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Organizational

Behaviour
Stephen P. Robbins
San Diego State University

Timothy A. Judge
University of Florida

Timothy T. Campbell
University of Dubai .

Financial Times
Prentice Hall
is an imprint of

Harlow, England • London • New York • Boston • San Francisco • Toronto • Sydney • Singapore • Hong Kong
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Contents

Preface XXI

Guided Tour xxiii'


Acknowledgements xxvi
Publisher's acknowledgements xxvii

Chapter 1 What is organizational behaviour?


The importance of interpersonal skills 3
What managers do 4
Management functions 4
Management roles 4
Management skills 6
Effective versus successful managerial activities 6
A review of the manager's job 7
Enter organizational behaviour 7
Complementing intuition with systematic study 8
Disciplines that contribute to the OB field 10
Psychology 10
Social psychology 10
Sociology 11
Anthropology 11
There are few absolutes in OB 12
Challenges and opportunities for OB 13
Responding to globalisation 13
Managing workforce diversity 14
Improving quality and productivity 15
Improving customer service 16
Improving people skills 17
Stimulating innovation and change 17
Coping with 'temporariness' 17
Working in networked organizations 18
Helping employees balance work-life conflicts 18
Creating a positive work environment 18
Improving ethical behaviour 19
Coming attractions: developing an OB model 20
An overview 20
The dependent variables 20
The independent variables 23
Toward a contingency OB model 24
Global implications 25
viii CONTENTS

Summary and implications for managers 26


Questions for review 27
Experiential exercise 27
Ethical dilemma 28

Case incident 1 A great place to work 28


Case incident 2 Rage and violence in the workplace 29
Self-assessment library How much do I know about organizational behaviour? 3
Myth or Science? 'Preconceived notions versus substantive evidence' 9
OB in the news Other disciplines make use of OB concepts 12
Global Transfer pricing and international corporate deviance 22
Point/Counterpoint In search of the quick fix 26

Chapter 2 Foundations of individual behaviour


Ability 34
Intellectual abilities 34
Physical abilities 36
Biographical characteristics 37
Age 37
Gender 38
Race 39
Other biographical characteristics: tenure and religion 40
Learning 41
A definition of learning 41
Theories of learning 41
Shaping: a manageriaUool 44
Global implications 49
Intellectual abilities 49
Biographical characteristics 50
Learning 50

Summary and implications for managers 50


Questions for review 52
Experiential exercise 52
Ethical dilemma 53

Case incident 1 The Flynn Effect 53


Case incident 2 Professional sports: rewarding and punishing the same behaviour? 54

Self-assessment library What's my attitude toward older people? 34


Global The benefits of cultural intelligence 36
OB in the news City banker alleges race discrimination 40
Myth or Science? 'You can't teach an old dog new tricks' 44
Self-assessment library How good am I at disciplining others? 45
Point/Counterpoint All human behaviour is learned 51

Chapter 3 Attitudes and job satisfaction


Attitudes 59
What are the main components of attitudes? 59
CONTENTS ix

Does behaviour always follow from attitudes? 60


What are the major job attitudes? 62
Job satisfaction 66
Measuring job satisfaction 66
How satisfied are people with their jobs? 67
What causes job satisfaction? 67
The impact of satisfied and dissatisfied employees on the workplace 69
Global implications 73

Summary and implications for managers 73


Questions for review 75
Experiential exercise 75
Ethical dilemma 75

Case incident 1 Money isn't everything in life 76


Case incident 2 Extreme jobs 77

Self-assessment library How satisfied am I with my job? 59


Global Chinese employees and organizational commitment 63
Self-assessment library Am I engaged? 65
OB in the news Job satisfaction key to happiness 66
Myth or Science? 'Happy workers are productive workers' 69
Point/Counterpoint Managers can create satisfied workers . 74

Chapter 4 Personality and values


Personality 84
W^hat is personality? 84
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator 86
The Big Five personality model 86
Other personality traits relevant to OB 89
Values 93
The importance of values 93
Classifying values 93
Contemporary work values 94
Linking an individual's personality and values to the workplace 96
Person-job fit 96
Person-Organization fit 96
Global implications 97
Personality 97
Values 97

