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1. INTRODUCTION

The Terminal automation system handles the loading and


unloading of oil products, LPG, petrochemicals and asphalt. Its functionality comprises all
necessary monitoring and control functions for terminal operations. The terminal
automation system executes the movement control function with ease and efficiency, and
monitors the quantities transferred to ensure accurate control, annunciating alarms as
necessary in response to inadvertent operation or equipment malfunction. Control platforms
can be variably selected to meet the user¶s needs.
At present the Truck loading system consists of a micro processor based
Coriolis Mass Flow Meter is used for Flow Measurement, Brooks make Petrocount IMS
unit is used for batch counting and Ball Valve is used for starting and stopping the filling.

The quantity to be filled in each tanker, tanker details, supplier


etc. Are entered in the Computer and a Loading Slip is generated. The Loading Slip will
have a Serial Number and Truck Number. These are to be entered in the Petrocount Unit.
Then the required filling data will be dumped to it from Computer. After positioning the
Tanker and providing earthing of the tanker, filling can be started from the Petrocount.
When the correct quantity is filled the filling valve is automatically stopped. Then an
Outgoing Slip can be generated in the Computer. The complete data base of the filling data
is automatically stored in the Computer. Consolidated data of daily filling, weekly and
monthly filling can be taken. Using this system overfilling, overflow etc. are prevented.

Our projects aim to replace the application of the


batch processors and PC from the existing Terminal automation system and try to introduce
the Distributed Control System (DCS) for controlling the entire Truck terminal automation
system. The process control industry considers the DCS to be the most dominant form of
control system for industrial process control. DCS helped to improve the productivity
flexibility, advanced control, redundancy, optimization, quick start up and less maintenance
on the Instrumentation. We are planning to use Yokogawa's DCS CENTUM - CS 3000.

 
 
 


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2. COMPANY PROFILE

Hindustan Organic Chemicals Ltd. (HOCL), a Govt of India Enterprise


incorporated in the year 1960 set up its plant in Rasyani, Maharashtra state for the
manufacture of bulk basic Organic Chemicals. HOCL set up its second unit at
Ambalamugal, Kochi in 1983 for the manufacture of Phenol and Acetone based on the
technology of universal oil products (UOP), USA. As part of diversification, HOCL Kochi
installed Hydrogen peroxide plant using technology of UDHE, West Germany at the same
site in 1966 HOCL has got subsidiary unit at Medak (Hyderabad) for the manufacture of
poly Tetra Ethylene (PTFE).

HOCL, Ambalamugal is situated in the Eranakulam district,


KunnathunadTaluk of Kerala state. The factory has a total area of 100 acres out of which 70
acres is occupied by the plant building, road etc. and 30 acres is free land. Their works is
situated on Tripunithura to Karimugal road and is adjacent to Kochi Refineries Ltd. The
factory is located about 7km from Tripunithura.

HOCL, Kochi unit bagged the best productivity award instituted by the
Kerala state Productivity council for major industries during the year 1989-90,1990-
91,1991-92,1994-95,1996-97,1997-98 and 2000-01. HOCL, Kochi unit was adjudged best
in outstanding performance in Industrial safety by safety council for the four consecutive
years from 1988 to 1990 and consecutive years from 1993 to 2003 and got Kerala state
pollution control award in 1988-89, 1996 and 1997.

ISO 9002:1994 certification was done by bureau verities quality


International (BVQI) in the year 1996. Recertification of ISO 9001:2000 was done in 1999
based on ISO 9002 foundation on quality management system of ISO 14001 and received
the Certification from BVQI in the year 1999.

 
 
 


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 . ABOUT HOCL

 .1 PHENOL PLANT

This unit is based on UOP¶s CUMOX process, which is a commercially


established cumene peroxide oxidation process for the economic and efficient production of
phenol and acetone.

 .2 HYDROGEN PEROXIDE PLANT

The Hydrogen peroxide generated is extracted from the working solution using the
decimalized water. The working solution is recycled back to the hydrogenator and the above
mentioned reactions are carried out repeatedly.

The weak hydrogen peroxide (35% concentration) is subject to vacuum distillation to


increase the strength to 50% or 70% as per the requirement. A small portion of working
solution prior to hydrogenation is subject to the chemical treatment to remove or control the
accumulation of side reacted products. The process flow diagram for the hydrogen peroxide
plant is enclosed.

 .  UTILITY SECTION

The phenol and hydrogen peroxide plants provide with these systems.

Ë? Solvent recovery unit


Ë? Steam system
Ë? Cooling water system
Ë? General utility system ( nitrogen, electricity, process water etc)
Ë? Hydrogen plant 1&2

 
 
 


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Ë? Tankage system
Ë? Captive power plant for power
Ë? Refrigerated water for phenol plant
Ë? Tempered cooling water for phenol plant
Ë? Hot oil system for phenol plant

 .4 EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT

The effluent from different plants is collected in equalization


tanks. The combined effluent is then treated physically, chemically and biological methods.
The treated effluent conforming to the norms specified by Kerala state pollution control
board is only let out from the factory.

 .5 RAW MATERIALS

¦? Benzene
¦? Liquid petroleum gas (LPG)

 
 
  


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4. PRODUCTS IN HINDUSTAN ORGANIC CHEMICALS

4.1PHENOL

Phenol is a versatile industrial organic chemical. The largest end use of phenol is
in phenol formaldehyde resin in wood additives as well as molding and laminating resins,
paints, varnishes and enamels.

Phenol is also used in the manufacture of preservatives,


disinfectants, lubricating oils, herbicides insecticides, pharmaceuticals etc.

4.2 ACETONE

Acetone is an important commercial solvent and raw material with


wide range in the chemical explosives and lacquer industry. It is commonly used as
absolvent for cellulose, acetone, nitrocellulose, celluloid, cellulose ether, chlorinated rubber,
various resins, facts and oils and absorbent for acetylene gas.

4.  HYDROGEN PEROXIDE 50%W/W

Hydrogen peroxide 50%w/w is an eco-friendly chemical product


from HOCL Kochi unit with wide application in paper and textile industries for bleaching
purpose as a substitute for hazardous chlorine. It is also used in electronics and
metallurgical industries, effluent treatment plants, sewage treatment and removal of toxic
pollutants from industrial gas returns.

 
 
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5. PROCESS DESCRIPTION

Phenol complex consists of the following units:

Ë? Phenol plant
Ë? Hydrogen peroxides plant

5.1 PHENOL PLANT

The phenol plant consists of the following units:

¦? Propylene recovery unit


¦? Cumene unit
¦? Cumox unit

Brief description of each unit is given below

5.1.1 PROPYLENE RECOVERY UNIT

The process scheme consists of two fractionation columns with the


auxiliaries and equipment for the removal of carbonyl sulphide (COS) as H2S from the
hydrocarbon. The first fractionators act as C3-C4 splitter producing 75% of propylene as
top product. The second fractionators act as C3-C3 splitter producing 95% of propylene as
top product. The propylene from C-C4 slitter is treated in caustic/MEA and water washing
system to remove the sculpture.

