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M. S. Troitsky

Department of Civil Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada

{Received January 1981; revised October 1981)

This paper discusses the structural analysis and design of tubular conveyor

gallaries, used in industry for supporting and housing of conveyors

handling bulk materials. The design of such galleries has not so far been

treated in detail in the literature.

The loads and forces acting on the gallery are established and the

structural behaviour of the gallery has been analysed in detail. The

expression for stresses in the gallery under vertical and horizontal loading

or their combinations are shown. Also, local and overall buckling stability

requirements are established. The design of intermediate stiffening rings,

as well as ring girders, considering vertical and saddle-type supports are

treated.

supports must be provided to carry the gallery between its

The purpose of this paper is to outline the structural junctions with the plant. Two types of gallery supports,

analysis and design of tubular conveyor galleries, which both fabricated of steel pipe, are used. The first type of

relatively recently have found an application in industry. 1-3 support is the inverted V-bent, (Figure 2a) and is capable of

They are used for the support and housing of conveyor taking both the horizontal and vertical loads. The second

handling bulk materials. type of support is a single pipe post (Figure 2b), taking

Tubular types offer the following advantages: vertical loads only.

(a) They act as structural members in carrying the The latest proposal is to house the conveyor in an

conveyors and workways, and protecting them from adverse elliptically-shaped tube of light-weight, high-strength steel,

weather. supported by an A-frame, Figure 3.

(b) Their tubular cross-section has an aerodynamically

superior shape against wind action.

(c) The tubular section provides an equal resistance to

both the horizontal and vertical loads. Convey

(d) The circular tube is an ideal section for resistance to

/

torsional stresses imposed by eccentrically located loads.

These conditions are best fulfilled by a welded tubular

conveyor gallery, shown in cross-section in Figure 1.

The tubes are approximately 8 ft 6 in to 10 ft in

diameter, depending on the size of conveyor that they

house.

It should be noted that the range of wall thicknesses \ \ I ,r ~ .g I Walkway

encountered in practice in the design of a tubular conveyor

galley depends on the following factors: accepted diameter

of the tube, span, conveyor installations, weight of the

Re]~r~'n / , ' ~'~ " /

the structure. In addition, external loadings such as the

intensity of the wind or earthquake forces influence the

design of the tube. As experience indicates, the most :' " Cooc,e,e

common thicknesses of tube walls may vary within the sluice w a y

range of ~ in to ½in. t'igure 1 Tubular conveyorgallery

0141/0296/82/02119-10/$03.00

© 1982 Butterworth & Co. (Publishers) Ltd Eng. Struet., 1982, Vol. 4, April 119

Tubular co#veyor galleries: M. S. Troitsky

qe = belts + idlers + pulleys + drive + switches

+ wiring + other, lb/ft (2)

Weight o f walkway:

qp = checkered plate + grating + stringer

+ posts, lb/ft (3)

qs = weight of concrete sluiceway, shown in

Figure 1, lb/ft (4)

Live loads

Live load due to material on belt."

qt.t, lb/ft (5)

No allowance is made for the impact due to the bounc-

ing of lumps as they wave along the belt.

ql.w, lb/ft (6)

1 I

Normally, it is taken at 100 lb/ft 2 locally, but 25 lb/ft 2

Figure 2 Types of supports (a), inverted V bent support, (b), single

post support for the span.

The advantages of the V-bent and single post support

qi+s, lb/ft (7)

structures for conveyor galleries include the following:

(a) The supports constitute a minimum of obstruction to Belt pull during starting, stopping or running."

plant operations. P, lb (longitudinal force) (8)

(b) The heavy pipe sections used are less vulnerable to

damage by mobile equipment than are the supports with Longitudinal forces

bracing of the conventional type. Sometimes, the head pulley of the conveyor is located

(c) Less frequent painting maintenance is required for the within the gallery, usually at one end, the highest of an

supports. inclined gallery. As a result, a longitudinal compressive

force, originated by the head pulley of the conveyor, has

to be resisted by the tube, and transmitted from one end

Fabrication

Nearly all of the steel is shop-welded and field-bolted,

using high strength bolts. Normally, the structures are

shop-assembled into the largest pieces which can be eco-

nomically shipped and handled in the field. The tubes are

fabricated in up to 60 ft sections, which can be transported

by rail to the plant site for erection. All the conveyor

components are assembled inside the tube before erection.

