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A
STUDY
ON
“ BUYER’S BUYING BEHAVIOUR WITH
SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TWO WHEELER
BIKES”

Submitted to
U.P. TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, UTTAR PRADESH
In the partial fulfillment for the degree
of
Master of Business Administration
(Session 2010-2011)
Under the supervision of: Submitted by:
Dr. Amit K. Srivastava AKHTAR NAWAZ
Associate Prof. & HOD, MBA Uni. Roll. 0951770008

KIPM College Of Management


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(Approved by AICTE & Affiliated to U.P. Technical University, U.P.)


(Gida Gorakhpur)
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
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Acknowledgement
I take this opportunity to express my profound debts of gratitude and obligation,
to my esteemed guide Dr. Amit k. Srivastava,H.O.D., KIPM College Of Management,
Gorakhpur, for his most valuable help and creative suggestions at all stages of my work.
His learned advice and guidance always kindled inspiration in the face of difficulties
encountered in the course of this research work.

I am also thankful to my mentor Dr. Naresh Gill, Director, KIPM College Of


Management, Gorakhpur, for allowing me to work on this project work and for his kind
help always.

I am highly grateful to my all lecturers and dedicated staff of KIPM College Of


Management, Gorakhpur for their kind help from time to time.

I am also thankful to the respondents, all my friends and also to various Auto
experts and consumer of Gorakhpur for their kind and valuable guidence, whom I
consulted for my present work.

(Akhtar Nawaz)
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EXECUTIVE
SUMMARY
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Executive
Summary
To know about the consumer buying behavior and factor which affect the consumer
buying decision process. As the objectives of my study is to analyze the customer
perception and the customer satisfaction to wards specific brands of bike (TVS, HONDA,
BAJAJ) on the basis of Price, Fuel efficiency, Brand, Style and comfort name.

Consumer buyer behavior refers to the buying behavior of final consumers –


individuals and households who buys services and goods for personal consumption.
Consumer behavior is influenced strongly by culture, social, personal and psychological
factors. Culture factors include the set of basic values, perceptions, wants and behavior
learned by a member of society from family and other important institutions. The social
factors include consumer’s family, small group, social roles and status. The personal
characteristics such as buyer’s age, life cycle stage, occupation, economic situations and
life style influenced by four major psychological factors: Motivation, Perception,
Learning, Belief and Attitudes.

In this era of cut throat competition, no company can even survive in the market
place without knowing its and its products strengths and weaknesses. It has to fortify
itself against threats from the environment and exploit its strengths or increase profits.
And in order to do so, the company has to conduct regular surveys to know the
customer’s opinions, needs, and preferences. This helps the company to manufacture the
product like wise for each customer’s expectations.
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Contents
Serial No. Page No.

1. Title page 0-1


2. Certificate 2
3. Acknowledgement 3
4. Executive summary 4
5. Contents 6
6. Introduction 7-21
• Profile of the study
• Significance of the study
7. Objective and scope of study 29-31
8. Literature Review 32-34
9. Research Methodology 35-50
• Sampling & Sample Design
• Analytical Tools
• Data Collection
• Hypothesis Testing
• Limitations of the study
10. Recommendation 60-61
11. Result & Discussions/Findings 62
12. Bibliography 64-65
13. Annexure 66-77
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INTRODUCTION
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INTRODUCTION
PROFILE OF THE STUDY
In this era of cut throat competition, no company can survive in the market place without
knowing its product’s strengths and weaknesses. It has to fortify (Strengthen) itself
against threats from the environment and exploit its strengths for increasing profits. In
order to do so, the company has to conduct regular surveys to know the customer’s
opinions, needs, and preferences. This helps the company to manufacture the product
according to customer’s expectations. It has now become more important for the
customer confidence and higher positioning of buyer perception. Thus, Surveys becomes
genuine key to success.
The Bike segment is Dominated by 4 major players viz. HERO HONDA ,
BAJAJ, TVS, ROYAL ENFIELD .Besides these, there are players like –
HONDA(Alone) , LML, KINETIC, SUZUKI.
The expanding Indian market, the growing size of the middle class and the rise
in aspirations of the youth along with opening up of the Indian economy have collectively
influenced the steady growth of the two wheeler market in India. With leading foreign
brands in collaborations with Indian manufacturers entering the Indian market, the
customer could not have asked for more. In fact, the Indian bike market has grown
immensely and the preference for variety looks, design has brought in a number of
models in the market. In the last 3 to 4 years, the craze for motorcycle over the scooters
has picked up and one can find today even girls crazy for a motorbike not only in the
Metros but in small towns and cities also.

Trying to catch up with these, manufacturers are busy working out on customer
profiles. With the increase in competition one can find a think of discounts including:
cash rebates and free accessories to push sales of the commuter bikes. Certain changes
are also visible as far as customer preferences are concerned. The basic 100cc bike
market is suddenly experiencing a slow down in the growth. This Commuter bike was a
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favorite till the other day, commanding up to 90% of the total bike sales. The shift
towards 150 cc bikes is suddenly discernable and the segment is expected to grow in near
future. Manufacturers are now rushing in to introduce bikes in this segment. Bajaj has
launched Pulsar-Dtsi 150cc higher on the power ladder, Honda has come up with
Unicorn and TVS has recently launched Apache.

The customer is the basic ingredient of marketing.


The development of marketing strategy is based on understanding of consumer and there
behavior. The present study attempts to understand the behavior of consumer for their
choice in purchasing two-wheeler with special reference to bikes like Honda(Unicorn),
TVS (Apache), and Bajaj(Pulsar 150cc). But consumer behavior and the derived
consumer satisfaction cannot be intact. Now days the two wheeler industry is growing at
its fast speed. The competition is very hard and so many choices are available to
customers. Here I have tried to find out the level of customer satisfaction regarding
(Unicorn, Apache, and Pulsar) two wheelers and also what modification they want in
their products. So the study is all about the customer’s preference and their satisfaction
with regard to bikes coming under 150cc segment.
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INDUSTRY PROFILE:-

1.1 Introduction of Automobile industry:-


The automotive industry design, develop, manufacturer, market and sales
the worlds motor vehicles. In 2008-09 more the 70 million motor vehicle
including cars and commercial vehicles were produced world wide.

In the 2008-09 the automobile industry produced over the 70 million


vehicle, and employed over the 9 million people and represented over 5% of
world total manufacturing employment. In 2008-09, the global vehicle
registrations reach nearly 901 million vehicle.

• The largest market of Europe is the 35%


• North America 32.6%
• Asia is the 23.8%
• South Africa 4.6%
• The middle east and Africa 3.6%

The fastest growing market for automobiles are china, India, Russia, and
brazil. In 2008 with rapidly rising oil prices, industries such as the
automotive industries are experiencing a combination of pricing pressures
fro row material cost and change in consumer buying habit. The industry is
also facing to increase external competition from the public transport sector
as the consumer re-evaluate their private vehicle usage.
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In the automobile industry there are a many players as the Hero Honda
motor limited, Bajaj auto limited, TVS motor company limited. The other
players of the two wheeler industry as the kinetic motor company limited,
kinetic engineering limited, LML, Yamaha motors India limited, Majestic
Auto limited, Royal Enfield, and Hero Honda motorcycle and scooter
private limited.

