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BASIC LOG

INTERPRETATION

Log Interpretation Seminar/ Workshop


(14th – 16th May 2007, New Delhi)

Name: _____________________________________

© 2007 by HLS Asia Limited.


All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,
photocopying, electronic, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher.
Basic Log Interpretation

INDEX

Section – 1 BASIC ANALYSIS CONCEPTS

Section – 2 POROSITY AND MINERALOGY

Section – 3 ENVIRONMENTAL CORRECTIONS

Section – 4 CLEAN FORMATION EVALUATION

Section – 5 ADDITIONAL LOG


INTERPRETATION TECHNIQUES

Section – 6 SHALY SAND THEORY

Section – 7 SHALY SAND APPLICATIONS

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Section 1
Basic Analysis Concepts

Table of Contents
Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………. 3
Objectives…………………………………………………………………………………….…….. 3
Formation Evaluation and Log analysis…………………………………………………………. 4
The Basis for Log analysis………………………………………………………………………... 5
Water Saturation of Clean formations…………………………………………………………… 6
Archie's Equation dissected………………………………………………………………………. 10
Essential Calculations…………………………………………………………………………….. 10
Determining Geothermal Gradient……………………………………………………………….. 11
Determining Formation Temperature (Tf )……………………………………………………….. 11
Determining R m f from R m ………………………………………………………………………….. 12
Correcting Resistivity for Temperature………………………………………………………….. 12
Determining Formation Water Resistivity (Rw) by the Inverse Archie Method……………… 13
Example Application of Archie's Equation………………………………………………………. 13
Rw Calculation by Inverse-Archie Method……………………………………………………….. 15
Sw Calculations…………………………………………………………………………………….. 16
Permeability Indicators……………………………………………………………………………. 17
Determining Formation Water Resistivity (Rw) by the SP Method……………………………. 19
Detailed Procedure of SP Method……………………………………………………………….. 20
Additional Notes about Formation Water Resistivity…………………………………………… 21
Additional R w Calculation Example………………………………………………………………. 21
"Quick-Look" Methods in Log Analysis………………………………………………………….. 25
References…………………………………………………………………………………………. 27

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Introduction
This section presents an overview of the basic concepts of open hole log analysis and
provides practical examples of the techniques and methods. A working knowledge of
each of these concepts is fundamental for performing a basic well-site analysis.

Objectives
After completing this section, the participant should be able to
§ clearly identify and mark on a log the potential water-bearing zones
§ clearly identify and mark on a log the potential hydrocarbon-bearing zones.
§ recognize potential water-bearing zones that are amenable to formation water
resistivity (Rw ) derivation by judging their cleanliness, porosity, and qualitative
permeability.
§ estimate lithology of potential water-bearing and hydrocarbon-bearing zones.
§ calculate the cross-plot porosity of a zone of interest.
§ select appropriate values for tortuosity factor (a) and cementation exponent (m)
values required for calculating formation water resistivity (Rw ) and water saturation
(S w ) in zones of different lithology and/or porosity.
§ calculate geothermal gradient (gG) for a particular well location by equation and by
chart.
§ calculate formation temperature (Tf ) for any depth of interest by equation and by
chart.
§ determine values for mud filtrate resistivity (Rmf ) and mudcake resistivity (Rmc ) from
mud resistivity (Rm) by chart and by equation.
§ convert measured and/or derived resistivity values (Rm, Rmf , Rmc ) to formation
temperature (Tf ) for any depth of interest by equation and by chart.
§ calculate value for formation water resistivity (Rw ) in a selected clean waterbearing
zone by inverse-Archie method.
§ determine value for formation water resistivity (Rw ) in a selected clean waterbearing
zone by SP method.
§ determine a reasonable and optimistic value for formation water resistivity (Rw ) by
comparing values derived from inverse-Archie and SP methods.
§ convert derived values of formation water resistivity (Rw ) to formation temperature
(Tf ) for any depth of interest by equation and by chart.

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§ calculate water saturation (S w ) for a clean hydrocarbon-bearing zone by Archie


equation.
§ calculate hydrocarbon saturation (S hc ) for a clean hydrocarbon-bearing zone by
equation.
§ clearly identify and mark on a log potential perforated intervals based on water
saturation (S w ) calculations.

Formation Evaluation and Log Analysis


Formation evaluation can be generally defined as the practice of determining both the
physical and chemical properties of rocks and the fluids they contain. The objective of
formation evaluation is to locate, define, and produce from a given reservoir by drilling
as few wells as possible. To this end, oil companies utilize a variety of formation
evaluation methods, some of which are outlined in Figure 1.1.

Figure 1.1. Formation Evaluation methods

PHASE ACTIVITY EVALUATION METHOD

Exploration Define Structure Seismic, gravity mapping, magnetic


mapping

Drilling Drill well Mud logging, whole coring, MWD

Logging Log well Open hole logs

Primary Evaluation Log analysis and testing Sidewall cores, vertical seismic profile
(VSP), Wireline formation testing,
drillstem testing

Analysis Core analysis Laboratory studies

Feedback Refinement of seismic model Log calibration via core analysis results,
and log analysis seismic calibration from log analysis
results

Exploration Producing hydrocarbons Material balance analysis

Secondary Water or gas injection and Production log analysis, flood efficiency
recovery production logging analysis, micro-rock property analysis

Abandonment Economic decisions

Wireline logs are one of the many different sources of data used in formation
evaluation. However, due to accurate depth determination and near proximity of
receiver to formation, wireline logs occupy an important position in formation evaluation.
Logging is a very small, but very important, piece of the larger puzzle. The decision to

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plug or complete a well is often based upon the logs response and hence a proper and
accurate acquisition and analysis of these data is a must.

The Basis for Log Analysis


Resistivity is, perhaps, the most fundamental of all measurements in logging. All
geological materials possess some amount of resistance which is inherent to the flow of
an electrical current. Resistivity (R) is the physical measurement of resistance and is
defined as the reciprocal of material's electrical conductivity (C).

Rock matrix, oil, and gas are electrical insulators. They will not conduct the flow of an
electrical current and therefore their resistivities are said to be infinite.Water, however,
will conduct electricity depending upon its salinity. This implies that any current flow
through a formation is taking place in the formation water,and not hydrocarbons or the
rock matrix. Salt water, with high concentrations of dissolved solids (e.g., NaCl, etc.),
will conduct electricity much more readily than will fresh water. Therefore, salt water
has a much lower resistivity than fresh water. In most instances, the water present in a
formation at depth will be moderately saline. Water-bearing zones, therefore, have
higher conductivity--or lower resistivity--than hydrocarbon-bearing zones.

Because oil and gas will not conduct electrical current, it is impossible to distinguish
them from rock matrix on the basis of resistivity. These fluids do, however, fill the pore
space of a formation, leaving less room for conductive formation water. The electrical
current that does flow through a hydrocarbon bearing formation is forced to take a more
tortuous path, weaving around the hydrocarbon that occupies part of the pore space.
The overall effect of the presence of hydrocarbons is an increase in resistivity.

The basis for log analysis is to compare the measured resistivity of a formation with the
calculated resistivity of that formation assuming its porosity is 100% water-filled. The
resistivity of a rock at 100% water saturation is referred to as wet resistivity (Ro). If, for a
given porosity, the measured resistivity is significantly higher than the wet resistivity,
then the presence of hydrocarbons is indicated. This relationship is the basis for
determining the percentage of porosity that is filled with formation water (water
saturation) and therefore the percentage of porosity that is filled with hydrocarbon
(hydrocarbon saturation). Water saturation (S w ) for a clean formation may be calculated
using the Archie equation.

Archie Water Saturation

Hydrocarbon Saturation Shc = 1.0 - Sw

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Water Saturation of Clean Formations


Consider a formation with a given amount of porosity and assume that porosity is
completely filled with saline formation water of a given resistivity (Figure 1.2). The
formation water resistivity (Rw ), because the saline water is capable of conducting
electrical current, is quite low. The resistivity of the formation itself (Ro, or wet resistivity,
where porosity is 100% filled with water) will depend upon the formation water resistivity
and some other factor referred to as the formation resistivity factor (Fr).

Figure 1.2. Model formation: 100% water saturated.

By rearranging this equation, formation resistivity factor (F r) can be quantified as the


ratio of the formation's wet resistivity to the resistivity of the water (Rw ) present in that
formation.

In this example, formation water resistivity (Rw ) is defined as constant and therefore,
changes in formation resistivity factor (F r) will occur only with changes in the overall
formation resistivity (Ro). The one way in which Ro can change in a formation of
constant Rw is by changing the amount of fluid available to conduct an electrical current.
This is accomplished through changes in porosity. As porosity decreases, the amount
of water available to conduct electrical current is decreased, resulting in an increase in
formation resistivity (Ro). Therefore, formation resistivity factor (F r) is inversely
proportional to porosity (Φ).

This relationship between formation resistivity and porosity was researched by G.E.
Archie of Shell Oil while working on limestones in France. Archie had electric
(resistivity) logs from several wells, and core porosity from productive zones within
these wells. He noticed that there was some relation between resistivity and porosity,
and thus was able to identify zones of interest through the use of electric logs alone.
What he wanted to know was the existence of some relationship that makes it possible
to determine whether a zone would be productive on the basis of measured resistivity
and core porosity.

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Changes in the porosity of a formation may have effects other than simply increasing or
decreasing the amount of fluid available to conduct electrical current. With a change in
porosity, there may be concomitant changes in the complexity of the pore network that
affect the conductive nature of the fluids present, and formation resistivity factor (F r) can
therefore vary with the type of reservoir. These changes are expressed by the tortuosity
factor (a) and cementation exponent (m).

For the limestones of Archie's experiments, the tortuosity factors and cementation
exponents were always constant (a = 1.0, m = 2.0). However, this may not be the case
for all reservoirs. Although both parameters can be determined experimentally for a
specific reservoir, log analysts commonly use set values for tortuosity factor (a) and
cementation exponent (m) depending upon lithology and porosity. These standard
values are presented in Figure 1.3.

Figure 1.3. Standard values for tortuosity factor and cementation exponent.

Consider now that the porous formation discussed previously is filled with some
combination of conductive formation water of constant resistivity (Rw ) and oil (Figure
1.4). Oil is an insulator and will not conduct electrical current. Furthermore, because the
formation is filled with both water and oil, the resistivity of the formation can no longer
be referred to as wet resistivity (Ro).

The measure of formation resistivity in this instance--taking into account the resistivity
of the rock matrix and the fluids contained--is called true resistivity (Rt).

Figure 1.4. Model formation containing both water and oil.

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True resistivity of a formation will only be equal to wet resistivity (Rt = Ro) when the
porosity of that formation is completely filled with conductive water. However, because
some of the available porosity may be filled with nonconductive oil or gas, the wet
resistivity (Ro) of that formation can now be related to the measured true resistivity (Rt)
by some additional factor, referred to as F'.

The factor F' can therefore be expressed as a ratio of the theoretical wet resistivity of
that formation (Ro) to the actual omeasured resistivity of the formation (Rt)

In this example, because both porosity and formation water resistivity (Rw ) are
considered to be constant, the resulting wet resistivity (Ro) will be constant. Therefore,
changes in the factor F' will occur with changes in measured true resistivity (Rt). Under
the given conditions, the only way in which measured true resistivity (Rt) of the
formation can change is through the addition or subtraction of conductive fluid. For
example, the addition of oil to the reservoir would result in the increase of that
formation's measured resistivity (Rt) because some amount of conductive formation
water would be displaced by the oil. Therefore, the factor F' is dependent upon the
relative proportion of conductive fluids (water) and non-conductive fluids (hydrocarbons)
in the formation.

The factor F' in the above equation represents water saturation (usually expressed as
Sw) which is the percentage of pore space within a formation that is occupied by
conductive formation water. By substitution of equations, water saturation can be
related to the physical properties of the formation and the conductive properties of the
fluids it contains.

Water saturation is related to these properties by the exponent n (saturation exponent).


Saturation exponent may have a range of values dependent upon specific reservoir
conditions, but generally is assumed to be equal to 2.0. With knowledge of the
production characteristics of the formation in question, it is possible to determine more
accurate values for saturation exponent.

The equation for water saturation (S w ), an expanded version of that presented as a


footnote in Archie's 1942 publication and commonly referred to as "Archie's equation,"
has become the foundation of the entire industry of well logging. In its simplest form,
Archie's equation is often expressed as:

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where:

n = saturation exponent
a = tortuosity factor
Φ = porosity
m = cementation exponent
Rw = formation water resistivity
Rt = true formation resistivity

It is important to realize that while water saturation represents the percentage of water
present in the pores of a formation, it does not represent the ratio of water to
hydrocarbons that will be produced from a reservoir. Shaly sandstone reservoirs with
clay minerals that trap a large amount of formation water may have high water
saturations, yet produce only hydrocarbons. Water saturation simply reflects the relative
proportions of these fluids contained in the reservoir. Nonetheless, obtaining accurate
values for water saturation is the primary goal of open hole log analysis. With
knowledge of water saturation, it is possible to determine what percentage of porosity is
filled with a fluid other than water (i.e., hydrocarbons) and therefore, hydrocarbon
reserves.

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Archie's Equation Dissected

Essential Calculations
Log analysis calculations require values of resistivity, in particular mud filtrate resistivity
(Rmf ) and formation water resistivity (Rw ). A single measured or calculated value of Rmf
and/or Rw may need to be applied over a wide range of depths. Because resistivity
varies with temperature, this practice requires that resistivities be corrected for the

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appropriate temperatures at depth. Bear in mind that Rmf and/or Rw must be corrected to
the temperature at a certain depth if those values are to be used in calculations.

Determining Geothermal Gradient

The first step involved in determining temperature at a particular depth is to determine


the geothermal gradient (gG) of the region. Temperature increases with depth, and the
temperature gradient of a particular region depends upon the geologic, or tectonic,
activity within that region. The more activity, the higher the geothermal gradient.
Geothermal gradients are commonly expressed in degrees Fahrenheit per 100 feet
(?F/100'). If the geothermal gradient of an area is not known, then it can be determined
by chart or by formula. If using a chart, it is important to use the correct chart,
depending upon your location. Instructions and an example for using these charts
accompany charts GEN-2a (international locations) and GEN-2b (North America
locations).

Geothermal gradient may also be determined by taking pertinent information from the
header and using the following equation:

Note that both the chart method and the formula method require a value for mean
surface temperature (Tms ). This refers to the average annual temperature of a region,
and not the temperature at which resistivity measurements were made during the
logging job (e.g., mud press resistivities). Mean surface temperatures for international
and North America locations are presented on charts GEN-2a and GEN-2b,
respectively. If the mean surface temperature for a region is not known, then it is
standard practice to assume 75?F as a value for Tms , and realize the potential
calculation errors that may result from this assumption.

Determining Formation Temperature (T f)

Once the geothermal gradient (gG) has been established, it is possible to determine the
temperature for a particular depth. This is often referred to as formation temperature
(Tf ). As with geothermal gradient, Tf may be determined through the use of charts GEN-
2a or GEN-2b. It may also be calculated using the following equation.

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Determining R mf from R m

In some cases, a value of mud filtrate resistivity (Rmf ) may not be available from the
header, or there may be a question about the validity or accuracy of the measurement.
A value of Rmf may be obtained from the mud resistivity (Rm) through the use of chart
GEN-3. This chart requires only mud density (or mud weight) as input, and allows the
determination of both Rmf and mudcake resistivity (Rmc ) from Rm. It should be
remembered that values of Rmf obtained from this chart also require correction to
formation temperature before their use.

Correcting Resistivity for Temperature


Resistivity decreases with increasing temperature, and therefore any value of Rmf
and/or Rw determined at one depth must be corrected for the appropriate formation
temperature (Tf ) where those values will be used to calculate water saturation (S w ). It is
vital that formation water resistivity (Rw ) be corrected for temperature. Failing to correct
Rw to a higher temperature will result in erroneously high values of water saturation
(S w). Therefore, it is possible to calculate a hydrocarbon-bearing zone as a wet zone if
the temperature correction is not applied.

Correction may be applied through the use of a chart (GEN-5) or an equation (Arp's
equation). Chart GEN-5 may be used to determine the resistivity of a solution (such as
Rm, Rmf , Rw , etc.) at a given temperature when the NaCl concentration of that solution is
known, and vice versa. It may also be used to determine the resistivity of a solution at a
given temperature when the resistivity of this same solution at another temperature is
known. Instructions and examples for these particular uses accompany chart GEN-5.

A more straightforward method of correcting resistivity for temperature is through the


use of Arp's equation:

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Determining Formation Water Resistivity (Rw) by the


Inverse Archie Method
Determining a value for formation water resistivity (Rw ) from logs may not always
provide reliable results; however, in many cases logs provide the only means of
determining Rw . Two of the most common methods of determining Rw from logs are the
inverse-Archie method and the SP method.

The inverse-Archie method of determining Rw works under the assumption that water
saturation (S w ) is 100%. It is necessary, therefore, that the inverse-Archie method be
employed in a zone that is obviously wet. Furthermore, it is desirable to calculate Rw
from the inverse-Archie method in a clean formation with relatively high porosity.

Once a clean and porous wet zone is located, lithological assumptions must be made
about that formation in order to select the appropriate values of cementation exponent
(m) and tortuosity factor (a) to use in the equation. This estimate should be
accomplished by quick-look means using a combination of the gamma ray, porosity,
and Pe curves. Formation water resistivity calculated by the inverse- Archie method
(Rw a) depends upon lithology; however, Rwa calculated in one lithology can be used for
water saturation (S w ) calculations in a zone of different lithology. For example, Rwa may
be determined in a sandstone, and this value may then be used in the Archie equation
to calculate water saturation (S w ) in a limestone, provided that the necessary
temperature corrections have been made. This is one of the many assumptions that
must be made in log analysis applications.

Example Application of Archie's Equation


The following examples are worked with respect to the log presented in Figure 1.5. It is
assumed that any zones of interest are limestone.

By first observing the resistivity log, one can infer that the areas of high resistivity (8515
and 8610) indicate zones containing hydrocarbons. Areas with low resistivity (8535 and
8710) are more likely to contain conductive formation water. These axioms are not
always correct because high resistivity in a formation may also be caused by a lack of
porosity. Therefore, sections of higher porosity (8515 and 8710) should be of more
interest than those with lower porosity (8610). The flat-line areas, falling between the
zones of interest, are assumed to be nonproductive shale zones.

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For optimistic values of Rw to be obtained, a zone most likely to produce 100% water
should be chosen for calculations. This zone should have low resistivity and relatively
high porosity. There are two obvious zones fitting these criteria (8535 and 8710). The
zone at 8710 has higher porosity; however, the zone at 8535 is in close proximity to the
hydrocarbon zone just above it at 8515. The Rw value of this wet zone probably closely
matches the Rw value of the hydrocarbon zone because they occur at virtually the same
depth. On a more pessimistic note, however, this upper wet zone (8535) may contain
some hydrocarbons because both the wet zone and hydrocarbon zone occur in the
same porous lithologic unit. Because two wet zones are present, values of Rwa should
be calculated for both, and the lesser of these two values should be used in order to
obtain more optimistic water saturation (S w ) results.

Lithology of the zones of interest has been given as limestone. Therefore, for all
calculations, the appropriate values of cementation exponent (m) and tortuosity factor
(a) must be assumed. In this case, for limestone, a = 1.0 and m = 2.0.

Figure 1.5. Example log.

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Rw Calculation by Inverse-Archie Method

There are several possible explanations for the variance in calculated values for Rw a.
The lesser of the two values (at 8710) may possibly be the result of a cleaner wet zone.
It could also be the result of the water at 8710 having a completely different salinity than
the water at 8535. More than likely, the higher value (at 8535) results from the fact that
the wet zone probably contains residual hydrocarbons from the overlying zone.

The decision of which value of Rwa to use in water saturation calculations should be
based on experience, common sense, and logical deductions. All of the conditions
discussed above should be considered.

In any case where R w may be calculated in different zones or by different


methods, the lowest calculated value of R w (within reason) should be used in
order to obtain more optimistic (lower) calculated values of water saturation.
This is a critical assumption!

For the purposes of this example, the lowest value of formation water resistivity from
8710 (Rw = 0.038 ? -m) will be used. This value, because it is the lesser of the two, will
produce more optimistic values of water saturation.

Once a reasonable value for Rw is established for a zone or groups of zones, it should
be temperature corrected for depth, depending upon the differences in depth between
its origin and its implementation. This is accomplished by using either GEN-5 or Arp's
equation. In this particular example, the temperature variation between the top and
bottom of the log is only 2?F, therefore no temperature correction is necessary.

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Sw Calculations

Potential hydrocarbon-bearing zones may now be evaluated using the value for Rw that
was previously established. High resistivity and high porosity typically characterize
hydrocarbon-bearing formations, again because of the nonconductive behavior of oil
and gas. There are two zones illustrated in Figure 1.5 that fit these criteria--8515 and
8610. The zone at 8610 has very low porosity; its high resistivity results from the fact
that there is little pore water available to conduct current. The zone at 8515 has good
porosity (~28%), and warrants further investigation.