Structural grade steels, ASTM A-36 are used for most of

F. t

the work, although ASTM A-242 may be used for corrosion

resistance and alloy steels for reduction in dead weight.

Vertical loads a n d f o r c e s

Loading conditions vary, depending on the project, but the

following may be considered:

Dead loads

Own weight o f tubular structure:

nWst

qt = zrDitPs+ lb/ft (1)

l

where: Di, inside diameter of tube, ft; t, thickness of wall,

ft; ps, unit weight of steel shell, lb/ft3;n, number of

stiffeners in span; Wst, weight of one stiffener, lb and l,

span between bents or supports, ft. Figure 3 Elliptical tube for conveyor gallery

Tubular conveyor galleries." M. S. Troitsky

and single posts have to resist in flexure, as a continuous

beam of hollow circular cross-section over multiple

supports. In addition to flexure, the vertical loads usually

cause uniformly distributed torsional moments.

The resultant of the vertical loads in a typical cross-

-I- -F -I section of the gallery does not usually coincide with the

centre of the tube in creating a torsional moment, but the

Single post

2

I n v e r t e d V- b e n t

tubular section is the ideal section to resist torque.

In the following analysis we consider the general arrange-

ment of the conveyor gallery, as shown in Figure 4.

The statical values, due to the effect of a vertical

uniformly distributed load on a continuous structure, are

Figure 4 General arrangement of conveyor gallery shown in Figure 5.

of the gallery to the other, which is held by braced bent

against longitudinal displacement. The unsupported length My considering a multispan structure, Figure 5, under

of the tube is 2l, since the single posts are considered as a uniformly-distributed load qv is:

having zero flexural regidity. This compressive longitudinal My 4M~

force at one end of the conveyor gallery is usually eccentric, Max o v - - psi (10)

with respect to the centre of the tube. As a result, we have S ltD,(t--c)

two moments, one vertical and one horizontal, at this end where: S, section modulus of tube, in3; Di, internal

of the gallery. diameter, in; t, thickness of wall, in and; c, corrosion

allowance, in.

Temperature effect

Due to the temperature changes, the inverted V-bents

and single posts, being flexible structures, allow the tube Shearing stress due to internal torque MT. Due to the

to expand freely. asymmetric arrangement of the equipment inside the tube,

A factor that must be taken into consideration in there will originate an internal torsional moment (see

designing long-span tubular galleries, is the effect of the Figure 6).

sun's heat on the tube, one side of which may be in full With reference to Figure 6, internal torsional moment

sun, while the other side is in full shade, with the conse- is:

quent distortion of the tube to a degree where it may affect MT = R e = ZPe lb in (11)

the conveyor operation.

where: Px and P2 are the loads due to the conveyor installa-

Structural behaviour tion, material on the belt and sidewalk; e is the eccentricity

Stresses under vertical loads. Vertical loads generally of the resulting load, in and:

include the following components: MTDi 2MT

qv=qt+qc+qp+qs-Fql.l+ql.w+qi+s lb/ft (9) "/'max - - 2~p-p- lrO~(t - - c i psi (12)

Vertical loads are the most important, because they prevail where: lp, is the polar moment of inertia of the tube, in 4.

in magnitude and frequency of occurrence. They are uni- An internal torsional moment action on the tube may be

formly distributed along the length of the gallery. transferred only to inverted V-bents spaced at spans of 2l,

1 IIIIIII1~111111~

Jv .o o7oq/~ - 0 124q12 0 625q1 ~ 1 25gl

0 625q/

/ _1_ / _j

I- -] ]

A A A A 0 600 ql

I / _1 / _L_ / _1

r-- -I- -I - I

,/qv

3 AI I I I I I I IAI I I I I I I I I A

I I I I I I I I IAI I I I I 1 ~ , *00773ql2 -O 107q/2 0 536ql ~ 1 143q1

0 607q/

-i -I- _7_

qv

4

A

IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIl

/',

111111~111111111111111111

,", /', A /',

.0 0789q/e -0 105q/~ 0526q1 ~

0 605q/

1 151ql

I_ / _1_ / I_ l _t_ / _t_ / .I

F I -I- -F - [ i

Tubular conveyor galleries." M. S. Troitsky

w = qwDo lb/ft (16)

where: Do is the outside diameter of the tube.