There are a various models of the different companies as the following


Hero Honda:-
• CD 100
• Hero Honda Sleek
• Splendor
• Hero Honda Street
• CBZ
• Passion
• Ambition
• CD Down
• Splendor plus
• Passion plus
• Karizma
• CBZ star(*)
• Ambition 135
• Super splendor
• CD Deluxe
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• Glamour
• Achiever

TVS:-
• TVS Centra
• TVS Fiero
• TVS S Apache
• TVS Victor
• TVS star
• TVS scooty pep
Bajaj:-
• Bajaj avenger
• Bajaj CT 100
• Bajaj platina
• Bajaj Discover dtsi
• Bajaj pulsar dtsi
• Bajaj wave
• Bajaj wind 125
Yamaha:-
• Yamaha G5
• Yamaha cruxs
• Yamaha gladiator
Kinetic:-
• Kinetic Aquila
• Kinetic boss
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• Kinetic challenger
• Kinetic comet
• Kinetic GF

1.3 Automobile industry in India

The Indian automobile Industry consist of five segment: commercial


vehicles, multi utility vehicles, and passenger cars, two-wheeler, three
wheeler, tractors.

The automobile industry in India the tenth largest in the world with the
annual production of the approximately 2 million unit expected to become
one of the major global automotive industries in coming year. A number of
the domestic companies produce to the automobile industry in india and
growing presence of multi national investment to has increase in over all
growth.

De-licensing in 1991 has put the Indian automobile industry on a new


growth track, attracting foreign auto gains to setup the production facilities
in the country to take advantage of various benefit it's offers. this took that
Indian automobile production from the 5.3 million unit in the 2001-02 to
10.8 million unit in 2007-08. the other reason is to be attracting global auto
manufacture to Indian are the country's large class population, growing
earning power, strong technology capability and availability of trained
manpower at competitive price.
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1.4 TWO-WHEELER INDUSTRIES

India is the second largest two-wheeler manufacture in the world and


largest manufacture in the in the world. Indian two-wheeler segment include
in a range of vehicle such as the scoter-geared and unguarded, moped and
motorcycle. In india there are a 3 scooter manufactures, and 3 moped
manufacture, Hero Honda, TVS, Bajaj Auto, Suzuki, Yamaha, etc are
leading manufacturer. They have also dominated the global area after
piaggo. production of the automobile industry during the financial year
2008-2009 is 17.22 million

Production of the two-wheeler automobile industry

Year Production (in units) of two


wheelers ( in million)
2004-2005 6.52
2005-2006 7.60
2006-2007 10.78
2007-2008 13.58
2008-2009 17.22
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Sales of the two-wheeler bike in the Indian market

Year Total sales (in units) of two


wheelers (in million)
2004-2005 6.20
2005-2006 7.05
2006-2007 11.42
2007-2008 7.86
2008-2009 12.16

Export of the two-wheeler bike in the Indian market

Year Total exports (in units) of two


wheelers (in lakhs)
2004-2005 3,66,407
2005-2006 5,13,256
2006-2007 9,25,464
2007-2008 11,20,103
2008-2009 13,18,308
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BIG PLAYERS IN
THE BIKE
SEGMENT
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Bajaj Auto Limited is one of the pioneering companies in the two wheeler industry. Bajaj
Auto has a vast network of about 1500 service centers and 500 dealers all over India. It
has 3 manufacturing plants located at Akurdi, Waluj and Chakan in Maharashtra. The
company's technology partner is Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Japan. The company
exports to ASEAN region, South America and Africa.

MILESTONES

1945 - Bajaj Auto comes into existence as M/s Bachraj Trading


Corporation Private Limited.
1948 - Sales in India commence by importing two- and three-
wheelers.
1959 - Bajaj Auto obtains license from the Government of India to
manufacture two- and three-wheelers.
1960 - Bajaj Auto becomes a public limited company. Bhoomi
Poojan of Akurdi Plant.
1970 - Bajaj Auto rolls out its 100,000th vehicle.
1971- The three-wheeler goods carrier is introduced.
1972 - The Bajaj Chetak is introduced.
1975 - BAL & Maharashtra Scooters Ltd. joint venture.
1976 - The Bajaj Super is introduced.
1977 - The Rear Engine Autorickshaw is introduced. Bajaj Auto
achieves production and sales of 100,000 vehicles in a
single financial year.
1981 - The Bajaj M-50 is introduced
1984 - Foundation stone laid for the new Plant at Waluj, Aurangabad.
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1986 - The Bajaj M-80 and the Kawasaki Bajaj KB100


motorcycles are introduced. 500,000 vehicles produced and
sold in a single financial year.
1990 - The Bajaj Sunny is introduced
1991 - The Kawasaki Bajaj 4S Champion is introduced.
1998 - Kawasaki Bajaj Caliber rolls out of Waluj.
2001- Bajaj Auto launches its latest offering in the premium bike
segment ‘Pulsar’. The Eliminator is launched.
2003- Pulsar DTS-i is launched.
2004 - Bajaj unveils new brand identity, new symbol, logo
and brand line
2007 - 200 cc Pulsar DTS-i launched
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Bajaj Pulsar DTSi 150cc


Generation next technology included in the package of the equipments of this high flying
bike is the revolutionary digital biking. Digital biking is the combination of various
advanced systems like Digital Twin Spark ignition (DTSi). Its highly masculine outlook
with sporty, dashing structure gives the complete satisfaction of dare riding. Bajaj Pulsar
enables its rider to tackle the situation of overcrowded street due to the presence of 17"
alloy wheels with 1330 mm wheelbase. Its comfort statement includes front telescopic
suspension, Nitro X - Nitrogen assisted rear gas shockers with triple rated spring. Due to
these comfort features, this bike is highly accommodative in any terrain.
Feeling of proper riding is provided by different high end features
like improved clutch, cylinder head with Roller Rocker Arms, optimized intake and
exhaust systems & new valve timings. Its advanced Exhaust TEC (Torque Expansion
Chamber) technology ensures the higher performance at lower rpm.
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TVS Motor Company is part of Sundaram Clayton group in TVS group of companies.
TVS Motor Company is the main flag ship company of Sundaram Clayton group. TVS
Motors is the third largest two-wheeler manufacturer in Indian and ranks among the top
ten globally. It is the first company in the world to be honored with the Deming Prize for
Total Quality Management. The Company was the first in India to launch 2-seater 50cc
moped and 100 cc Indo-Japanese Motorcycles. At Present TVS Apache, TVS Victor,
TVS Scooty, TVS Centra and TVS Fiero are the popular bikes in Indian Market.