When taking measurement values from a log for use in the Archie equation, it is
desirable to select a single depth rather than averaging values across a zone. Through
the course of actual interpretation there may be many appealing formations. In any
single formation, an analyst may choose several depths at which to calculate water
saturation (S w ). Because the zones in the example log are so well defined, only two
calculations are required--one in each zone.

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Permeability Indicators
Scanning a log in search of zones with high porosity and high resistivity may yield a
number of appealing formations. However, the presence of high porosity and high
resistivity does not necessarily mean that a formation that contains hydrocarbons will
actually produce those hydrocarbons (especially without stimulation or hydraulic
fracturing). Without data from a Formation Tester or Magnetic Resonance Imaging log,
quantitative estimates of permeability are lacking. Permeability refers to the ability of a
formation to transmit the fluids it contains through the existing pore network, and is a
fundamental requirement of a productive reservoir.

Some standard open hole logging services provide several means of getting a
qualitative estimate of a formation's permeability. The most commonly used
permeability indicators are the Micro Electric (or Microlog) and the Spontaneous
Potential (SP) tools. The Microlog indicates permeability when there is separation
between the Micronormal (or Normal) and Microinverse (or Lateral) curves. The
Micronormal curve will read a higher resistivity than the Microinverse curve because of
the effects of mudcake (Rmc ) on the resistivity measurements. Mudcake can only be
present opposite a permeable formation, therefore the presence of this separation is
used as a qualitative indicator of permeability. The Spontaneous Potential, apart from
providing a qualitative estimate of permeability, may also be used to determine a value
of formation water resistivity (Rw ).

A permeability indicator (in this case the SP response) for the log presented in Figure
1.5 might appear as the curve presented in Track 1 of Figure 1.6. The SP will often
respond in such a way that it reflects the same trend as the porosity device; however,
this is not always the case. Negative deflections of the SP curve are used as qualitative
indicators of permeability. Permeable zones in this example log (Figure 1.6) are
indicated at 8500 to 8535, 8595 to 8610, and 8680 to 8720. The zone responsible for
the most SP deflection (8700) is not necessarily the zone with the most permeability.
Likewise, because the zone at 8500 exhibits less SP deflection than the zone at 8700,
this does not mean that it has less permeability than the deeper of the two formations.
Whereas the presence of negative SP deflection may be an indicator of permeability in
a particular zone, the absence of any deflection does not indicate an absence of
permeability.

If permeability is not evident on a log, evaluation of the porosity and resistivity curves
can still result in low water saturation calculations. Depending upon the geology and the
type of tool used to indicate permeability, hydraulic fracturing or other formation
treatment methods may be necessary to produce hydrocarbons.

Locating permeable zones using SP response is an important first


step in any "quick-look" analysis program.

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Figure 1.6. Example log illustrating permeability indicator (SP curve) in Track 1.

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Determining Formation Water Resistivity (Rw) by the


SP Method
Once zones of interest are located by observing trends in their resistivity, porosity, and
permeability indicator responses, determination of formation water resistivity (Rw ) is in
order. As discussed previously, Rw can be calculated by rearranging the Archie
equation and assuming a water saturation (S w ) of 100%. An additional method of
assessing Rw is through the use of an SP versus Rmf chart (SP-4), and is referred to as
the SP method. As with the inverse-Archie method, the SP method gives best results in
clean and relative porous formations. However, because virtually anything and
everything affects the SP measurement it sometimes does not yield reliable results.
The SP method may be advantageous in certain circumstances where porosity data are
not available.

Several steps are involved in determining Rw from the SP response. These procedures
are outlined in Figure 1.7.

Figure 1.7. Steps involved in determining Rw by the SP method.

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Detailed Procedure of SP Method


Determine Formation Temperature (T f)

From chart GEN-2b, locate the mean surface temperature (Tms = 60oF) for the Mid-
ontinent. Using this value, determine the geothermal gradient (gG = 1.14oF/100') and
formation temperature (Tf = 159oF) from the chart or by the appropriate equation.

Determine R m f

Plot Rm = 0.88 Ω-m versus Rm reference temperature (70oF) on GEN-5. This results in a
salinity value of 7,000ppm NaCl. Following this salinity curve to the formation
temperature of the zone of interest (Tf = 159oF) results in a mud resistivity (Rm) value of
0.40 Ω-m at 159oF.

With the value of the mud resistivity (Rm = 0.40 Ω-m) at the proper formation
temperature (Tf = 159oF), use GEN-3 to determine Rmf = 0.22 Ω-m and Rmc = 0.75 Ω-m
at 8710.

Plot R mf and Determine SSP

Plot Rmf = 0.22 Ω-m on the X-axis of SP-4. Project a vertical line upward to an
interpolated imaginary line representing Tf = 159oF (slightly less than half-way between
150oF and 175oF). From this point, extend a horizontal line to the Yaxis to find SSP = -
132mV.

Determine SP Deflection

Assuming the SP base line to be the second division from the right of Track 1, the
deflection at 8710 is -70mV.

Differentiate Between SSP and SP

Re-enter SP-4 on the Y-axis at 62mV. Project a horizontal line to intersect the
interpolated imaginary line representing Tf = 159oF.

Determine R w

From the intersection determined in the previous step, project a vertical line downward
to the X-axis. This plot should fall on a value of Rw = 0.037 Ω-m. There is a 0.001 Ω-m
difference between the Rw values determined by the inverse-Archie method and the SP
method at 8710 (Rwa = 0.038 Ω-m and RwSP = 0.037 Ω-m). This minor difference is in
support of the fact that both measurements likely represent accurate values of
formation water resistivity (Rw ). Water saturation (S w ) calculations using these two
values would result in differences of less than 1%.

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Additional Notes on Formation Water Resistivity


Determining an accurate value of formation water resistivity (Rw ) from logs is often quite
difficult, and usually not as straightforward as presented in these examples. A zone that
is assumed to be 100% water saturated may, in actuality, not be. The presence of
hydrocarbons may suppress any SP deflections, resulting in erroneous calculations.
Furthermore, in a slightly shaly formation, clay minerals may result in abnormally low
resistivities. Perhaps the most dangerous situation is assuming that a particular zone is
wet when it actually contains hydrocarbons. This misinterpretation will result in
compounded errors in the process of log analysis.

When possible, it is best to calculate formation water resistivity (Rw ) using a variety of
methods at several different depths. The results can then be ranked and compared to
reveal a "best pick" for the reservoir. In an effort to be optimistic in water saturation (S w)
calculations, it is usually beneficial to pick the lowest value (within reason) of formation
water resistivity (R w). The worldwide average for formation water resistivity without
correcting for temperature is 0.05 Ω-m. Additional methods of evaluating formation
water resistivity will be discussed in later sections of this text.

Additional Rw Calculation Example


The log for this example calculation is illustrated in Figure 1.8. The objective is to
determine an appropriate value for Rw from the log. It may be assumed that any zones
of interest are sandstone.

Given
Location: Santa Cruz, Bolivia
T.D.: 3,600 meters
B.H.T.: 60 deg. C
Mud weight: 13 lbs/gal

Drilling Fluid Constituents:


Sodium 3,000 ppm
Chloride 4,000 ppm
Magnesium 2,900 ppm
Calcium 2,500 ppm

Define Zones of Interest

The only worthwhile SP deflection occurs from 2775m to 2830m. Within these limits
there are two definite zones of interest. The upper zone (2790m) has low resistivity and
high porosity, and is an ideal choice for Rw calculations assuming 100% water
saturation. The lower zone (2815m) has high resistivity and high porosity, making it a
likely candidate for a hydrocarbon-bearing zone. The zone at 2900m exhibits no
indication of permeability, and has both lower resistivity and lower porosity than the
zone at 2815m. Because the SP response may be suppressed by the ratio Rmf /Rw , a
zone of this nature may still be of interest to the client, and should be evaluated.

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Basic Log Interpretation

Determine Formation Temperature (T f)

From chart GEN-2a, determine the mean surface temperature (Tms = 15oC) of Santa
Cruz. After establishing a base line, project a vertical line upward from BHT = 60oC on
the X-axis, and project a horizontal line from the right of the TD (3600m) on the Y-axis.
The intersection of these two lines should fall on a line representing the geothermal
gradient (gG = .25oC/100m). Following the geothermal gradient line upward to the depth
of the zone of interest and descending from that intersection to the X-axis yields a
formation temperature (Tf ) of 50oC at 2790m (wet zone).

Figure 1.8. Example log from Santa Cruz, Bolivia, region.

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Determine Equivalent NaCl Concentration

The equivalent NaCl concentration can lead to an estimated value of mud resistivity
(Rm) at the zone of interest. To determine this concentration, chart GEN-4 must be
used.

Add the concentrations of the four ionic constituents to obtain a total ion concentration.
Enter GEN-4 on the X-axis at a value equal to this total concentration. Project a vertical
line upward to intersect with the lines corresponding to each of the particular
constituents (Ca, Cl, Mg, Na). From the projected intersections, extend horizontal lines
to intersect the Y-axis. The Y-axis values represent corrective multipliers for each
constituent.

Determine R m at Zone of Interest

With the estimated total solution of NaCl = 12,596ppm, use chart GEN-5 to obtain a
mud resistivity (Rm = 0.29 Ω-m) at 2790m.

Determine R m f

Using GEN-3, determine Rmf = 0.13 Ω-m at 2790m.

Plot R mf and Determine SSP

Using SP-4, plot Rmf = 0.13 Ω-m on the X-axis and extend a vertical line upward to the
proper formation temperature line (Tf = 122oF). To convert between oF and oC, use the
top and bottom scales of GEN-5.

Project a horizontal line from this intersection to the Y-axis and obtain an SSP value of -
98mV.

Determine SP Deflection

From the log, the SP deflection at 2790m is roughly -62mV from the baseline.

Differentiate between SSP and SP

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Plot ∆SP

Re-enter chart SP-4 on the Y-axis with a value of 36mV. Project a horizontal line to the
interpolated 122oF line representing formation temperature (Tf ).

Determine R w

From the intersection established in the previous step, extend a vertical line downward
to the X-axis. This plot should fall on a value of Rw = 0.035 Ω-m.

Determine R w from the Inverse-Archie Method

Because the lithology of formations of interest is given to be sandstone and the porosity
of the zone at 2790m is greater than 16%, the Humble values of tortuosity factor (a)
and cementation exponent (m) may be assumed.

Comparison of R w Results

The values of Rw calculated by different methods for the zone at 2790m differ by 0.091
Ω-m. This is a major difference, and will have detrimental effects on calculated values
of water saturation (S w ). The decision as to which value to use should be based on
experience as well as information taken from the log. The SP method has yielded a
more reasonable and optimistic value of formation water resistivity (Rw = 0.034 Ω-m),
and should be used in future calculations to obtain more optimistic values of water
saturation (S w ).

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Basic Log Interpretation

"Quick-Look" Methods in Log Analysis


Before water saturation is calculated for any zone, it is necessary to scan a log and
locate favorable zones that warrant further investigation. This is true not only for
potential hydrocarbon-bearing zones, but water-bearing zones as well. This is often
referred to as ”scanilizing" a log. There are certain responses that should be looked for,
and these responses may indicate whether a zone is water-bearing or hydrocarbon-
bearing.

"Quick-look" log analysis employs scanilizing to locate potential zones of interest, and
also employs the basic concepts and procedures thus far considered in this text. The
objective in performing a "quick-look" analysis is to quickly produce values of water
saturation for zones that appear interesting on a log. It is important to remember that in
"quick-look" analysis environmental corrections are not applied. Therefore, the water
saturation values obtained during "quicklook" analysis may not be as accurate as those
determined through in-depth and
detailed log analysis and interpretation.

When performing a "quick-look" analysis--which should be the first step of any detailed
investigation--six questions must be asked when considering whether a zone is
potentially productive.

What value will be used for R w ?


What are the lithologies of the zones of interest?
Are the hydrocarbon-bearing zones "clean" (shale-free)?
Is there sufficient porosity in the zones?
Is there satisfactory resistivity in the zones?
Are the zones permeable?
The particular methodology by which an individual approaches the "quick-look" analysis
may vary, yet should address all of the questions posed above. There should be some
order and consistency to the method. A suggested "quick-look" approach is outlined in
the following paragraphs.

Identify Permeability Indicators

Scan the appropriate permeability indicators presented with the log. These may include
the SP, Microlog, Caliper, and even resistivity invasion profiles. Mark on the log all
zones that exhibit potential permeability, regardless of whether they appear water-
bearing or hydrocarbon-bearing. This should always be the first step of a "quick-look"
analysis, particularly with High Resolution Induction (HRI) logging suites.

Determine Formation Water Resistivity (R w )

If the customer provides this data, then the source is defined. If not, then it may be
necessary to calculate Rw from the logs. Locate a relatively clean waterbearing zone of
sufficient porosity and determine Rw using the inverse-Archie and/or SP methods. If

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Basic Log Interpretation

more than one water-bearing zone is located, then Rw should be calculated for all
zones. Tabulate the results and select the lowest value of Rw for future calculations,
remembering that lower values of Rw (within reason) produce more optimistic values of
water saturation (S w ).

Determine Porosity and Resistivity of Zones

Once a permeable zone is located, porosity and resistivity curves should be checked to
see if the relationship between them indicates the possible presence of hydrocarbons.
These curves should be considered together, and not without respect to one another.
Recall that it is entirely possible for a zone to exhibit an increase in resistivity because
of a decrease in porosity. Therefore, without considering all the data, it is possible to
misidentify a tight zone as being potentially productive.

Most porosity logs will present two porosity curves--density porosity (Φ D) and neutron
porosity (Φ N). Both of these curves reflect formation porosity, but the differences in their
values depend upon the different ways in which the respective measurements are
made.

The Archie equation provides for only one value of porosity, therefore it is necessary to
calculate cross-plot porosity before calculating water saturation. Cross-plot porosity is a
weighted average of the two values, and is calculated by the equation below. Additional
discussion of cross-plot porosity is included in later sections of this text.

A quick determination of cross-plot porosity may be made by estimating "two thirds"


porosity. This is done by visually estimating two-thirds the distance between the
minimum-porosity curve and the maximum-porosity curve. For "quick-look" purposes,
the use of visually estimated "two-thirds" porosity is sufficient for making water
saturation calculations.

Determine Formation Lithology

Lithology identification can be accomplished in several different ways, the most basic of
which is to examine the responses of various curves. For "quick-look purposes, the
curves most useful for lithology determination are gamma ray, Pe, resistivity, and a
combination of neutron porosity and density porosity. Once lithology of the zone is
determined, the necessary parameters (a & m) may be selected for water saturation
calculations.

Determine Formation "Cleanliness"

An additional concern is the "cleanliness" of the formation which refers to the amount of
shale present. All types of formations--sandstone, limestone, and dolomite--may
contain clay minerals ("shale"). The presence of these clay minerals effects the
responses of certain tools--namely, resistivity and porosity tools--and may result in a
productive formation being overlooked as waterbearing The degree of shaliness of a
formation can be judged from the gamma ray response. In general, the lower the

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gamma ray response of a porous zone, the lesser the amount of shale ("clean
formation"). This judgement requires some amount of experience and knowledge in the
area, and a later section of this text addresses more detailed methods of shaly sand
analysis.

Calculate Water Saturation

Water saturation may now be calculated for those zones that appear to be
hydrocarbon-bearing. Remember that this value is not a reflection of the ratio of water
to hydrocarbons that will be produced from the reservoir. It is simply the relative
proportion of water to hydrocarbons in the porosity of that formation. There are no safe
guidelines for determining what constitutes "good" and "bad" values for water
saturation. This judgement calls upon experience and local knowledge.

References
Archie, G. E., 1942, The electrical resistivity log as an aid in determining some reservoir
characteristics: SPE-AIME Transactions, v. 146, p. 64-62.

Asquith, G. B., 1982, Basic well log analysis for geologists: American Association of
Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, OK, 216 p.

Bateman, R. M., 1985, Open-hole log analysis and formation evaluation: IHRDC
Publishers, Boston MA, 647 p.

Dewan, J. T., 1983, Essentials of modern open-hole log interpretation: PennWell


Publishing, Tulsa, OK, 361 p.

Halliburton Energy Services, 1994, Log Interpretation Charts.

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Section 2
Porosity and Mineralogy

Table of Contents
Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………. 29

Objectives…………………………………………………………………………………………... 29

Cross-Plot Porosity and Lithology (CP Plots)…………………………………………………... 30

Two-Thirds Porosity……………………………………………………………………………….. 30

Cross-Plot Porosity………………………………………………………………………………… 30

Cross-Plot Porosity and Lithology from Chart………………………………………………….. 31

Limitations of Cross-Plot Porosity (CP) Charts…………………………………………………. 33

Cross-Plot Gas Effect……………………………………………………………………………... 33

Cross-Plot Shale Effect…………………………………………………………………………… 33

Sonic Tool Cross-Plot Charts…………………………………………………………………….. 34

Complex Reservoir Mineralogy…………………………………………………………………... 35

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks……………………………………………………………………….. 35

Carbonate Sedimentary Rocks…………………………………………………………………... 36

Complex Lithologies……………………………………………………………………………….. 36

Mineral Identification Plots (MIP Plots)………………………………………………………….. 36

References…………………………………………………………………………………………. 41

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Introduction

Determining accurate values of porosity (Φ) and describe lithology of a formation based
on log responses is one of the vital step in any log analysis. Assumed values of
tortuosity factor (a) and cementation exponent (m) necessary to calculate water
saturation (S w ) are dependant on these determinations. This section presents an
overview of the different methods available for determining porosity and lithology as
well as methods for determining complex lithology composition.

To effectively use this section, the participant should have a copy of the
Halliburton Log Interpretation Charts manual. Examples illustrated in this section
will make frequent references to this Log Interpretation Charts manual.

Objectives
After completing this section, the participant should be able to

§ visually estimate "two-thirds" porosity from neutron-density data.

§ calculate cross-plot porosity of a formation by equation.

§ determine cross-plot porosity of a formation by Cross-Plot (CP) chart using a


combination of neutron, density, and/or sonic data.

§ determine two end-member lithology of a formation by Cross-Plot (CP) chart using a


combination of neutron, density, and/or sonic data.

§ recognize the effects of gas and shale on Cross-Plot (CP) data plots.

§ apply the appropriate correction on a Cross-Plot (CP) chart to compensate for the
effects of the presence of gas.

§ determine three end-member lithology of a formation by Mineral Identification Plot


(MIP) using a combination of neutron, density, and/or sonic data.

§ recognize the effects of shale on Mineral Identification Plots (MIPs).

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Basic Log Interpretation

Cross-Plot Porosity and Lithology (CP Plots)


Two of the most important uses of log data are to provide porosity and lithology
Information to the geo-scientific community and use it for calculating water saturation
(S w ). Porosity is a vital input to Archie equation. A knowledge of lithology is also helpful
because it empowers the analyst make a reasonable determination to choose
appropriate value of tortuosity factor (a) and cementation exponent (m).

Porosity measurements taken from an individual logs are rarely adequate for use in
calculating water saturation. This is because of Natures heterogeneity. Once density
and neutron porosity values are corrected for environmental effects, the analyst has two
values of porosity--neutron porosity and density porosity. Archie water saturation
calculations require only one input value for porosity. Which one to be considered for
rational saturation evaluation? This is a big dilemma and requires a step to move
forward.

Two-Thirds Porosity
One method of visually estimating a value of porosity for use in the Archie equation is
referred to as "two-thirds" porosity. This method simply involves estimating two-thirds
the distance between the lowest porosity reading and the highest porosity reading, and
taking that value as input into the Archie equation. This method may be used
regardless of which matrix (e.g., limestone, sandstone, dolomite) was used to calculate
porosity.

Regardless of matrix choice, two -thirds porosity may be assumed to reflect the
approximate porosity of a formation of any lithology. The reason for taking twothirds the
distance between porosity readings rather than a simple average is to more closely
approximate the value that would be calculated by the cross-plot porosity equation
(discussed below). Some analysts prefer to take a simple average of the two
measurements.

An important limitation in the estimation of two-thirds porosity is the presence of gas.


Because gas affects neutron porosity more than it does density porosity, any averaging
routine may contain error. Fortunately, in the presence of gas, density and neutron
porosity partially compensate one another. This limitation should be kept in mind when
applying the method. Furthermore, this approximation should be made with caution
where anhydrite is present. Because of the high bulk density of anhydrite (ρb =
2.98g/cc), density porosity will often read too low (in some cases, negative). Averaging
methods, therefore, will result in a value of formation porosity that is too low.

Cross-Plot Porosity
Another method of obtaining a single value for porosity from density porosity and
neutron porosity data is through the use of the cross-plot porosity equation.