Summary and implications for managers 101


Questions for review 102
Experiential exercise 102
Ethical dilemma 103

Case incident 1 The rise of the nice CEO? 103


Case incident 2 Style and substance have German and French leaders at odds 104

Self-assessment library Am I a narcissist? 84


Myth or Science? 'Entrepreneurs are a breed apart' 92
Global A global personality 92
OB in the news Values define Europe, not borders 96
Point/Counterpoint Traits are powerful predictors of behaviaur 101
x CONTENTS

Chapter 5 Perception and individual decision making


What is perception? Ill
Factors that influence perception 111
Person perception: making judgements about others 112
Attribution theory 112
Frequently used shortcuts in judging others 113
Specific applications of shortcuts in organizations 116
The link between perception and individual decision making 116
Decision making in organizations 117
The rational model, bound rationality and intuition 117
Common biases and errors in decision making 119
Influences on decision making: individual differences and organizational constraints 122
Individual differences 123
Organizational constraints 123
What about ethics in decision making? 125
Three ethical decision criteria 125
Improving creativity in decision making 126
Global implications 128

Summary and implications for managers 129


Questions for review 131
Experiential exercise 131
Ethical dilemma 131

Case incident 1 Nestle: a baby killer? 132


Case incident 2 The worst business decisions? 133

Self-assessment library What are my gender role perceptions? 110


Global Can negative perceptions dampen international business relations? 114
Myth or Science? 'No one thinks they're biased' 120
Self-assessment library Am I a deliberate decision maker? 122
OB in the news Football and the winner's curse? 122
Self-assessment library How creative am I? 127
Point/Counterpoint When in doubt, do! 130

Chapter 6 Motivation concepts


Defining motivation 140
Early theories of motivation 141
Hierarchy of needs theory 141
Theory X and Theory Y 142
Two-factor theory 143
McClelland's theory of needs 145
Contemporary theories of motivation 146
Cognitive evaluation theory 146
Goal-setting theory 148
Self-efficacy theory 151
Reinforcement theory 154
Equity theory 155
Expectancy theory 158
Integrating contemporary theories of motivation 160
Global implications 161
Caveat emptor. motivation theories are often culture bound 161
CONTENTS xi

Summary and implications for managers 162


Questions for review 164
Experiential exercise 164
Ethical dilemma 164
Case incident 1 Gender differences in performance motivation 165
Case incident 2 Office bullying 166
Self-assessment library How confident am I in my abilities to succeed? 140
Myth or Science? 'Women are more motivated to get along, and men are more
motivated to get ahead' 142
OB in the news Jobs that offer the 'feel good' factor 146
Global How managers evaluate their employees depends on culture 148
Self-assessment library What are my course performance goals? 150
Point/Counterpoint Failure motivates! 163

Chapter 7 Motivation: from concepts to applications


Motivating by job design: the job characteristics model 173
The job characteristics model 173
How can jobs be redesigned? 175
Alternative work arrangements 177
Ability and opportunity 180
Employee involvement 180
Examples of employee involvement programmes 181
Linking employee involvement programmes and motivation theories 182
Using rewards to motivate employees 182
What to pay: establishing a pay structure 183
How'to pay: rewarding individual employees through variable-pay programmes 183
Flexible benefits: developing a benefits package 188
Intrinsic rewards: employee recognition programmes 188
Global implications - 190

Summary and implications for managers 191


Questions for review 192
Experiential exercise 193
Ethical dilemma 193

Case incident 1 The most boring job in the world? 194


Case incident 2 A blueprint for Europe 194

Self-assessment library What's my job's motivating potential? 173


Myth or Science? 'Everyone wants a challenging job' 176
OB in the news Most UK employees say green benefits would increase their loyalty
to employers 187
Global Cultural diffrences in job characteristics and job satisfaction 189
Point/Counterpoint Praise motivates 192

Chapter 8 Emotions and moods


What are emotions-and moods? 202
The basic emotions 203
xii CONTENTS

The basic moods: positive and negative affect 204


The function of emotions 205
Sources of emotions and moods 206
Emotional labour 210
Affective events theory 212
Emotional intelligence 213
The case for El 213
The case against El 214
OB applications of emotions and moods 215
Selection 216
Decision making 216
Creativity 216
Motivation 216
Leadership 217
Negotiation 217
Customer service 217
Job attitudes 218
Deviant workplace behaviours 218
How managers can influence moods 218
Global issues 219