5.1.2 CUMENE UNIT

The overall process flow scheme consists of combining benzene with


propane propylene mixture at select ratio prior to the reaction zone for insurance of
maximum product quality and yield. This mixture is then heated and routed to the reaction
zone.

 
 
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5.1.  CUMOX UNIT

UOP¶s is commercially established cumene hydro peroxide process for economic


and efficient production of phenol and acetone. The two principal chemical reactions in the
UOP cumox process is (1) oxidation (2) hydrolysis.

5.2 HYDROGEN PEROXIDE PLANT

The installed capacity of the plant is 5225 MT (100% basis). At present


producing H2O2 50% basis. Uhde GmbH Germany supplies the technology for the plant.
Raw materials used for the production of H2O2 are Hydrogen, Process air and D.M water.
Chemicals used for the process are 2-Ethyl Anthraquinone (2EAQ), 2-Methyl Cyclo Hexyl
Acetate (sextate), Solvesso 150, Caustic soda Nitric Acid, Dequest 2000 and Ammonium
Nitrate. Catalyst used is Palladium. Textile bleaching, chemical industry, environmental
protection, electronics industry, production of detergents etc.

 
 
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6. AN INTRODUCTION TO INSTRUMENTATION

Measurement provides us with the means of describing a natural


phenomenon in quantitative terms. The art of measurement comprises of detection,
acquisition, control and analysis of data.

Lord Kelvin stated "when you can measure what you are speaking and
express them in numbers, you know something about it and when you cannot measure it or
where you cannot express in numbers; your knowledge is a meagre and unsatisfactory kind.

Measurement of process parameters and their control


is a very vital requirement for the operation of chemical industries. It is not only necessary
for achieving quality and quantity of production but also for safety of the plant. The main
process parameters, which need to the monitored and control include, pressure, temperature
flow, level, Density, Viscosity, PH, Conductivity etc. Those which need only monitoring
are called open loop system and those which needs control are called closed loop systems.

In this case the instrument serves as component of an


automatic control system. Reliability of the control is directly related to the reliability of
measurement.

About fifty years back pneumatic instruments based on the flapper nozzle and using
compressed air was widely used in process control. The standard instrumentation signal was
3-15psi air signal. With the development of electronics electronic instrument like electronic
transmitters and controllers came to be widely used for process control. The standard 4-
20mA de signal became the industry standard. With the rapid progress in Digital technology
and wide spread use of microprocessors, Digital microprocessor based single loop
controllers came to be used. Further development in digital electronics led to the concept of
a digital distributed control system known by short form as DCS. Now DCS has become the
standard for process control. Recently further programs are being made in the field of

 
 
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process control, and SMART electronic transmitter and open DCS systems with direct
connectivity to a PC or higher level computers became the necessity.

Even with all these developments, the success of process measurement depends how
reliable the measurements are.

6.1 BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A MEASURING DEVICE

The functions of a measuring instrument in process industries, as we have


seen is to sense a parameter like pressure, temperature flow, resistance, voltage etc. The
measuring device must be capable of faithfully and accurately detect any changes that occur
in the measured parameter. For obtaining optimum performance as number of
characteristics are to be considered. They are listed below.

6.1.1ACCURACY

It is defined as the "Closeness with which the reading approaches an


accepted standard value or the true value". In any measurement accuracy is influenced by
the limits of intrinsic error, limits of variation in indication, instability of the electrical zero,
and environment. It is numerically equal to the referred error value i.e. Degree of error in
the final result. The accuracy is determined by calibration under certain operating conditions
and is expressed as within plus or minus of a certain specified amount or a percentage at a
certain point of scale.

6.1.2 PRECISION

Precision is the closeness with which individual measurements are


distributed about their mean value. It is equal to the mean value of scatter of individual
measurements. It combines the uncertainty due to both random differences in results in a
number of measurements and the smallest readable increment in scale or chart.

 
 
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6.1.  ERROR

The algebraic difference between the indicated value and true value of a
measurement is termed the error of the device. This error is usually expressed in percent of
full-scale output (%FS). The ratio of their error to the full-scale output is a measure of the
accuracy of the device.

Absolute error is the difference obtained by subtracting the true value of a quantity from the
observed value. The relative error is the ratio of the absolute error to the true value.

6.1.4 UNCERTAINTY AND RANDOM ERROR

Uncertainty and random errors are indicated when repeated measurements


of the same quantity result in differing values. The magnitude and direction of their errors
are not known and as such are considered indeterminate. They are caused by such factors as
friction, spring hysteresis, noise and other phenomena.

6.1.5 SYSTEMATIC AND INSTRUMENTAL ERROR

Systematic errors are relatively constant errors occurring due to such


effects as sensitivity, zero effect known non linearity. They can be eliminated by suitable
corrections. The Instrumental error is a measure of precision at which the readings are taken
with the instrument.

6.1.6 INTERFERENCE ERRORS

These errors are unwanted disturbances super imposed on low-level input signal
due to noise, line pickup, ripple, switching transient's etc. They are created by noise from
electrical machines, magnetic fields, thermal sources, etc.

 
 
 


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6.1.7 INSTALLATION ERRORS

Incorrect or improper application and faulty installation causes these. To


avoid this all instruments must be used in accordance with design specifications and
manufacturer's recommendation.

6.1.8 ZERO DRIFT

This is the deviation observed in the instrument output with time from the initial value,
when all other measurement conditions are constant.

6.1.9 LINEARITY

Is defined as the ability to reproduce the input characteristics


symmetrically and this can be expressed by the equation y = mx + C. Where y is the output,
x input, in is the slope and C the intercept. The closeness of the Calibration curve to
specified straight line is the linearity of the transducer. The non-linearity may be due to non-
linear elements in the device.

6.1.10 HYSTERESIS

When 3 devices is used to measure any parameter, first for increasing


values of the measured and then decreasing value of measured, the two output readings
obtained usually differ from each other, primary because of a certain amount of internal or
external friction in the response of the sensing element. The maximum difference in any
pare of output readings so obtained during any one-calibration cycle in the hysteresis of the
device.

 
 
 


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6.1.11 SPAN

The range of the measured variable for which an instrument is designed to


measure linearly is called the span.

6.1.12 REPEATABILITY

Repeatability is defined as the measure of the deviation of text results from the
mean value.

6.1.1  THRESHOLD

If the instrument input is gradually increased from zero, there will be some
minimum value below which no output change can be observed or detected. This minimum
value is defined as the threshold of the instrument.