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The value obtained from this equation likewise may be assumed to represent the actual
formation porosity, regardless of which matrix value was used during logging. This
weighted average results in values similar to those obtained by visually estimating the
two-thirds porosity of a formation.

Again, an important limitation in the use of this method is the presence of gas and
anhydrite. These circumstances will create a situation in which the value of crossplot
porosity is not an accurate approximation of formation porosity. In cases where density
porosity reads negative values (common in anhydritic dolomite reservoirs), some
analysts prefer to use a simple average of density and neutron values as illustrated
below.

Cross-Plot Porosity and Lithology from Chart


The cross-plot porosity equation is assumed to be correct for any particular matrix (e.g.,
limestone, sandstone, dolomite) that may have been used to calculate density and
neutron porosity. However, this assumption is in error because the porosity values do,
in fact, depend upon what matrix was used in calculating porosity. For instance, a
formation consisting of 70% limestone and 30% dolomite might have two possible
porosities; one if run on a limestone matrix, and another if run on a dolomite matrix.
This condition may necessitate that crossplot porosity be determined from chart. An
added benefit of this method is that a basic lithology of the formation in question is also
obtained.

The proper Cross-Plot Porosity (CP) chart is determined first by tool type, and second
by the density of the drilling fluid. The chartbook differentiates between five types of
neutron tools: Dual Spaced Neutron (DSN); Compensated Neutron (CNT-K); Hostile
Dual Spaced Neutron (HDSN); Dual Spaced Epithermal Neutron (DSEN); and, Sidewall
Neutron (SNL).

Each of these chart sections contains Cross-Plot Porosity charts for oil-based muds (ρfl
= 0.85g/cc), freshwater-based muds (ρfl = 1.0g/cc), and saltwater-based muds (ρfl =
1.15g/cc). On these charts, neutron porosity is cross-plotted with bulk density (ρb).
Neutron porosity may also be cross-plotted with interval transit time (∆t), or bulk density
and sonic measurements may be cross-plotted together without implementing a
neutron measurement at all.

To illustrate the use of the neutron-density Cross-Plot Porosity (CP) chart, refer to the
example worked in blue on the CPDSN-II-1a chart. This chart fits the conditions where a
Dual Spaced Neutron (DSN) tool was logged in an oil-based mud (ρfl = 0.85g/cc).

Example Data for Chart CPDSN-II-1a

Φ N = 17% on limestone matrix (environmentally corrected)


Φ D = 20% on limestone matrix (ρb = 2.34g/cc)

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Basic Log Interpretation

To correctly use this chart, it is important to ensure that environmental corrections have
already been applied to the recorded porosity measurements. Furthermore, notice that
both density and neutron porosity values are in units of limestone porosity. If these
conditions are not met, then the use of the chart will not yield accurate results. Neutron
porosity may be converted from one lithology to another through the use of chart POR-
12.

Using the example data above, enter the chart with the environmentally corrected value
of neutron limestone porosity (17%) on the X-axis. Extend a vertical line upward to
intersect a horizontal line that represents either the bulk density (? b = 2.34g/cc) or
density limestone porosity (? D = 20%). The resulting plot falls between the sandstone
and limestone matrix division lines.

Assuming that the formation consists of a mixture of sandstone and limestone, to


interpolate cross-plot porosity extend a straight line (solid blue line) between equal
values of porosity on both the quartz and calcite matrix division lines (the black lines at
the top of the red shaded regions). In this example, the point plots along a line
representing a cross-plot porosity of 19% if that formation is, indeed, a mixture of
sandstone and limestone.

Relative proportions of the two end-member lithologies (sandstone and limestone) may
be estimated by normalizing a scale along the solid blue line between the two matrix
division line with each division line representing 100% of that particular lithology. The
point in question plots at approximately 65% calcite and 35% quartz (sandy limestone).
However, this is not the only possible solution for the plotted data.

Notice that the plotted point also falls between the matrix division lines of sandstone
and dolomite. Without previous knowledge of the reservoir, it is impossible to determine
from the log which lithology mixture is correct. It is therefore necessary to obtain a
second value for cross-plot porosity assuming that the formation consists of a mixture
of sandstone and dolomite. This is accomplished in the same manner as above by
extending a straight line (dashed blue line) between equal values of porosity on both
the quartz and dolomite
matrix division lines. For the assumed sandstone-dolomite mixture, cross-plot porosity
is 20%.

Again, relative proportions of the two end-members (sandstone and dolomite) may be
estimated by normalizing a scale along the dashed blue line between the two matrix
division lines. The plotted point represents a mixture of approximately 70% quartz and
30% dolomite (dolomitic sandstone).

In this particular example, cross-plot porosity differed only slightly between the two
possible lithology combinations. In other instances, the difference may be more
significant. Cross-plot porosity is relatively insensitive to the mineralogy mixture
provided that the lithology is composed of two of the three common minerals: quartz,
calcite, and dolomite. The presence of other minerals, however, will require a different
approach.

When different porosity values and different lithologies are obtained from
Cross-Plot charts, it is advisable to calculate formation water resistivity (R w )
and water saturation (S w ) for both situations, and present the results of each.

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Basic Log Interpretation

Do not base an interpretation on a single chart or a single method. An error-


free evaluation can seldom be made from one curve, or from a single chart or
evaluation technique.

Limitations of Cross-Plot Porosity (CP) Charts


The choice of basic lithology is obviously quite important. Apart from the difference in
resulting cross-plot porosities, the values for tortuosity factor (a), cementation exponent
(m) and even saturation exponent (n) may need to be altered. In the previous example,
the cross-plot lithology determination was based upon only two measurements (neutron
porosity and bulk density). At best, the Cross-Plot method can differentiate between
only two minerals. The previous example data presented two possible solutions: sandy
limestone or dolomitic sandstone. There are, however, certain effects that tend to mask
the apparent lithology of a formation, thereby making their evaluation more difficult.

Cross-Plot Gas Effect


The presence of gas in a formation has a profound effect on the neutron porosity
measurement. Because the tool measures hydrogen index, the low hydrogen density of
gas (compared to hydrogen density of liquids) causes the neutron tool to underestimate
porosity. Gas also affects the density measurement, causing density porosity to be
overestimated.

If gas is present, then the base lithology of the formation of interest must fall
somewhere to the lower right of its plotted point. Although not a precise method by any
means, the presence of gas may be corrected for by drafting a line parallel to and in the
same direction as the "Approximate Gas Correct" arrow. This line should extend from
the plotted point of interest to the nearest lower-right matrix division line. The base
lithology, of course, should be logically determined from cuttings, core samples, tool
response in non-gassy zones, etc..

The presence of gas may cause tremendous problems in resolving lithology from a
Cross-Plot chart. Because gas tends to pull points up and to the left, it is entirely
possible for a 100% dolomite gassy formation to plot along the matrix division line
representing 100% sandstone. For that matter, the point may also fall somewhere
between the quartz and calcite matrix division lines, giving the impression that dolomite
is not present at all.

Cross-Plot Shale Effect


The presence of shale will also adversely influence the interpretation of the plotted
point. In reality, the properties of shale (to be discussed in more detail later) affect all
logging responses to some degree. The primary concern on a neutron-density Cross-
Plot chart is the characteristic high porosity reading of the neutron tool.

The high porosity response of the neutron tool together with the relatively high bulk
densities typical of shales will push the plotted point of a shaly formation to the bottom
right of where it would fall if it were clean. For example, a shaly sandstone could

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Basic Log Interpretation

feasibly have a point which plots along the matrix division line representing 100%
dolomite.

A 100% pure shale will typically plot within an area defined by the following limits:
30% < Φ N < 40%
2.35g/cc < ρb < 2.50g/cc

Because the presence of shale tends to pull plotted points down and to the right,
correction for shale would therefore be up and to the left. How far to the left and at what
angle the correction is to be taken would be determined by the characteristics of that
particular shale. For now, it is sufficient to realize that the presence of shale can cause
dramatic misinterpretations about the lithology of a formation when using Cross-Plot
porosity charts.

Sonic Tool Cross-Plot Charts


The "Sonic versus Bulk Density" and "Sonic versus Neutron Porosity" charts may be
interpolated or extrapolated in the same manner as the "Bulk Density versus Neutron
Porosity" charts previously discussed. These charts may be used as an alternative to
the neutron-density cross-plots, or as an additional method for providing solutions to the
constraints that exist on lithology front. The use of "Sonic versus Neutron Porosity"
Cross-Plot charts can help refine the estimate of lithology obtained from the neutron-
density Cross-Plot charts. When two different methods converge to a particular solution
it gives adequate weight to derived conclusions.

The "Time Average" lines represent the response of the Wyllie-Time Average sonic
porosity equation. This response is based on the premise that the travel time through a
porous formation will remain unchanged irrespective of pressure variations, this
happens when the formations have reached the terminal velocity. Porosity is commonly
calculated with the Wyllie-Time Average equation illustrated below.

The "empirical," or curved, lines represent the response from a combination of data
gathered by Raymer-Hunt and Halliburton. This is a purely emperical calculation based
upon comparisons of transit times with core porosities and porosity as derived from
other types of logs. The Raymer-Hunt equation for sonic porosity is illustrated below.

The choice of equation for computing sonic porosity should be left to the customer.
Because the customer is aware of other wells in the same region and reservoir, and
how sonic porosities were calculated from those logs.

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Basic Log Interpretation

Complex Reservoir Mineralogy


Most oil- and gas-bearing formations are composed of sedimentary rock, as opposed to
igneous and metamorphic rock. Sedimentary rock, as its name implies, is composed of
different types of sediments that have been deposited at some type of accumulation
point, possibly an ancient ocean basin or river channel. After some period of geologic
time, many such layers of sediment may accumulate. The tectonic forces imposed upon
these layers results in compaction and cementation of the loosely consolidated
sediments into a sedimentary rock.

By volume, sedimentary rocks are estimated to constitute only 5% of the known


lithosphere (the 10 mile-thick outer shell of the earth), whereas igneous and
metamorphic rocks account for 95%. However, sedimentary rocks cover 75% of the
total land area on continents, with igneous and metamorphic rocks covering the
remainder. It is evident, therefore, that sedimentary rocks must form only a thin,
superficial veneer on the surface of the earth.

For the purposes of this discussion, sedimentary rocks can be subdivided into two
primary categories: clastic and carbonate. These categories comprise the three most
common producing reservoir rock types: sandstones, limestones, and dolomites. The
composition, place of origin, and granular size of the individual sediments of a rock are
among the factors that determine the rock's identity.

Clastic Sedimentary Rocks


Clastic sediments are those produced by the weathering and breakdown of preexisting
rocks. These particles, having been derived somewhere other than the accumulation
point, are transported, sorted, and modified by moving fluid such as water or air. Their
deposition is normally in successive horizontal layers. Clastic sedimentary formations
are typically sandstones and shales. Apart from differing in composition, these two rock
types also differ dramatically in constituent grain size. This combination of similarities
(origin) and differences (grain size) produces formations containing combinations of
both sandstone and shale. Because shaliness affects both formation characteristics
and log responses, it will be discussed in detail later in the text.

Sandstone is composed primarily of quartz, feldspar, and mica. In many forms of


sandstone, quartz constitutes over 90% of the detrital fraction of the rock. For this
reason, many charts refer to sandstone formations simply as "quartz."

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Basic Log Interpretation

Carbonate Sedimentary Rocks


Carbonate formations are usually marine in origin and composed primarily of skeletal
grains and/or seawater precipitates. These constituents are produced within the region
of accumulation, and are not derived form weathering or breakdown of pre-existing
rocks. Productive carbonate formations typically include limestones and dolomites. The
primary difference between these two types of rocks is the chemical composition. The
term "limestone" is used for rocks containing predominantly calcite: CaCO3. The term
"dolomite" implies substitution of Ca with Mg. Dolomite composition is:(CaMg(CO3)2).

Complex Lithologies

Subsurface formations may be heterogeneous e.g. a clastic may have lime marter
making it calcarious sandstone and similarly carbonate rocks.may contain high
percentage of marl commonly termed as shaly limestone. In addition, the presence of
accessory minerals may cause further confusion when determining lithology from a
Cross-Plot chart. At best, the Cross-Plot methods discussed previously can identify only
two end minerals. The methods are fairly accurate provided that the rock matrix is
composed of two of the three common minerals: quartz, calcite, and dolomite. To
address the problem of the possible presence of other minerals (e.g., clays, coals,
anhydrite, halite etc) a more rigorous method of mineralogy identification (Mineral
Identification Plots) may be used.

Mineral Identification Plots (MIP Plots)


When complex lithologies are suspected and accuracy is of the utmost importance
inverse technique (ULTRA) is the only solution. However, there are techniques through
which mineral identification can be tried. In the previous examples of Cross-Plot chart
data from two logging measurements (e.g., ρb and Φ N, ρb and ∆t, or Φ N and ∆t) may be
used to identify lithologies limited to only two end-members. By using a chart that
handles a third measurement (e.g., Pe), a more accurate evaluation can be ascertained.
In this discussion, two techniques of "trimineral plots will be considered: Umaa versus
ρmaa, and ρmaa versus ∆tmaa.

Accurate lithology determination may be necessary for a variety of reasons:

§ Porosities may be near cut-off values (~5%); therefore, the most accurate values
obtainable from logs are desired. Dolomite and shale, for example, cause similar
separation between limestone-based neutron and density porosity curves, but
effective porosity is computed differently for each case.
§ Tight (low porosity) formations often require acidizing or acid fracturing to
stimulate production. Optimization of this operation requires knowledge of the
formation lithology.
§ Lithology distribution across a field may reveal preferential directions for the
locations of future offset wells. For example, dolomitization is often accompanied
by increased permeability, therefore the direction of increasing dolomite content
may be a favorable direction for further exploration.

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Basic Log Interpretation

Spectral logging tools (Spectral Density and Spectral Gamma Ray) can be used
individually to determine simple lithologies in "pure" formations. Combinations of two
more basic tools (e.g., DSN versus CDL, CDL versus BCS) can also be utilized for
determining simple lithologies. However, when used in complex lithology situations,
such "two tool cross-plots" can be very misleading. For example, a point plotting directly
on the limestone matrix division line of a neutron-density Cross-Plot chart could
possibly be the response of a dolomitic sandstone.

The use of three different types of log responses is the next logical step in the goal of
increasing accuracy and reliability of lithology identification. Because the manipulation
of a three-dimensional chart (X-axis, Y-axis, and Z-axis) would be rather cumbersome
within the confines of a two-dimensional chartbook, the three tool responses must first
be incorporated into simple X-Y coordinates. These calculated X and Y coordinates
then are introduced into the respective Mineral Identification Plot (MIP), and the
complex mineralogy resolved.

Mineral Identification Plots (MIPs) have an advantage over Cross-Plot (CP)


charts in that they resolve three end-member lithologies.

Umaa Versus ρmaa MIP Method


The Umaa versus ρmaa MIP method of lithology determination requires a Spectral Density
(SDL, with Pe curve) and neutron for implementation. The Mineral Identification Plot
charts are labeled MIP XXX-8, according to the particular type of neutron tool being used.
Notice that the X-axis and Y-axis coordinates of these charts are not values that can be
taken directly from logs. The "Apparent Matrix Density (ρmaa)" and "Apparent Volumetric
Photoelectric Factor (U maa)" must first be determined using separate charts (MIP XXX-4
and MIP XXX-6, respectively).

Utilization of this method requires three steps:

1. ρmaa determination (chart MIP XXX-4)


2. Umaa determination (chart MIP XXX-6)
3. ρmaa versus Umaa MIP plot (chart MIP XXX-8)

? maa Determination

Without having actual core samples of the formation of interest, it is impossible to know
an exact value of matrix density (ρma). However, by being able to determine Cross-Plot
lithology of a formation from charts using neutron and density data, it possible to
estimate the apparent matrix density (ρmaa) from these data (Step 1).

For the purposes of illustration, the chart MIP DSN-II-4 will be referenced here. Notice that
this chart is developed for a fluid density (ρfl) of 1.0g/cc (freshwaterbased drilling fluid).
There are no charts available for use in those conditions where ρfl _ 1.0g/cc, therefore
this same chart will also apply for oil-based mud and saltwater-based mud conditions.
Furthermore, notice that neutron porosity must be in limestone porosity units. Again, the
conversion of another neutron lithology to limestone, if necessary, may be made using
chart POR-12.

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Use of the MIP DSN-II-4 chart is identical to the use of the neutron-density Cross- Plot
charts discussed previously. In fact, the red lines representing quartz, calcite, and
limestone are identical to the matrix division lines of the Cross-Plot charts. In this case,
however, the objective is to determine the apparent matrix density (ρmaa) of the plotted
point with respect to the known matrix densities of those three minerals (2.65g/cc,
2.71g/cc, and 2.87g/cc, respectively).

To illustrate the use of this chart, the same example data used previously in the Cross-
Plot charts will be used here as well.
Example Data for Chart MIP DSN-II-4

Φ N = 17% on limestone matrix (environmentally corrected)


Φ D = 20% on limestone matrix (ρb = 2.34g/cc)
Pe = 2.41
Φ XPLOT ≅19% (as determined from CPDSN-II-1a)

Using the example data above, enter the chart with the environmentally corrected value
of neutron limestone porosity (17%) on the X-axis, and enter the Y-axis with a bulk
density (ρb) of 2.34g/cc. The result plot of the example data yields an apparent matrix
density (ρmaa) of approximately 2.675g/cc. Again, notice that chart MIP DSN-II-4 is simply
a standard neutron-density Cross-Plot chart with matrix density values interpolated
between the three primary matrix division lines (e.g., quartz, calcite, and dolomite). The
resulting value of apparent matrix density (ρmaa) may be thought of as the matrix density
of the formation that is "seen" by a combination of the neutron and density tools.

Umaa Determination

The photoelectric (P e) response is not linear with changes in formation composition. For
example, given that the Pe of sandstone is 1.81 and the Pe of limestone is 5.08, a
formation consisting of 50% sandstone and 50% limestone does not necessarily have a
Pe value of 3.44.

The non-linear response of the Pe requires that a volumetric conversion be considered


(Step 2) if Pe values are to be used in lithology determination. This step, considering the
use of the DSN-II in our example data, requires the use of chart MIP DSN-II-6.

The volumetric cross section (U) is a product of the electron density (ρe) and
photoelectric factor (or cross section). By substituting bulk density (ρb) for electron
density, a value of Apparent Volumetric Photoelectric Factor (Umaa) can be calculated
by the equation illustrated below. This equation is the foundation for all MIP XXX-6 charts,
regardless of the type of neutron tool used.

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Basic Log Interpretation

Using chart MIP DSN-II-6, enter the lowermost scale on the X-axis with a bulk density (ρb)
of 2.34g/cc. From this point, extend a line through the value for Pe taken from the log
(2.41) on the Modified Photoelectric Factor scale to a point that plots on the bottom X-
axis of the graph. The value plotted on the bottom Xaxis of the graph represents the
Volumetric Modified Photoelectric Factor (Um), and should be approximately 5.7.

From this point on the bottom X-axis of the graph, extend a vertical line upward to
intersect a horizontal line representing a value of Apparent Total Porosity (Φ ta). A value
for Apparent Total Porosity (Φ ta) is obtained by either estimating two -thirds porosity,
calculating cross-plot porosity by equation, or by the Cross-Plot charts. From the Cross-
Plot charts worked previously, this value was determined to be approximately 19%.

Cross-plotting a Volumetric Modified Photoelectric Factor (Um) value of 5.7 with an


Apparent Total Porosity (Φ ta) value of 19% results in a plot that falls on the line
representing an Apparent Volumetric Photoelectric Factor (Umaa) of 7.0.

Mineralogy Determination (ρmaa versus U maa MIP Plot)

For the DSN-II tool, the next chart to use in determining mineralogy (Step 3) is MIP DSN-
II-8. Enter this chart with the previously derived matrix information (ρmaa = 2.675g/cc and
Umaa = 5.7). Cross-plotting these data yields a point that plots in the vicinity of the
triangle apex labeled Quartz, implying that the predominant constituent of the formation
is, in fact, quartz. This would appear to correspond with one of the possible
combinations obtained from the Cross-Plot method illustrated earlier: 70% quartz and
30% dolomite (dolomitic sand).

Using the same method as that with the neutron-density Cross-Plot chart, normalized
scales may be constructed along lines connected the apices of the triangle. These
apices represent 100% of a particular mineralogy (quartz, calcite, dolomite). The
relative position of the plotted point with respect to these normalized scales yields a
more detailed assessment of the mineralogy of the formation of interest.

Mineralogy of Example Data


Quartz = 72%
Calcite = 21%
Dolomite = 7%

Compare these results with those determined for the quartz-dolomite possibility from
the Cross-Plot chart (70% quartz and 30% dolomite). The results of the MIP method are
strikingly comparable, and have been able to distinguish the difference between the two
carbonate end-members (calcite and dolomite) present in the formation. By comparing
these results with those of the Cross-Plot method discussed previously, it is now
possible to state with greater confidence that the formation of interest is a dolomitic
sandstone.