MILESTONES
• India’s first 2 seater 50cc Moped TVS 50, launched in Aug 1980.
• In 1982 SCL established Joint Venture with Suzuki Motor
Corporation.
• In 1994 the company entered the market segment of scooters with introduction of
Scooty 2S, which was totally an indigenous design.
• Introduced India's first catalytic converter enabled motorcycle, the 110cc Shogun
in Dec 1996.
• Launched India's first 5-speed motorcycle, the Shaolin in Oct 1997.
• Launched TVS Victor, 4-stroke 110 cc motorcycles, in August 2001; India’s first
fully indigenously designed and manufactured motorcycle.
• In 2000 the first 4 stroke motorcycle was launched called Fiero
• Launched TVS Star in Sept 2004, a 100 cc motorcycle which is ideal for rough
terrain
• Launched TVS Apache in Nov 2005. It finally went on to be the Bike of the
Year for 2006, winning 6 prestigious awards
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TVS Apache

TVS Apache with its shapely streamlined tank and engine design is really an eye
-stopper. Its smooth and flawless finish makes this bike desirable to the market. Its
tough but light 6 spoke black alloy wheels are really supportive for better control and
excellent riding of this two wheeler. Its uniquely designed head lamp has become one
of the best head turner in the market of two wheelers.
Its 240 mm disc brake is helpful in stopping one in any sudden situation to
avoid accident. Its all gear start and low friction engine with RCF technology are the
key factor of better efficiency of this bike. It is further equipped with various
upgraded technology like monotube inverted gas filled shocks, IDI lean burn, iE
surge (intake and exhaust resonator), synchro stiff chassis etc. for the proper safety
and security of the persons seating on the bike.
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Its symbol, the Wings, represents the company's unwavering dedication in achieving
goals that are unique and above all, conforming to international norms. These wings
are now in India as Honda Motorcycle & Scooter India Pvt. Ltd. (HMSI), a wholly
owned subsidiary of Honda Motor Company Ltd., Japan. In September 2004, Honda
Motorcycle and Scooters India Limited (HMSI), the wholly owned subsidiary of the
Japan-based Honda Motor Company Limited (HMCL), launched its first 150cc
motorcycle named 'Unicorn.' Priced at Rs. 50,043 (ex-showroom price, Delhi),
Unicorn had a four stroke 13.3 bhp engine with five gears. The new bike was
available in five colours and was designed to achieve a speed of 0 to 60 kmph in five
seconds. Unicorn was promoted with the caption "Be a wing rider." (Refer Exhibit I
for a visual of Unicorn). Targeted at youth, Unicorn looked sportier than all the
existing motorcycles in the premium segment and was pitted against Bajaj Pulsar, the
leader with 75 percent market share in that segment.
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Honda Unicorn
This bike with powerful 4 stroke 150 cc engine delivering output of 13.3 bhp engine
clubbed with many other high end equipments like Constant Volume (CV)
Carburetor, pulse exhaust system, offset crank and 2 way air jacket. Its multi mapping
CDI, roller rocker arm, 5 speed gears, tumble free combustion etc. determine the
performance as well as its aesthetic value. Its aerodynamic body lining, sporty and
sleek design, appealing tail lamp and excellent body graphics etc are enhancing its
style statement day by day. Unique shock absorbing mono suspension prevents
discomfort due to the sudden jerk caused by uneven road. Its flexible seating
arrangement, ample foot space gives the total comfort of journey. Fully equipped with
various cutting edge technologies, this bike comes with hole plugging mechanism,
tuff up tube, easy primary kick etc.
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CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR
Before getting into details of Consumer Behaviour, one must go through certain basic
terminologies. In general terms both ‘Consumer’ and ‘Customer’ are considered the
same but they are quite different.
The term ‘Customer’ is some what different from the term ‘consumer’. The term
customer is used to refer to someone who purchases goods and services from a particular
store or company. Thus a customer is defined in terms of a specific term while a
consumer is not
‘Consumer’ may be referred to any one engaged in evaluating, acquiring, using or
disposing of goods and services which he expects will satisfy his needs.
So ultimately Consumers are that individual who consumes or uses a product,
which may or may not be purchased by him.
So after getting into these terms we need to get into the details of “Consumer
Behaviour”.
Consumer Behaviour – Consumer behaviour refers to how a consumer behaves or acts
or reacts in making a purchase of goods and services of his choice in different situations

The term consumer Behaviour can be defined as, “The behaviour that consumers
display in searching for purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing of products, services
and ideas which they expect will satisfy their needs.”
- Leon G. Schiffman and Leslie Lazar Kanuk.

The study of consumer behaviour not only focuses on how and why consumers make
buying decisions, but also focuses on the uses which consumers make of the goods they
buy and their evaluation of these goods after use. If the goods after use don’t satisfy the
consumers, they my feel dissatisfied perhaps because post- purchase services are not up
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to their satisfaction, and thus, this may influence their purchase of the goods and it may
also influence the buying decision of many others who might come in contact with them.
The detailed study of Consumer Behaviour or Consumer Preferences focuses
on-
 Who Buys products or services?
 How do they buy products or services?
 Where do they buy them?
 How often do they buy them?
 When do they buy them?
 Why do they buy them?
 How often do they use them?
These questions will help in understanding the factors that influence the decision making
process of the consumers. The buyer’s decision making process includes the following:-
1. Problem recognition

2. Information search

3. Evaluation of alternatives

4. Purchase decision

5. Post purchase behavior

1. Problem recognition: - First and the foremost step is to identify the problem i.e.
what actually one wants with regard to the product.
2. Information Search: - Second step is to search the relevant information
regarding the Product which one wants.
3. Evaluation of alternatives: - Third step is to evaluate the collected information
i.e. analyze the information.
4. Purchase decision: - In forth step the product is actually purchased.
5. Post purchase behaviour: - In fifth step the consumer actually reacts against the
quality, quantity etc received after the purchasing the product i.e. in this stage he
reacts on the basis of his getting satisfied after the purchase of the product.
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The buyer’s decisions include the following:-


 Product choice

 Brand choice

 Dealer choice

 Purchase timing

 Purchase amount.

Consumer perception
How do Buyers form their preference? Their preferences are influenced by their
past buying experience, friend’s and associate’s advice, and the marketer’s and
competitor’s information and promises. Though customer preference is a very qualitative
term and it is very difficult to measure. In this study an effort has been made to measure
the customer preference level.
Customer Satisfaction
“Satisfaction is a person’s feelings of pleasure or disappointment resulting from
comparing a product’s perceived performance in relation to his or her expectation”

As the definition makes it clear, satisfaction is a function of perceived


performance and expectations. If the performance falls short of the expectations of the
customer, the customer is dissatisfied. If the performance exceeds the expectations, the
customer is highly satisfied or delighted.
Many companies are aiming for high satisfaction because customers who are just
satisfied still find it easy to switch, when a better offer comes along. Those who are
highly satisfied are much less ready to switch. High satisfaction or delight creates an
emotional affinity with the brain, not just a rational preference. The result is high
customer loyalty.
In this highly competitive world customers plays a very important role. Thus, if a
company wants to survive then it should look forward to the determinants of customer
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satisfaction. Though it is a very subjective issue that differs from individual to individual
yet, identifying some basic parameters of customer satisfaction is important.