The intermediate posts, due to their flexibility cannot

provide rigid support in a lateral direction. Therefore,

P1 continuous tubular structures have spans of 21 between the

inverted V-bents, as shown in Figure 7.

After determining the maximum bending moment due

\ / to the wind, Mw, the stress in the tube wall is:

Mw 4Mw

Ow - - (17)

S nD~ (t -- c)

J Local wind action. By indicating the intensity of the

i

horizontal wind pressure as qw, the distribution of wind

pressure around the tube is presented in Figure 8.

Due to the local wind action, the bending moment Mw;

and normal force Nwb acting on the tube, are calculated

by the formulae developed by Krupka. 6

The bending moment acting on the tube in the interval:

is:

Figure6 EquipmentloadsproducingtorsionalmomentMT

Mwt = qwR2m(- 0.101 + 0.707 sinq5 - 1.362 c a s e

-- 0.225 ¢ sin 0) lb i n (]8)

The maximum value is at ¢ = n, or:

,ll,~------_--~

V bent

............-- -----&l|~ybent-- ~ l w max Mw; = 0.261 q w R ~ (]9)

The normal force acting in the wall of the tube in the

///1//////////////////////// /if//////// interval:

is:

because single posts due to their flexibility cannot provide Nwl = q w R m ( - 0.700 -- 0.921 cos~ + 0.707 sinq5

the necessary rigidity.

-- 0.225 0 sinq~) lb (20)

Principal stresses due to normal and shear stresses At ¢ = n, the value of this force is:

The stress due to the shearing force is usually only of

Nwl = 0.212 qwRm lb (21)

secondary importance. Its maximum value occurs at the

neutral axis where the normal stress due to bending is zero. The maximum stress in the wall of the tube under local

Therefore, the maximum combined stress usually occurs at wind action is:

the point where normal and shearing stresses due to torque

are a maximum. In the case under consideration - at the tel:

and bottom surfaces o f the tube the principal stresses qw

due to the combination of normal and shear stresses are :4

OV+I f~

O m a x . . . . .,-) gN/O v + 4~-2 (13) ©• qw~

Substituting in this equation the values from equations

(10) and (12), we obtain:

/ 0 3qw

1 W~nd

Omax -- (Mv + x / ( M v 2 + M } ) psi (14)

2S

Wind acting on structure. The wind forces should be

determined according to the National Building Code.S

The horizontal wind force is:

qw = qCcCgCp lb/ft 2 (15)

where: q, wind pressure, lb/ft2; C~, exposure factor and Figure8 Distributionof horizontalwindpressure

Tubular conveyor galleries: M. S. Troitsky

max Owl -- - - + psi (22)

t2 t

ness of tube wall, in.

should be designed to withstand earthquake forces. The

seismic action should be considered according to the /

National Building Code r (Figure 9).

The lateral earthquake force acting on the top of the

tube is: Ve H

or:

F t = 0.15 V kips (24) if'l/i/I/i/////////// / // / / I iiii/

I__ 2(R*e)

whichever value is greater.

The minimum lateral seismic force, V, is: Direction of eerthquake

Acceleration

V = ASKIFW kips (25) Figure 10 Ring-girder under earthquake forces

where:

h t = height of force Ft above base, ft The additional lateral forces acting on the structure are:

D = diameter of tube, ft

A = acceleration ratio, or ratio of specific ground ( V -- Ft) Wth ,

acceleration to acceleration due to gravity F1 = (26)

[Wth, + (Wt + Ws)h2 ]

0.5 ( V - - F t ) (Wt + Ws) h2

S 3x/'T seismic response factor F2 = (27)

[Wth, + (Wt + Ws) h21

0.05 h t where:

T - m - fundamental period of vibration of structure

x/~ in seconds Wt = dead weight of tube, including conveyor installations

and material on belt, kips

K = structural coefficient that reflects material and type of

Ws = dead weight of supports, kips

structure, damping, ductility and/or energy-absorption

h 1 = height of force F l above base, ft

capacity of structure

h2 = height of force F 2 above base, ft

I = importance factor of structure

F = foundation factor depending on type and depth of soil The tubular gallery is usually stiffened above its supports

measured from fundament by the ring-girder. According to Foster, 8 the ring-girder is

W = operating weight of structure of combined dead load subjected to the bending moment and normal force, see

of tube (including conveyor installations in tube and Figure ! O.

material on belt) and weight of supports, kips The expression of the bending moment is:

yS"

--- 1 + - (28)

Ma 4rr R +e

Na_ Q e [ L 1 H1[ ]

(29)

n LR 4 4(R+e)

where:

Qe total horizontal reaction of tube support, trans-

=

R = external radius of tube, in

Fx r = internal radius of tube, in

H = height of support, in

e = eccentricity of vertical reaction, in

g 1J Under the action of the head pulley inside the gallery,

the tube is under the action of axial compression and

g biaxial flexure due to internal moments acting on the

Figure 9 Earthquake action vertical and horizontal planes, see Figure 11.