(N.B. While proclaiming the conclusions, caution must be applied considering


geological constraints, e.g. Carbonate and clastic deposition cannot take place at
the same time and same place. Therefore proclaiming the formation of interest
“dolomitic sandstone” as have been concluded above, doesn’t make sense to

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Basic Log Interpretation

geologist, and so log analyst become the subject of ridicule All interpretation
therefore must take into consideration geological inputs.)

ρmaa Versus ∆tmaa MIP Method

The ρmaa versus ∆tmaa MIP method of lithology determination requires a Compensated
Density (CDL, with no Pe curve), neutron, and sonic tool for implementation. The
Mineral Identification Plot charts are labeled MIP XXX-7, according to the particular type
of neutron tool being used. Notice that the X-axis and Y-axis coordinates of these
charts also are not values that can be taken directly from logs. The "Apparent Matrix
Density (ρmaa)" and "Apparent Matrix Transit Time (∆tma)" must be determined using
separate Cross-Plot charts (MIP XXX-4 and MIP XXX-5, respectively).

The same techniques are used to manipulate these charts as with the previous Umaa
versus ρmaa MIP charts. The important point of using this additional sonic method is that
different results may be obtained from different methods. The correct choice should be
based on clients input.

Further MIP Considerations

As was the case with the neutron-density Cross-Plot charts, gas and shale likewise
affect the results of the Mineral Identification Plots. Apparent Matrix Density (ρmaa) and
Apparent Matrix Volumetric Photoelectric Factor (Umaa) will both decrease in the
presence of gas. Therefore, points plotted on the MIP charts will move up and slightly to
the left in a gas bearing formation. Unlike the neutron-density Cross-Plot charts, there is
no correction technique for gas effect. However, the presence of gas typically causes
variance of the plotted data within the confines of the triangle.

The presence of shale will shift the points in the plot anywhere within or outside the
triangle, falling in between the triangle and the "Muscovite" point. With increasing
percentage of shale, these points plot farther and farther away from the triangle. In
shaly sandstone situations, it may be extremely helpful to plot several points on the MIP
chart representing "typical shales" within the logged interval. A new triangle may then
be drawn connecting the Quartz, Calcite, and "Shale" points. This new triangle may be
segmented accordingly, and relative proportions of these three new end-member
lithologies may be determined.

A thorough evaluation of the zone of interest requires the plotting of multiple points. The
measurement at any one particular depth may or may not be representative of the
entire zone. Analyzing a thick formation using the MIP charts with data points every foot
would be rather time consuming, and not practical for wellsite lithology determination.
Therefore, picking tool responses at a particular depth and assuming those responses
to be representative of the entire formation is acceptable. Computer-generated MIP
plots are products offered by Halliburton Reservoir Decision Centers as total analysis
packages such as ULTRA.

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Basic Log Interpretation

References
Bateman, R. M., 1985, Open-hole log analysis and formation evaluation: IHRDC
Publishers, Boston, MA, 647 p.

Dewan, J. T., 1983, Essentials of modern open-hole log interpretation: PennWell


Publishers, Tulsa, OK, 361 p.

Halliburton Energy Services, 1994, Log Interpretation Charts.

Pettijohn, F. J., 1975, Sedimentary Rocks: Harper & Row.

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Section 3
Environmental Corrections

Table of Contents
Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………. 43

Objectives…………………………………………………………………………………………... 43

Importance of Environmental Corrections………………………………………………………. 44

SP Bed Thickness Correction (SP-1a, SP-1b)…………………………………………………. 45

Gamma Ray Borehole Corrections (GR-1)……………………………………………………... 46

Density Environmental Corrections (POR-1)…………………………………………………… 46

Neutron Environmental Corrections……………………………………………………………... 48

Resistivity Environmental Corrections…………………………………………………………... 52

Additional Notes on Environmental Corrections……………………………………………….. 58

References…………………………………………………………………………………………. 58

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Introduction
Very rarely do open hole logs directly provide answers to the questions posed. Log data
must be subjected to a number of assumptions and rigorous calculations before they
are useful. For instance, neutron porosity and resistivity alone provide no useful
information about the productive capabilities of a reservoir. However, by using these
data to calculate porosity and water saturation, some of the important questions are
answered. Furthermore, before these data are used for basic calculations, the effects of
environmental conditions on the measurements must be accounted for. This section
stresses the importance of environmental corrections and demonstrates their use and
application.

To effectively use this section, the participant should have a copy of Halliburton
Log Interpretation Charts manual. Examples illustrated in the section will make
references to this Log Interpretation Charts manual.

Objectives
After completing this section, the participant should be able to

§ recognize the need and importance of performing environmental corrections on


open hole logs before their use in calculations.

§ perform bed thickness corrections on SP measurements.

§ perform borehole corrections on gamma ray measurements.

§ perform open hole environmental corrections on neutron porosity measurements,


including mudcake thickness, borehole salinity, mud weight, borehole
temperature, and borehole pressure corrections.

§ perform open hole environmental corrections on High Resolution Induction/DFL


and Dual Laterolog/MSFL measurements, including MSFL mudcake correction,
DFL borehole correction, induction and laterolog borehole correction, induction
and laterolog bed thickness corrections, and invasion corrections.

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Basic Log Interpretation

Importance of Environmental Corrections


In actual logging conditions, porosity (Φ) and the "true" resistivity of the uninvaded zone
(Rt) cannot be measured precisely for a variety of reasons. Factors affecting these
responses may include hole size, mud weight, bed thickness, depth of invasion, and
other properties of the logging environment and formation. Many of these effects have
strong impacts on analysis and evaluation and must be corrected for prior to evaluating
the formation. Several types of corrections and the tools for which these corrections are
necessary are illustrated in Figure 3.1.

The corrections listed in Figure 3.1 reference charts for a particular tool type. It should
be recognized that corrections may differ between tool types. For example, the charts
used to make environmental corrections on High Resolution Induction measurements
are not the same charts used to correct Dual Laterolog measurements. Depending on
the tool type and other borehole or formation conditions, appropriate charts are
selected to workout solution.

The proper matching of tool type and environmental conditions to the appropriate
correction chart is critical. Furthermore, although the charts provided by different
service companies may appear similar, the amounts of their respective corrections may
be quite different.

The use of environmental correction charts will not always be necessary. In some
situations, the effects of certain conditions will be so small that they do not warrant
correction. As familiarity with the charts is gained, their usefulness and limitations will
become apparent. For instance, applying environmental corrections for a DSN-II
neutron in an 8-inch borehole drilled with 9 lb/gal fresh water drilling mud at a depth of
2000 feet would be an exercise in futility. In this case, correction to neutron porosity

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Basic Log Interpretation

would be negligible. However, until a working knowledge of the charts and the
applicability is gained, corrections should always be applied.

SP Bed Thickness Correction (SP-1a, SP-1b)


In relatively thin beds (1 foot to 22 feet), the deflection of the SP curve is suppressed
because of the influence of underlying and overlying formations. This is particularly true
in sand/shale sequences where sandstones are overlain and underlain by shales. In
cases such as this, the SP response in the thin formation of interest may not attain its
full deflection because of the adjacent shales. The SP deflection of the formation of
interest should actually be greater than is exhibited on the log. The intent of charts SP-
1a and SP-1b is to correct the SP response in these situations. The determination of
which chart to use is made through an estimation of the diameter of invasion.

Example Data

Observed SP deflection: - 70 mV
Thickness of formation of interest (h): 11 feet
Invaded zone resistivity (Ri): 90 Ω-m
Mud resistivity (Rm) at Tf : 1.5 Ω-m
Borehole diameter: 7.875 inches

Estimating Diameter of Invasion

Diameter of invasion (di) is one of the unknowns determined during invasion correction
of resistivity responses; however, it can be estimated by the separation between
Medium and Deep resistivity curves. The following rule of thumb applies: the greater
the separation, the deeper the invasion. In formations where the Medium and Deep
curves stack (e.g., shale), it is assumed that there is no invasion.

The diameter of invasion (di) is estimated by taking a ratio of Medium to Deep


resistivity. If this ratio is less than 1.1, then invasion is considered to be less than twice
the borehole diameter (use SP-1a). If this ratio is greater than 1.1, then it is safe to
assume that invasion is greater than twice the borehole diameter (use SP- 1b).

In this example, it is assumed that the ratio of Medium to Deep resistivity was greater
than 1.1, and therefore SP-1b (moderate to deep invasion) will be used to illustrate the
process of SP correction. Realize that this is an estimate of the diameter of invasion,
and that differences in borehole size and fluid type may change the results.

Performing SP Bed Thickness Correction (SP-1b)

The first step of the correction procedure requires borehole size. This information is
best obtained from the caliper measurement. Where no caliper is logged, then bit size
from the header may be used as a rough estimate. In this example, borehole diameter
is 7.875 inches; therefore, the 7-7/8 inch hole diameter X-axis scale can be used as a
starting point.

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Using the 7-7/8 inch X-axis scale of SP-1b, move horizontally to a bed thickness of 11
feet. Bed thickness is best determined by choosing the break points (or deflections) of
the tool having the smallest vertical resolution. In many cases, this is the shallowest
reading resistivity device (e.g., DFL, MSFL).

Each curve in the chart represents a ratio of invaded zone resistivity (Ri) to mud
resistivity (Rm). Resistivity of the invaded zone is generally approximated by the
measurement of the intermediate resistivity curve. In this example, Ri = 90 Ω-m and Rm
= 1.5 Ω-m at formation temperature. It is vital that the value of mud resistivity (Rm) be
corrected to the formation temperature of the depth at which the correction is being
applied. The resulting ratio Ri/Rm is 60.

From the 11 feet bed thickness mark on the X-axis, extend a line vertically to intersect
an imaginary interpolated line representing the resistivity ratio of 60. From this
intersection, extend a horizontal line to the Y-axis to determine the appropriate SP
correction factor of approximately 1.52.

The resulting SP correction factor is applied to the amount of SP deflection in the


formation of interest with respect to the "shale baseline." Recognizing the baseline on a
log can be rather tricky, and the entire log should be considered. In this example, the
SP deflection within the zone of interest is given as -70 mV.

To correct the SP deflection for the effects of thin beds, the SP correction factor is
multiplied by the SP deflection exhibited in the formation of interest.

SPcorrected = SP Deflection X Correction Factor

SPcorrected = - 70 X 1.52 = - 106.4mV

Notice that through this correction the amount of SP deflection has been increased from
-70 mV to -106 mV. The corrected value of -106 mV more closely approximates what
the actual SP deflection of the formation of interest would be if it were substantially
thicker than 11 feet.

Gamma Ray Borehole Corrections (GR-1)


The environmental correction charts provided in the Gamma Ray section of the
chartbook correct for two separate effects: 1) the distance between the tool and the
borehole wall; and, 2) the density of the mud filling the borehole. Both of these
conditions affect the amount of natural radiation that is measured at the gamma ray
detector.

Tool diameter and tool position are both important factors to consider when using GR-1.
In a hole of given diameter, the amount of gamma radiation received by a large
diameter tool will be greater than that received by a smaller diameter tool because the
amount of mud surrounding the larger tool is less. Standard DITS gamma tools have an

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Basic Log Interpretation

outer diameter of 3-5/8 inches. Furthermore, if the tool is eccentered, then some
gamma rays will be attenuated by the thicker shield of mud on one side of the tool
(Figure 3.2). With a centered tool there is still attenuation of the received gamma rays,
but it is much more regular in nature. These effects are accounted for through the use
of separate tool position reference lines on chart GR-1.

Performing Gamma Ray Borehole Correction (GR-1)

Before determining which section of GR-1 is applicable, tool type (i.e., diameter) and
tool position should be confirmed from the header information. In this case, a gamma
ray tool with an outer diameter of 4 inches was pulled, therefore the upper left section of
GR-1 applies. Furthermore, the tool was centralized, so the solid black lines
representing mud weight will be used.

To correct the gamma ray response, enter the 4 inch diameter section of GR-1 on the
X-axis with a borehole diameter of 10 inches. Extend a vertical line upward to intersect
an imaginary interpolated line representing a mud weight of 12 lb/gal (from header) for
a centered tool (solid black lines). Draw a horizontal line to the Y-axis to obtain a
correction factor for the gamma ray response. This correction factor (approximately 1.5;
note logarithmic scale) is then multiplied by the observed log response to correct for the
effects of borehole size and mud weight.

GRcorrected = GR X Correction Factor

GRcorrected = 90 X 1.5 = 135API

Notice that after correction the gamma ray measurement increased. This is to
compensate for the attenuating effects of the heavy mud in the borehole. In smaller
hole sizes, it is possible for the resulting correction factor to be negative; however,

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Basic Log Interpretation

negative gamma ray corrections are seldom applied. It is unlikely that the presence of
mud will cause an observed gamma ray response to read too high.

An identical gamma ray correction can be applied with the logging software (result
mnemonic, GRCO). Realize that this real-time correction is rarely requested, and then
usually only in cases where gamma ray will be used as an estimate of the volume of
shale (V sh). For quantitative estimates of Vsh, gamma ray borehole corrections are
required.

Density Environmental Corrections (POR-1)


The inclusion of the SDL Borehole Curvature Correction chart (POR-1) in the chartbook
is often confusing to engineers and customers alike. The pad section of the SDL is 3.25
inches in diameter and is not designed to fit flush against any particular diameter
borehole. The SDL is calibrated to read the correct bulk density (ρb) in an 8-inch
borehole filled with fresh water. The zero correction point, therefore, is an 8-inch
borehole filled with fresh water. As borehole size and fluid density vary, environmental
corrections (POR-1) become more critical as the amount of drilling fluid between the
pad and formation varies.
Borehole curvature corrections do not need to be applied to SDL responses under
normal circumstances. These corrections are performed real-time by the logging
software, and correct values already appear on the logs.

Notice that input into POR-1 is not in units of density porosity, but rather bulk density
(ρb). This is the case with many correction charts. In order to use these charts, bulk
density may either be taken from the log (if presented) or by calculating ρb from density
porosity (Φ D). The following equation may be used to derive bulk density from density
porosity, provided that fluid density (ρfl) and matrix density (ρma) are known.

Neutron Environmental Corrections


Some of the most important and most complex environmental corrections include those
required for neutron porosity measurements. Neutron porosity is affected by a number
of factors, most importantly temperature. If these effects are left uncorrected, then
neutron porosity will be in error and the Archie equation will not yield accurate results.
Also, with neutron corrections, it is vital that the appropriate chart be used for the
particular type of tool run.

The neutron tools most commonly seen on modern Halliburton logs are Dual Spaced
Neutron (DSN-II) tools. Older logs may have been run with the Compensated Neutron
(CNT-K). The open hole environmental correction chart for the DSN-II is POR-4a, while
the CNT-K is corrected with chart POR-6a. Following both of these main charts is a
collection of other charts used to correct for a variety of borehole and formation
conditions. It is important to note that when correcting porosity values from a CNT-K,

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the borehole temperature correction should not be performed because it has already
been applied by the logging software.

Performing Open Hole Borehole Diameter Correction (POR-4a)

In most situations a caliper tool is pulled in combination with the neutron tool. Under
these circumstances, the borehole diameter correction (or caliper correction), is applied
real-time by the logging software and it is not necessary to use this section of POR-4a.
In this example, the caliper correction was not applied real-time.

If the caliper correction was not applied during logging for some reason (as is the case
in this example), then this section of the chart is used by entering the top X-axis with
the measured value of neutron limestone porosity (32%) and extending a vertical line
downward to intersect a horizontal line representing borehole size (10.5 inches). From
this intersection, another line is plotted downward—following a curvature relative to that
of the nearest curved spine--to the red baseline. From the baseline, another vertical line
is extended downward to the bottom X-axis to read the caliper-corrected value of
neutron porosity. In this example, the caliper corrected value is 29%.

The resulting value of caliper-corrected neutron limestone porosity (29%) is then carried
to the next correction step. Again, this correction is not required if a working caliper was
used to correct the neutron porosity measurement real-time.

Performing Mudcake Thickness Correction (POR-4a)

The mudcake thickness correction requires input of caliper-corrected neutron limestone


porosity (29%). Starting on the upper X-axis with a caliper-corrected neutron porosity of
29%, extend a vertical line downward to intersect a horizontal line representing
mudcake thickness (0.5 inches). From this intersection, another line is plotted
downward--following a curvature relative to that of the nearest curved spine--to the red
baseline. The difference between the original value (29%) and the resulting value
(28.5%) indicates the magnitude and direction of mudcake thickness correction
required (-0.5%).

It is important to note that in most cases, mudcake thickness correction will result in a
change of no more than 2% porosity. Mudcake thickness can be estimated by the
following equation:

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Basic Log Interpretation

Performing Borehole Salinity Correction (POR-4a)

Borehole salinity may be determined from the value of the drilling mud resistivity (Rm)
and use of chart GEN-5. In this example, salinity is given as 100,000 ppm NaCl.

To use this section of POR-4a, enter the top X-axis of the borehole salinity correction
section with the value of caliper-corrected neutron porosity (29%). It is important to note
that correction factors from each step of the process are not carried into the next
correction section. Beginning with a value of 29% on the top X-axis, extend a vertical
line downward to intersect a horizontal line representing 100,000 ppm salinity. From
this intersection, another line is plotted downward-- following a curvature relative to that
of the nearest curved spine--to the red baseline to read the amount of correction
necessary. In this example, the amount of correction is approximately +0.8%.

Performing Mud Weight Correction (POR-4a)

The mud weight correction section of POR-4a has two scales: one for bariteloaded
mud, and the other for non-barite, or "natural," drilling mud. Header information would
dictate which of these two scales to use. The correction proceeds just as the borehole
salinity correction.

Enter the top X-axis of the mud weight correction section with the value of caliper-
corrected neutron porosity (29%). Extend a vertical line downward to intersect a
horizontal line representing mud weight (10 lb/gal, natural). From this intersection,
another line is plotted downward--following a curvature relative to that of the nearest
curved spine--to the red baseline. From the baseline, another vertical line is extended
downward to the bottom X-axis to read the amount of correction necessary. In this
example, the amount of correction is approximately +0.6%.

Performing Borehole Temperature Correction (POR-4a)

The borehole temperature correction is the most significant correction applied to the
neutron porosity measurement. Notice that the amount of correction increases
dramatically (particularly at high borehole temperatures) for higher values of neutron
porosity. In cases where other neutron corrections (e.g., mudcake thickness, salinity,
mud weight, etc.) are considered negligible, the temperature correction should always
be applied so that water saturation calculations are not adversely effected.

Enter the top X-axis of the temperature correction section with the value of caliper-
corrected neutron porosity (29%). Extend a vertical line downward to intersect a
horizontal line representing borehole temperature (125oF). From this intersection,
another line is plotted downward--following a curvature relative to that of the nearest
curved spine--to the red baseline. From the baseline, another vertical line is extended
downward to the bottom X-axis to read the amount of correction necessary. In this
example, the amount of correction is approximately +1.5%.

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Basic Log Interpretation

Performing Borehole Pressure Correction (POR-4a)

Borehole pressure corrections are generally negligible for porosities of less than 10%,
but the slopes of the correction spines suggest that the amount of correction increases
with increased porosity. Borehole pressure at a given depth can be derived from the
following equation:

Enter the top X-axis of the pressure correction section with the value of caliper-
corrected neutron porosity (29%). Extend a vertical line downward to intersect a
horizontal line representing borehole pressure (2500 psi). From this intersection,
another line is plotted downward--following a curvature relative to that of the nearest
curved spine--to the red baseline to read the amount of correction necessary. In this
example, the amount of correction is approximately -0.3%.

Summation of Open Hole Environmental Corrections

Once each of the individual influences has been corrected for, the resulting correction
factors must be summed in order to obtain the total effect. This is accomplished by
adding the sum of the individual correction factors to the caliper-corrected value of
neutron limestone porosity.

Σ CF = CF + CF ?+ CF
mudcake salinity + CF
mud weight + CF
temperature pressure

Σ CF = (-0.5%) + (0.8%) + (0.6%) +(1.5%) + (-??0.3%?)= 2.1%


If the caliper-correction was applied by chart (as in this example), then the
environmentally corrected value of neutron porosity in limestone units is obtained by the
following equation:
Φ nls-corrected = Φ caliper – corrected + ∑CF

Φ nls-corrected = 29% + 2.1% + 31.1%

If the caliper-correction was applied real-time, then the environmentally corrected value
of neutron porosity in limestone units is obtained simply by adding the sum of the
correction factors to the observed log response (if in limestone units).

Φ nls-corrected = Φ nls from log + ∑CF

It is important to note that neutron porosity must be in limestone units for this correction.
The chart POR-12 can be used to convert between the different lithologies assumed in
the calculation of neutron porosity.