Satisfaction is a person’s feeling of pleasure and disappointment resulting from


comparing a product’s perceived performance in relation to his or her expectations. It is
only the customer delight that marketer aims for.
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Significance of the
study
 To know the Basic consumer buying behaviour and the reasons because of which

they switch from one company to another.

 To know about the company’s details (profile, Products)

 This study would help in revealing the type and specific qualities of the bikes
offered by the company to their consumers.

 To study the satisfaction level of consumers who uses bikes.

 To study the factors influencing consumers to buy 150cc bikes.

 To study effect of advertisement on the purchasing decision of the consumers


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OBJECTIVES
AND SCOPE OF
THE STUDY
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Objectives of the
study
The clear purpose or objective of the research enables the researcher to collect –
necessary relevant information. The objective of the research is to know the
Customer’s buying behavior for purchasing two
wheeler bikes on the basis of Price, Fuel
efficiency, Brand, Style and comfort name in
Gorakhpur district.
.

• To study the consumers’ opinion of their motor bikes regarding its features like
appearance, mileage, price etc.
• To analyze the impact of behavioral factors of consumers on choosing particular
brand of motor bike.
• To find out the factor which are consumer consider before purchasing two
wheeler bikes.
• To Know about the market share of two- wheeler bikes companies.
• To know the consumer satisfaction level of consumer of two wheeler bikes after
purchasing.
• Find out the quantum of customer satisfaction with respect to bikes.
• Determine the influence of reference group in the purchasing decision of buyers.
• Find out the ways for improving of the services to attain level of customer
satisfaction

.
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SCOPE OF STUDY
• The main scope of the study is limited to Gorakhpur city.

• It also analysis the benefits accruing to the company as a result


of those service.

• This study has been made to find the level of satisfaction the
customer has regarding the service provider by bike place.
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LITERATURE
REVIEW
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LITERATURE REVIEW
Once the problem is formulated, the researcher has to undertake an extensive literature
survey related to problem. The literature survey undertaken here includes books and
different websites from the internet.

Customer’s buying
The research project was to know the
behaviour and customer satisfaction
for purchasing of two wheeler bikes
on the basis of Price, Fuel efficiency,
Brand, Style and comfort name
.
• Schiffman. G. Leon and kanuk lazare Leslie 1
- Study of the customer
behaviour is the study of how individuals make decisions to spend their available
resources (Time, Money and Efforts) on consumption related items. It includes
the study what they buy, whey they buy it, when they buy it, where they buy it,
how often they buy it and how often they use it. The primary purpose for the
study consumer behaviour as apart of marketing curriculum is to understand how
and how customers make their purchase decisions. There insights enable
marketers to design more effective marketing strategies.
• Gupta.C .B and Dr. Nair. N.Rajan 2 - A business is based on understanding the
customer and providing the kind of products that the customer wants.
• Mamoria C.B. and Mamoria Satish 3
- Consumer behaviour is the process
where by individuals decide what, when, where, how and from whom to purchase
goods and services. Buying behaviour may be viewed as an orderly process here
by individual interacts with his environment for the purpose of making market
decision on products and services.
• Nair Suja. R.4 - The success of the firm will be determined by how effective it
has been in meeting the diverse customer needs and wants by treating each
customer as unique and offering products and services to suit his/her needs.
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• Bennett Peter.D. And Kassarjian Haroldh 5 - A great deal of research activity


in marketing is design to shed light on the customer decision process.
• Kothari C.R.6 For data analysis different statistical techniques are being used
such as scaling techniques, correlation, hypothesis testing.
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RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY
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RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY
Research Methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem, which is a
science of study how research is done scientifically. Thus research methodology
encompasses the research methods or techniques; the research is capable of being
evaluated either by the researcher himself or by others.

⇒ SAMPLING
Sampling may be defined as the selection of some parts of an agreement or
totality for the purpose of study. All the items in any field of inquiry constitute a
universe or population, a complete enumeration of all the items in the population
is known as Census inquiry. But when the field of inquiry is large this method
becomes difficult to adopt because of the limited no. of resources involved in the
case sample survey method is chosen under which units are selected in such a way
that they represent the entire universe.

SAMPLING DESIGN
• CENSUS METHOD: - All the items in any field of inquiry constitute a
‘Universe’ or ‘Population’. A complete enumeration of all the items in the
‘Population’ is known as a Census inquiry. It can be presumed that in such an
inquiry, when all items are covered, no element of chance is left and highest
accuracy is obtained. But in practical it is not true in all cases. This type of inquiry
involves a great deal of time, money and energy. Therefore, when the field of
inquiry is large, this method becomes difficult to adopt because of the resources
involved.

• SAMPLING METHOD:- When field studies are undertaken in practical


life, consideration of time and cost almost invariably lead to a selection of
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respondents i.e. selection of only few items. The respondent selected should be as
representative of total population. These respondents constitute what is
technically called a ‘Sample’ and the selection process is called ‘Sampling
Technique’. The survey so conducted is known as ‘Sample Survey’.
Implementation of Sample Design: - A sample design is a definite plan for
obtaining a sample from a given population. It refers to the technique or the procedure the
researcher would adopt in selecting items for the sample. Sampling design may as well
lay down the number of items to be included in the sample i.e. the size of sample. Sample
design is determined before the data are colleted.

 Steps In Sampling Design :- While developing a research design following


items are taken into consideration:-

I. Type of universe: - First and the foremost step is to clearly define the
universe to be studied. As I have taken the area of Gorakhpur City
(Uttar Pradesh), so for me here the universe is Gorakhpur area. No
doubt it is a finite universe but the area is very big and can’t be
covered easily due to shortage of time.

II. Sampling unit: - A decision has to be taken concerning a sampling


unit before selecting sample. Here my sample unit includes college
going students who own bikes.

III. Size of sample: - This refers to the number of items to be selected


from the universe to constitute a sample. Here I have taken the sample
of 200 consumer who have bikes.

IV. Parameters of interest: - In determining the sample design, one must


consider the question of the specific population parameters which are
of interest. Here I had taken all consumers who own their bike.
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V. Sampling procedure: - Finally the technique of selecting the sample


is to be dealt with. That means through which method the sample has
been collected. There are various types of selecting the sample. This
includes probability sampling, random sampling, stratified sampling,
cluster sampling, convenience sampling. Here I have used the cluster
sampling method for data collection, as Gorakhpur area is very big and
there are many consumer.
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⇒ Analytical tool
Multi Dimensional Scaling
Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a method for analyzing a (similarity or dissimilarity)
proximity matrix based on a set of observations. The purpose of MDS is to model the
proximity of observations in order to represent them as accurately as possible in a limited
number of dimensions (usually 2). There are different MDS algorithms: XLSTAT uses
the SMACOF (Scaling by Majoring a Convex Function) algorithm that minimizes the
"normalized stress" function. Furthermore, there are several MDS models (or
representation functions), i.e. several ways to transform the dissimilarities into disparities.
The disparities are the distances that describe the optimal representation for the
observations. The difference between the disparities and the distances measured on the
representation resulting from the MDS is called the stress: the lower the stress, the better
the representation of the observations.

