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IndefiniteIndefiniteIndefiniteIndefinite IntegralsIntegralsIntegralsIntegrals

IndefiniteIndefiniteIndefiniteIndefinite IntegralsIntegralsIntegralsIntegrals DefinitionDefinitionDefinitionDefinition

d

If dx [ g (x) ] = f (x), then g (x) + c is an indefinite integral of f (x) and

we write it as

e.g.

f (x) dx

= g (x) + c.

d

dx

( x

2

)

=

2x

2x dx

=

x

2

+

c

ImportanImportantImportanImportanttt

The results which are true for x are true for ax + b also ( as both are linear ), the only change is, obtained answer is to be divided by a ( i.e. coefficient of x )

ForForForFor exampleexampleexampleexample

sec

2 x dx = tan x + c

sec

2

 

x

2

 

dx

tan (x / 2)

=

1/ 2

+

c

=

2 tan

1

 

x

2

 

+

c

DifferentDifferentDifferentDifferent typestypestypestypes

TypeTypeTypeType –––– IIII

Sums based on standard result.

TypeTypeTypeType –––– IIIIIIII

Integrand of the type

P(x)

ax + b , where P (x) is a polynomial

Here divide numerator by denominator and use

dx log|ax

+ b |

=

ax

+

b

a

TypeTypeTypeType ---- IIIIIIIIIIII

+ c

IntegrationIntegrationIntegrationIntegration bybybyby substitutionsubstitutionsubstitutionsubstitution

f

'(

x

)

f

(

x

)

dx

= log

f

(

x

)

+ c

StandardStandardStandardStandard SubstitutionsSubstitutionsSubstitutionsSubstitutions

 Expression Substitution 2 2 a − x x = a sin θ or x = a cos θ 2 2 a + x x = a tan θ or x = a cot θ 2 2 x − a x = a sec θ or x = a cosec θ a − x a + x x = a cos θ

2

TypeTypeTypeType –––– IVIVIVIV

 a sin x + b cos x csin x + d cos x + B d

dx

Integrals of the type

Here we write

Numerator =

A ( Denominator )

dx

and

a e

x

+

b

ce

x

+

d

( Denominator)

dx

Values of A and B are to be obtained by equating coefficients of sin x and cos x.

TypeTypeTypeType –––– VVVV

To express angle in numerator in terms of angle in the denominator. e.g.

To evaluate

sin ( x

a ) dx

a )

sin ( x

+

We write x – a = ( x + a ) – 2a

TypeTypeTypeType –––– VIVIVIVI

Integral of type

px

+

q

ax

2

+

bx

+

c

dx

Here we write

px

+

q

=

A

+

B

px
+
q
OR
dx
OR
2
ax
+
bx
+
c
d
( ax
2 +
bx
+
c )
dx

P(x )

ax

2

+

bx

+

c

dx

In the third integral P(x) is a polynomial of degree greater than or equal to 2. Here, divide numerator by denominator and then proceed.

3

NoteNoteNoteNote : In CET, values of A and B can be obtained directly.

e.g. in

4x

+

3

x

2

+

2x

+

1

dx

As derivative of x 2 + 2x + 1 is 2x + 2 we write 4x + 3 = 2 ( 2x + 2 ) – 4 + 3 = 2 ( 2x + 2 ) – 1

TypeTypeTypeType –––– VIIVIIVIIVII (((( ImportantImportantImportantImportant ))))

Integral of the type

1

a + b sin x

Here we put

dx =

dx OR

tan

x

 

2

2dt

1

+

t

2

1

a + b cos x

dx OR

1

a + b sin x + ccos x

=

t

,

sin x

=

2t

1

+

t

2

, cos x

=

1

t

2

1

+

t

2

NoteNoteNoteNote ::::

If angle is 2x, put tan x = t

dx

=

dt

1

+

t

2

,

sin x

=

2t

1

+

t

2

, cos x

=

1

t

2

1

+

t

2

4

dx

TypeTypeTypeType –––– VIIVIIIVIIVIIIII Integral of the type

1

a + b sin

2

x

dx OR

1

a + b cos

2

x

dx OR

1

a + b sin

2

x + c cos

2

x

dx

Here we multiply numerator and denominator by sec 2 x and put tan x = t

NoteNoteNoteNote ::::

In the denominator

sin 2 x × sec 2 x = tan 2 x cos 2 x × sec 2 x = 1 sec 2 x = 1 + tan 2 x

TypeTypeTypeType –––– IXIXIXIX

IntegrationIntegrationIntegrationIntegration ByByByBy partspartspartsparts

The Theorem is

uv dx

=

u

v dx

 

du

dx

v dx

 

dx

This can be remembered as

fis – idfis Rule

The order in which u and v are to be taken is according to the serial order of the letters of the word “LIATE”, where

L : Logarithmic

I : Inverse Trigonometric

 A : Algebraic T : Trigonometric E : Exponential

5

TypeTypeTypeType –––– XXXX

Sums on

1.