6.1.14 SENSITIVITY

It determines how small variations of a variable or parameter can be reliably measured. It is


concerned with the absolute levels of the parameters but rather with the minute changes that
can be detected. The sensitivity directly deter-mines the resolution of the device.

 
 
 


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7. PROCESS INSTRUMENTATION

In an industry there will be a number of manufacturing processes. Any


method of manufacturing a product is called a process. A process may consists of several
number of unit operations (like distillation, evaporation, drying, cleavage, separation etc).
To support these unit operation effectively, we need to have an accurate measurement
technology and a control system. This is the role of instrumentation in an industry.

Control loops in the process control industry work in the


same way, requiring three tasks to occur

Measurement

Monitoring

Control

7.1 PROCESS VARIABLE

IN the control system, the variables, we want to control, is called the


process variable or PV. In industrial process control, the PV is measured by an
instrument in the field and act as an automatic controller (which is computer based) which
takes action based on the value of PV. The process variable which is measured is called a
measured value (MV).

Common process variable include:

Pressure Flow

Level Temperature

Density Ph

Liquid interface Mass

 
 
 


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Conductivity

7.2 MANIPULATED VARIABLE

The factor that is changed to keep the measured variable at set point is
called the manipulated variable. If we control flow for instance, we manipulate a valve to
control the flow. Here the valve position is called the manipulated variable and the
measured variable and the measured flow becomes the process variable

7.  SET POINT

The set point is the value for a process variable that is desired to be
maintained. Set points can also be maximum or minimum values.

7.4 ERROR

Error is the difference between the measured variable and the set point and
can be either positive or negative. The objective of any control system is to eliminate the
error. Therefore, it is imperative that error be well understood. Any error can be seen as
having three major components.

Ë? The magnitude of error is simply the deviation between the set point and the
process variable. The magnitude of error at any point in time compared to the
previous error provides the basis for determining the change in error.
Ë? Duration refers to the length of time that an error condition has occurred.
Ë? Rate of change.

 
 
  


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7.5 MANUAL AND AUTOMATIC CONTROL

Before process automation people, rather than machines, performed


many of the process control tasks. For example, a human operator must have watched a
level gauge and closed a valve when the level reached the set point. Control operations that
involve human action to make an adjustment are called manual control systems, such an
automatic valve actuator that responds to a level controller, are called automatic systems.

7.6 PRIMARY ELEMENTS/SENSORS

Sensing elements are the first element in the control loop to measure
the process variable, they are also called primary elements. Primary elements are devices
that cause some change in their property with changes in process fluid conditions that can
be measured.

Examples of primary elements include:-

¦? Pivot tubes
¦? Ventury tubes
¦? Magnetic flow tubes
¦? Orifice plates
¦? Thermocouples
¦? Resistance temperature detectors
¦? Radar emitters and receivers
¦? Ultrasonic emitters and receivers
¦? Pressure sensing diaphragms, strain gauges, capacitance cells

 
 
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7.7 TRANSDUCERS AND CONVERTERS

A transducer is a device that translates a mechanical signal into an


electrical signal. For example, inside a capacitance pressure device, a transducer converts
changes in pressure to proportional change in capacitance.

A converter is a device that converts one type of signal into another type of signal.
For example, a converter may convert current into voltage or an analog signal into digital
signal. In process control, a converter is used to convert 4-20mA current signal into 3-15psi
pneumatic signal (commonly used by valve actuators) is called current to pressure
converter.

7.8 TRANSMITTER

A transmitter is a device that converts a reading from a sensor or transducer into


standard signal to a monitor or controller. Transmitter types include:

Ë? Pressure transmitters
Ë? Flow transmitters
Ë? Temperature transmitters
Ë? Level transmitters
Ë? Analytic (oxygen), CO (carbon monoxide), and Ph transmitters

7.9 SIGNALS

There are three types of signals that exist for the process industry to transmit
the process variable measurement from the instrument to a centralized control system.

¦? Pneumatic signal
¦? Analog signal
¦? Digital signal

 
 
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7.8 OPEN AND CLOSED LOOP CONTROL SYSTEMS

7.8.1OPEN LOOP SYSTEM

Any physical system which does not automatically correct its variation in
its output is called open loop system. The output has no effect on control action. In open
loop system, the output is neither measured or nor feedback for comparison with the input.
Open loop system is used where external fluctuation or internal parameter changes can be
tolerated.

Input output

Controller Plant

7.8.2 CLOSED LOOP SYSTEM

Closed loop control may be defined as the technique of measuring the


value of the variable and producing a counter response to limit its deviation form selected
reference. A closed loop may be several devices to accomplish the control of a process
variable. The four basic elements are

1.? Controller 2. Measuring element

3. Detector 4. Final control element

Input output

Controller Plant

 
 
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The process parameters are measured by means of measuring element. An error detector
compares a signal obtained through feedback elements, which is a function of the output
responses, with the reference input. Controller receives the error and through various
control schemes produces an actuating signal for the control elements. The objectives of the
controller are to reduce the error and make the output equal to the set point. The control
elements in term alter the condition in process in such a manner as to reduce the original
error.

7.9 FINAL CONTROL ELEMENTS

The correcting or final control element is the part of control system that that
physically changes the manipulated variable. In most cases, the final control element is a
valve used to restrict or cut.

Off fluid flow, but pump motors, louvers (typically used to


regulate air flow), solenoids and other devices can also be final control elements. Final
control elements are typically used to increase the fluid flow. In any control loop, the speed
with which final control elements reacts to correct a variable that is out of set point is very
important. Many of the technological improvements in final control elements are related to
improving to their response time.

 
 
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7.10 ACTUATORS

An actuator is the part of the final control device that causes


physical change in the final control device when signaled to do so. The most common
example of an actuator is a valve actuator, which opens or closes a valve in response to
control signals from a controller. Actuators are often powered pneumatically, hydraulically,
or electrically. Diaphragms, Bellows, springs, gears, hydraulic pilot, valves, piston or
electric motors are often parts of an actuator system.

7.11 TAG NUMBERS

Numbers on P&ID symbols represent instrument tag numbers are associated with a
particular control loop (flow transmitter 123)

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8. CONTROLLERS

A controller is a device that receives data from a measurement


instrument, compares that data to a programmed set point, and, if necessary, signals a
control element to take corrective action.

Controllers may perform complex mathematical functions


to compare a set of data to set point or they may perform simple addition or subtraction
function to make comparisons.

Controllers always have an ability to receive input, to perform


mathematical function with the input, and to produce an output signal.

Common examples of controllers include:

¦? Programmable logic controllers (PLC)-PLCs are usually computes


connected set of input/output (I/O) devices. The computers are programmed
to respond to inputs by sending output to maintain all processes at set point.
¦? Distributed control system (DCS) ±DCSs are controllers that in addition to
performing control functions provide readings of the status of the process,
maintain data buses and advanced man-machine interface.