When the representation function simply respects the relative order of the observations,
one speaks about ordinal MDS or non-metric MDS. When the dissimilarities are
transformed into disparities using a specific parametric function, one speaks about metric
MDS. The following models are available in the current version of XLSTAT:

Metric MDS

· Absolute MDS: each dissimilarity dij must exactly match the distance between
points i and j in the representation space.

· Ratio MDS: the ratio of all distance pairs in the representation space must
correspond to the ratio of the corresponding dissimilarities.

Interval MDS: the ratio of all differences between distances in the representation
space must correspond to the ratio of the differences of the corresponding dissimilarities.
41

Note: the current version of XLSTAT does not support negative disparities that may
occur if you use the "interval" model. If an error message is displayed on this subject, you
must use another model to process your data.

Nonmetric MDS

· ordinal (1): the order of the distances in the representation space must correspond
to the order of the corresponding dissimilarities. If there are two dissimilarities of the
same rank, then there are no restrictions on the corresponding distances.

· ordinal (2): identical to the previous model, but if dissimilarities exist in the same
rank, the corresponding distances must be equal.

The stress measures the quality of the representation for a given number of dimensions.
The lower it is, the better the representation. Various formulas have been proposed by
different authors. Although the minimization is always based on the normalized stress,
XLSTAT allows to show the results using the four formulas defined below:

· Raw stress: it gives the quality of the representation based on the squared errors of
the representation compared with the disparities. The formula gives:

Where Dij is the disparity between individuals i and j, and dij is the Euclidean distance
on the representation for the same individuals. wij is the weight of the ij proximity (value
is 1 by default).

· Normalized Stress: it gives the quality of the representation based on the squared
errors of the representation compared with the disparities, divided by the sum of the
squared disparities. The formula gives:
42

· Kruskal's stress 1: it gives the quality of the representation based on the square
root of the squared errors of the representation compared with the disparities, divided by
the sum of the squared distances on the representation. The formula gives:

· Kruskal's stress 2: it gives the quality of the representation based on the square
root of the squared errors of the representation compared with the disparities, divided by
the sum of the squared centered distances on the representation. The formula gives:

where is the average of the distances on the representation. This formula usually results
in a stress value that is approximately twice the value obtained for Kruskal's stress 1.

In order to know if the representation quality is good enough, some rules exist, mostly
based on the Kruskal's stress 1. However, the Shepard diagram that allows to compare the
dissimilarities with the distances and to observe some ruptures in the ordination of the
values is a empirical but reliable method. The more the chart looks linear, the better the
representation. The way the stress evolves when the number of dimensions decreases is
also interesting to detect if a significant amount of information is being lost in the
selected representation.
43

MDS Interpretation
The factors shown below in the table are selected are the basis of the study and are
used to apply MDS (Multi Dimensional scaling) and the analyses are as follows (See
Annexure 1). MDS (Multi Dimensional scaling) has been used because there are
multiple factors and no other scaling technique could be used to show the analyses
authenticated.
Rank 1 Rank 2 Rank 3 Rank 4 Rank 5
Safety
11 13 6 8 6

Comfort 7 11 11 7 5
Fuel efficiency
10 11 6 5 7
Style
8 5 9 8 11
Performance
5 1 7 10 12
44

Correlation
One of the Statistical tool which I am going to apply in my project is correlation.
Correlation is their when change in the value of one variable influences the change in the
value of other variable.
“The statistical tool with the help of which relationship between two or more than
two variables are studied is called correlation”

It refers to the techniques used in measuring the closeness of the relationship between the
variables.

“Correlation analysis deals with the association between two or more variables.”
45

Correlation
Let us take the hypothesis as:-
H0 = Let there is no correlation between various factors like Price, Brand

name, Fuel Efficiency, style & comfort and the Purchase of

bike(HONDA,BAJAJ and TVS)

H1 = Let there is correlation between various factors like Price, Brand name,

Fuel Efficiency, style & comfort and the Purchase of bike(HONDA,BAJAJ and

TVS)

X
Dx HONDA BAJAJ TVS
-1 0 1 F fdy fdy2 fdxdy
Y
Dy
Price -2 23 4 5 32 -64 128 36
Brand -1 14 24 4 42 -42 42 10
Fuel Efficiency 0 18 10 6 34 0 0 0
Style 1 32 6 12 50 50 50 -20
Comfort 2 20 17 5 42 42 168 -30
f 107 61 32 200 28 388 -4
fdx -107 0 32 -75
fdx2 107 0 32 139
fdxdy -12 0 8 -4
46

Coefficient of Correlation =

r = N ∑ fdxdy - ∑fdx∑fdy
√ N∑fdx2-(∑fdx)2 √N∑fdy2-(∑fdy)2

r = 200x-4 – (-75)(28)__________

√ 27800-5625 √ 77600-784

r = +0.0314

Hence it has been proved that there is a correlation between various

factors and purchase of bikes.

⇒ Data Collection
The task of data collection begins after the research program has been
defined and research design plan has been checked out. The data collected is
important part of research.

DATA COLLECTION METHOD


In the data collection method different methods are adopted for primary data collection
and secondary data collection.
 PRIMARY DATA COLLECTION
Primary data is the data which is collected through observation or direct
communication with the respondent in one form or another. These are several
methods for primary data collection like Observation method, Interview method,
through schedule, through questionnaires and so on.
But as time was limited so, the relevant data was collected from the selected units
by adopting and arranging personal interview with the shopkeeper and dealer
along with a pre structured questionnaire. In this method I thank the views of
shopkeepers and dealer through the use of questionnaire and general interview.
47

 SECONDARY DATA COLLECTION


The company’s past database is taken into reference along With company
brochures.
DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS
The data collection instruments used in the study is mentioned below:-

o QUESTIONNAIRE
The method of data collection is quite popular. I prepared a questionnaire after
knowing the different objectives of the study and considering all the things that
are required for studying the dissertation topic.
48

⇒ Hypothesis Testing(By applying Chi-Square)

Chi-square test is used when the set of observed frequencies obtained after

experimentation have to be supported by hypothesis or theory. The test is known as X2-

test of goodness of fit and is used to test if the deviation between observation

(experiment) and theory may be attributed to chance (fluctuations of sampling).

Here we have the assumption of H0 and H1. If the values come in accordance to the

depicted values then the hypothesis is accepted else it’s rejected.