2.

e

e

a x

a x

TypeTypeTypeType –––– XIXIXIXI

sin (

cos(

bx

bx

)

)

dx =

dx =

Sums based on

e

x

[f (x) + f '(x)] dx = e

e a x

 ( a sin bx − b cos bx ) + c ( a cos bx + b sin bx ) + c
 a 2 + b 2 a x e a 2 + b 2 x

f (x) + c

Here multiple of e x is expressed as sum of a function and its derivative.

Typical sums of this type

log x

(1

+

log x )

2

dx ,

e

tan

1

x

 1 + x + x 2 1 + x 2 6

dx

TypeTypeTypeType –––– XIIXIIXIIXII

PartialPartialPartialPartial FractionsFractionsFractionsFractions

1.1.1.1. DistinctDistinctDistinctDistinct LinearLinearLinearLinear FactorsFactorsFactorsFactors

ExampleExampleExampleExample

3x

+

5

x

2

+

2x

3

 3x + 5 A B = = + ( x − 1)( x + 3) ( x − 1) ( x + 3)

We write 3x + 5 = A ( x + 3 ) + B ( x – 1 ) And so on

DisguisedDisguisedDisguisedDisguised linearlinearlinearlinear factorsfactorsfactorsfactors

ExampleExampleExampleExample

In

x

2

( x

2

+ 4)( x

2

7) we take x 2 = t for finding partial fractions

only. This is not a substitution.

2.2.2.2. RepeatedRepeatedRepeatedRepeated LinearLinearLinearLinear FactorsFactorsFactorsFactors

ExampleExampleExampleExample

x + 1

( x

1)

2

( x

+

2)

=

A

( x 1)

+

B

( x

1)

2

+

C

( x

+

2)

7

ExampleExampleExampleExample

 x A Bx + c = + ( 2x + 1) ( x TypeTypeTypeType –––– XIIIXIIIXIIIXIII 2 + 3) ( 2x + 1) ( x 2 + 3) ReductionReductionReductionReduction FormulaeFormulaeFormulaeFormulae 1. ∫ sin n x dx = − 1 sin n − 1 x cos x + n − 1 ∫ n n 2. ∫ cos n x dx = 1 cos n − 1 x sin x n − + 1 ∫ n n

PollPollPollPoll QuestionQuestionQuestionQuestion

e log f (x)

= f (x)

8

sin

cos

n 2

n 2

x dx

x dx

ProofProofProofProof ::::

y

Let e

Put this in e

e

=

log

f (x)

y

log

=

e

f (x)

y

= f (x) to get

e

f (x)

= f (x)

SolvedSolvedSolvedSolved SumsSumsSumsSums

CETCETCETCET –––– 2008200820082008 (((( MemoryMemoryMemoryMemory BasedBasedBasedBased ))))

1.

 3 dx ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 + 4)

=

(a) log ( x 2 + 1 ) – log ( x 2 + 4 ) + c

 tan − 1 x − 1 tan − 1    x 2    + c 2 2 tan − 1 x − tan − 1    x 2    + c 1 tan − 1 x − tan − 1 x + c 2 3 dx  = ∫ = ∫   ( x 2 + 1)( x 2 + 4) = tan 1 1  −  dx = log x (log x ) 2 

1

x

2

1

+

x

1

(b)

(c)

(d)

SolutionSolutionSolutionSolution

I

2.

9

1

2

1

x

2

x

2

tan

+

1

4

 

dx

 

+

c

(a)

1

log x

+ c

(b)

x
+ c
log x

(c)

x

(

log x

) 2

+ c

(d) log x + c

SolutionSolutionSolutionSolution

I

=

1

1

log x

(log x )

2

dx

Put log x = t

∴ x = e t

∴ dx = e t dt

e

t

1

t

1

t

2

 dt = e t 1 + c t e x (x + 2 − 2) ( x + 2) 3

x

I

=

 + c e x ( x + 2 ) 2 + c x e x ( x + 2 ) 2 + c x  1 = ∫ e   (x + 2) 2 e x ( x + 2 ) 2 + c 1 − 1  (b) ab sin   1 − 1  (d) ab sin  

=

log x

(b)

(d)

dx

=

 3. ∫ x e + ( x x 2) 3 dx = e x (a) x + 2 + c e x (c) ( x + 2 ) 3 + c SolutionSolutionSolutionSolution I = ∫ x e + ( x x 2) 3 dx =

ax

b

bx

a

1
2
2
2
a
b
x

(a)

(c)

dx =

4.