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Basic Log Interpretation

Performing Standoff Correction (POR-4b)

Neutron "standoff" occurs when the face of the tool is physically held some distance
from the borehole wall. This may be the result of other tools in the toolstring, or
misaligned tools. This type of situation will cause the neutron tool to measure the
drilling fluid between the tool and the formation, thus producing a neutron porosity that
is consistently high. Such standoff is usually avoided during logging by using a
bowspring decentralizer. However, if a situation arises where the tool cannot be
properly decentralized, standoff correction can be applied realtime by the logging
software. If necessary, the correction procedure takes the open hole environmentally
correct value of neutron limestone porosity from POR- 4a and proceeds in the same
manner, but using POR-4b for the DSN-II tool.

Performing Formation Salinity Correction (POR-4b)

The environmentally corrected and standoff-corrected value of neutron limestone


porosity can now be corrected for salinity of the formation in which the measurement
was made. Formation salinity may be obtained by considering the formation water
resistivity (Rw ) of the zone of interest, and using this value in that section of POR-4b
which coincides with the primary lithology of the zone of interest. The resulting salinity
correction is added to the environmentally corrected and standoff-corrected value of
neutron limestone porosity.

Because this formation salinity correction is based upon formation water resistivity
(which is often not a measured value), salinity corrections must be made with caution.
Most analysts tend to forego this correction when Rw is not measured, is uncertain, or
has been derived from logs by either the inverse-Archie method or SP method.

Resistivity Environmental Corrections


Resistivity tool responses generally must be corrected for a variety of conditions;
namely, borehole effects, thin beds, and invasion. Microresistivity measurements must
be corrected for the presence of mudcake. Just as neutron corrections were particular
to tool type, resistivity corrections also are particular to tool type. The chartbook
contains correction sections for each of the following resistivity combinations.

1. Microresistivity (MSFL and Microguard)


2. Dual Induction/Short Guard (Welex)
3. Dual Induction/Laterolog 3 (Gearhart)
4. High Resolution Induction/DFL
5. Hostile Dual Induction
6. Dual Laterolog A (Welex)
7. Dual Laterolog F (Gearhart)

Furthermore, resistivity corrections must be performed in a particular order because


one corrected value is used to make the next required correction. Each resistivity

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section of the chartbook is arranged in such a way that the charts appear in sequence.
For any resistivity tool, environmental corrections should be undertaken in the following
order:

1. Borehole correction of the shallow device on induction tool, or mudcake correction


for pad-mounted electrode tool (MSFL).
2. Borehole correction for deep and medium devices.
3. Bed thickness correction for deep and medium devices.
4. Invasion correction.

The ultimate goal in performing environmental corrections is to achieve values for


resistivity of the uninvaded zone (Rt), resistivity of the flushed zone (Rxo), and diameter
of invasion (di). These three unknowns are determined in the final step of the process
(i.e., invasion correction). Invasion corrections assume conditions of infinitely thick
homogeneous beds and an 8-inch borehole; therefore, both borehole and bed
thickness corrections must be applied to input measurements before this final step is
attempted.

Performing Mudcake Correction for the MSFL (R xo-1)

The resistivity measurement of the MSFL is often considered to be an accurate


measure of flushed zone resistivity (Rxo). However, any measure of flushed zone
resistivity by a pad-mounted device will be influenced by the presence of mudcake.
Mudcake correction charts are provided in the Microresistivity section of the chartbook.

Example Data

Observed MSFL response (RMSFL): 14.0 Ω-m


Mudcake resistivity (Rmc ) at Tf : 1.0 Ω-m
Mudcake thickness (hmc ): 0.175 inches

Using the Rxo-1 chart, enter the X-axis with a value of the RMSFL/Rmc ratio (14 in this
example). It is important to note that Rmc must be corrected for formation temperature at
the depth at which the correction is being applied. Extend a vertical line upward to
intersect a horizontal line representing mudcake thickness (0.175 inches). From this
intersection, extend a horizontal line to the Y-axis to read a value of the correction
factor (RMSFLcorr/RMSFL = 0.88). This correction factor is then multiplied by the observed
MSFL response to obtain a mudcake-corrected value of MSFL resistivity.

It is important to note that the corrected value (12.32 Ω-m) does not represent flushed
zone resistivity (R xo). This value merely represents MSFL resistivity that has been
corrected for mudcake. The value of mudcake-corrected MSFL resistivity should be
retained for later use in the invasion correction.

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Basic Log Interpretation

Performing Borehole Corrections for the DFL (HRI-1)

The DFL borehole correction (HRI-1) compensates the DFL response for the effects of
hole size and mud resistivity (Rm). The chart is divided into three sections, each
depending upon tool position. Tool position can be determined from resistivity
equipment data in the header.

Example Data

Tool position: slick (no standoff)


Observed DFL response (RDFL): 31.0 Ω-m
Mud resistivity (Rm) at Tf : 0.91 Ω-m
Borehole diameter: 11.0 inches

Using the 0.0-inch standoff section of HRI-1, enter the X-axis with a value of the
RDFL/Rm ratio (34.07 in this example). It is important to note that Rm must be corrected
for formation temperature at the depth at which the correction is being applied. Extend
a vertical line upward to intersect a horizontal line representing borehole diameter (11
inches). Borehole diameter should be taken from a caliper measurement; however, it
may be estimated using bit size if no caliper is available. From this intersection, extend
a horizontal line to the Y-axis to read a value of the correction factor (RDFLcorr/RDFL =
1.11). This correction factor is then multiplied by the observed DFL response to obtain a
borehole-corrected value of DFL resistivity.

Notice that the correction was slightly positive. This is to account for the fact that the
mud contributed excess conductivity to the observed response. This excess
conductivity has been removed through the correction, and therefore the borehole-
corrected value of resistivity is slightly higher.

Again, it is important to note that the corrected value (34.41 Ω-m) does not represent
flushed zone resistivity (R xo). This value merely represents DFL resistivity that has been
corrected for borehole effects. The value of borehole-corrected DFL resistivity should
be retained for later use in the invasion correction.

Performing HRI Deep and Medium Borehole Corrections (HRI-2)

Deep and Medium resistivity measurements must also be corrected for the effects of
borehole diameter and mud resistivity (Rm). For the HRI, this is accomplished through
the use of HRI-2. Again, it is important to remember that the value used for mud
resistivity (Rmc ) must be corrected for formation temperature.

Example Data

Tool position: 1.5" standoff (preferred)


Observed Deep resistivity (RHRD): 13.0 Ω-m

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Mud resistivity (Rm) at Tf : 0.25 Ω-m


Borehole diameter: 14.0 inches

To correct the Deep resistivity measurement (RHRD), enter the X-axis of the chart at the
appropriate value of borehole diameter (14.0 inches) and extend a vertical reference
line upward to intersect the Deep 1.5" standoff correction line (note tool position labels
on lines). From this intersection, a horizontal line is plotted to the right edge of the
gridded graph area. From this point at the right edge of the graph, a line is projected
through the appropriate value of Rm at formation temperature (0.25 Ω-m). The value at
which this line crosses the right-side Yaxis reflects the contribution of the borehole, in
terms of conductivity, to the Deep measurement (approximately 0.75 mmhos/m).

Because the signal contributed by the borehole is represented in units of mmho/m, it is


necessary to convert the measured value of Deep resistivity (RHRD = 13.0 Ω-m) to units
of conductivity before the correction is applied. This is accomplished through the
following reciprocal equation.

Once the observed Deep resistivity is converted to units of conductivity, the correction
amount read from the right Y-axis of the graph (0.75 mmhos/m) must be subtracted
from the conductivity measurement. This effectively removes that portion of the
conductivity signal that is contributed by the borehole. Corrected CHRD = 76.92 - 0.75 =
76.17 mmhos/m

The resulting corrected conductivity value (76.17 mmhos/m) must then be converted
back into units of resistivity for use in the next step of the correction procedure. This
conversion is accomplished by simply rearranging the conductivity equation above, and
solving for the borehole-corrected value of Deep resistivity.

Corrected RHRD = 13.13 Ω-m

In this particular example, there was a minor positive correction applied to the Deep
resistivity measurement which is consistent with the borehole contribution being
removed from the total signal (i.e., removal of excess conductivity = addition of more
resistivity).

Correction of the Medium resistivity measurement is analogous to the procedure


described for the Deep measurement. In the case of smaller borehole sizes and/or
higher values of Rm, it is possible for the borehole contribution in mmhos/m to have a
negative sign. In these cases, realize that the borehole contribution is being added to
the measured conductivity value (C meas - (-bh) = C meas + bh).

Values of borehole-corrected Deep and Medium resistivity should be retained for later
use in the following bed thickness correction.

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Performing HRI Deep and Medium Bed Thickness Correction


(HRI-3a, HRI-3b)

The borehole-correct Deep and Medium resistivity measurements must now be


corrected for the effects of the resistivities of overlying and underlying formations, or
shoulder beds. This type of correction is also referred to as a thin bed correction or bed
thickness correction, and is accomplished through the use of HRI-3a or HRI-3b.

Example Data

Borehole-corrected Deep resistivity: 13.0 Ω-m


Shoulder bed resistivity (Rs ): 1.2 Ω-m
Bed thickness (h): 13 feet

Resistivity of the shoulder bed (Rs ) determines which of the two charts applies. In this
example, shoulder bed resistivity (Rs = 1.2 Ω-m) suggests that chart HRI- 3a is the most
applicable. Corrections for both the Deep and Medium resistivity measurements are
made on the same chart. The two chart sections on the lefthand side of HRI-3a are for
shoulder bed resistivities of 1 Ω-m and 2 Ω-m. The upper-left section is for the Deep
correction, while the lower-left section is for the Medium correction.

To correct the Deep measurement for thin bed effects, enter the upper-left section on
the X-axis with a bed thickness of 13 feet. Bed thickness is best determined from the
points of deflection on the curve with the smallest vertical resolution (e.g., DFL). A
vertical line is projected upward to intersect a line representing borehole-corrected
Deep resistivity (13.0 Ω-m). From this intersection, a horizontal line is projected to the
left-side Y-axis to read the bed thicknesscorrected value of Deep resistivity
(approximately 11.5 Ω-m). Correction of the Medium resistivity measurement is
analogous to the procedure described for the Deep measurement, but uses the lower-
left section of HRI-3a.

Values of bed thickness-corrected Deep and Medium resistivity should be retained for
use in invasion correction.

Performing HRI Invasion Correction (HRI-4a, HRI-4b)

Invasion corrections are the final step in High Resolution Induction/DFL environmental
corrections, and produce values of flushed zone resistivity (Rxo), uninvaded zone
resistivity (Rt), and diameter of invasion (di). To this point, it has been assumed that
resistivity of the flushed zone is reflected by the shallowest resistivity measurement,
and resistivity of the uninvaded zone is reflected by the deepest resistivity
measurement. The depth to which mud filtrate invades the formation determines the
validity of these assumptions.

The charts used for invasion correction on induction measurements are known as
"butterfly charts," while those used for invasion correction on laterolog measurements
are referred to as "tornado charts." High Resolution Induction invasion corrections are
accomplished through the use of charts HRI-4a and HRI- 4b.

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Basic Log Interpretation

The use of a particular invasion correction chart is determined by the relationship


between resistivity of the drilling mud (Rm) at formation temperature and the resistivity
of the flushed zone (Rxo). Because a value of Rxo is a result of this invasion correction
process, it is necessary to use the previously boreholecorrected value of shallow
resistivity to approximate Rxo, and thereby determine which chart is applicable.

Example Data

Corrected Deep resistivity (RHRD): 15.0 Ω-m


Corrected Medium resistivity (RHRM): 22.0 Ω-m
Corrected DFL resistivity (RDFL): 105.0 Ω-m
DFL value is borehole-corrected
Deep and Medium values are borehole- and bed thickness-corrected

For this example it is assumed that the ratio Rxo/Rm is approximately 100; therefore,
HRI-4b is applicable.

The first step in the invasion correction process is to determine the Rt/RHRD ratio. Enter
the X-axis of the chart with a value for the ratio RHRM/RHRD (1.467 in this example) and
plot a vertical line upward to intersect a horizontal line that represents the ratio
RDFL/RHRD (7.0). Using the plotted point, estimate the ratio Rt/RHRD using the point's
relative position to the solid red lines. In this case, the estimated Rt/RHRD ratio is
approximately 0.93. This ratio is multiplied by the borehole-corrected and bed
thickness-corrected value of Deep resistivity (RHRD = 15.0 Ω-m) to determine a value for
"true" resistivity of the uninvaded zone (Rt).

The second step of the invasion correction process is to determine the Rxo/Rt ratio.
Again, using the plotted point, estimate this ratio using the point's relative position to the
solid black lines. In this case, the estimated Rxo/Rt ratio is approximately 9.9. This ratio
is then multiplied by the previously determined value of uninvaded zone resistivity (Rt =
13.95 Ω-m) to determine a value for flushed zone resistivity (Rxo).

The third step of the invasion correction process is to determine the diameter of
invasion (di). Using the plotted point, estimate the diameter of invasion from the point's
relative position to the dashed black lines. In this example, the diameter of invasion is
approximately 63 inches.

Following completion of the invasion correction, environmentally corrected values of


uninvaded zone resistivity (Rt) and flushed zone resistivity (Rxo) can be entered into the
Archie equation for more accurate values of water saturation (S w ). The diameter of
invasion (di) determined from this correction can be used to explain the effects of mud
filtrate on other logging measurements (e.g., porosity, etc.).

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In the example demonstrated, the data point plotted fall within the "butterfly," but this
will not always be the case. Sometimes, points will fall outside of the "butterfly." This
may be the result of a poor fit between the measured Rxo/Rm value and the Rxo/Rm value
used to generate the chart. Even though a point may fall outside of the "tornado," it can
still be used to determine Rxo and Rt. For points that fall to the left of the Rt/RHRD = 1.0
line, it is valid to assumed that Rt = RHRD (i.e., shallow invasion). If the point falls to the
right of the "tornado," it can be referenced back to the nearest Rt/RHRD line, although
determined values of Rxo and d i will be less accurate.

CAUTION!
Do not assume the value of R xo in Butterfly / tornado chart The initial R xo value
is simply a borehole corrected shallow resistivity measurement, and not R xo.
The R xo/R t correction lines are used to determine R xo from R t.value.

Resistivity environmental corrections for Dual Laterolog measurements are analogous


to those described for the High Resolution Induction corrections, but use other sections
of the chartbook specific to the type of Dual Laterolog tool that was run.

Additional Notes on Environmental Corrections


By now it should be apparent that there is an incredible amount of interpretation and
assumption required for the use of these correction charts. Very seldom will two people
produce the same results from the same correction charts. In many instances, the
corrections are so small that they have no effect on the original measurement. Most
importantly, any error in using these charts begins with how values are read from the
logs. Any error may then be compounded through the use of the charts, and may even
be influenced by the thickness of a pencil lead!

When using these charts, also bear in mind that they were constructed for a given set
of environmental conditions. Those conditions are often listed somewhere on the chart.
More robust environmental corrections for conditions other than those that were used to
construct the printed charts can be performed in Reservoir Decision Centers.

Fortunately, "quick-look" log analysis problems at the well-site often do not call for the
use of environmental correction charts. However, a working knowledge of these charts
is important from the standpoint that they provide a graphical means of explaining how
environmental conditions affect logging measurements.

References
Halliburton Energy Services, 1994, Log Interpretation Charts.

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Section 4
Clean Formation Evaluation

Table of Contents
Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………. 60

Objectives…………………………………………………………………………………………... 60

Clean Formation Evaluation…………………………………………………………………….... 60

Typical Approach…………………………………………………………………….……………. 60

Selecting the Appropriate Logs…………………………………………………………………... 61

Exploratory Wells…………………………………………………………………….……………. 61

Development Wells…………………………………………………………………….………….. 62

Infill Wells…………………………………………………………………….…………………….. 63

Log Quality Assessment………………………………………………………………………….. 63

Potential Water-Bearing Zones and Calculations……………………………………………… 65

Potential Hydrocarbon-Bearing Zones and Calculations……………………………………… 65

Decisions on Productive Capability……………………………………………………………… 66

References…………………………………………………………………………………………. 67

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Basic Log Interpretation

Introduction
The idea of compiling all of the information necessary for a complete analysis may
seem a bit overwhelming at first glance. This is especially true when one realizes that
calculations are typically performed at intervals of one to one-half foot throughout the
zone or zones of interest. This complex task can result in literally hundreds of data
points, all needing environmental corrections, invasion corrections, cross-plot
determinations, and lithology identification. If evaluated one depth at a time, then this
process could result in maddening hours of tedious calculations or shoddy
interpretations based on misread data points and flailing approximations. The purpose
of this section is to provide the participant with a basic outline of the steps and
procedures of clean formation evaluation, and the order in which these steps should be
accomplished.

Objectives
After completing this section, the participant should be able to

§ recognize the importance of an orderly analysis.

§ formulate a reasonable and efficient approach to evaluating a clean formation.

§ recognize the importance of having array of data when making a decision to set
pipe and perforate versus abandon a well.

Clean Formation Evaluation


A complete evaluation of a clean (i.e., shale-free) formation involvs many different and
complex calculations and adopt right techniques suitable to the conditions. Additionally,
there are a variety of assumptions that must be made during this analysis. The number
of steps involved and the order in which the steps should be performed makes it difficult
to remember at times. This section provides guidelines in a frame of an orderly
sequence, which an analysts should accomplish when analyzing a clean formation.

Typical Approach

1. Select the appropriate logs.

2. Perform detailed log quality assessment.

3. Locate potential water-bearing zones and determine their lithology.

4. Select depth(s) at which formation water resistivity (Rw ) is to be determined, and


perform environmental corrections on these data.

5. Determine formation water resistivity (Rw ) by available means.

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6. Locate potential hydrocarbon-bearing zones and determine their lithology.

7. Select depth(s) at which water saturation (S w ) is to be calculated, and perform


environmental corrections on these data.

8. Correct formation water resistivity (Rw ) to formation temperature of zone(s) of


interest.

9. Calculate water saturation (Sw ) of the potential hydrocarbon-bearing zone(s).

10. Make a decision on the productive capability of the potential hydrocarbon bearing
zone(s) based on all of the available information.

When making a decision on the productive capability of a potential hydrocarbon bearing


zone, all of the available information should be considered. Values of water saturation
(S w ) should not be the sole determining factor. Remember that water saturation is not a
reflection of the ratio of water to hydrocarbons that will be produced from the reservoirs.
It is simply the relative proportion of water to hydrocarbons that exists in the pore space
of that reservoir. There are no safe guidelines for determining what constitutes "good"
and "bad" values for water saturation. Consider the log responses and any other
information that might be available to conclude about production ability of the formation.

Selecting the Appropriate Logs

The choice of logging combinations will depend upon a variety of factors, including:
mud system, formation type, previous knowledge of the reservoir, hole size and
deviation, rig time and cost, equipment availability, and the type of information desired.
The types of log run also strongly depend upon the well type. Exploratory wells typically
require a comprehensive logging program, whereas infill and development wells may
only require basic services.

Additional logs may be required in cases where geologists, reservoir engineers,


completion engineers, and geophysicists desire additional information for further
exploration, evaluation, completion of the well and input to other facilities. The use of
computers in formation evaluation and the availability of logging data in a variety of
formats (i.e., LIS, LAS, ACSII) has vastly increased the utilization of data recorded with
comprehensive logging programs.

Exploratory Wells

In exploratory (or "wildcat") wells, very little information, is known about the reservoir.
These situations typically demand a comprehensive logging program to gain
information about subsurface e.g. reservoir porosity, and fluid saturations. In many
cases a sonic log may be necessary for correlation to seismic sections. Formation
tester and sidewall cores may also be necessary to gain better insight into the
formation. All of this information is used to streamline further exploration plan and order
for drilling, completion and production facilities down the line.

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Basic Log Interpretation

Typical Logging Suites for Medium-to-Soft Rock, Fresh Mud Exploratory Wells

§ High Resolution Array Induction, High Resolution Induction/DFL, or Dual


Induction/Short Guard
§ Spectral Density/Dual Spaced Neutron/Compensated Spectral Gamma
Ray/Microlog
§ Full Wave Sonic
§ Magnetic Resonance Imaging
§ Six Electrode Dipmeter, Electrical Micro Imaging, or Circumferential Acoustic
Scanning Tool-Visualization
§ Formation Tester
§ Sidewall Coring

Typical Logging Suites for Hard Rock or Salt Mud Exploratory Wells

§ Dual Laterolog/Micro-Spherically Focused Log (or equivalent induction survey if


mud salinity marginal)
§ Spectral Density/Dual Spaced Neutron/Compensated Spectral Gamma Ray
§ Full Wave Sonic
§ Magnetic Resonance Imaging (for optimal borehole conditions)
§ Six Electrode Dipmeter, Electrical Micro Imaging, or Circumferential Acoustic
Scanning Tool-Visualization
§ Formation Tester
§ Sidewall Coring

Development Wells

Development wells are those that immediately follow exploratory wells; their purpose
being to "develop" a field that has recently been discovered, and to identify the limits of
the field. Most wells drilled can be classified as development. Although acquisition of
data pertaining to the characteristics of the formation is still a priority, logging suites for
development wells typically are more limited than those for exploratory wells. The
information that is gained may be "correlated" back to the data acquired on the
associated exploratory wells for a better picture of the overall field.