The action of the controllers can be divided into groups based upon the functions
of their control mechanism. Each type of controller has advantages and disadvantages and
will meets the needs of different applications. Grouped by control mechanism function, the
three types of controllers are

Ë? Discrete controllers
Ë? Continuous controllers
Ë? Proportional controllers

 
 
 


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8.1 DISCRETE CONTROLLERS

Discrete controllers are controllers that have only two modes or positions:
ON and OFF. A common example of a discrete controller is a home hot water heater. When
the temperature of the water in the tank falls below set point, the burner turns ON. When the
water in the tank reaches set point, the burner turns off. Because the water starts cooling
again when the burner turns off, it is only the matter of time before the cycle begins again.
This type of control does not actually hold the variable at set point, but it keeps the variable
with in proximity of set point in what is known as dead zone.

8.2 CONTINIOUS CONTROLLERS

Controllers automatically compare the value of the PV to the SP to


determine if an error exists. If there is an error, the controller adjusts its output according to
the parameters that have been set in the controller. The tuning parameters essentially
determine:

Ë? How much the correction should be made? The magnitude of the correction (change
in controller output) is determined by the proportional mode of the controller.
Ë? How fast the correction be applied? The speed at which the correction is made is
determined by the derivative mode of the controller.
Ë? How long the correction should be applied? The duration of the adjustment to the
controller output is determined by the integral mode of the controller.

8.  PROPORTIONAL CONTROLLER

The proportional mode is used to set the basic gain value of the controller.
The setting for the proportional mode may be expressed as either,

a)? Proportional gain


b)? Proportional band

 
 
 


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8.  .1 PROPORTIONAL GAIN

In electric controllers, proportional action is typically expressed as


proportional gain. Proportional gain (Kc) means: ³what is the percentage change of the
controller output relative to the percentage change in controller output´.

Proportional gain is expressed as:

GAIN = OUTPUT%/INPUT%

8.  .2 PROPORTIONAL BAND

Proportional band (PB) is ³what percentage of change of the controller


input span will cause a 100% change in controller output´.

PB= INPUT (%SPAN FOR 100% OUTPUT

PB=100/K (GAIN)

8.  .  LIMITS OF PROPORTIONAL ACTION

Ë? Responds only to a change in error-

Proportional action responds only to a change in the magnitude of the error.

Ë? Does not return the PV to set point- proportional action will not return the PV to
set point? It will however, return the PV to a value that is within a defined span
(PB) around the PV.

8.4 INTEGRAL ACTION

Duration of error and integral mode- another component of error is


the duration of the error, i.e. how long has the error existed. The controller output from the
integral or reset mode is a function of the duration of the error. The purpose of integral
action is to return the PV to SP. This is accomplished by repeating the action of the

 
 
 


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proportional mode as long as an error exists. Integral, or reset action, may be expressed in
terms of: repeats {per Minute- How many minutes are required for 1 repeat to occur? The
faster the reset action, the grater the action, the grater the gain, but it effects the stability of
the system

8.5SUMMARY

Output is repeat of proportional action as long as error exists. The units are in terms
of repeats per minutes or minutes per repeat.

ADVANTAGE- Eliminates error

DISADVANTAGE-Peak overshoot

8.6 DERIVATIVE ACTION

Derivative mode basics ± some large and/ or slow process do not respond
well to small changes in controller output. For example, a large liquid level process or a
large thermal process (a hot exchanger) may react very slowly to a small change in
controller output. To improve response, a large initial change in controller output may be
applied.

This action is the role of the derivative mode. The derivative


action is initialized whenever there is a change in rate of change of the error (the slope of
the PV). The magnitude of the derivative action is determined by the setting of the
derivative, the mode of PID controller and the rate of change of the PV. The derivative
setting is expressed in terms of minutes. In operation, the controller first compares the
current PV with the last value of the PV. If there is a change in the slope of the PV, the
controller determines what its output would be at a future point in time (the future point in
time is determined by the value of the derivative setting, in minutes). The derivative mode
is immediately increases the output by that amount.

 
 
 


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8.7 PROPORTIONAL, PI, AND PID CONTROL

By using all the three algorithms together, process derivative (rate) can
be easily determined.

8.8 SUMMARY

Rate action is a function of the speed of change of the error. The units are
minutes. The action is to apply an immediate response that is equal to the proportional PLU
reset that would have occurred some number of minutes 1 the future.

8.9 ADVANTAGES

Rapid output reduces the time required to turn PV to SP in slow processes.

8.10 DISADVANTAGES

Dramatically amplifies noisy signals; can cause cycling in fast processes.

Ë? Operation can achieve rapid responses to major disturbances with derivative


control.
Ë? Hold the process near the set point without major fluctuations with proportional
control.
Ë? Eliminate offset with integral control, not every process requires a full PID control
strategy.
Ë? If a small offset has no impact on time process, the proportional control alone may
be sufficient.

 
 
  


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Ë? PI control is used where no offset can be tolerated, where noise (temporary error
readings that do not reflect the true process variable condition) may present, and
where excessive dead time (time after disturbance before control action takes place)
is not a problem.
Ë? In processes where no offset can be tolerated, no noise is present and where dead
time is an issue customers can use full PID control.

Controlled Proportional PI control PID control


variable control

Flow yes yes no

Level yes yes rare

Temperature yes yes yes

Pressure yes yes rare

Analytical yes yes rare

Table shows common types of control loops and which types of control algorithms are
typically used.

 
 
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9. DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM

9.1 INTRODUCTION

A distributed control system (DCS) refers to a control system usually of a


manufacturing system, process or any kind of dynamic system, in which the control
elements are not central in location (like brain) but are distributed throughout the system
with each component of controllers is connected by a network for communication and
monitoring.

DCS is a brand term used in variety of industries, to monitor and control


distributed equipment.

Ë? Electrical power grids and electrical generation plants.


Ë? Water management systems.
Ë? Oil refining plants.
Ë? Chemical plants.
Ë? Sensor networks.

A DCS typically uses computers (usually custom designed


processors) as controllers and uses both proprietary interconnections and protocols for
communication. In input and output modules form component parts of DCS. The processor
receives information from the input modules and sends information to output modules. The
input modules receive information from input modules. The input modules receive
information from input instruments in the process and output modules transmit instructions
to the output instruments in the field. Computer buses or electrical bus connect the
processor and modules through multiplexers/ demultiplexers. Buses also connect the
distributed controllers with the central and finally to the Human Machine Interface (HMI) or
control console. Element of a distributed control system may directly connect to physical
equipment such as switches, pumps and valves or may work trough an intermediate system.

 
 
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9.2 HISTORY

Early microcomputers had been applied for control of industrial processes


since the beginning of 1960¶s. These systems relied on gathering all process signals in a
plant to a central point or conversion from field contact levels (for digital points) and analog
signals to the digital domain.