Σ (O-E) 2
x2 = ——— where,
E

O = observed frequency

E = Expected frequency
49

Chi-square test
Let us take the hypothesis as:-
H0 = Let there is no correlation between various factors like Price,

Brand name, Fuel Efficiency, style & comfort and the Purchase of

bike(HONDA,BAJAJ and TVS)

H1 = Let there is correlation between various factors like Price, Brand

name, Fuel Efficiency, style & comfort and the Purchase of

bike(HONDA,BAJAJ and TVS)

Honda TVS BAJAJ f

Price 4 5 23 32

Brand 24 4 14 42

Fuel Efficiency 10 6 18 34

Style 6 12 32 50

Comfort 17 5 20 42

f 61 32 107 200
50

EXPECTED

HONDA TVS BAJAJ f

Price 9.76 5.12 17.12 32

Brand 12.81 6.72 22.47 42

Fuel Efficiency 10.37 5.44 18.19 34

Style 15.25 8 26.75 50

Comfort 12.81 6.72 22.47 42

61 32 107
F 200
51

Observed Value Expected value (O-E)2 (O-E)2/E


4 9.76 33.06 3.38
24 12.81 125.21 9.77
10 10.37 0.136 0.013
6 15.25 85.56 5.61
17 12.81 17.55 1.37
5 5.12 0.014 0.002
4 6.72 12.83 1.90
6 5.44 0.13 0.056
12 8 16 2
5 6.72 2.95 0.43
23 17.12 34.57 2.01
14 22.47 71.74 3.19
18 18.19 0.036 0.001
32 26.75 27.56 1.003
20 22.47 6.100 0.27
χ 2
Calculated = 31.033
V = (r-1) (c-1) = (5-1) (3-1) = 8
for V =8 χ 2
0.05 table value = 15.5
So, χ 2
0.05 table value is less than χ 2
calculated value, so hypothesis
(Null) is rejected and the alternate hypothesis is accepted. Therefore there is a
correlation between various factors like Price, rand name, Fuel Efficiency,
style & comfort and the Purchase of bike (HONDA, BAJAJ and TVS)
52

Analysis Of
Data Collection
53

Analysis of Data collection

Table 1

Are your aware about 150 cc bike brands available in the market?

Are your aware about 150 cc bike No. of respondents


brands available in the market?

Fully Aware 93
Aware 76
Less aware 31

Table 1 shows that 93 of respondents are fully aware about 150 cc bikes in market, 76 of
respondents just aware about 150 cc bikes and only 31 of respondents are have little bit
knowledge about 150cc.

Are your aware about 150 cc bike brands


available in the market ?

93
100
76
No. of respondents

80

60

40 31

20

0
Fully Aware Aware Less aware

Fig. 1
54

Table 2
How do you come to know about this brand/model of
150 cc bike?

How do you come to know about this No. of respondents


brand/model of 150cc bike?

Friends 45
Advertisement 87
Publicity 10
Family members 47
Any other 11

Table 2 shows that 45 of respondents came to know about brand of bikes from friends, 87
of respondents came to know about brand of bikes from advertisement, 10 of respondents
came to know about brand of bikes from publicity, 47 of respondents came to know about
brand of bikes from family members and 11 of respondents came to know about brand of
bikes from other sources.

How do you come to know about this brand/model of 150 CC bike


?

87
90
80
No. of respondents

70
60
45 47
50
40
30
20 10 11
10
0
Friends Advertisement Publicity Family Any other
members

Fig. 2
55

Table 3
Which factor influence you more to purchase a bike?

Which factor influence you more to No. of respondents


purchase a bike?

Brand image 53
Fuel efficiency 81
Price 27
Comfort 17
Syle 25

Table 3 shows that 53 respondents are influenced to purchase a bike from its brand
image, 81 respondents are influenced to purchase a bike from its Fuel efficiency, 27
respondents are influenced to purchase a bike from its lesser Price, 17 respondents are
influenced to purchase a bike from its Comfort, 25 respondents are influenced to
purchase a bike from its Style.

Which factor influence you more to purchase a bike ?

100
81
80
No. of respondents

60 53

40 27 25
17
20

0
Brand image Fuel efficiency Price Comfort Syle

Fig. 3
56

Table 4
Are you satisfied with its overall performance?

Are you satisfied with its overall No. of respondents


performance?

Fully Satisfied 41
Satisfied 104
Moderate 42
Less satisfied 10
Poor 3

Table 4 shows that 41 of respondents are fully satisfied with the performance of their
bikes, 104 of respondents are satisfied with the performance of their bike, 42 of
respondents are moderate in satisfaction with the performance of their bikes and 3 of
respondents are poorly satisfied with the performance of their bike.

Are you satisfied with its overall performance?

120
104
100
No. of respondents

80

60
41 42
40

20 10
3
0
Fully Satisfied Moderate Less satisfied Poor
Satisfied

Fig. 4
57

Table 5
According to you which company gives the most benefit to customers?

According to you which company gives No. of respondents


the most benefit to customers?

Honda 63
Bajaj 109
TVS 28

Table 5 shows that 63 of respondents are saying that the Honda is providing more
benefits of the services to the customers, 109 of respondents are saying that the Bajaj is
providing more benefits of the services to the customers and 28 of respondents are saying
that the TVS is providing more benefits of the services to the customers.

According to you which company gives the most


benefit to customers ?

28
63
Honda
Bajaj
TVS

109

Fig. 5
58

Table 6
Which type of media influence your purchase behaviour?

Which type of media influence your No. of respondents


purchase behaviour?

T.V. 114
Newspaper 33
Wall painting 5
Hording 12
Magazine 36

Table 6 shows that 114 of respondents and influence to purchase their bike through T.V.,
33 of respondents and influence to purchase their bike through Newspaper, 5 of
respondents and influence to purchase their bike through Wall painting, 12 of
respondents and influence to purchase their bike through Hording and 36 of respondents
and influence to purchase their bike through Magazine.

Which type of media influence your purchase


behaviour ?
120 114

100
No. of respondents

80

60
33 36
40

20 12
5
0
T.V. New spaper Wall painting Hording Magazine

Fig. 6
59

Table 7
Who influenced you more in your buying decision of bike?

Who influenced you more in your buying No. of respondents


decision of bike?

Self 30
Family Member 54
Friends/Relative 98
Mechanics 18

Table 7 shows that 30 of respondents have influence their buying decision from their self
decision, 54 of respondents have influence their buying decision from their family
members, 98 of respondents have influence their buying decision from their
friends/relative and 18 of respondents have influence their buying decision from their
Mechanics,

Who influenced you more in your buying decision of


bike ?

98
100
No. of respondents

80
54
60

40 30
18
20

0
Self Family Member Friends/Relative Mechanics

Fig. 7
60

Table 8
In your opinion, what role advertisement plays?

In your opinion, what role advertisement No. of respondents


plays?

Provides important details 65


Creates awareness 125
Misleading 10

Table 8 shows that 65 of respondents are in favor that advertisement provides important
details, 125 of respondents are in favor that advertisement creates awareness and 10 of
respondents are in favor that advertisement Misleading.