Typical Logging Suites for Medium-to-Soft Rock Fresh Mud Development Wells

§ High Resolution Array Induction, High Resolution Induction/DFL, or Dual


Induction/Short Guard
§ Spectral Density/Dual Spaced Neutron
§ Magnetic Resonance Imaging (with increasing development of a discovered field,
MRIL may become the log of choice for gaining information about porosity and fluid
types within a reservoir)

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Basic Log Interpretation

§ Sonic Porosity, Formation Tester, Six Electrode Dipmeter, and Sidewall Coring as
required

Typical Logging Suite for Hard Rock or Salt Mud Development Wells

§ Dual Laterolog/Micro-Spherically Focused Log


§ Spectral Density/Dual Spaced Neutron/Compensated Spectral Gamma Ray
§ Magnetic Resonance Imaging (for optimal borehole conditions)
§ Sonic Porosity, Formation Tester, Six Electrode Dipmeter, and Sidewall Coring as
required

Infill Wells

In situations where a reservoir has been very well defined, perhaps by the drilling of
numerous wells, the typical logging suite becomes even smaller. Infill wells, or those
drilled to "fill in" the areas between previously drilled development wells, are typically
logged with only very basic services. Magnetic Resonance Imaging has a tremendous
application here because of its ability to gain insight on fluid types, porosity and
permeability with a single tool; something that required multiple tools and possibly
multiple runs in the past. It should be realized that the limited amounts of data typically
gathered during logging of infill wells is generally insufficient for any type of post-
processing analysis applications.

Typical Logging Suite for Medium-to-Soft Rock Fresh Mud Infill Wells

§ High Resolution Array Induction, High Resolution Induction/DFL, or Dual


Induction/Short Guard
§ Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Typical Logging Suite for Hard Rock Salt Mud Infill Wells

§ Dual Laterolog/Micro-Spherically Focused Log


§ Magnetic Resonance Imaging (for optimal borehole conditions)
§ Sonic Porosity

As is the case with any logging program, the types of logs run must be tailored to the
conditions that exist and the types of information sought. The decision about which logs
to run is typically made well before the field engineer becomes involved; however,
situations may arise during a job in which additional services should be offered to the
customer for their consideration.

Log Quality Assessment

Quality of the recorded data should be of the utmost concern to both the field engineer
and the customer. Very expensive decisions about the future of a well are based on log
data, and accurate data are vital to the decision making process and future
success/failure of a well. The first step in any analysis problem should be to scan the

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logs, searching for any anomalous or otherwise strange looking log responses. All
service companies and many customers have very detailed log quality assurance
programs in place. There are four main areas of concern that should be addressed with
any log quality assurance program.

Depth Control

Depth control is only one of the many vital components of quality data. However, it also
is one of the most difficult to assess. In exploratory situations, some assurance can be
maintained from comparisons of log depth to driller's depth and casing depth, and to
general knowledge of the region's geology. Keep in mind, however, that these are by
no means accurate references. In development and infill situations there is typically
sufficient well control to assess the correctness of depth data for a particular well. Every
effort should be made to insure that proper depth control is practiced on every well.

Overall Technical Quality

Many conditions beyond human control may adversely affect the quality of logging data.
The most obvious of these is equipment malfunction. Preventative maintenance
programs are the best way to minimize equipment malfunctions and the possibility of
poor quality logs. Other possible causes of poor data may include: rugose boreholes,
sticking tools, tool rotation, excessive logging speed, deviated wells, poor centralization
or eccentralization, and engineer error. Each of these possibilities should be kept in
mind when assessing the quality of log data. In some instances, it may be necessary to
make another run, perhaps with a different tool string.

Repeatability

Many of the previously mentioned factors affecting quality of a log might also apply to
repeatability. In addition, a repeat may be affected by time-based phenomena such as
changing degree of invasion. Comparing repeated log sections is an important step in
assessing the quality of log data; however, it should not be the only method of quality
control.

Absolute Log Values ("Markers")

Comparison of log readings with known absolute values is seldom possible; however,
this positive check should be performed where it is possible. Known formations
consisting of pure, non-porous lithologies such as halite, anhydrite, or limestone can be
used to verify the accuracy of log readings. Casing may also be used to check the
accuracy of caliper and sonic measurements. Furthermore, logs of offset wells may
provide a ballpark figure of expected values, but these values can vary dramatically
between wells.

Log quality control is the responsibility of the service company performing the logging
job. However, log acceptance should always be determined from the point of view of
the customer. Will he or she be able to obtain accurate and reliable information from the
log? If an affirmative answer to this question is ever in doubt, then making another run
with a different toolstring or pursuing some other alternative should be considered.

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Potential Water-Bearing Zones and Calculations

Locating a potential water-bearing zone should be approached by qualitatively


assessing intervals in terms of their porosity and resistivity, and considering any
permeability indicators presented with the logs. This "visual sifting" of data is usually
accomplished by first considering porosity. If a zone is porous, then there are fluids
present within that zone. Next, resistivity of the zone must be considered. Because
hydrocarbons are electrical insulators, porous zones containing them will have relatively
high resistivities. Porous water-bearing zones, on the other hand, will have relatively
low resistivities. This process is also aided by recognition of the various resistivity
invasion profiles associated with different types of resistivity logs.

Do not hesitate to mark logs or highlight intervals to make them more noticeable. A
practical method of doing this is to use a yellow highlighter pen to color from the middle
of Track 1 left to the Gamma Ray curve. This provides a good visual image of
potentially porous formations; those possibly containing water or hydrocarbons. Where
a Spontaneous Potential curve is present, the process of locating potentially permeable
formations (again, regardless of fluid types contained) is much faster. Those
impermeable zones that lack any SP deflection will be of less interest than those with
deflection. Keep in mind, however, that the SP response is only a qualitative indicator of
formation permeability.

Once a potential water-bearing zone is located, several necessary calculations are in


order. The formation temperature (Tf ) of the interval should be determined.
Furthermore, resistivity measures such as Rm and Rmf should be corrected to formation
temperature for the purpose of determining formation water resistivity (Rw ).

Before determining formation water resistivity (Rw ), the lithology of the formation of
interest should be determined. This may be done by quick-look, or by use of one of the
lithology charts. Determination of lithology will assist the analyst in determining the
appropriate values of tortuosity factor (a) and cementation exponent (m) for inverse-
Archie Rw calculations.

In a quick-look analysis, environmental corrections are typically not performed on any


log measurement. However, to be more precise in an analysis, the various influences of
borehole and invasion should be corrected before using any log measurement to
determine formation water resistivity (Rw ).

Every reasonable effort should be made to obtain an accurate and valid value of
formation water resistivity (Rw ) from the logs. If the required data is available, then both
the SP method and inverse-Archie method of determining Rw should be pursued. Keep
in mind that determining Rw from log data does not always yield accurate results. When
analyzing any log, the potential for error created by using an impractical value of Rw
should always be considered. Always use the lowest value of determined Rw , within
reason, for obtaining more optimistic values of water saturation (S w ).

Potential Hydrocarbon-Bearing Zones and Calculations

Locating a potential hydrocarbon-bearing zone should also be approached by


qualitatively assessing the porosity and resistivity of zones, and considering

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permeability indicators. Again, if a zone is porous, then there are fluids present within
that zone. Porous zones containing hydrocarbons will have relatively high resistivities
because of the poor electrical conductivity of those hydrocarbons. As was the case with
water-bearing zones, permeability indicators should also be considered to determine
the priority with which a certain zone will be evaluated.

The most important thing to consider is that the value for formation water resistivity (Rw )
determined in a water-bearing zone must be corrected to the formation temperature (T f)
of the zone in which it is to be used to calculate water saturation (S w). Failing to correct
Rw for temperature at greater depths will result in water saturation values being too
pessimistic (too high). It is therefore possible, and in many cases a potential
hydrocarbon-bearing zone may be overlooked as being wet if Rw is not corrected to
formation temperature. This will, of course, require that formation temperature (Tf ) be
determined for each potential hydrocarbon-bearing zone.

Before calculating water saturation (S w ), the lithology of the formation of interest should
be determined. Again, this may be done by quick-look, or by use of one of the lithology
charts. Knowledge of lithology will determine the appropriate values of tortuosity factor
(a) and cementation exponent (m) for inverse-Archie Rw calculations.

Again, in a quick-look analysis, environmental corrections are typically not performed.


To be more precise, environmental corrections should be applied to any log
measurement before calculating water saturation (S w ).

For clean formations, it is assumed that the Archie equation is applicable. Bear in mind,
however, that there are certain instances (such as when clay minerals are present in a
shaly sand) that alternative methods of calculating water saturation will be more
appropriate. Some of these methods will be discussed in the Shaly Sand Analysis
sections of this text.

Decisions on Productive Capability

The most difficult process in the basic evaluation of a clean formation has now been
reached; the decision of whether to set pipe and perforate or consider abandonment
still hangs. Calculated values of water saturation (S w ) only provide the analyst with
information about what fluids are present in the formation of interest. In many cases,
water saturation is not a reflection of the relative proportions of fluids that may be
produced. Therefore, when making the decision to set pipe or abandon, all available
information should be taken into account.

Water saturation (S w ) should be the basis for this important decision, but other factors
also enter into the decision making process. These factors include: volume of shale
(V sh) of the reservoir, irreducible water saturation (S wirr ) and bulk volume water (BVW),
moveable hydrocarbons, etc.. In many instances, much of the decision revolves around
a "gut feeling"; however, in all cases, there is no substitute for experience in a particular
region when making the choice. Some additional methods that may be used during the
decision making process will be addressed in the Additional Log Interpretation
Techniques section of this text.

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References
Asquith, G. B., 1982, Basic well log analysis for geologists: American
Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, OK, 216 p.

Bateman, R. M., 1985, Open-hole log analysis and formation evaluation: IHRDC
Publishers, Boston, MA, 647 p.

Dewan, J. T., 1983, Essentials of modern open-hole log interpretation: PennWell


Publishing, Tulsa, OK, 361 p.

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Section 5
Additional Log Interpretation
Techniques

Table of Contents
Introduction…………………………………………………………………….…………………... 69

Objectives…………………………………………………………………….…………………….. 69

Moveable Hydrocarbon Index (MHI) ……………………………………………………………. 70

Ratio Water Saturation (Swr) ……………………………………………………………………... 71

Ratio Formation Water Resistivity (Rwr) ………………………………………………………… 72

Bulk Volume Water (BVW) …………………………………………………………………….… 73

Log-Derived Permeability (KL) …………………………………………………………………… 74

Wyllie and Rose (1950) Method…………………………………………………………………. 75

Coates and Dumanoir (1973) Method…………………………………………………………… 75

Calculation of Reserves…………………………………………………………………….…….. 76

Barrels of Oil in Place…………………………………………………………………….……….. 76

Recoverable Oil (Stock Tank Barrels) ………………………………………………………….. 76

Cubic Feet of Gas in Place…………………………………………………………………….…. 77

Recoverable Gas (Cubic Feet) ………………………………………………………………….. 77

References…………………………………………………………………….…………………… 78

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Introduction
Calculating water saturation, whether by the Archie equation or one of the many shaly
sand equations, is the primary goal of open hole log analysis. This provides an estimate
of the relative proportion of water and hydrocarbons contained in a particular reservoir.
However, interpretation of log data does not necessarily end with a result for water
saturation. There are numerous other basic calculations that may be extremely helpful
in evaluating the productive capability of a reservoir. Analysts would also like to know
whether hydrocarbons within a reservoir are moveable and capable of being produced,
whether water saturation is low enough for water-free production, whether a particular
zone is permeable, and if so, whether there are economical recoverable reserves. This
section introduces some of these additional evaluation methods and illustrates how
they may be used in combination with a basic analysis.

Objectives
After completing this section, the participant should be able to

§ calculate flushed zone water saturation (S xo) of a hydrocarbon-bearing formation.

§ calculate moveable hydrocarbon index (MHI) of a hydrocarbon-bearing formation


and estimate whether hydrocarbons were moved during invasion.

§ calculate ratio water saturation (S w r) of a hydrocarbon-bearing formation.

§ calculate ratio formation water resistivity (Rw r) of a water-bearing formation.

§ calculate bulk volume water (BVW) of a hydrocarbon-bearing formation.

§ estimate grain size of a clastic reservoir from bulk volume water (BVW).

§ estimate pore type of a carbonate reservoir from bulk volume water (BVW).

§ calculate log-derived permeability (K L).

§ calculate in place and recoverable reserves for oil- and gas-bearing reservoirs.

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Moveable Hydrocarbon Index (MHI)


One way to investigate the moveability of hydrocarbons is to determine water saturation
of the flushed zone (S xo). This is accomplished by substituting into the Archie equation
those parameters pertaining to the flushed zone.

The only tool that measures an accurate value for resistivity of the flushed zone (Rxo) is
the Micro-Spherically Focused Log (MSFL), and even then its measurement should
only be taken to reflect Rxo after all environmental corrections have been applied. By
environmentally correcting the measurements of shallow resistivity devices such as the
DFL or Short Guard, an estimate of Rxo may be obtained.

Once flushed zone water saturation (S xo) is calculated, it may be compared with the
value for water saturation of the uninvaded zone (S w ) at the same depth to determine
whether or not hydrocarbons were moved from the flushed zone during invasion. If the
value for Sxo is much greater than the value for Sw , then hydrocarbons were likely
moved during invasion, and the reservoir will produce. An easy way of quantifying this
relationship is through the moveable
hydrocarbon index (MHI).

When the moveable hydrocarbon index (MHI) is equal to 1.0 or greater, then this
is an indication that hydrocarbons were not moved from the flushed zone during
invasion of mud filtrate. Empirical studies have resulted in some guidelines that
should be used with caution.

§ sandstones
moveable hydrocarbons indicated if MHI < 0.7

§ carbonates
moveable hydrocarbons indicated if MHI < 0.6

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Ratio Water Saturation (Swr)


Another use of the moveable hydrocarbon index (MHI) equation is to determine water
saturation of the uninvaded zone (S w ) when no porosity logs are available. This is
known as the ratio method, or Rocky Mountain method after the geographic region in
which its use was popularized. The moveable hydrocarbon index (MHI) equation may
be rewritten as follows:

In using the ratio method, we are interested in obtaining a value for water saturation of
the uninvaded zone (S w ). Therefore, we must assume some relationship between Sw
and Sxo so that the Sxo term in the above equation can be eliminated. In most cases
where formations are moderately invaded, the following relationship holds:

By substituting this relationship into the MHI equation above, the following results:

Ratio water saturation (S w r) represents water saturation of the uninvaded zone


calculated independent of porosity.

Once ratio water saturation (S w r) has been calculated, it may be compared with the
value of Archie water saturation (S w ) at the same depth to gain even more information
on the formation of interest. The following observations--which also should be used with
caution--have been made between ratio water saturation (S w r) and Archie water
saturation (S w ) of the uninvaded zone.

Sw (Archie) ~ Swr (Ratio)

All values (S w , Rt, Rxo, and di) are indicated to be correct, and the assumption of a step
invasion profile is correct.

Sw (Archie) > S w (Ratio)

Rxo may be too low because of very shallow invasion, or Rt may be too high
because of very deep invasion. Furthermore, a transition invasion profile is

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indicated. Archie water saturation (S w ) should be considered the more accurate


value.

Sw (Archie) < S w (Ratio)

Rxo may be too high because of the effects of high resistivity adjacent beds, or Rt
may be too low. An annulus invasion profile may be indicated in this situation.

Ratio Formation Water Resistivity (Rwr)


An alternate method of determining a value for formation water resistivity (Rw ) from logs
is the ratio method. This technique is rather easy to use because it eliminates the need
to know porosity and lithology of the wet zone, and the necessity of a Spontaneous
Potential curve. The premise behind this method is the assumption that in a 100%
water saturated zone (S w = 100%), the invaded portion of the well is also 100% water
saturated (S xo = 100%, where Sxo represents flushed zone water saturation). If deep
and shallow resistivities have been invasion corrected to Rt and Rxo, respectively, and if
reliable and accurate Rmf data is available from a full mud press, then a value of
formation water resistivity (Rw ) can be determined.

Values for true formation resistivity (Rt) and flushed zone resistivity (Rxo) must be
determined from the appropriate tornado or butterfly charts for resistivity devices. In
some instances, analysts will take approximate values directly from the logs, realizing
that shallow reading Rxo devices may be dramatically effected by the invasion of mud
filtrate. The only true Rxo device is the Micro-Spherically Focused Log (MSFL). All other
"shallow" resistivity devices will require invasion correction to obtain a reliable value of
Rxo. If reliable values for Rt and Rxo are available and a valid mud test reading of Rmf is
available, then a value for formation water resistivity (Rw ) can be determined. This
resulting value should be compared to other results in an effort to determine which is
reasonable and optimistic.

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Bulk Volume Water (BVW)


Water saturation simply represents the fraction of porosity in a reservoir that is
occupied by water. In some instances, it may be beneficial to know the fraction of rock
volume that is occupied by water. This is expressed as bulk volume water (BVW).

Bulk volume water has several important applications. Within a particular reservoir,
BVW may be calculated at several depths. Where values for BVW remain constant or
very close to constant throughout a reservoir, this may be taken as an indication that
the reservoir is at or near irreducible water saturation (S w irr). Irreducible water
saturation is the value of water saturation at which all water within the reservoir is either
adsorbed onto grain surfaces or bound within the pore network by capillary pressure. If
a reservoir is at irreducible water saturation, then the water present within that
formation will be immovable and production will--theoretically--be water-free
hydrocarbons. Reservoirs that exhibit variation in values for BVW are typically not at
irreducible water saturation and, therefore, at least some water production can be
expected.

Irreducible water saturation is related to the grain size of a reservoir. As grain size
decreases, the diameters of pore throats within the reservoir will decrease, resulting in
higher capillary pressures. This condition implies a reservoir in which a substantial
amount of water may be trapped and unable to move. Therefore, when a reservoir is
determined to be at irreducible water saturation, values for bulk volume water (BVW)
may be used to estimate the average grain size of that reservoir (Figure 5.1). Realizing
the potential for error, this approximation may also be used in reservoirs that are not at
irreducible water saturation.

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Bulk volume water (BVW) should not be confused with "bulk volume irreducible" (MBVI)
which is a reservoir parameter determined by Magnetic Resonance Imaging Logging
(MRIL). BVW represents the percentage of rock volume that is water. MBVI, on the
other hand, represents the relative proportion of fluid within the reservoir that is bound
by capillary pressure.

The presence of clay minerals in a reservoir also has an impact on values of irreducible
water saturation (S w irr ) and bulk volume water (BVW). As the volume of clay minerals in
a reservoir (V sh) increases, both Sw irr and BVW will increase because of the inclination
of clay to trap interstitial formation water.

Log-Derived Permeability (KL)


Thus far, permeability has been discussed only in qualitative terms. Microlog and
Spontaneous Potential responses may be used as qualitative indicators of permeability;
however, it is virtually impossible to derive a reliable and accurate value for reservoir
permeability from standard open-hole logging data. Formation tester data may help to
further evaluate permeability, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Logs (MRIL) make
another step in getting closer to an accurate value of permeability.

If a reservoir is deemed to be at irreducible water saturation (S w irr ), then a logderived


estimate of permeability can be made. Constant to near-constant values of bulk volume
water (BVW) within a reservoir indicate that reservoir is at (or at least near) irreducible
water saturation. Once this determination is made, logderived permeability may be
calculated. Two of the possible methods are discussed as follows.

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The constants used in the Wyllie and Rose method (250 and 79) are used to account
for the effects that hydrocarbon density (whether it be medium gravity oil or dry gas)
has on permeability. The use of these constants is one reason why this calculated
value of permeability should be used only as an estimate.

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Calculation of Reserves
The decision of whether to set pipe and perforate versus abandon a well can be made
easier if there is some estimate of the possible recoverable reserves.Economics are
therefore brought into play in the analysis. A basic part of any evaluation should be to at
least estimate the volume of hydrocarbon that may be produced from a particular well.
Calculation of reserves requires information about the petrophysical characteristics of
the reservoir (e.g., water saturation, porosity), dimensions of the reservoir (e.g.,
drainage acreage, thickness), and production characteristics (e.g., recovery factor,
"shrinkage factor").

Barrels of Oil in Place

Most of the information required for this calculation is readily available from the logs or
from simple calculations. The volumetric constant 7758 refers to the number of barrels
in a 1 acre by 1-foot thick volume. It is very easy to obtain information about reservoir
thickness from logs. However, logs do not give any indication about the drainage area
of a particular reservoir. Unless information regarding the areal extent of a reservoir is
available, then the variable A can be assumed as the allowed well spacing within the
field.