Summary and implications for managers 220


Questions for review 221
Experiential exercise 221
Ethical dilemma 221

Case incident 1 The upside of anger? 222


Case incident 2 Abusive customers cause emotions to run high 222

Self-assessment library How are you feeling right now? 202


Self-assessment library What's my affect intensity? 207
Myth or Science? 'People can't accurately forecast their own emotions' 209
Global Emotional recognition: universal or culture-specific? 210
Self-assessment library What's my emotional intelligence score? 215
OB in the news Crying at work 218
Point/Counterpoint The costs and benefits of organizational display rules 220

Chapter 9 Foundations of group behaviour


Defining and classifying groups 230
Stages of group development 231
The five-stage model 231
An alternative for temporary groups with deadlines 233
Group properties: roles, norms, status, size and cohesiveness 234
Group property 1: roles 234
Group properties 2 and 3: norms and status 236
Status 241
Group property 4: size 242
Group property 5: cohesiveness 244
Group decision making 245
Groups versus the individual 245
Groupthink and groupshift 246
Group decision-making techniques" 248
Global implications 250
CONTENTS xiii

Summary and implications for managers 251


Questions for review 253
Experiential exercise 253
Ethical dilemma 255
Case incident 1 Role conflict among telephone service employees 255
Case incident 2 The dangers of groupthink 256
Self-assessment library Do I have a negative attitude toward working in groups? 230
Self-assessment library Do I trust others? 236
Global Group cohesiveness across cultures 244
Myth or Science? 'Are two heads better than one?' 246
OB in the news Groupthink for an Enron jury? 247
Point/Counterpoint All jobs should be designed around groups 252

Chapter 10 Understanding work teams


Why have teams become so popular? 262
Differences between groups and teams 262
Types of teams 263
Problem-solving teams 263
Self-managed work teams 264
Cross-functional teams 265
Virtual teams 265
Creating effective teams 266
Context: what factors determine whether teams are successful 267
Team composition 268
; Work design 273
Process 273
Turning individuals into team players 276
Beware! Teams aren't always the answer 277
Global implications 277
ii
278
Summary and implications for managers
280
Questions for review
280
Experiential exercise
280
Ethical dilemma
Case incident 1 Volvo Cars Ghent: A self-managing team model 281
Case incident 2 Team building: sociable climbing 281

Self-assessment library How good am I at building and leading a team? 262


Global Global virtual teams 266
OB in the news Surgical teams lack teamwork 268
Myth or Science? 'Old teams can't learn new tricks' 273
Self-assessment library What's my team efficacy? 275
Point/Counterpoint Sports teams are good models for workplace teams 279

Chapter 11 Communication
Functions of communication 288
The communication process 290
xiv CONTENTS

Direction of communication 291


Downward communication 291
Upward communication 291
Lateral communication 292
Interpersonal communication 292
Oral communication 292
Written communication 293
Nonverbal communication 293
Organizational communication 295
Formal small-group networks 295
The grapevine 296
Electronic communications 296
Knowledge management 300
Choice of communication channel 301
Barriers to effective communication 302
Filtering 302
Selective perception 302
Information overload 303
Emotions 303
Language 303
Communication apprehension 304
Gender differences
304
305
Global implications

Summary and implications for managers 307


Questions for review 309
Experiential exercise 309
Ethical dilemma 309

Case incident 1 Communicating at Go Fly 310


Case incident 2 A common language? 310

Self-assessment library What's my face-to-face communication style? 288


Myth or Science? 'People are good at catching liars at work' 293
OB in the news Abusive language in the workplace can be costly 300
Global Lost in translation? 305
Self-assessment library How good are my listening skills? 307
Point/Counterpoint Keep it a secret 308

Chapter 12 Basic approaches to leadership


What is leadership? 316
Trait theories 317
Behavioural theories 319
Ohio State studies 319
University of Michigan studies 320
Summary of trait theories and behavioural theories 321
Contingency theories: Fiedler model and situational leadership theory 321
Fiedler model 322
Hersey and Blanchard's situational theory 324
Path-goal theory 325
Summary of contingency theories 327
Leader-member exchange (LMX) theory 327
Decision theory: Vroom and Yetton's leader-participation model 328
CONTENTS xv

Leadership across Europe 329


Global implications 330

Summary and implications for managers 331


Questions for review 333
Experiential exercise 333
Ethical dilemma 333
Case incident 1 Promotion almost as stressful as divorce 334
Case incident 2 Who makes the best leaders? 334