Tubular conveyor galleries: 114.S. Troitsky

Local buckfing or wrinkling

Local buckling is the governing consideration in tire

design of tubular galleries of moderate length. Failure of

Pul P this type is due to the formation of characteristic wrinkles

or bulges, circular or lobed in shape. Wrinkling is local in

nature and depends on the combined compressive stress

which occurs at a point of the dangerously loaded cross-

section and has to be smaller than the allowable buckling

eV

stress.

_ __ I In designing thin-walled tubular structures, two con-

siderations are of importance. First, the local buckling

should be prevented at stresses below yield strength;

secondly, a more severe restriction is that the tendency to

buckle locally should not reduce the overall buckling load

of the whole structure.

The allowable buckling stresses which will be presented

below, are for elastic buckling and tubes with simply sup-

ported edges. The edge of a tube is assumed to be simply

supported if at the edge the radial and circumferential

Figure 1 1 Biaxial moments displacements are zero and there is no restraint against

translation or rotation in the axial direction.

as an axial force along the continuous gallery. Compressive The critical buckling stress under axial compression given

action is used for 2l spans, between the inverted V-bents. by Plantema 1° is:

The moment My = Per acts on the continuous tube,

having multiple spans l, and a horizontal moment MH = 662

Ocr = - - + 0.399 Fy ksi (34)

Pert acts upon the continuous tube having multiple spans D/t

21, see Figure 12.

where: by = 36 ksi, the yield point for steel and tile ratio

D/t is valid for:

----<-- < - - (35)

@ t Fy

General data

A thin-walled tube subjected to compression in the Wilson and Newmark give: al

direction of its longitudinal axis may fail, either by the 8000

instability of the tube as a whole, involving the bending of Oer -- ksi (36)

the axis, or by the local instability of the wall of the tube, D/t

which may not involve the lateral distortion of the axis, or, by assuming a factor of safety of 1.5:1=

at all.

We can classify a tube under axial load into three 5333

categories: 9 Oer - ksi (37)

D/t

Very short tube." a

~2E(t3/12) ~-tI[tlilIIIIIII[[II[IIIIIII]II]II[[IILI[IIII]~I~E[?

1 < 1.72x/Rt, %r- (3o) A

( 1 - - u 2) l

~_ 2, j~. 2, -4

Intermediate length tube:

172 X / ~ ~< 1 ~< 2 . 8 5 x / ~ t b

U U

Et 2 E't

(31)

Ncr--Rx/~(I__v2 )' °cr-R~/3(l_v= )

/ / 4- "

M v : Pe v

Long tube:

L~t( TrRI2 c

l > 2.85x/R~, N~. = ~ t T - / (32)

or / 2/ ~]

zr2EI M,, : Pe,

Per = 21rRNer - (33)

12 Figure 12 Axial force and resulting bending moments. (a), longi-

tudinal force; (b), vertical bending moment; (c), horizontal bending

which is the Euler formula. moment

Tubular conveyor galleries: M. S. Troitsky

O9 - L axially-loaded tubes. A comparison of the axial compression

>-

0.8 and the pure-bending test results show exactly the same

-0.7 decrease of axial load P with an increase of the ratio R / t ,

~0.6 as shown by the axially-loaded tubes.

~o5 The influence of the initial imperfections in a tube,

~_o4 considering bending, should not be as great as the axial com-

~o3 pression. However, during the bending of the tubes a

~o2 certain flattening of the cross-section occurs, which leads

L)

Ol to an increase of maximum stress.