Recoverable Oil (Stock Tank Barrels)

The amount of oil calculated to be in place does not reflect the amount of oil that can be
produced from the reservoir. The percentage of oil that can feasibly be recovered from
the reservoir (i.e., recovery factor) and the shrinkage experienced by oil as it comes to
the surface (i.e., formation volume factor) must also be considered.

Recoverable oil, in stock tank barrels, may be estimated by the following equation:

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The recovery factor (RF) deals with the fact that not all of the oil present in a formation
is capable of being produced. Oil that is "dead", trapped by capillary pressure, or
otherwise immovable contributes to the volume of oil present in a reservoir, but will not
be produced. This recovery factor depends upon reservoir type, the initial hydrocarbon
saturation of that reservoir, and the production mechanism. For a typical case where a
reservoir is produced by flowing or by pump (primary recovery), it is safe to assume a
recovery factor of 20% to 30% (RF = 0.2 to 0.3). In cases where a reservoir is under
water flood or other secondary recovery methods, a recovery factor of 40% may be
more applicable. Rarely will recovery factors exceed 50%, even in the case of
advanced recovery techniques such as steam or CO2 flood.

As oil moves toward the surface during production, gas will be evolved from solution.
This results in a volumetric difference between the amount of oil in place and the
amount of oil existing in stock tanks at the surface. The variable B ("shrinkage factor" or
formation volume factor) takes this volumetric difference into account. For oil, it is safe
to assume a shrinkage factor of approximately 1.2.

Cubic Feet of Gas in Place

The amount of gas in place in a reservoir (in cubic feet) may be estimated in a similar
manner as with oil, and by the following equation:

The volumetric constant 43560 refers to the number of cubic feet in a 1 acre by 1- foot
thick volume. This equation yields the amount of gas existing in place at formation
temperature (Tf ) and formation pressure (P f ).

Recoverable Gas (Cubic Feet)

As was the case with oil, the amount of gas calculated to be in place does not reflect
the amount of gas that can be produced. The deviation factor (Z) and recovery factor
(RF) account for this volumetric difference, and are employed in the following equation
to estimate recoverable gas:

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When using the above equation to estimate cubic feet of recoverable gas, it is not
necessary to multiple the results by the conversion factor (CF) to yield cubic feet at
standard temperature and pressure. The conversion factor is an integral part of this
equation. Thus, the result of the equation will be cubic feet of gas at average surficial
conditions (60ºF and 14.7 psi).

References
Asquith, G. B., 1982, Basic Well Log Analysis for Geologists: American Association of
Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, OK, 216 p.

Bateman, R. M., 1985, Open-hole log analysis and formation evaluation: IHRDC
Publishers, Boston, MA, 647 p.

Dewan, J. T., 1983, Essentials of modern open-hole log interpretation: PennWell


Publishing, Tulsa, OK, 361 p.

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Section 6
Shaly Sand Theory

Table of Contents
Introduction…………………………………………………………………….…………………… 80

Objectives…………………………………………………………………….…………………….. 80

Shaly Sand Analysis…………………………………………………………………….………… 81

The Nature of Clay Minerals and Shale…………………………………………………………. 81

Modes of Occurrence of Clay Minerals…………………………………………………………. 82

Assumptions Involved in Shaly Sand Analysis…………………………………………………. 84

Bound Water in Shaly Sands…………………………………………………………………….. 84

Log Responses in Presence of Clay Minerals………………………………………………….. 86

Porosity Response…………………………………………………………………….…………... 87

Sonic Response…………………………………………………………………….……………... 88

Density Response…………………………………………………………………….…………… 88

Neutron Porosity…………………………………………………………………….…………….. 88

Resistivity Response…………………………………………………………………….………... 89

Combined Effect of Porosity and Resistivity Responses……………………………………… 90

References…………………………………………………………………….…………………… 91

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Introduction
To this point the discussion of log analysis has focused on clean formations in which
the Archie equation may be used to evaluate water saturation (S w ) of the uninvaded
zone. What happens to the analysis if the formation of interest is not clean? Suppose,
instead, that the formation contains some amount of "shale," or clay minerals. These
clay minerals will have an effect on particular log responses and, therefore, the analysis
will be in error unless the presence of these clays in accounted for. This is the field of
shaly sand analysis, perhaps one of the most confusing aspects of open hole log
analysis.

This section introduces the theory and need for shaly sand analysis. The application of
specific shaly sand techniques are addressed in the following Shaly Sand Applications
section of this manual.

Objectives
After completing this section, the participant should be able to

§ define the term "clay mineral" and how it relates to "shale."

§ list the different modes of occurrence of clay minerals and discuss how each may
affect reservoir properties such as porosity and permeability.

§ define the different types of bound water associated with clay minerals/shales.

§ discuss the effects of clay minerals on sonic, density, and neutron porosity.

§ discuss the effects of clay minerals on resistivity measurements.

§ discuss the effects of clay minerals on calculated values of water saturation(S w )


and how shaly sand analysis "modifies" these results.

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Shaly Sand Analysis


The presence of clay minerals (i.e., "shale") in a reservoir may either be good or bad in
terms of reservoir quality. Small amounts of clay minerals within the pore space of a
reservoir may, because of the increased surface adhesion and capillary pressures
associated with such small particle sizes, trap interstitial water. The result can be
virtually water-free hydrocarbon production from reservoirs of relatively high calculated
water saturation (S w ). On the other hand, the presence of a large amount of clay may
result in the porosity and permeability of the reservoir being reduced to the point where
the reservoir becomes non-productive. A question, then,emerges how much clay is
present, and what effects does it have on the reservoir (and the logs)?

All lithologies--including limestones and dolomites--may potentially contain some


amount of clay minerals. More commonly, however, clay minerals are found associated
with sandstone reservoirs. Because of this, log analysts typically make reference to the
"shaly sand problem." The presence of clay minerals in a reservoir may seriously affect
some log responses, particularly resistivity and porosity. The end result is an
erroneously high value of water saturation, and in some cases a productive reservoir
may appear to be wet. Field engineers and log analysts should be able to recognize the
effects of clay minerals and be able to correct for their presence to yield more accurate
values of water saturation. This emphasizes the need for "shaly sand analysis."

The Nature of Clay Minerals and Shale


"Shale," in the most basic of definitions, is a sedimentary rock consisting of both silt-
sized and clay-sized particles that were deposited in a low energy environment. Shale
itself is of little interest in log analysis because it typically is not a reservoir rock.
However, the clay-sized fraction of shale is extremely important because it is these very
fine grained particles that may be found within the pore spaces of a potentially
productive reservoir.

Clay minerals are very fine grained (< 4?m) hydrous aluminum silicates with minor
amounts of potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and other elements. Clay
minerals may be classified on the basis of their crystalline structures, and each type of
clay mineral has particular properties that may influence wireline logs in different ways
and to different degrees (Figure 6.1).

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Clay minerals may either be detrital or authigenic in origin. Detrital clay minerals are
those that were deposited in low energy environments as a component of shale. During
the deposition of other sand sediments nearby, these shales may be ripped up and
deposited as laminations, clasts, or even individual grains along with the sand grains.
Authigenic clay minerals, on the other hand, are deposited within the pore space of an
existing reservoir as the result of some chemical reaction.

Both detrital and authigenic clays may influence the productive capability of a reservoir
as well as the log responses within that reservoir. However, authigenic clays tend to
cause the most problems because of their ability to partially restrict or completely block
pore throats. Furthermore, authigenic clays have the ability to trap interstitial formation
water, a trait that may be either good or bad.

In log analysis, the terms "shale" and "clay" are often used interchangeably. This
practice is confusing and should be avoided when possible. Proper reference should be
given to each; however, be aware that "shale"--although it is a rock in its own right--is
often used to refer to minor amounts of clay minerals within a
formation.

Modes of Occurrence of Clay Minerals


For the purpose of log analysis, it is necessary to consider clay minerals in terms of
their morphology, or mode of occurrence. Typically, log analysts use the terms
laminated shale, structural clays, and dispersed clays to refer to the distribution of clay
minerals within a reservoir.

Laminated shale (Figure 6.2) refers to thin layers of clay minerals--from a fraction of an
inch to several inches in thickness--that are interbedded with thin intervals of
sandstone. These clays are detrital in origin, and were deposited at the same time as
the sand grains of the reservoir. The presence of laminated shale tends to reduce the
porosity and permeability of a reservoir, and can be thought of simply as a ductile
material that has been squashed between the framework grains (e.g., sand grains) of a
reservoir.

Shale laminations are typically so thin that they are far below the resolution limits of
wireline tools. They do, however, influence log responses because their petrophysical
properties are averaged in with the rest of the formation. For example, even if an
induction tool cannot resolve an individual shale lamination that is 1 inch thick, the
overall resistivity of that zone will be reduced because of the presence of that shale.

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Structural clay (Figure 6.2) refers to detrital clay minerals that exist as individual grains,
clasts, or particles along with the framework grains of a reservoir. This type of clay
typically has little impact upon reservoir quality because it does not restrict or block
pore throats. Furthermore, structural clay is usually present in such small quantities that
it is considered to be of little importance. When present, however, structural clays will
have an influence on log responses in a similar manner as that of other clays because
their petrophysical properties are averaged in with the petrophysical properties of the
framework grains.

Dispersed clay (Figure 6.2) refers to very fine grained particles that exist within the pore
space of a reservoir and actually replace fluid volume. These types of clays, because of
their disseminated fibrous and plate-like morphologies, may be very damaging to
reservoir quality. In small amounts, dispersed clays may block pore throats and reduce
effective porosity and permeability. Furthermore, these types of clays can actually
migrate through the pore network of a reservoir causing disastrous completion and
production problems. Dispersed clays are much different than laminated shales and
structural clays in that they are authigenic in origin. These types of clays precipitated in
situ as the result of some chemical reaction. Because of the fact that dispersed clays

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are capable of trapping large quantities of formation water due to their large surface-to-
volume ratios, their effects on log responses may be quite significant.

Assumptions Involved in Shaly Sand Analysis


One problem with shaly sand analysis is that it is based upon two rather dubious
assumptions. Rarely, if ever, is the type and amount of clays in a reservoir known
before that reservoir is logged. Nothing is known about the clays' chemical
compositions, modes of occurrence, or effects on log responses unless core data is
available. Regardless of what clay types are present, it is necessary to assume that all
clays are equal in the eyes of a log. Laminated shales, structural clays, and dispersed
clays influence log responses to different degrees; however, because of their size, they
are far below the resolution limits of logging tools. Therefore, it is necessary to assume
that the petrophysical properties of a clay measured by a log are simply averaged in
with the rest of the formation.

In addition, because clay minerals are so small and cannot be measured individually by
a log, it is necessary to assume that their petrophysical properties are identical to those
of adjacent shales. For example, the overall resistivity of a formation may be lowered by
the presence of clay. It is impossible to measure the resistivity of that clay mineral with
any logging tool, so it must be assumed that its resistivity is the same as that of a shale
(Rsh) either above or below the formation of interest. This assumption is usually valid
provided there are detrital clays within a reservoir.Laminated shales and structural clays
were likely derived from the shale below the formation or interest, or had a similar
source. However, authigenic clays were derived by some chemical reaction that was
entirely independent of any adjacent shale.

Therefore, when dealing with dispersed clays, the assumption that their properties are
identical to adjacent shales is invalid, but often necessary for lack of core data to prove
otherwise.

Bound Water in Shaly Sands


Much of the confusion in shaly sand analysis revolves around misconceptions about
what constitutes "bound water" within the reservoir. For a complete understanding of
the problems that logging tools encounter in these formations, it is necessary to
recognize that there are different types of "bound water," and that each type may have
a different degree of influence on log responses.

Clay minerals are hydrated sheet silicates and are very similar in crystalline structure to
mica minerals (i.e., muscovite and biotite). The basic building block of a clay mineral is
the silicon tetrahedron, and these tetrahedra are linked together in layers ("sheets")
several Angstroms thick which are separated by other cations such as K, Mg, Ca, and
Fe.

Figure 6.3 illustrates the crystalline atomic structure of the clay mineral smectite. Bound
within the crystalline structure of smectite are hydroxyl ions (OH-), and within the large
"interlayers" separating tetrahedra sheets there may be H2O molecules along with other

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cations (Ca, Mg, etc.). These hydroxyl groups and water molecules are part of the
crystalline structure of the clay mineral, and are referred to as structurally bound water.
This is not what is typically thought of in terms of "bound water," but adding hydrated
clay minerals to a reservoir does increase the hydrogen index of the formation because
of these hydroxyl ions and water molecules. This increase in hydrogen abundance will
produce misleading neutron porosity responses.

The typical conception of "bound water" within a shaly sand involves what may be
referred to as capillary bound water and clay bound water. Capillary bound water exists
because of increased capillary pressures in very small diameter pore throats, and may
be a characteristic of both very fine grained clean sandstones as well as shaly
sandstones. Clay bound water, on the other hand, is that water which is bound to the
surface of clay minerals by electrostatic and chemical forces.

Because of ionic substitutions within the crystalline structure of clay minerals (mainly
Mg2+ for Al3+), clay minerals are often left with a net negative charge (Figure 6.3).
Adding to this negative charge are broken chemical bonds along broken crystal edges
of clay platelets. In the dry state, this negative charge is balanced by the attraction of
positively charged Na + counterions to the clay's surface. These Na + counterions
temporarily occupy what are referred to as "exchange sites" on the surface of the clay
minerals, and are capable of exchanging themselves for one another as well as with
other ions on a charge-percharge basis.

When clay minerals exist within a solution such as water, however, these counterions
are allowed to migrate a short distance from the clay's surface because the dielectric
permitivity of that water will weaken the Coulomb forces binding them to the clay. The
counterions will not migrate far from the clay surface because they will still feel the
attractive force of the negatively charged clay crystal.

In their migration away from the clay surface, a tremendous surface area is exposed to
the water in the formation. A thin film of water will adhere to the surface of the clay
mineral because of high surface tension ("adsorbed water"). Additionally, because the
Na+ counterions are now existing within a solution, they will be hydrated by several

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water molecules. The attractive force of the negatively charged clay mineral that acts to
restrain the free migration of the Na + counterions will therefore bind this additional later
of "water of hydration" to the clay surface. These phenomena of electrostatically and
chemically bound clay bound water are illustrated in Figure 6.4.

It is the combination of these three types of "bound water"--structural, capillary, and


clay bound--that causes problems when analyzing a shaly sand using the conventional
Archie approach. The Archie equation treats all water the same, and does not
distinguish between what is bound and what is free to move. Another method of
calculating water saturation is needed in shaly sands.

Archie water saturation (S w a) does not distinguish between bound water and free
water, and treats all water as the same.

Log Responses in Presence of Clay Minerals


Even more confusion in shaly sand analysis revolves around the fact that the effects of
clay minerals in a reservoir are typically not accurately represented on the logs. For
instance, even though authigenic dispersed clays actually reduce the porosity of a
reservoir, sonic and neutron logs exhibit an increase in porosity. Log responses may
reflect a condition entirely different from that actually occurring in the reservoir.

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Porosity Response

In order to understand how clay minerals influence log responses, it is best to begin
with a model formation consisting of a clean sandstone of given porosity at 100% water
saturation. In such a formation, if porosities are calculated for sandstone, then all
porosities (sonic, density, and neutron) will be equal. Furthermore, all of these
porosities will be equal to the effective porosity of the reservoir. Effective porosity refers
to the pore space that is interconnected, or which is available to free fluid (in this case,
100% water). In this situation, the Archie equation generally holds true and may be
used to calculate a reasonably accurate water saturation of the reservoir.

A possible limitation to using the Archie equation in even a clean sandstone is if the
grain size is so small that a high percentage of the water within the formation is bound
by capillary pressure. Again, the Archie approach does not distinguish between bound
water and free water, and therefore producible water saturation would be
overestimated.

Now consider that same model sandstone formation at 100% water saturation, but in
this case some amount of clay minerals has been added. In this situation, the clay
minerals will occupy a volume that was formerly occupied by fluid (100% water).
Therefore, through the addition of clay minerals the porosity of the reservoir has
decreased. Some fluid in the reservoir (in this case, 100% water) will be "bound" by the
clay minerals and will be immovable. The amount of porosity available to free fluids
(Φ effective) together with the porosity associated with "bound" fluids represents the total
porosity of the reservoir.

By adding clay minerals to the model formation, its total porosity has been reduced.
However, porosity logs may not reflect this decrease in porosity. They may actually
exhibit an increase in porosity (Figure 6.5). Furthermore, each porosity measurement
will be influenced to different degrees by the presence of clay minerals, and some clays
may not have as profound an effect as others. It is vital to understand how each
measurement (sonic, density, and neutron) is influenced, and this requires an
understanding of the physical and chemical properties of clay minerals.

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Sonic Response

When clay minerals are present in a reservoir, there may be a significant effect on ∆t
measurements. For an individual grain of quartz sand in a clean formation, ∆t of that
grain will be equal to 55.5 µs/ft. When clays are added in a shaly sand situation, ∆t
changes dramatically. The sonic tool "sees" each grain in the reservoir as a grain of
sand (55.5 µs/ft) together with the clay minerals (70 – 140 µs/ft). The overall result is
that the sonic tool "sees" a much higher "averaged" ∆t when clay minerals are present.
Through the Wyllie Time-Average equation, this increase in ∆t translates as an increase
in sonic porosity.

Density Response

Adding clay minerals to a clean sandstone will be correctly reflected on the density log
as a decrease in porosity; however, the absolute value of density porosity is often
misleading. Depending upon the density of the clay mineral present (ρclay ), density
porosity may be underestimated or overestimated when calculated for a sandstone.
The reason for this error lies in the assumption of matrix density (ρma).

In a shaly sand, the actual ρma of the formation will be some volumetric combination of
the density of the clay (ρclay ) and the density of the sand grains (ideally, 2.65 g/cc).
When ρclay > ρsand, then the actual ρma of the formation will be higher than that which we
assume to calculate porosity (i.e., 2.65 g/cc). The resulting porosity will be
underestimated. On the other hand, where ρclay < ρsand, density porosity will be
overestimated because the actual formation ρma will be less than that which was
assumed to calculate porosity. In those instances where ρclay = ρma, there will be no
appreciable effect upon density porosity.

Neutron Porosity

The response of the neutron tool is not as straightforward as that of the sonic and
density tools. By adding clay minerals to the clean formation, the porosity of the
formation is reduced. This translates as a reduction in the amount of pore water. It
follows then that as the amount of water in the formation (i.e., porosity) decreases, the
hydrogen index of the formation will decrease and, as a result, neutron porosity (Φ n) will
also decrease. However, this is not the case.

Neutron porosity actually increases when clay minerals are added to the reservoir. This
results from the fact that clay minerals are hydrated and contain structurally bound
hydroxyl ions (OH-) within their crystalline structure. The neutron tool reflects this
additional hydrogen as an increase in porosity even though the structurally bound water
is not a part of the pore space of the reservoir.

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Resistivity Response

The presence of clay minerals in a formation also has a strong effect on the measured
resistivity of that formation. Because of the fact that porosity decreases when clay
minerals are added to a clean formation, resistivity might be expected to increase. After
all, when the amount of pore water available to conduct an electrical current decreases
(in this case by the addition of clay minerals), the resistivity of that formation will
increase. However, this is not the case in shaly sands.

The measured resistivity of a shaly sand will, depending on the amount of clay minerals
present, be less than that of a clean formation. This change does not result from a
change in formation water resistivity (Rw ). For a clean sand and shaly sand containing
the same formation water (constant Rw ), the clean sand will still exhibit higher
resistivity. The change results from a specific property of the clay minerals.

The graph in Figure 6.6 illustrates that for two formations of identical porosity and
identical water salinity, one clean and one clay-bearing, the clay-bearing formation will
exhibit a higher conductivity (i.e., lower resistivity). The interesting part of this graph is
the non-linear relationship between shaly sand and clean sand conductivities (C o) at
lower values of formation water conductivity (C w ).

Within the range of low conductivity formation waters, the conductivity of the shaly sand
increases more dramatically than would be predicted by the increase in formation water
conductivity (Ro = Fr ? ?
Rw ; hence, Co = (1/F r) X Cw ). At some point a water salinity is
reached such that there exists a linear relationship between formation conductivity (C o)
and water conductivity (C w ) in both the shaly and clean sands with shaly sand

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conductivity remaining consistently higher than clean sand conductivity. Because the
only difference between these two formations is the presence of clay minerals, then
those clay minerals must be the source of the excess conductivity (i.e., lower
resistivity).

The dramatic increase in formation conductivity with increasing water conductivity can
be attributed to the mobility of the charge-balancing Na + counterions. As discussed
previously, the dielectric permitivity of the water will allow these exchange counterions
to migrate. Migration of these counterions may take place between exchange sites on
one clay crystal, between exchange sits on separate clay crystals, or through the
formation water. The migration of these counterions produces a potential that
contributes to the conductivity of the formation. The greater the clay content, the greater
the excess conductivity.