Self-assessment library What's my leadership style? 316


OB in the news Good leaders in short supply 318
Myth or Science? 'You need to be popular to be an effective leader' 318
Self-assessment library What's my LPC score? 322
Global Cultivating and international perspective: a necessity for leaders 329
Point/Counterpoint Leaders are bom, not made 332

Chapter 13 Contemporary issues in leadership


Inspirational approaches to leadership 341
Charismatic leadership 341
Transformational leadership 345
Authentic leadership: ethics and trust are the foundation of leadership 348
What is authentic leadership? 348
Ethics and leadership 349
What is trust? 349
Trust and leadership 350
Three types of trust 351
Basic principles of trust 353
Contemporary leadership roles 353
Mentoring 354
Self-leadership 355
Online leadership 355
Challenges to the leadership construct 356
Leadership as an attribution 357
Substitutes for and neutralisers of leadership 358
Finding and creating effective leaders 359
Selecting leaders 359
Training leaders
360
Global implications
360

Summary and implications for managers 361


Questions for review 362
Experiential exercise 362
Ethical dilemma 363

Case incident 1 An interview with Maurice Levy 363


Case incident 2 Successful leadership: how would you know? 365

Self-assessment library How charismatic am I? 341


Self-assessment library Am I an ethical leader? 349
Myth or Science? 'Men make better leaders than women' 355
Global Cultural variation in charismatic attributions 357
OB in the news Who wants to be a CEO millionaire 358
Point/Counterpoint Keep leaders on a short leash 361
xvi CONTENTS

Chapter 14 Power and politics


A definition of power 372
Contrasting leadership and power 373
Bases of power 373
Formal power 373
Personal power 374
Which bases of power are most effective? 375
Dependency: the key to power 376
The general dependency postulate 376
What creates dependency? 376
Power tactics 377
Politics: power in action 379
Definition of organizational politics 380
The reality of politics 380
Causes and consequences of political behaviour 382
Factors contributing to political behaviour 382
How do people respond to organizational politics? 385
Impression management 387
The ethics of behaving politically 389
Global implications 389

Summary and implications for managers 390


Questions for review 392
Experiential exercise 392
Ethical dilemma 393
Case incident 1 'I don't want to fight anymore' 393
Case incident 2 The politics of backstabbing 394

Self-assessment library Is my workplace political? 372


Global Influence tactics in China 379
Myth or Science? 'Power breeds contempt' 382
Self-assessment library How good am I at playing politics? 386
OB in the news Who is the 'real' Bernie Madoff? 388
Point/Counterpoint Managing impressions is unethical 391

Chapter 15 Conflict and negotiation


A definition of conflict 400
Transitions in conflict thought 400
The traditional view of conflict 401
The human relations view of conflict 401
The interactionist view of conflict 401
The conflict process 402
Stage I: Potential opposition or incompatibility 402
Stage II: Cognition and personalisation 404
Stage III: Intentions 404
Stage IV: Behaviour 406
Stage V: Outcomes 406
Negotiation 410
Bargaining strategies 410
The negotiation process 413
CONTENTS xvii

Individual differences in negotiation effectiveness 414


Third-party negotiations 417
Global implications 418

Summary and implications for managers 419


Questions for review 421
Experiential exercise 422
Ethical dilemma 422

Case incident 1 Dealing with conflict 423


Case incident 2 The complexities of negotiation 424

Self-assessment library What's my preferred conflict-handling style? 400


Self-assessment library What's my negotiating style? 416
Global Negotiating across cultures 416
OB in the news All in a good cause 417
Point/Counterpoint Conflict benefits organizations 421

Chapter 16 Foundations of organization structure


What is organizational structure? 429
Work specialisation 429
Departmentalisation 431
Chain of command 432
Span of control 432
Centralisation and decentralisation 433
Formalisation 434
Common organizational designs 435
The simple structure 435
The bureaucracy 436
The matrix structure 437
New design options 439
The virtual organization 439
The boundaryless organization 441
Why do structures differ? 441
Strategy 442
Organization size 443
Technology 443
Environment 444
446
Organizational designs and employee behaviour
447
Global implications

