA)
Traffic Police Enforcement

Transport Operators (PT KA, DAMRI, Operating public transport


ORGANDA)
Dinas Perhubungan (Traffic) Manage transportation in the city
Binamarga/ PU (Road) Road infrastructures improvement and
construction within metropolitan area
Academics (Professors) Professionals, Consultants

Citizens , Users, NGOs, Provide information, identify problems


and suggest solutions
SECRETARIAT FORUM
ORGANISATION MODEL FOR PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN BMA

GREATER BANDUNG METRO GREATER BANDUNG METRO

OPERATING LEVEL
PUBLIC TRANSPORT PUBLIC TRANSPORT
ADMINISTRATION UNION OPERATORS ASSOCIATION
POLITICAL LEVEL

1.KOTA BANDUNG ALL PUBLIC TRANSPORT


2.KOTA CIMAHI OPERATORS AT THE BMA
3.KAB. BANDUNG (RAIL, TRAMWAY BUSES,
4.KAB. BANDUNG BARAT CEO VCEO CABLE CAR, ANGKOT,
5.KAB. SUMEDANG TAXI)

BANDUNG METROPOLITAN AREA


PUBLIC TRANSPORT LTD.

RECRUITED STAFF

MANAGING LEVEL
HOW TO INTEGRATE
ANGKOT/Metromini
( restrukturisasi trayek )
Angkots are currently having a major share. Every mass
transportation trunk line will be feeded by a number of Angkots

Feeder 1 Feeder 2 Feeder 3


Feeder 4 Feeder 5 Feeder 6

= Trunk Line Stop


46
47
TANTANGAN Moda Split - Jabodetabek
PENGEMBANGAN ANGKUTAN UMUM
DI PERKOTAAN

48
Mental map Angkutan Umum
Pindah ke
Mobil Pribadi
atau beli Motor

Pelayanan
Memburuk Macet
nambah Prioritas
(massal)

Kecepatan
Pendapatan
Turun
Berkurangg

Trip
Angmum Kurang PEMBOROSAN :
Skema Bandung (2002) : Rp 1, 8 M/hari
Subsidi
Metro Bandung (2003): Rp 7 M /hari
Jakarta (2003) : 14,8 M/hari
Jabodetabek ( 2003) : Rp 47 M / 50
hari
Population in the world’s 20 largest Metropolitan Areas (MA)
New York Tokyo
Tokyo Mexico city
London New York
Paris São Paulo
Moscow Mumbai
Shanghai Delhi
Rhein-Ruhr Calcutta
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires
Chicago Shanghai
Calcutta
1950 Jakarta 2004
Osaka-Kobe Los Angeles
Los Angeles Dhaka
Beijing Rio de Janeiro
Milan Osaka-Kobe
Berlin Karachi Asian MA
Philadelphia 7 Asian cities Cairo
Mumbai Beijing
Other MA
Rio de Janeiro Moscow
St Petersburg Metro Manila 11 Asian cities
Mexico city Lagos

0 5 10 15 20 25 300 355 10 15 20 25 30 35
Population (million) Population (million)
Large-scale urbanization (mega-cities) in Asia