 1 − 1  bx    + sin   c b a 1 − 1  ax    + sin   c b b

10

2

( x

+

+

+

c

c

2)

3

dx

SolutionSolutionSolutionSolution

 ∫ 1 1 ∫ I = 2 2 2 a − b x dx = b = 1 sin b 5. ∫ x + 1 x − n dx = (a) 1 log | x n + 1 + 1| + n + 1 c (c) n 1 + 1 log | x n | + c SolutionSolutionSolutionSolution I = ∫ x + 1 x − n dx = ∫ 1 x + 1 n x = 1 (n + 1 ) x n dx n + 1 ∫ x n + 1 + 1 = n 1 + 1 log | x n + 1 + 1| + c

1

dx

2
a
2
− x
 
b
 

1

 

 bx  + c a   (b) 1 n log | x (d) 1 log | x n n = ∫ x n + 1 dx

x

+

1

dx

CETCETCETCET –––– 2009200920092009 (((( MemoryMemoryMemoryMemory Based)Based)Based)Based)

1.

e

(a)

x

1

x

x

2

e

x

x

2

+ c

dx =

(b)

e

x

x

+ c

11

(c)

x e

x

+ c

n |

n

+

+

1

|

c

+ c

(d)

e

x

x

2

+ c

SolutionSolutionSolutionSolution

x

1

x

1

x

2

e

x

 1 × + c x (b) x 2 ( 2 log x − 1 ) + 4 c (d) x 4 ( 2 log x + 1 ) + c ∫ 1 x x 2 − × 2 1 × x 2 = x 2 ( 2 log x − 1 ) + 2 2 4

I

=

dx

=

e

x log x dx =

x

4

x

2

(

4

2 log x

(

2 log x

1

+

x log x dx

=

=

)

1

=

+

)

c

+

c

2.

(a)

(c)

SolutionSolutionSolutionSolution

I =

log x . x dx

2

×

x 2

2

log x

x

2

log x

CETCETCETCET –––– 2010201020102010 (((( MemoryMemoryMemoryMemory BasedBasedBasedBased ))))

dx

1.

16 x

1

4

1

3

2

+

tan

tan

9

1

1

(a)

(c)

SolSolutionSolSolutionutionution

=

 

4x

3

4x

 

3

+

+

c

c

(b)

(d)

 1 − 1  4x    + tan   c 12 3

tan

1

4x

 

3

+

c

12

c

I =

 dx = 1 dx 16 x 2 + 9 16 ∫ x 2 + 9 16 1 1 = × tan 16 1 3 4 − 1  4x  = 12 tan   3  

1

+ c

x

3/ 4

+ c

2.

e

tan x

(sec

2

x + sec

3

(a) e x sec x tan x + c

(c) e tan x sec 2 x + c

x sin x ) dx =

e tan x . tan x + c

(b)

(d) e tan x . tan 2 x + c

SolutionSolutionSolutionSolution

e

tan x

(sec

2

put tan x = I

t

e

x

( t

=

x

+

sec

sec

+

1) dt

2

3

x sin x ) dx

=

e

tan x

2

x ( 1

=

sec

+

sec x sin x ) dx

2

x dx

e

tan x

. tan x

 ( 1 + tan x)sec + c

x dx

=

=

e

t

. t

dt

=

e

tan x

MoreMoreMoreMore SolvedSolvedSolvedSolved SumsSumsSumsSums

1.

e

5 log

x

e

4 log

x

e

3 log

x

e

2 log

x

dx

(a) log | x 3 – x 2 | + c

(c) 2 x + c

(b)

3
x
+ c
3

(d) log | x ( x – 1 ) | + c

13

SolutionSolutionSolutionSolution

 e log x 5 - e log x 4 e log x 3 - e log x 2 log f ( x ) = f x ( ) x 5 - x 4 x 4 ( x - 1 ) = ò x 3 - x 2 x 2 ( x - 1 ) ò 2 dx x 3 x = 3

ò

I =

using e

I ò

=

=

2.

cos 2

cos 2 x

α

cos

x

cos

α

dx

is

(a) sin x – x sin α + c

(c)

2 ( sin x + x cos α ) + c

SolutionSolutionSolutionSolution

(b) x cos α + cos x + c (d) cos x + x sin α + c

I

=

2cos

2

x

1

(

2cos

2

α −

1

)

cos x

cos

α

dx

 2 = ∫ ( cos 2 x − cos 2 α ) dx cos x − cos α = 2 ∫ ( cos x + cos α ) ( cos x − cos α ) cos x − cos α = 2 ∫ ( cos x + cos α ) dx = 2 ( sin x +

x cos

α

)

+

c

=

2

(

sin x

3.