Summary and implications for managers 448


Questions for review 450
Experiential exercise 450
Ethical dilemma 450

Case incident 1 New demands on managers and organizations 451


Case incident 2 How have organizational structures changed? 451

Self-assessment library Do I like bureaucracy? 429


Self-assessment library How willing am I to delegate? 434
OB in the news Siemens's simple structure - not 434
Global Structural considerations in multinationals 437
Myth or Science? 'Hierarchies are a thing of the past' 445
Point/Counterpoint Downsizing improves organizational performance 449
xviii CONTENTS

Chapter 17 Organizational culture


Institutionalisation: a forerunner of culture 456
What is organizational culture? 457
A definition of organizational culture 457
Culture is a descriptive term 458
Do organizations have uniform cultures? 459
Types of organizational culture 459
Strong versus weak cultures 460
Culture versus formalisation 461
What do cultures do? 462
Culture's functions 462
Culture as a liability 462
Creating and sustaining culture 464
How a culture begins 464
Keeping a culture alive 464
Summary: how cultures form 468
How employees learn culture 469
Stories 469
Rituals 469
Material symbols 469
Language 469
Creating an ethical organizational culture
470
Creating a positive organizational culture
471
Spirituality and organizational culture
473
473
What is spirituality?
473
Why spirituality now?
474
Characteristics of a spiritual organization
475
Criticisms of spirituality
475
Global implications

Summary and implications for managers 476


Questions for review 478
Experiential exercise 478
Ethical dilemma 479

Case incident 1 479


Case incident 2 An odd couple? P&G and Google combine cultures 480

Self-assessment library What's the right organizational culture for me? 456
Global A good organizational culture knows no boundaries 461
Myth or Science? 'People socialise themselves' 463
OB in the news Change jobs, and you may be in for a culture shock 470
Self-assessment library How spiritual am I? 474
Point/Counterpoint Organizational cultures can't be changed 477

Chapter 18 Human resource policies and practices


Selection practices 486
How the selection process works 486
Initial selection 487
Substantive selection 489
Contingent selection 491
CONTENTS xix

Training and development programmes 492


Types of training 492
Training methods 495
Individualising formal training to fit the employee's learning style 495
Evaluating effectiveness 496
Performance evaluation 496
Purposes of performance evaluation 496
What do we evaluate? 497
Who should do the evaluating? 497
Methods of performance evaluation 498
Suggestions for improving performance evaluations 500
Providing performance feedback 501
Managing diversity in organizations 502
Work-life conflicts 503
Diversity training 504
Human resource policies and practices in Europe 504
Global implications 505
Summary and implications for managers 506
Questions for review 507
Experiential exercise 508
Ethical dilemma 508
Case incident 1 Innovative HRM at Virgin Mobile UK 508
Case incident 2 UBS ordered to pay €20 million for sex discrimination 509
Self-assessment library How much do I know about human resource management (HRM)? 486
Myth or Science? 'It's first impressions that count' 491
Global Training across cultures 494
OB in the news 'Job review in 140 keystrokes' 500
Self-assessment library How good am I at giving performance feedback? 502
Point/Counterpoint Teleworking makes good business sense 507

Chapter 19 Organizational change and stress management


Forces for change 516
Planned change 518
Resistance to change 519
Overcoming resistance to change 520
The politics of change 522
Approaches to managing organizational change 523
Lewin's three-step model 523
Kotter's eight-step plan for implementing change 524
Action research 525
Organizational development 526
Creating a culture for change 531
Stimulating a culture of innovation 531
Creating a learning organization 532
Work stress and its management 533
What is stress? 533
Potential sources of stress 534
Individual differences 536
Consequences of stress 537
Managing stress 538
Global implications 540
xx CONTENTS

Summary and implications for managers 541


Questions for review 542
Experiential exercise 543
Ethical dilemma 543

Case incident 1 Innovating innovation 544


Case incident 2 Creating a learning organization at Tesco 544

Self-assessment library How well do I respond to turbulent change? 516


OB in the news Women, holograms and migrants to dominate in workplace of 2028 518
Myth or Science? 'Change is easierwhen you are in a crisis' 522
Global Appreciative inquiry helps resolve two global firms' differences 529
Myth or Science? 'Meetings stress people out' 535
Self-assessment library How stressful is my life? 537
Point/Counterpoint Managing change is an episodic activity 542

Glossary 549
Indexes 563

Supporting resources

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Companion Website for students:

• Exam-style questions with answer guidance to prepare for exam success.


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