I I I I llill I I I I LIIII t I [ IIIII The design-allowable buckling stress for a thin-walled

C 2 3 4 ~67B9 2 ? 4 [ 6788 2 3 4 t 6789

10 2 10 3 10 4 circular tube subjected to bending, as given by Baker, is:

R/t

Figure 13 Correlation factor for unstiffened circular cylinders Ocr = 0 . 6 7 , E ( t / R ) psi (41)

subjected to axial compression

where: T1 = correlation factor obtained from Figure 15.

For elastic stresses, the allowable moment is:

30

Ocr = 6 6 2 _ O 3 9 9 F ~ ( R e c o m m e n d e d

Mcr = 7rR2tOcr = 0.6 %ETrRt 2 (42)

D/t ~ AISi f o r m u l a )

Ovalling effect under bending

25 During the bending of the tube a certain flattening of

the cross-section may occur which leads to an ovalling of

I ~ \ /Ocr = 8000 (W,lson- Newmork) the cross-section and consequently, to an increase of the

2C

iX \ o/, stress. This problem was investigated by Brazier and is

c_ t \ ~ \ o-. = 5333 (Recommended) known as the 'Brazier effect' 14 (see Figure 16).

Brazier proved that the ovalling of the tube results in

[_ the substantial reduction of the tube stiffness and conse-

~ 15 quently leads to a loss of stability. According to his theory,

the critical bending moment is:

[]

2X/~ E~rRm t 2

lO Mcr - 9 , -~ - Ib in (43)

09

o8

0 I I I I I I t I [ I oo6

200 400 600 8OO 1 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 1 4 0 0 1 6 0 0 18OO 2000

92 361

D/t

Figure 14 Recommended allowable buckling stresses

t

Ocr--YCbL ~- C'b=~-3(1~

Oct = 0.6 7 E ( t / R ) ksi (38) 0

I I 1 [ II III I I l I I Ill] I I

is valid for moderately long tubes, where: 10 102 103

R/t

lr 2

Figure 15 Correlation factor for unstiffened circular tube subjected

7Z > - - (39) to bending

and

l 2

Z = - - X/1 -- p2 (40)

Rt

7 = correlation factor obtained from Figure 13

E = modulus of elasticity, ksi

l = span of tube, ft

l/lllllllll/I//llllllllllllll/ll/l' 111///////

t -- thickness of tube wall, ft

(

The recommended allowable buckling stresses in the

function o f D / t are shown in Figure 14.

Bending

Buckling tests on tubes similar to those tested in axial

compression indicate that buckling occurred over the com-

pression side of the tube in the same wave form, with Figure 16 Brazier effect

Tubular conveyor galleries: 114,S. Troitsky

T: h2.- \ located inside the tube and serve a dual structural purpose,

namely: (1) To maintain the cross-section of the tube

circular, and thus to allow the tube to act as a beam. (2)

To receive the posts and bangers, which support at equal

i intervals the idlers of the conveyor and stringers of the

(, 5,q i walkway.

According to Rumman, 16 the bending moment of the

ring stiffener is:

~

f) 52i ~ v'ohd for

,7 > 1C:0 for simply supported M R -- (50)

',%S. ~ edges 4Err 2R ~ t

Z > ~'OC' for dcmped edges

and the normal (axial) force in the stiffener is:

M2

4{, AIR -- - 2 4 kips (51 )

Err Rmt

';44 I I I

!(,() ~ 2(O6) 300c; 4000

R/t

where: M, bending moment, kip-R; s, spacing of stiffeners,

Figure 17 Buckling stress coefficient Cs f o r c i r c u l a r tubes subjected ft; R m , middle radius of tube, ft and t, thickness of walt of

to torsion tube, ft.

oe~ = 0.33 E ( t / R ~ ) psi (44) Rigid ring girders provide an effective support for the

where: E, modulus of elasticity, psi; t, thickness of wall, in; tubular structure. These girders prevent the distortion of

and R m , middle radius of tube, in. the tube at the supports and thus maintain its ability to

Therefore, considering the ovalling deformation of the act as a beam.

tube, the following condition should be satisfied: Usually ring girders are located outside of the tube and

consist of one or two stiffening rings continuously welded

Mcr<~ 0.33 E ( t / R m ) psi (45) on to the tube. A design for the ring girder construction,

S based on elastic theory, was developed by Krupka. a7

cross-section may be distorted, considering the ovalling

The tube transmits to the ring a concentrated vertical

effect under bending. According to the Brazier effect, the

road Q, which is the reaction of a tube acting generally as a

loss of stability or distortion of the tube may occur if: continuous beam. In the case of two vertical supports,

R 0.33 E S heaving reactions Q/2 and acting on the ring girder with the

~> (46) moments and normal (axial) forces along the circumference

t Mc~ of the ring girder, see Figure 18.