The DCS was introduced in 1975. Both Honeywell and


Japanese electrical engineering from Yokogawa introduced their own indecently produced
DCS¶s at roughly the same time, with the TDC 2000 and CENTUM systems, respectively.
Us ±based Bristol also introduced their UCS300 universal controller in 1975. In 1980,
bailey (now part of ABB) introduced the NETWORK 90 system.

The DCS is largely come about due to increased availability of


microprocessors and the proliferation of microprocessors in the world of process control.
Computers had already been applied to process automation for same time in the form of set
point control, where super computers supervised clusters of analog controllers. The
proliferation of microprocessors allowed suppliers to take this mode to the next step by
developing deploying microcomputers in a supervisory role, controlling several digital loop
controllers. A CRT based workstation provided visibility into the process using text and
crude character graphics. Availability of a fully functional graphical user interface was a
long away.

Central to the DCS model was the inclusion of control


function blocks, which were introduced by the Foxboro company. One of the first
embodiments of object oriented software, function blocks where self contained ³blocks´ of
code that emulated analog hardware control components and performed tasks that were
essential to process control, such as the execution of PID algorithms. Function blocks
continue to endure as the predominant method of control for DCS suppliers, and are
supported by key technologies such as Foundation Field Bus today.

 
 
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Digital communication between distributed controllers, workstations and other computing


elements (peer to peer) was one of the primary advantages of the DCS. Attention was duly
focused on the networks, which provided the all ±important linesof communication that, for
process applications, had to incorporate specific functions such as determinism and
redundancy. As a result, many suppliers embraced the IEEE 802.4 networking standard.
This decision set the stage for the wave of migrations necessary when information
technology moved into process automation and IEEE 802.3 rather than IEEE 802.4
prevailed as control LAN.

Process control systems are classified into:-

Ë? Analog control systems

Ë? Digital control systems

 
 
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9.  ANALOG CONTROL SYSTEM

TRANSMITTER 0 to 5v DC

Ñ ?Ñ  ?

 ?  ?

?
4 to 20mADC

SETPOINT

CONTROL VALVE

FINAL CONTROL ELEMENT

 
 
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9.4 DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEM

1-? 5v DC

 ? !?! ? "?! ?

Digital

? ? !!?! ? ?! ?

 # ?
4 to 20mA DC
? ! ?

??

Digital control systems are further classified into:

Ë? Centralized control system

Ë? Distributed control system

Ë? Hierarchical systems

 
 
 


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9.4 .1 CENTRALIZED CONTROL SYSTEM

PV1 MV1
?
MV2
CENTRALIZED
PV2 MV3
PROCESSING
PV3
UNIT

««««««« (CPU) ««««««..

MVn

PVn

Input signals from field Output


signals

SV1 SV2 SV3 SVn

Set points

¦? DRAWBACKS OF DCS:
Ë? If the CPU fails the entire plant gets affected
Ë? Redundancy concept was not available.

Redundancy is having two controllers. One would


be active and the other would be standby. If the active controller fails, the standby

 
 
 


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controller takes over. Due to the drawbacks of centralized control systems
Distributed Control System was introduced.

9.4.2 ARCHITECTURE OF DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM

pv1 mv1
Ñ?
pv8 mv8

SV1 SV8 Ñ?

pv9 mv9

Ñ?

Input Ñ?

Signals from ?

Field Communication Bus

pv16 mv16
Ñ?

?
Sv9 SvnMvn

Ë? FCS (Field control Station): Used to control the process. All the instruments and
interlocks created by software reside in the memory of the FCS. All the field
instruments like the transmitters and control valves are wired to the FCS.
Ë? OPS (Operator Station): Used to monitor the process and to operate various
instruments.
Ë? Communication Bus: Used to communicate between the FCS and the
OPS

 
 
 


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The DCS has two philosophies associated with it, i.e.:

¦? Geographical Distribution and


¦? Functional Distribution.
¦? GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION

????????????????????????????# ? Ñ $! ???????????

? ?
?
? ?$?
??
?

???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????  ?

  ???
 ???????????????????????????????????????
????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?# #%"Ñ?
??????????????????????????????????????????????????Ñ ?
?

?
?
? ?
????????????????
? ?????????
?????????????????? ???????
?

???????  ? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????  ??&???????????

In large chemical or refinery has several small plants


functioning independently. It is not necessary to bring all control function to a control room.
All the control functions can be carried out in each plant itself AU relevant process data can
be transported to the main control room through a single data bus; this reduces the cabling
cost considerably. This is called geographical distribution.

 
 
 


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¦? FUNCTIONAL DISTRI BUTION

A hierarchically organized control system can


be decomposed broadly into four functional levels as given below:

Ë? Level one: Direct process control


Ë? Level two: Plant supervisory control
Ë? Level three: Production scheduling
Ë? Level four: Plant management

It is rather possible to pack the tasks of two or


more functional levels into the same computer making in this way simpler, especially when
a small or medium scale plant is to be automated.

For example plant management production scheduling and control can be done in one
computer, and the supervisory and direct process control can be done in another computer,
resulting in two stage system

—? DATA BASE ORGANIZATION

Each function implemented at various levels as described above


needs some data in order to function. Also it will be generating some data of immediate
interest to the adjacent levels, Hence for a typical DCS requires a distribution of database.

I)? functions and data required for local control and supervision should be allotted
in the field.
II)? Functions and data required for "higher" purpose should be allotted near to the
plant operator. Thus the total database in the system is also distributed in to 4
levels,

 
 
  


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1) Level 1 Process DB Field operators


2) Level 2 Plant DB Plant operators
3) Level 3 Production DB Plant Engineers
4) Level 4 Management DB Plant management

Thus we can call a DCS as one which is geographically, functionally and organized into
database at different levels.

The main elements of DCS are

Ë? Field control station


Ë? Data transfer bus
Ë? Human interface or operator station
Ë? History module
Ë? Printer for hard copy
Ë? Programmable logic controller
Ë?
—? FIELD CONTROL STATION

It is the heart of the DCS. It consists of the Controller card,


Input/output Modules and communication card. All field transmitters are terminated in the
input cards and controller outputs signals to the field are taken from the output cards. These
I/O cards are also distributed on the type of I10 like analog input, digital input, pulse input
etc these input output card configured to have 8 inputs, 16 inputs, 32 inputs, 8 outputs etc
according to the type of card. Analog to digital conversion takes place in these analog input
cards.

Each controller card carries out the control function depending on the programmed
controller algorithm on a sequential basis based on the scan rate fixed. The normal scan
rates are I sec, 500 Millie sec or 250 Millie sec. Very fast changing processes are given
250rn sec scanning. The capacity of the control card to handle number of closed loops

 
 
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varies from manufactures. Honeywell TDC 300 controller can handle 160 process units
with 1 second scanning. If 500 Millie second scanning is chosen the capacity reduces to 80
process units and with 250msec it is 40 process units. The total requirement of the
controllers is calculated based on these bases.