In your opinion, what role advertisement plays ?

140 125
120
No. of respondents

100
80 65
60
40
20 10
0
Provides Creates Misleading
important details awareness

Fig. 8
61

RECOMMENDATI
ONS
62

Recommendation
Recommendation refers to the outcome of the research work done and the suggestions for

implementation i.e. findings.

1. It is suggested that manufacturer should make all efforts to control cost.

2. New technology should be applied according to the requirement of the customer.

3. Provide various schemes which attract the customers.

4. Spare parts of the bikes should be easily available in the market.

5. Bike should be fuel efficient.

6. Bike should be available in different colours so as to attract two wheeler bikes

consumer..

7. Bike should be given sportier look.


63

Conclusion

It has been seen that the most of the buyers are influenced by the mileage, maintenance

cost, and price at the purchasing of the two wheeler bikes. 120 buyers out of 200 buyers

of bikes says that they are influenced by the mileage , maintenance cost, price and

service availability of the company. And 50 buyers are said that they are influenced by

the stylish look and sporty look of the bikes.

Advertisement is major source of making awareness of two wheeler bikes. But mostly the

influence of reference group in the purchasing decision for two wheeler bikes is the

family and social class. While buying a motorcycle, economy is the main consideration in

form of maintenance cost, fuel efficiency.


64

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Various hindrances occurred while carrying out the research. They have acted as
limitation of the study and a few of them are:-

1. Short time period: The time period for carrying out the research was
short as a result of which many facts have been left unexplored.
2. Small area for research: The area for study was Gorakhpur which is
quite a small area to judge out the consumer preferences for the
various brands of television.

3. Lack of resources: Lack of time and other resources as it was not


possible to conduct survey at large level.

4. Small no. of respondents: Only 200 respondents have been chosen


which is a small number, to represent whole of the population of
Gorakhpur.
5. Unwillingness of respondents: While collection of the data many
consumers were unwilling to fill the questionnaire. Respondents were
having a feeling of wastage of time for them.
6. Confinement of Price: - Price of the bikes is confined only to a particular

period. So the respondents were not able to fill in proper price of their bikes.
65

BIBLIOGRAPHY
66

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Schiffman Leon G. and Kanuk Leslie Lazar Consumer Behaviour
6th edition Published by: Prentice-hall of India Private Limited. ( page no. 2&6)
2. Gupta C.B. and Dr. Nair N. Rajan Marketing
Management 5th edition Published by: Sultan chand & sons (page no. 1.69)
3. Mamoria C.B. and Mamoria Satish Marketing
Management 4th edition Published by: Kitab Mahal (page no. 161)
4. Nair Suja R. Consumer Behaviour
Indian prospective Ist edition Published by: Himalaya Publicating Home ( page no.
3)
5. Bennett Peter D. and Kassarjian Harold Consumer
Behaviour 8th edition Published by: Prentice-hall of India Private Limited.(page no.
5)
6. Kothari C.R Research
Methodology Methods & Techniques 2nd edition Published by: Wishwa
Publication (page no. 151, 94-95)
7. http://www.tvsapache.com/home.aspx
8. http://www.bajajauto.com/pulsar/
9. http://www.honda2wheelersindia.com/unicorn/ride_n_fly/be_a_wing_rider.
asp
10. http://auto.indiamart.com/motorcycles/
11. http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/iw/2004/11/28/stories/200411280042
1500.htm
12. http://www.indiabike.com/infobank/unicorn/index.htm
13. http://www.icmr.icfai.org/casestudies/catalogue/Marketing/MKTG098.htm
67

ANNEXURE
68

Questionnaire
1. Which Brand of bike you own?

2. What is the price of your bike?

3. How long do you own this Bike?


• Less than six month
• Six month
• One year
• Two year
• More than 2 years
4. How fuel efficient your bike is?

5. What is the top speed (km/hs) of your bike?

6. Are you aware about the 150cc bike brands available in the market?
• Fully aware
• Aware
• Less aware
7. Which of the following model/brand of 150cc motorcycle you like the most –
1 2 3
• HONDA (Unicorn) -- -- --
• BAJAJ (Pulsar 150cc) -- -- --
• TVS (Apache) -- -- --
69

8. Which factor influence you more to purchase the bike –


• Brand image
• Fuel efficiency
• Price
• Comfort
• Style
9. How do you grade the following qualities-
• Safety
• Comfort
• Fuel efficiency
• Style
• performance

10. Why did you prefer this model /bike?


1 2 3 4
• Price -- -- -- --
• Mileage -- -- -- --
• After sales service -- -- -- --
• Power -- -- -- --

11. Are you satisfied with its overall performance?


• Fully satisfied
• Satisfied
• Average
• Less satisfied
70

• Poor
13. According to you which company gives the most benefits to customers?
• HONDA
• BAJAJ
• TVS
14.Which type of media influences your purchase behavior?
• T.V
• Newspaper
• Wall painting
• Hording
• Magazine
15. Who influenced you more in your buying decision of bike?
• Self
• Family member
• Friends/relatives
• Mechanics

16. In your opinion, what role advertisement plays?


• Provides Important details
• Creates awareness
• Misleading

Name : ____________________________
Place : ____________________________
Age : ____________________________
71

Annexure 1
Rank 1 Rank 2 Rank 3 Rank 4 Rank 5
Safety
11 13 6 8 6

Comfort 7 11 11 7 5
Fuel
efficiency
10 11 6 5 7
Style
8 5 9 8 11
Performance
5 1 7 10 12

XLSTAT 7.1 - Multidimensional Scaling


(MDS) - 3/14/2007 at 4:06:41 PM Rank 1 Rank 2 Rank 3 Rank 4 Rank 5
Similarity matrix (converted to a dissimilarity matrix):
workbook = Book1 / sheet = Sheet1 /
range = $B$2:$F$6 / 5 rows and 5 columns 11 13 6 8 6
Uniform weighting (default) 7 11 11 7 5
No missing values 10 11 6 5 7
Metric Multidimensional Scaling 8 5 9 8 11
Multidimensional Scaling model: absolute 5 1 7 10 12
Stress used for the results: Kruskal's stress-1
Dimension of the representation space: 2
Repetitions: 10
Seed of the pseudo-random numbers generator: 4145765104
Iterations: 50
Convergence: 0.0001

Space with 2 Dimensions:

Model: Dij= Pij

Observation coordinates:

Observation Dim1 Dim2


Rank 1 -0.649 2.254
Rank 2 -4.633 0.143
Rank 3 -1.495 -0.010
Rank 4 2.140 -0.768
Rank 5 4.637 -1.620
72

Distances measured in the representation space:

Rank 1 Rank 2 Rank 3 Rank 4 Rank 5


Rank 1 0 4.509 2.417 4.112 6.554
Rank 2 4.509 0 3.141 6.833 9.437
Rank 3 2.417 3.141 0 3.713 6.341
Rank 4 4.112 6.833 3.713 0 2.639
Rank 5 6.554 9.437 6.341 2.639 0
Ideal distances calculated using the model (disparities):