1 + 2 tan x(sec x + tan x) dx
is
3
3/2
(a)
[1
+
2 tan
x
(sec
x +
tan
x
)]
+ c
2
(b)
log sec x ( sec x + tan x ) + c

(c)

(d)

log sec x - log sec x + tan x + c

log sec x + tan x + c

14

+

x cos

α

)

+

c

SolutionSolutionSolutionSolution

2
I 1
=
+
2 tan x sec x
+
2 tan
x
(
2
)
2
=
1
+
tan
x
+
2sec x tan x
+
tan
x
2
2
=
sec
x
+
2sec x tan x
+
2 tan
x dx
2
=
(
sec x
+
tan x
)
dx
=
(
sec x
+
tan x
)
=
log
[
sec x
+
tan x
]
+
log
[
sec x
]
+
c
=
log
sec x
(
sec x
+
tan x
)
1
+  
c
 
sin 2 x dx
4.
=
4
4
∫ cos
x +
sin
x

dx

(a)

(c)

SolutionSolutionSolutionSolution

log

+ c

tan – 1 ( tan 2 x ) + c

(b) cot – 1 ( tan x ) + c

(d) 2 tan – 1 ( tan x ) + c

I

=

2sin x cos x

cos

4

x

+

sin

4

x

dx

Divide Numerator and Deno min ator by cos sin x

1

dx

2

cos x

cos

2

x

I

+

2 tan x sec

1

tan

4

x

2

x dx

2

(

x

tan

=

t

2

x

)

2

+

1

=

=

=

put tan

2 tan x sec

4 x

2 tan x sec

tan

4

2

x

+

x dx

1

2

x dx

=

dt

I

=

dt

t

2

+

1

=

tan

1

(

t

)

+

c

=

tan

1

(

tan

2

x

)

+

c

5.

cos

sin sin 2 x

x

x dx

1

+

15

(a)

(c)

SolutionSolutionSolutionSolution

1

+ c

+ sin

cos

x

x

1

+ c

sin 2 x

 put cos x + sin x = t ( 1 ) ∴ ( − sin x + cos x ) dx = dt

(

on squaring 1

)

 cos 2 x + sin 2 x + ∴ 1 + sin 2 x = t 2 I = ∫ dt t 2 = ∫ t − 2 dt I = t − 1 = − 1 − 1 cos x + sin x ∫ log( x + 2) − log x dx 6. x ( x + 2)

2 sin x cos x

+ c

(a)

(c)

SolutionSolutionSolutionSolution

2
1
x
+ 2
log
+
4
x
2
− 1 
x + 2
log
4
x

c

+ c

=

t

16

2

(b)

(d)

(b)

(d)

1

cos

x

1

sin

x

+ c

cos 2 x

+ c

[log(x + 2) – log x ] 2 + c

[log(x + 2) – log x ] + c

put log
(
x
+
2
)
log x
=
dt
1
1
d x
=
dt
x
+
2
x
x
x
2
dx
=
dt
x
(
x
+
2
)
dx
1
=
dt
x
(
x
+
2
)
2
2
1
1
t
I
=
t
×
dt
=
×
2
2
2
− 1
2
=
 log
x
+
2
− log
x
+ c
 
4
2
− 1 
x
+
2
=
log
+ c
4
x

7.

dx

cos(

x a

)cos(

x b

)

=

(a) log cos ( x – a ) cos ( x – b ) +c

(b) log

tan(
x
− a
)
tan(
x
− b
)

+ c

(c)

(d)

 sin( 1 a − b ) log cos( x − a ) cos( x − b ) + c 1 log cos( x − a ) + c cos( a − b ) cos( x − b )

SolutionSolutionSolutionSolution

 I = 1 ∫ sin   ( x − b ) − ( x − a )   sin ( a − b ) cos ( x − a ) cos ( x − b ) = 1 ∫ sin ( x − b ) cos ( x − a ) − cos ( x − b ) sin ( x − a ) sin ( a − b ) cos ( x − a ) cos ( x − b ) = sin ( 1 a − b ) ∫ ( tan ( x − b ) − tan ( x − a )) dx = 1  log  sec <