—? DATA TRANSFER BUS (RL BUS)

This is a digital bus in which field control station and PLC's are connected. Communication
between these devices is by mod bus protocol. A network interface module is connected to
link this bus with the local control network on which the operating station and history
modules are residing. Here the system bus we are using is RL bus. Maximum 63 devices
can be connected in this network. Normally 2 cables are set in parallel (redundant bus) in
order to safeguard the system, in case of failure of one cable.

—? HUMAN INTERFACE OR OPERATING STATION

The human interface is similar to the computer monitor for


monitoring and operating the plant at different hierarchical levels and for generation,
testing, documentation and maintenance of the system software. In some systems separate
dedicated engineering stations are pro-vided for engineering functions while in most
systems any operating station can be converted into an engineering station by loading the
engineering personality software.

A single display screen should replace the conventional indicating instruments,


recorders alarm annunciators etc. Thus unlike in the conventional control room where all
process variables are continuously displayed or recorded, only those process variables are
selected by the operator should be displaced. Using the operator console and display screen
the operator can at any time select for monitoring only those variables really essential for
plant supervision. For the ease of plant operation different types of displays are configured.

1) Graphic display

2) Group display

 
 
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3) Trend display

4) Overview display

5) Alarm page

—? GRAPHIC PANEL

The user defined graphic panels provide a dynamic


representation of the plant and control system. All process values are dynamically shown on
these graphic panels. Looking at these graphics the operator get a total view of the plant
conditions. Now these CRTs are provided with the touch screen facility so that cursor can
be brought to any point in the screen just by touching that point in the screen. Control
valves in graphics can be configured to as touch targets, and by touching these targets the
respective controller faceplate will appear on the screen. Then the operator can make the
necessary changes on the controllers.

—? CONTROL GROUP DISPLAY

Control group display can be configured to display 8 controller


faceplates per page. The operator can operate each of these controllers from these group
displays.

—? TREND PANEL

It is possible to give a trending of process parameters up


to a maximum of 8 points per display. This is useful for analyzing plant performance_ once
and for finding reasons for plant upsets. Most of the DCS have capacity of 92 hours of
historical trending.

 
 
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—? ALARM PAGE

Whenever any process alarms are generated an audible hooter is energized


and the alarm message is recorded. These alarm summaries can be retrieved by single key
button pressing. Five priority levels can be configured for these alarms like emergency,
high, low, journal only and no action. Most of DCS have capacity for storing 1000 alarm
messages.

¦? ALARM ANNUNCIATOR DISPLAY

Most DCS have user display that looks like and operate much like
a conventional alarm enunciator panel. Each of these boxes can be. Configured for any of
the process point alarms.

—? DETAIL DISPLAY

The detail display presents detailed information for a single data point.
All parameters and limits are shown in it.

—? REPORTS AND LOGS

 
 
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Process and system history can be obtained from Reports/ Logs/ PV
retrieval display and event history retrieval. Standard and custom-built logs can be
configured and automatic printouts at different prefixed time can be made.

9.5 PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER (PLC)

PLC is used for implementing logical safety and


shutdown sequences. Most of today's DCS themselves have capabilities for generating
logical ladders for implementing shutdown sequences. But if we need very elaborate
shutdown sequences high number of digital inputs and discrete timers a separate PLC has to
be used. There are specialized manufactures of PLC like Allen Bradley, Siemens etc.

9.6 HISTORY MODULE

This is hard disc on which the system software and application software are stored. Also
alarm journals, process journals, process graphics are also stored here. The history module
is portioned into different volumes for storing different category of data the system booting
software also resides in the hard disc and it is normally programmed to auto boot from the
disc. If history module is having any problem, then booting from cartridge or Zip drive us
also provided.

 
 
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10. YOKOGAWA CENTUM CS  000

The CS 3000 has various functions which allow the user to operate and monitor a
plant in the most suitable environment. The operation and monitoring functions
consist of various functions as window operation functions, which mainly involve
daily operation and monitoring; maintenance functions, which monitor maintenance
status of the system and operating status of the control station; and open data
interface functions, which simplify the exchange of data with other computers.

10.1HARDWARE

 
 
  


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10.2 Human Interface Station (HIS)


Consoles for plant operation and monitoring

Ë? Enclosed Display Style Console HIS


The HIS console that inherited the legacy CENTUM console style.
Ë? Open Display Style Console HIS
The HIS console that adopted LED monitors as displays.

10.  DESKTOP STYLE HIS

The HIS that runs in a general-purpose PC. The dedicated operation keyboard
is optional.

 
 
  


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Fig. Open Display style console HIS

10.4 FIELD CONTROL STATION (FCS)

Field control station is the control unit for plant


process control. Varying with the application capacities and application usages,
there are five types of filed control stations in the lineup. In the Vnet/IP system, the
latest compact FCS is available. The compact FCS is easily expanded up to IS
nodes, and the FCS inherits the renowned reliability of the entire CENTUM series.
Truly the most reliable FCS in the industry. Since the processor cards perform
control calculations, duplexes dual-redundant configuration of these cards is
essential to prevent loss of control upon a hardware failure. In addition, two CPUs
are paired in each processor card, thus the transit calculation error can be calculated.
(This type of diplex dual-redundant configuration is referred to as ³Pair & Spare
configuration).

 
 
  


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COMPACT FCS
10.5 REMOTE NODE
Remote node is a remote input and output unit that passes the field
signals to FCS control unit via remote buses.

10.6 HARDWARE FOR VNET SYSTEM

 
 
  


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10.7 ENGINEERING STATION (ENG)

Engineering station is a computer with engineering


capabilities used for system configuration and system maintenance.

 
 
  


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10.7.1 BUS CONVERTER (BCV)
Bus converters are required if a system contains multiple
domains or contains the legacy CENTUM project

10.7.2 COMMUNICATION GATEWAY (ACG)


A communication gateway unit is for linking a supervisory
computer to control bus.

10.7.  GENERIC SUBSYSTEM GATEWAY (GSGW)


General-purpose PC used for operating and monitoring the
Subsystems

10.7.4 V NET
A real time control bus for linking the stations such as FCS, HIS
and BCV.

10.8 SOFTWARE

10.8.1 CONTROL FEATURES


Besides the basic control capabilities, various communication
packages for linking subsystems are provided in lineup.

 
 
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10.8.2 HUMAN MACHINE INTERFACE
Besides the basic operation and monitoring capabilities, various
packages for remote operating and monitoring, enhancement security, long-term
data storage and so on are provided in lineup.
10.9 ENGINEERING CAPABILITIES
Besides the basic engineering capabilities, various
packages All HISs, not only the desktop type HIS but also the console-type HISs,
run under MS Windows 2000 or Windows XP, the de-facto global standard.
Therefore, the CENTUM CS 3000 HIS enables your plant to coexist with the latest
software, networks, and hardware (HIS itself, printer, etc.) for the test environment
emulation, self-documentation and so on are provided in lineup.