Rank 1 Rank 2 Rank 3 Rank 4 Rank 5


Rank 1 0 5.000 2.000 4.000 7.000
Rank 2 5.000 0 1.000 7.000 11.000
Rank 3 2.000 1.000 0 3.000 5.000
Rank 4 4.000 7.000 3.000 0 2.000
Rank 5 7.000 11.000 5.000 2.000 0
Residual distances:

Rank 1 Rank 2 Rank 3 Rank 4 Rank 5


Rank 1 0 -0.491 0.417 0.112 -0.446
Rank 2 -0.491 0 2.141 -0.167 -1.563
Rank 3 0.417 2.141 0 0.713 1.341
Rank 4 0.112 -0.167 0.713 0 0.639
73

Rank 5 -0.446 -1.563 1.341 0.639 0


Comparative table:

Dissimi
Dissimila Distanc larity Disparity
Pair rity Disparity e rank rank
Rank 2 - Rank 3 1.000 1.000 3.141 1 1
Rank 4 - Rank 5 2.000 2.000 2.639 2 2
Rank 1 - Rank 3 2.000 2.000 2.417 2 2
Rank 3 - Rank 4 3.000 3.000 3.713 3 3
Rank 1 - Rank 4 4.000 4.000 4.112 4 4
Rank 3 - Rank 5 5.000 5.000 6.341 5 5
Rank 1 - Rank 2 5.000 5.000 4.509 5 5
Rank 1 - Rank 5 7.000 7.000 6.554 6 6
Rank 2 - Rank 4 7.000 7.000 6.833 6 6
Rank 2 - Rank 5 11.000 11.000 9.437 7 7

Summary of repetitions:

Initial Fin.
Repetition Iterations stress stress
1 26 1.076 0.189
2 23 0.746 0.189
3 16 0.604 0.189
4 26 0.633 0.189
5 14 0.658 0.189
6 22 0.644 0.189
7 26 0.738 0.189
74

8 19 0.660 0.189
9 23 0.551 0.189
10 21 0.683 0.189

Annexure 1
Rank 1 Rank 2 Rank 3 Rank 4
Price 23 14 9 9
Mileage 20 12 17 1
After sales service 6 17 16 12
Power 10 7 5 22

XLSTAT 7.1 - Multidimensional Scaling


(MDS) - 3/14/2007 at 5:23:21 PM Rank 1 Rank 2 Rank 3 Rank 4
Similarity matrix (converted to a dissimilarity
matrix):
workbook = Book1 / sheet = Sheet1 / range = $B$2:
$E$5 /
4 rows and 4 columns 23 14 9 9
Uniform weighting (default) 20 12 17 1
No missing values 6 17 16 12
Metric Multidimensional Scaling 10 7 5 22
Multidimensional Scaling model: absolute
Stress used for the results: Kruskal's stress-1
Dimension of the representation space: 2
Repetitions: 10
Seed of the pseudo-random numbers
generator: 766854828
Iterations: 50
Convergence: 0.0001

Space with 2 Dimensions:


Model: Dij= Pij
Observation coordinates:
Observation Dim1 Dim2
Rank 1 -1.711 5.955
Rank 2 -4.147 0.681
Rank 3 -5.108 -7.816
Rank 4 10.965 1.179
75

Distances measured in the representation space:

Rank
Rank 1 2 Rank 3 Rank 4
Rank 1 0 5.809 14.184 13.546
Rank 2 5.809 0 8.551 15.120
Rank 3 14.184 8.551 0 18.419
15.12
Rank 4 13.546 0 18.419 0

Ideal distances calculated using the model (disparities):

Rank
Rank 1 2 Rank 3 Rank 4
Rank 1 0 3.000 17.000 13.000
Rank 2 3.000 0 6.000 16.000
Rank 3 17.000 6.000 0 18.000
16.00
Rank 4 13.000 0 18.000 0

Residual distances:

Rank
Rank 1 2 Rank 3 Rank 4
Rank 1 0 2.809 -2.816 0.546
Rank 2 2.809 0 2.551 -0.880
Rank 3 -2.816 2.551 0 0.419
Rank 4 0.546 -0.880 0.419 0

Comparative table:

Dispa Dissimila
Pair Dissimilarity rity Distance rity rank
Rank 1 - Rank 2 3.000 3.000 5.809 1
Rank 2 - Rank 3 6.000 6.000 8.551 2
13.00
Rank 1 - Rank 4 13.000 0 13.546 3
16.00
Rank 2 - Rank 4 16.000 0 15.120 4
17.00
Rank 1 - Rank 3 17.000 0 14.184 5
76

18.00
Rank 3 - Rank 4 18.000 0 18.419 6

Summary of repetitions:

Initial Fin.
Repetition Iterations stress stress
1 19 0.992 0.149
2 19 1.510 0.149
3 11 0.682 0.149
4 18 0.699 0.149
5 13 0.492 0.149
6 17 0.504 0.149
7 32 0.302 0.149
8 9 0.426 0.149
9 24 0.279 0.149
10 17 0.530 0.149
77

Chi-square test
Honda TVS BAJAJ f

Price 4 5 23 32

Brand 24 4 14 42

Fuel Efficiency 10 6 18 34

Style 6 12 32 50

Comfort 17 5 20 42

f 61 32 107 200

XLSTAT 7.1 - Tests on Contingency Tables (Chi-square...) - 3/15/2007 at 10:27:52 AM


Data: workbook = Book1 / sheet = Sheet1 / range = $B$2:$D$6 / 5 rows and 3 columns

Independence tests between the rows and columns in the contingency table:

Chi-square test:

Chi-square (observed value) 30.286


Chi-square (critical value) 15.507
DF 8
One-tailed p-value 0.000
Alpha 0.05

Decision:
At the level of significance Alpha=0.050 the decision is to reject the
null hypothesis of independence between the rows and the columns.
78

In other words, the dependence between the rows and the columns is significant.

Chi-square likelihood ratio test (Wilks' G²):

Wilks' G² (observed value) 31.031


Wilks' G² (critical value) 15.507
DF 8
One-tailed p-value 0.000
Alpha 0.05

Decision:
At the level of significance Alpha=0.050 the decision is to
reject the null hypothesis of independence between the rows and the columns.
In other words, the dependence between the rows and the columns is significant.

Table of the statistics testing the independence rows/columns:

Value DF p-value
Chi-square 30.286 8 0.000
Wilks' G² 31.031 8 0.000

Table of the coefficients:

Coefficient Value
Pearson's Phi 0.389
Cramer's V 0.275
Tschuprow's T 0.231
Contingency coefficient 0.363
Theil's U (R|C) 0.049
Theil's U (C|R) 0.078
Averaged Theil's U 0.060
Goodman and Kruskal tau (R|C) 0.040
Goodman and Kruskal tau (C|R) 0.086
Averaged Goodman and Kruskal tau 0.063