Buckling shear stress due to torsion

The design-allowable buckling stress for tubes of

moderate length 100 -<.Z < 7 8 ( R / t ) 2 ( l -- u 2) subjected

to torsion is given by: is

Et

r,.~ = C s R Z 1 m (47)

allowable buckling stress is:

where:

12

e = - - X/i -- u z (49)

Rt

and the coefficient Cs is given in Figure 1 Z

To prevent possible ovaUing of the tube along the length

of a tubular gallery at equal intervals, intermediate

circumferential stiffening rings are installed. They consist

i i

of flat plates, angles or T-sections continuously welded

onto the inside surface of the tube. These rings are usually Figure 18 R i n g g i r d e r having t w o vertical s u p p o r t s

Tubular conveyor galleries: M. S. Troitsky

Table 2 V a l u e s o f m o m e n t s and n o r m a l f o r c e s

We consider two cases, namely:

0o ~o Mma x N

eo Nma x M

Bending moment and normal force for any section below

support in interval 0 <~4) <<-O: 45 ° 80 ° 0.079QR -0.309Q 45 ° -0.412Q 0.012QR

90 ° 90 ° - - 0 . 0 4 7 QR -0.250Q 0° -0.477Q 0.043

- 21r R R-2

+ [4t sin20 --½ 0 + (0 --rr) sin20] cosy

+ siny] (52) + (0 -- Y -- ½ sin 20) r r s i n y + A l [ l +½cosy

+ (y -- 7r) sin y]} (56)

Q [ysiny- (1.5 ~ ) cosy] (53)

and

Bending moment and normal force for any section above

N3 = ~ {[¼ s i n 2 0 - 3 0 + (0 --rr) sin20] cosy

support for 0 <~0 <- rr: 27rA1

M2 = QR [o -a + cos0 + [1 + a2~ cosy + (0 -- Y + sin 20) 7r sin Y + A 1 [(y -- 7/') sin y

2rr I_ R \2 R-2]

_ =acos Yl} (57)

+ (y --rr) siny] (54) Bending moment and nothia'i force for any section above

support for 0 <<.y <~rr:

2°- 0.' cos0] M4 = O R {2 sin0 --0 --1 sin 20 + (0 sin20

where: Q is the reaction at support due to total operating 2rrA1

weight of tube, which consists of dead load of tube, con- 0 + ~ sin 20) cos y + A 1 [1 + ~ cos y

veyor installations in tube and material on belt, kips.

The combination for the simultaneous action of the + (y -- rr) sin y]} (58)

maximum moment, Mmax, and the corresponding normal also see Table 2.

force, N, and also the maximum value of the normal

force, Nmax and the corresponding moment, M, for the QR

typical values of the angle 0, are shown in Table 1. N4 = 2rrA~ {(0 sin 2 0 + 41-sin 20 -- ½) cos y

In a case when the tube is supported by the saddle, see where:

Figure 19, the bending moments and the normal forces in

the ring girder are calculated, using the following formulae A1 = 0 + sin0 cos0 (60)

developed by Krupka: 17 The combinations of the simultaneous actions of the

Bending moment and normal force for any section below moments and normal forces are shown in Table 2.

support in interval 0 <~0 <~O: For both types of supports, either vertical or in the

shape of the saddle, the maximum stress in the ring girder

should be calculated using the formula:

Ma = Q R {(2 sin0 - ½ sin 20 - 0)

27rA1 M N

f----- +-- (61)

W A

where: W is the section modulus of cross-section of ring

girder and A is the cross-sectional area of ring girder.