10.10 WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM

All HISs, not only the desktop type HIS but also the
console-type HISs, run under MS Windows 2000 or Windows XP, the de-facto
global standard. Therefore, the CENTUM CS 3000 HIS enables your plant to
coexist with the latest software, networks, and hardware (HIS itself, printer, etc.).

10.11 DEDICATED OPERATOR KEYBOARD

The dedicated operator keyboard for the desktop HIS is assembled with the
dustproof and drip-proof flat keys, and the keyboard maintains the same
functionality as the operator keypad fixed atop the console style HIS.

 
 
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10.12 OPERATION WIDOWS

The widely praised graphic widow, trend window and other CENTUM series
operation windows are provided. The typical operation windows are explained as
follows

 
 
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Graphic windowOverview window

Control window Trend window

10.1  CONTROL FEATURES

In addition to the regulatory control and sequence control blocks that


from the basis control functions, superior sequence control blocks such as unit instrument
and sequential Function Chart (SFC) blocks are provided. More than 200 types of function

 
 
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block are provided to satisfy the requirements for various process control applications in
continuous and batch process control systems.

10.14 REGULATORY CONTROL BLOCKS

Regulatory Control Blocks perform computations based on process values for process
monitoring and control, and include [ID controllers, input indicators, manual loaders, signal
selectors, signal setters, and self-tuning controllers.

10.15 SEQUENCE CONTROL BLOCKS

Sequence control blocks are used to implement general-purpose sequences at the loop
equipment level, such as safety interlock sequences and process monitoring sequences. The
blocks are coded in decision table format and logic chart format using logical operators.
Switch instrument, timer, counter, code input/output, and various other blocks are prepared
as sequence auxiliary blocks.

10.16 CALCULATION BLOCKS

Calculation blocks assist regulatory and sequence control functions, and perform general-
purpose calculations on analog signals and contact (logic) signals.

10.17SFC BLOCKS

SFC blocks are written using SFC description language. SFC blocks conform to IEC
standards, and use an open language for sequence control like a flow chart. The operation
phase can be displayed visually, which is ideal for operation phase management. For
detailed description of unit sequence control, Sequence and Batch Oriented Language
(SEBOL) CAN BE USED AS THE SEQUENCE LANGUAGE.

10.18 FACEPLATE BLOCKS

Multiple function blocks can be indicated and manipulated as a single


function block on HMI using the faceplate blocks.

 
 
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10.19 ANALOG TYPE

For a control loop formed with multiple function blocks, the main
control variables such as measured process variable, set-point value and manipulated output
value of the function blocks in the entire loop can be assigned to one faceplate block so as
to control the whole loop by operating and monitoring the single faceplate block.

Analog Face plate

10.20 SEQUENCE TYPE

For a control scheme formed with multiple push buttons, the main
buttons in the whole scheme can be assigned to one faceplate block so as to manipulate the
whole scheme by operating and monitoring the single faceplate block.Hybrid Type
Combination of analog type and sequence type, so that a control scheme formed with
multiple function blocks and push buttons can be applied to a single faceplate block.

10.21 UNIT INSTRUMENT BLOCKS

A unit in batch control denotes a set of equipment


and control devices for a specific process. A unit can be operated and monitored using a

 
 
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single unit block. For example, by assigning a unit block to a process unit, such as a reactor
unit or a crystallization unit, operation and

Monitoring of the unit can be performed using a single block, which representing the entire
process unit. Thus, operating a unit block actually means operating the entire process unit.
Using a unit block dramatically simplifies the operation and monitoring of many
instruments that have many tag names.

10.22 SUBSYSTEM INTEGRATION

In order to operate and monitor the subsystems of the


auxiliary devices controlled by Programmable Controller (PLC), various types of analyzers
and other instruments for the integrated plant automation, FCS subsystem communication
capability enables connection with the subsystems, and also supports dual-redundant
configuration.

The subsystems include Mitsubishi MELSEC, Allen Bradley PLC-5 and SLC500, Modbus
compatible devices, Siemens SIMATIC, Omron SYSMAC, Yokogawa FA-M3, Darwin,
and DAQSTATION and so on.

10.2  BATCH CONTROL

CS Batch 3000 is an ISA S88-based total batch process


operation and management package that embodies Yokogawa's decades of experience in
batch control. CS Batch 3000 provides simple operation and productive engineering for
complex batch control. The package can also be easily linked to supervisory scheduling
systems and information systems.

10.24 SCREEN MODES

 
 
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In the operation and monitoring environment, two types
of screen modes are available. Operators can select either the Multiple-window mode like
an office PC, or the Full screen mode like the legacy operator console.

Full screen mode

10.25 ONE SECOND REFRESH RATE OF WINDOWS

The data displayed on HIS are collected in the


manner of event driven, i.e., HIS starts to collect the data only when the corresponding
window is called up. Thus only the dynamic data in the currently displayed windows need
to be refreshed. The load of HIS for data sampling is reduced and the one-second refresh
rate for the dynamic data on the windows is guaranteed.

 
 
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10.26 OPEN INTERFACE

The process control industry standard open interface


OPC (OLE Process Control) is provided for collecting the process data, trend data and
messages.

To prevent operator errors and other problems and ensure the safety of the system, such as
prohibiting operations by unauthorized persons, limiting the ranges of operation and
monitoring, and restricting operator actions to the system, extensive security functions are
applied accordingly.

10.27 ENGINEERING CAPABILITY OF CS 000

The over-the-counter general-purpose personal computer can


be used as engineering workstation instead of the expensive, dedicated engineering station.
Moreover, the operations for engineering are same as the operations for other Windows
applications.

10.28 EFFICIENT SYSTEM CONFIURATION

Minimum data entry for definition items simplifies the


work of configuring a system. Only detail settings are necessary, and engineering is
performed using the option settings window. For productive engineering, all configuration
windows provide:

‡ Smart default settings to minimize data entry; only changes need to be entered.

‡ Selection of most entry items from pull-down menus.

¦? Standard GUI for all engineering builders.

 
 
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10.29 DATA EXCHANGE WITH OTHER WINDOWS APPLICATIONS

Data can be easily exchanged with other generic Windows


applications (such as Microsoft Excel). Data can be exchanged not only by using copy and
paste via a clipboard; the data of a whole file can also be exchanged.

10. 0 CONCURRENT ENGINEERING

For productive engineering, concurrent engineering


by multiple PCs on a single system database can be performed. Exclusive access control to
each database avoids duplicate modification.