As the salinity of the formation water increases, the migrating counterions are provided
with a more energetically feasible path of least resistance. As a result, the conductance
produced by these counterions will increase even more, and the formation conductivity
will continue to increase at a faster rate than does water conductivity. Ultimately, an
equilibrating salinity of formation water will be reached such that a further increase in
salinity will have little effect on the mobility of the counterions. Beyond this value of
salinity, conductivity of the shaly sand will increase linearly with increase in formation
water conductivity. Nevertheless, there remains the condition that for all values of
moderately saline formation waters (as expected in most reservoirs), shaly formations
will exhibit higher conductivities (i.e., lower resistivities) than their clean counterparts
containing waters of identical chemistry.

This added conductance produced by the clay minerals may be quantified in terms of
the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of a particular clay. Clay minerals with high CEC
values (see Figure 6.1) result in lower formation resistivities than those clay minerals
with lower CEC values. Because the ionic concentration of the bound water is
proportional to the volume of clay bound water, CEC may also be used to quantify the
volume of clays within a reservoir. CEC must be determined from core data, however.
Where core data is absent, values of volume of shale (V sh) calculated from log
responses are commonly used as a substitute.

Combined Effect of Porosity and Resistivity Responses

The combined effect of the decreased resistivity and typically increased porosity
exhibited on logs in the presence of clay results in erroneously high values of water
saturation (S w ) calculated by the Archie equation. The purpose of shaly sand analysis is
to correct for these effects and thereby reduce water saturation to what it would be if
clays were absent. Without prior knowledge of the existence of clays in a reservoir, it
must be assumed that clays are present. Thus, any analysis of a reservoir should be
approached from the standpoint that clays are present. If clays are subsequently
determined to be absent, then the analysis may be undertaken by conventional means
(i.e., Archie equation). If, however, clays are present, then modified equations must be
used to evaluate water saturation.

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The danger in assuming that a reservoir contains clay minerals is that the resulting
value of Archie water saturation (S w ) is expected to be too high. By performing shaly
sand analysis, this value of water saturation is reduced. If a reservoir is falsely assumed
to contain clay, then it is entirely possible to lower the water saturation of a zone to the
point that a water-bearing zone appears to contain hydrocarbons. By the same token, if
the presence of clays is not corrected for, then the resulting water saturation value will
be too high and a potentially productive zone may be bypassed. For these reasons,
shaly sand analysis should be used with caution, and not as a substitute for knowing
everything possible about the formation of interest.

Shaly sand analysis may potentially lower the water saturation of a reservoir to
the point that a wet zone appears to be productive.

References
Asquith, G. B., 1982, Basic well log analysis for geologists: American Association of
Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, OK, 216 p.

Asquith, G. B., 1985, Log evaluation of shaly sandstones: a practical guide: American
Association of Petroleum Geologists Continuing Education Course Note Series No. 31,
Tulsa, OK, 59 p.

Bateman, R. M., 1985, Open-hole log analysis and formation evaluation: IHRDC
Publishers, Boston, MA, 647 p.

Clavier, C., G. Coates, and J. Dumanoir, 1977, Theoretical and experimental bases for
the Dual-Water Model for interpretation of shaly sands: Society of Petroleum Engineers
Journal, v. 24, no. 2, p. 153-168, SPE-6859.

Dewan, J. T., 1983, Essentials of modern open-hole log interpretation: PennWell


Publishing, Tulsa, OK, 361 p.

Waxman, M. H., and L. J. M. Smits, 1968, Electrical conductivities in oil-bearing shaly


sands: Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal, v. 8, no. 2, p. 107-122, SPE-1863-A.

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Section 7
Shaly Sand Applications

Table of Contents
Introduction…………………………………………………………………….………………… 93
Objectives…………………………………………………………………….………………….. 93
Procedures of Shaly Sand Analysis…………………………………………………………… 94
Determining Volume of Shale (Vsh) …………………………………………………………… 94
Vsh from Gamma Ray…………………………………………………………………….……… 94
Vsh from Spontaneous Potential………………………………………………………………... 96
Vsh from Neutron-Density Logs…………………………………………………………………. 96
Comparison of Vsh Results…………………………………………………………………….... 97
Determining Effective Porosity (Φ e) …………………………………………………………… 97
Effective Porosity from Sonic Logs……………………………………………………………. 97
Effective Porosity from Density Logs………………………………………………………….. 97
Effective Porosity from Neutron-Density Combinations……………………………………... 97
Determining Effective Water Saturation (Swe) ……………………………………………….. 98
Simandoux Method…………………………………………………………………….………... 99
Fertl Method…………………………………………………………………….………………... 100
Dispersed Clay Method…………………………………………………………………….…… 101
Dual Water Method…………………………………………………………………….………... 102
Selecting the Appropriate Method……………………………………………………………... 105
Simandoux Method…………………………………………………………………….………... 105
Fertl Method…………………………………………………………………….………………... 105
Dispersed Clay Method…………………………………………………………………….…… 105
Dual Water Method…………………………………………………………………….………... 105
References…………………………………………………………………….…………………. 106

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Introduction
The Archie equation often produces a value of water saturation (S w) that is too high in
formations that contain clay minerals. Where clays are known to be present, the Archie
equation must be modified to yield more favorable results. Therefore, the effective
porosity (Φ effective) and effective water saturation (S we ) of the reservoir must be known.
This section presents several methods whereby these values can be determined from
conventional open hole logging data.

Objectives
After completing this section, the participant should be able to

§ list the three basic steps of shaly sand analysis.


§ calculate volume of shale (V sh) from a standard suite of open hole logs.
§ calculate effective porosity (Φ e) from a standard suite of open hole logs.
§ calculate effective water saturation (S we ) from a standard suite of open hole logs
using the Simandoux, Fertl, Dispersed Clay, and Dual Water methods.

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Procedures of Shaly Sand Analysis


The process of shaly sand analysis consists of three main steps, each of which should
be accomplished in a specific order. These three steps include:

1. Determining volume of shale (V sh) in the zone of interest.


2. Correcting porosity for the presence of clays (determining effective porosity of the
zone of interest).
3. Determining effective water saturation (S we ) of the zone of interest (water
saturation of the effective pore network).

Each of these three processes will be examined in more detail in the paragraphs that
follow. Realize that the overall goal of shaly sand analysis is to essentially lower the
value of water saturation (S w) to what it would be if clay minerals did not exist in the
reservoir.

Determining Volume of Shale (Vsh)


The first step in shaly sand analysis is to determine the amount of clay minerals present
in the formation. There are many methods that are used to determine this, and several
are discussed below. It should be remembered that these determinations are simply
estimates of the volume, or percentage, of clay minerals within a reservoir, and do not
consider the type of clay present or its distribution.

When the volume of shale (V sh) is determined to be less than 15% of the bulk rock
volume, then it is safe to assume that clay minerals are not having a significant effect
on log responses, and analysis may be pursued by conventional means (i.e., Archie
equation). Where Vsh exceeds 15% bulk rock volume, shaly sand analysis should be
performed to obtain more accurate values of water saturation.

Many types of logs, used either alone or in combination with others, are used to
indicate shale content, although none of them is consistently reliable. Each method
discussed below is designed to give either a good estimation of Vsh in conditions
favorable to the particular tool, or to give an upper limit of V sh.

Vsh from Gamma Ray

In a formation containing clay minerals or shale of a constant radioactivity level and no


other radioactive minerals, the volume of shale (V sh) is expressed as a linear function of
the borehole-corrected gamma ray response.
GR = A + N + V sh

This condition is usually not the case, and an alternative method of determining Vsh
must be used. This alternative method requires that the Gamma Ray Index (IGR) be
calculated. By using the Gamma Ray Index as an indicator of clay content, we are
simply normalizing the gamma ray response to estimate the percentage of shale
present in a reservoir.

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Using Gamma Ray Index (IGR) as a linear expression of Vsh is most suitable for
laminated shales. In this case, the resulting ratio reflects the percentage of clay
minerals contained in the reservoir. Again, when this ratio exceeds 15%, then it should
be assumed that the formation is indeed a shaly sand and that the Archie equation
should be abandoned for a technique that will yield better results of water saturation in
the presence of clay minerals.

Some analysts prefer to use Gamma Ray Index (IGR) as a shale indicator in all types of
shales; however, the relationship between IGR and Vsh becomes non-linear for both
structural clays and dispersed clays. There is a wide variety of non-linear relationships
between GI R and Vsh, but none of these is universally accepted. A summary of these
non-linear relationships is illustrated below.

The choice of which equation to use depends mainly upon local knowledge. Generally
speaking, if the bulk density (? b) of the clean formation did not change as clay minerals
were added, then the linear equation will work. If the addition of clay minerals resulted
in an increase in bulk density, then the Clavier equation should be considered. For
great increases in bulk density, the Steiber equation should be used.

Notice from the previous paragraph that choosing between the Clavier and Steiber
equations requires that bulk density of the clay-bearing formation be referenced back to
the bulk density of that formation if it is considered to be clay-free. This is the same type
of approach used in determining Gamma Ray Index (IGR) itself, but can be a very
difficult and confusing task. Therefore, it is more common for analysts to calculate Vsh
using the Western Atlas equations illustrated below. Typically, Tertiary sands such as
those encountered along the Gulf Coast are unconsolidated. Formations of other ages
may be considered consolidated.

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Vsh from Spontaneous Potential

In water-bearing sandstones of low to medium resistivity, Vsh may be calculated from


the SP response by using the equation below. Though this equation works best for
laminated shales, it is commonly employed where reservoirs contain structural or
dispersed clays as well. Pseudo-SP (PSP) represents the amount of SP deflection in
the zone of interest, whereas Static-SP (SSP) represents the maximum SP deflection in
a clean formation.

When using the SP response to determine Vsh, the limitations of the SP measurement
should be kept in mind. Shaly sands may exhibit extremely suppressed SP responses
where there is very little difference between the SP response in the shaly sand and the
shale baseline. In this situation, the volume of shale (V sh) determined from the SP
method may very easily be overestimated.

Vsh from Neutron-Density Logs

Another common method of estimating Vsh in a potentially clay-bearing formation is to


use a combination of porosity measurements from neutron and density logs as follows:

Recall that neutron and density responses are both influenced by the presence of clays.
When used in estimating Vsh, neutron and density responses tend toexaggerate the
influence of kaolinite and chlorite. Kaolinite and chlorite have high neutron porosities in
comparison to montmorillonite and illite (Figure 6.1).

When gas is present in a formation, Vsh should not be determined from the neutron-
density method. Gas will not equally affect the neutron and density responses.

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Comparison of V sh Results

Just like formation water resistivity (Rw), volume of shale (V sh) should be determined
from as many methods as possible, and the lowest resulting value should be used in
subsequent equations for determining effective porosity. Realize that in using these
equations each may yield significantly different values of Vsh depending upon how the
particular tool response is affected by the presence of clay minerals. In majority of
cases, it has been found that the gamma ray method of determine Vsh provides useable
results.

Determining Effective Porosity (Φe)


The second step of shaly sand analysis is to determine the effective porosity of the
formation. This is analogous to correcting porosity measurements for the presence of
clay minerals, or determining porosity of the formation if it did not contain clay minerals.
Because clay minerals within a formation represent a volumetric fraction of that
reservoir, the calculated estimation of Vsh will be used to "correct" the measured
porosity. The three most common methods of correcting porosity measurements for the
presence of clay are outlined as follows:

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Notice that each of the above equations (sonic, density, and neutron-density) simply
subtracts the amount of clay porosity from the amount of total porosity measured by the
log to result in a value of effective porosity (Φ e). Effective porosity is that porosity
available to free fluids in the reservoir. Also, note that each equation relies heavily upon
the assumption that the clay minerals in the formation of interest are identical in
character to the clay minerals in adjacent shales.

Determining Effective Water Saturation (Swe)


There are many different equations by which effective water saturation (S we ) of a clay-
bearing formation may be calculated. Effective water saturation simply refers to the
percentage of effective porosity occupied by water, whereas total water saturation (S wt)
refers to the percentage of total porosity occupied by water.

Again, these methods of determining effective water saturation (S we ) in a shaly sand


should only be used if it has been determined that Vsh is greater than 15%. To apply
these techniques in a clean formation is to risk lowering the calculated water saturation
of a zone to the point that a water-bearing zone may appear to be productive.

The choice of which method of shaly sand analysis to apply will rely upon the following:

§ local knowledge
§ the availability of certain logging suites
§ whether or not the distribution of clays (i.e., laminated, structural, dispersed) is
known

The equations involved with each of the different methods of shaly sand analysis were
developed around the logging tools that were available at a particular time. Early
methods of shaly sand analysis used only input from gamma ray, SP, and resistivity
logs.

Just as there has been a transition toward more sophisticated logging tools, so too has
there been a transition toward more complex equations. In some cases, the amount of
calculations required necessitates computers in order to speed the process.

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With the growing popularity of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) logging, there has
been a renewed interest in shaly sand analysis. Now there is a new and accurate
method of determining the effective porosity (Φ e) of a reservoir. Therefore, in many
instances, the process of determining effective porosity by considering Vsh has been
replaced by an actual log measurement. Because of the growing popularity of these
tools, shaly sand analysis will continue to be an area of interest for years to come.

Figure 7.1 illustrates some shaly sand methods developed for certain logging suites,
and the decades during which these methods were popular. Each method has its
advantages and disadvantages, and most of them are still in use today. Only the most
commonly used methods will be considered for discussion here.

Simandoux Method

One of the most commonly used shaly sand water saturation techniques during the
1970s was the Simandoux Method, and it remains popular even today with service
companies. The Simandoux equation uses input from a typical open hole logging suite:
resistivity, and neutron-density porosity.

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Effective porosity (Φ e) used in the Simandoux equation is calculated using the


Combination Neutron-Density porosity correction equations. The most apparent
limitation in using the Simandoux equation lies in the fact that it depends upon the
resistivity of an adjacent shale (Rsh). This implies that the petrophysical properties of the
clay minerals within the formation of interest are identical to those of adjacent shales.
While this may be true in case of laminated shales and structural clays, but is not the
case with authigenic dispersed clays.

Fertl Method

The Fertl Method of calculating effective water saturation in shaly sands also relies only
upon resistivity and neutron-density porosity data.

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The Fertl Method has two advantages over the Simandoux Method when calculating
effective water saturation (S we ). First of all, the Fertl equation is simpler and easier to
calculate than the Simandoux equation. Furthermore, the Fertl equation does not
require a value for resistivity of an adjacent shale (Rsh). In most instances, the resistivity
of an adjacent shale (Rsh) is usually higher than the resistivity of a shaly sandstone (Rt).

Although the reliance upon adjacent shales has been reduced in using the Fertl
equation, it is still not eliminated because porosity correction algorithms require
measurements taken from adjacent shales.

Dispersed Clay Method

The Dispersed Clay Method of calculating effective water saturation (S we ) was


developed during the 1960s with the advent of density logs, but it remains today a
commonly used technique. Sonic logs "see" dispersed clays within pore fluids as a
slurry, and present porosity as a sum of the volumetric fraction (total porosity, ∆t).
Density logs, on the other hand, "see" only water-filled porosity. The fraction, therefore,
of the clean-sand intergranular pore space that is occupied by clay is defined as the
shaliness factor “q”.

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Notice that the Dispersed Clay Method does not require a value for resistivity of an
adjacent shale (Rsh) or volume of shale (V sh) within the formation of interest. This is
because the shaliness factor (q) is determined within the shaly sand itself (based on the
different responses of the sonic and density tools), thereby reducing the reliance of the
equation upon adjacent shales. The reduced dependency on the petrophysical
parameters of adjacent shales makes this method convenient for determining effective
water saturation (S we ) in reservoirs that contain dispersed clays.

Dual Water Method

During the 1980s a transformation occurred in the field of shaly sand analysis in which
analysts attempted to use cation exchange capacity (CEC) rather than volume of shale
(V sh) in determining effect water saturation (S we ). CEC is a much better measure of clay
minerals' compared to Vsh; however, CEC necessitates availability of core data and
laboratory facilities for its measurement..

The commonly used Waxman-Smits model was developed so that CEC could be
implemented in Swe calculations rather than Vsh, but was difficult to use without
laboratory data. As an answer to Waxman-Smit, the Dual Water Method was introduced
as an effective water saturation (S we ) calculation method based on CEC.

The Dual Water Method assumes that pore water is partitioned into both bound water
and free water. Both volumetric fractions of pore water will have their own discrete
values of water saturation (S b, water saturation of bound water; and, Swf, water
saturation of free water). Both of these volumetric fractions of pore water will contribute
to the measured resistivity (or conductivity) of the shaly sand; and therefore, both
components are said to have their own discrete formation water resistivities (Rb and Rw,
respectively).

A graphical representation of this partitioning of water components is illustrated in


Figure 7.2. The bound water of resistivity Rb and saturation Sb is closely associated with
the clay minerals that, in this case, lie in pore cavities. This water is considered to be
immovable because of the high surface tensions and capillary pressures associated
with the very fine grained clay minerals. The remainder of the water filling the formation
is free to move. This free water of resistivity Rw occupies effective porosity (Φ e) of the
reservoir and therefore has its own characteristic water saturation (S wt). One advantage
of using this method in conjunction with the MRIL is that now there is a method of
determining effective porosity (Φ e) rather than obtaining this value by correcting
conventional neutron-density and sonic measurements.

Figure 7.2 Partitioning of fluids in Dual Water Method (after Asquith, 1982).

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The Dual Water Method is a very time consuming technique of calculating effective
water saturation (S we ), but it may be desirable in certain situations. Notice that many of
the steps involved are not necessary if MRIL data are available. Therefore, the Dual
Water Method is a desirable choice where MRIL logs are run. In these instances, the
Dual Water Method might also be applied to clean sand where water is bound by
capillary pressure rather than the presence of clay minerals.

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Selecting the Appropriate Method

The choice of which method or equation to use for calculating effective water saturation
(S we ) in a shaly sand can be quite confusing. In some cases, more than one method
may be recommended. In other situations, there may not be a single method that
applies to the particular circumstances. More often than not, the choice of method will
be determined by historically accepted method in the region. In ambiguous situations a
judicial choice must be exercised that resembles testing data.

Because so many assumptions are involved in shaly sand analysis, there is no


substitute for experience. The following are some guidelines to follow when deciding
which method to utilize. Realize that it may be favorable to use more than one method,
and then compare the results with actual testing data.

Simandoux Method

§ When clays are laminated.


§ When clays are dispersed, and resistivity of this dispersed clay is known to be
approximately equal to the resistivity of an adjacent shale (Rsh).
§ When resistivity of the dispersed clay in the reservoir is known by
§ laboratory measurement, or it is assumed that the resistivity of the dispersed clay is
equal to 0.4 times the resistivity of an adjacent shale (Rclay = 0.4 X Rsh).

Fertl Method

§ When clays are dispersed or their mode of occurrence is unknown.


§ When Rw > 0.1 Ω-m. In this case, the method must be used with caution. The
equation assumes that Rsh >> Rw, but this may not be the case in shaly sands with
high Rw values.

Dispersed Clay Method

§ When clays are dispersed or their mode of occurrence is unknown.

Dual Water Method

§ When clays are laminated.


§ When clays are dispersed, and resistivity of this dispersed clay is known to be
approximately equal to the resistivity of an adjacent shale (Rsh).
§ When resistivity of the dispersed clay in the reservoir is known by laboratory
measurement, or it is assumed that the resistivity of the dispersed clay is equal to
0.4 times the resistivity of an adjacent shale (Rclay = 0.4 X Rsh).
§ When laboratory data on cation exchange capacity of the clays are available.

When dispersed clays are suspected in a reservoir or the distribution of the clays is
unknown, then it is desirable to use either the Dispersed Clay Method or Fertl Method
for calculating effective water saturation (S we ).

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References
Asquith, G. B., 1982, Basic well log analysis for geologists: American Association of
Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, OK, 216 p.
Asquith, G. B., 1985, Log evaluation of shaly sandstones: a practical guide: American
Association of Petroleum Geologists Continuing Education

Course Note Series No. 31, Tulsa, OK, 59 p.

Bateman, R. M., 1985, Open-hole log analysis and formation evaluation: IHRDC
Publishers, Boston, MA, 647 p.

Clavier, C., G. Coates, and J. Dumanoir, 1977, Theoretical and experimental bases for
the Dual-Water Model for interpretation of shaly sands: Society of Petroleum Engineers
Journal, v. 24, no. 2, p. 153-168, SPE-6859.

Dewan, J. T., 1983, Essentials of modern open-hole log interpretation: PennWell


Publishing, Tulsa, OK, 361 p.

Waxman, M. H., and L. J. M. Smits, 1968, Electrical conductivities in oil-bearing shaly


sands: Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal, v. 8, no. 2, p. 107-122, SPE-1863-A.

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