References

1 Mylar, D. T. 'Belt conveyor structures', paper presented at

SME Meeting, Seattle, Wash., Preprint No. 71-B-302,

September 1971

2 Troitsky, M. S. 'Design guidelines for steel tubular thin-walled

structure', 4th Progress Report, CSICC Project No. 727,

i i

January 1974

Figure 19 Saddle s u p p o r t 3 Troitsky, M. S. 'On the analysis of tubular conveyor galleries',

Proc. Canadian Soc. for Or. Eng. Conf., 7-8 June, 1979,

Montreal, pp. 335-340

Table I V a l u e s o f m o m e n t s and n o r m a l forces 4 Timoshenko, S. 'Strength of materials', Part I, D. Van

Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1957, p. 264

0° q5° Mma x N q~o Nrna x M 5 National Building Code of Canada. Issued by the National

Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, 1980, p. 145

45 ° 90 ° --0.049QR --0.250Q 50 ° --0.378Q 0.026QR 6 Krupka, V. 'Analysis of cylindrical thin-waUed metal pipeline

90 ° 70 ° 0.014QR 0.155Q 90 ° -+0.250Q 0 structures', Prague, Edition SNTL, 1967 (in Czechoslovakian),

p. 32

Tubular conveyor galleries: M. S. Troitsky

7 National Building Code of Canada. Issued by the National qi ~s load due to ice and snow

Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, 1980, p. 147 qll weight of material on belt

8 Foster, H. A. 'Formulas indicate earthquake forces in design of live load on walkway

ring-girder-supported pipes', Cir. Eng., 1949,19, 45 qlw

9 McGuire, W. 'Steel structures', Prentice-Hall, Englewood qt own weight of tube

Cliffs, N.J. 1968, pp. 415-418 q; weight of walkway

10 Plantema, F. J. 'Collapsing stresses of circular cylinders and G weight of support of tube

round tubes', Rep. S.280, Nat. Luchtvaart-Laboratorium, w, weight of tube, including installations

Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1946

11 Wilson, W. M. and Newmark, N. M. 'The strength of thin and material on belt

cylindrical shells as columns', Bull. 255, University of Illinois, weight of stiffener

February 1933 V base shear

12 Troitsky, M. S. 'On the local and overall stability of thin- Ps unit weight of steel

walled large diameter tubular structures', Proc. Canadian bending moment acting on ring-girder

Struct. Eng. Conf , Montreal, February 22-24, 1976, pp. 1-32

13 Baker, E. H. et al., 'Structural analysis of shells', McGraw-Hill, Mcr bending moment due to Brazier effect

New York, 1972, p. 230 bending moment on ring stiffener

14 Brazier, E. G. 'On the flexure of thin cylindrical shells and My torsional moment

other "thin" sections', Proc. Roy. Soc. London. Ser. A., g~ bending moment due to vertical load acting o11

1927, 114,104

15 Baker, E. It. et al., 'Structural analysis of shells', McGraw-Hill, continuous tubes

New York, 1972, p. 232 Mw bending moment due to wind load, acting on

16 Rumman, W. S. 'Stresses in ring stiffeners in cylinders',Proc. continuous tubes

ASCE, J. Struct. Div. Proc., December, 1961,87,161 Mwt bending moment acting on tube under local

17 Krupka, V. 'Analysis of cylindrical thin-walled metal pipeline wind

structures', Prague, Edition SNTL, 1967 (in Czechoslovakian),

pp. 39-40, 47-48 M~,M2 bending moments, acting on ring girder, having

vertical supports

M3, M4 bending moments, acting on ring girder, having

saddle support

Nomenclature ring-girder normal force

G

Di internal diameter of tube X~r critical axial buckling force

Do external diameter of tube X~ normal force in ring stiffener

R external radius of tube normal force in tube wall under the local wind

Rm middle radius of tube action

C corrosion allowance normal forces in ring stiffener, having vertical

C eccentricity supports

ht, hl, hz heights of earthquake forces above base N3, N4 normal forces in ring stiffener, having saddle

l span between supports support

r internal radius of tube Ocr critical buckling stress under axial load

s spacing o f stiffeners O'ma x principal stress due to combination of normal

t thickness of tube wall and shear stresses

A cross-sectional area o f ring-girder 0-7) bending stress in tube under vertical load

polar moment of inertia of cross-sectional area of OW bending stress in tube under wind load

tube Owl stress in tube under local action of wind load

S section modulus o f cross-sectional area of tube f maximum bending stress in ring-girder

W section modulus o f cross-sectional area of ring "refit critical buckling stress under torsion

girder Trnax maximum shear stress due to torsional moment

&,F,,& horizontal earthquake forces E modulus of elasticity of steel

P longitudinal force G coefficient in formula for torsion

qc weight of mechanical components and equip- P Poisson's ratio for steel

ment 7 correlation factor for axial stress

qs weight of concrete sluiceway ")'1 correlation factor for bending stress

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