10. 1 VIRTUAL TEST FUNCTION

A virtual FCS can be prepared on a PC. Both the control


functions in FCS and operation and monitoring on HMI can be tested with the test
environment. This enables debugging without FCS hardware, and partial application testing
to reduce engineering lead-time dramatically. For system expansion and modification, the
application can be tested and confirmed without any impact on the plant.

10. 2 ON-LINE MAINTENANCE

FCS applications can be changed without having to stop the


FCS, and there's no impact on other control functions other than the portion being modified.
Accordingly, the application changes are also reflected in HIS.

10.   ONLINE DOCUMENTATION

All manuals are provided in electronic format. From the


configuration window, the related manual for the function being used can be called up
online. Specific information can also be easily located online by the smart retrieve function.

 
 
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10. 4 APPLICATION OF WINDOWS TECHNOLOGY

CENTUM CS 3000 R3 DCS is the first in the world to use


Windows XP operating System. With Windows XP's Remote Desktop capability, plant
operation, monitoring and engineering can be performed from a personal computer in your
office or at a remote field location.

10. 5 REMOTE OPERATION AND MONITORING

The same HIS displays in the control room can be shown on the PC
in your office. For production facilities in remote locations around the world, remote
operation and monitoring can be simply structured. With this capability, veteran operators
can monitor and operate production plants anywhere in the world from their own office
location.

10. 6 REMOTE ENGINEERING

The engineering work for small-scale modification can be performed


remotely via a network, eliminating the need for dispatching engineers and reducing both
maintenance and engineering cost.

10. 7 SIMPLE IMPLEMENTATION AT A REASONABLE COST

Since the standard functions of Windows XP are applied, additional software is not
required. Thus the system is simple to implement and cost is reasonable.

 
 
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11. DESIGN & SIMULATION

11.1AUTOMATIC TANKER FILLING SYSTEM

The main products of HOCL are Phenol, Acetone and Hydrogen


Peroxide. Phenol and Acetone are sold to various customers either through bulk tankers or
through Drums. Phenol is sold either as Pure Phenol or Hydrated Phenol (phenol mixed
with 10% water). Hydrogen Peroxide is sold either through Road Tankers or through
Carbuoys of capacity 50 Kg. or 35 Kg. All these products are highly hazardous in nature
and are to be handled with utmost safety precautions.

In order to provide maximum safety to the personnel and to provide an accurate


measurement of the quantity filled an exhaustive filling system is provided

A Fully Automatic Computerized Tanker Filling System is


provided for Hydrated Phenol - 2 Bays, Pure Phenol - 1 Bay and Acetone - 2 Bays.

A Micro Processor based Coriolis Mass Flow Meter


is used for Flow Measurement, Brooks make Petrocount IMS unit is used for batch counting
and Ball Valve is used for starting and stopping the filling.

The quantity to be filled in each tanker, tanker details,


supplier etc. Are entered in the Computer and a Loading Slip is generated. The Loading Slip
will have a Serial Number and Truck Number. These are to be entered in the Petrocount
Unit. Then the required filling data will be dumped to it from Computer. After positioning
the Tanker and providing earthing of the tanker, filling can be started from the Petrocount.
When the correct quantity is filled the filling valve is automatically stopped. Then an
Outgoing Slip can be generated in the Computer. The complete data base of the filling data
is automatically stored in the Computer. Consolidated data of daily filling, weekly and
monthly filling can be taken. Using this system overfilling, overflow etc. are prevented.

 
 
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11.2 CORIOLIS MASS FLOW METER

The Coriolis meter uses an obstructionless U-shaped tube as a


sensor and applies Newton's Second Law of Motion to determine flow rate. Inside the
sensor housing, the sensor tube vibrates at its natural frequency. The sensor tube is driven
by an electromagnetic drive coil located at the center of the bend in the tube and vibrates
similar to that of a tuning fork.

The fluid flows into the sensor tube and is forced to take on the
vertical momentum of the vibrating tube. When the tube is moving upward during half of its
vibration cycle, the fluid flowing into the sensor resists being forced upward by pushing
down on the tube.

Fig. vibrating coriolis sensor tube

The fluid flowing out of the sensor has an upward momentum from the motion
of the tube. As it travels around the tube bend, the fluid resists changes in its vertical motion
by pushing up on the tube. The difference in forces causes the sensor tube to twist. When

 
 
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the tube is moving downward during the second half of its vibration cycle, it twists in the
opposite direction. This twisting characteristic is called the Coriolis Effect.

Fig.Coriolis Effect

Due to Newton's Second Law of Motion, the amount


of sensor tube twist is directly proportional to the mass flow rate of the fluid flowing
through the tube. Electromagnetic velocity detectors located on each side of the flow tube
measure the velocity of the vibrating tube. Mass flow is determined by measuring the time
difference exhibited by the velocity detector signals. During zero flow conditions, no tube
twist occurs, resulting in no time difference between the two velocity signals. This time
difference is directly proportional to mass flow.

 
 
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11.  PETROCOUNT IMS CONTROL UNIT

By replacing this current Petrocunt system the dedicated Tanker Loading Unit in HOCL by
implement the same unit on Yokogawa Centum CS-3000 DCS machine.

11. .1 DESCRIPTION

The PetroCount Inventory Management System (IMS) Control Unit is a


rugged yet compact electronic preset designed to provide precise delivery of petroleum, in-
dustrial and chemical products. The Control Unit easily adapts to any type of pulsed output
flow meter and all types of two-stage control valves. The Control Unit utilizes advanced
high-speed microcomputer technology which provides unlimited flexibility. Programming
the Control Unit is easily performed by simply selecting the desired options from built-in
menus. PetroCountIMS is available in Division 1 Explosion Proof enclosure.

 
 
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Delivered quantities are displayed on a large 8-character numeric display. Operator prompts
and program menus are presented on a 32-character alphanumeric display. A sixteen
pushbutton keypad provides pushbuttons 0-9, Start, Stop, Reset, Select, Repeat and Enter.
These are used for entering values for the various user-selectable parameters in addition to the
batch delivery quantities

11. .1.1DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS

—? VALVE CONTROL
Select from digital or conventional two stage valve control with independent selections
for low flow start, low flow stop and final stop.

—? VALVE CONTROL ERROR LIMIT


When digital valve control is selected, the control tolerance for the programmed flow rate is
entered as a percentage value. If the flow rate exceeds the tolerance, the valve is signaled to
adjust (open or close) as required to maintain the programmed flow rate.

 
 
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—? METER-FACTOR LINEARIZATION
Flowmeter accuracy is maintained with programmable multi-point linearization. Apply these
meter factors to the digital valve flowrate set points for maximum flowmeter accuracy.

—? ADDITIVE INJECTION
Input the individual numeric values for each of the six different additive
injection factors. The delivered quantity for one full cycle of the injector is input using the
numeric keypad.

—? VOLTAGE SELECTION
Configure the PetroCount for 115Vac or 230Vac, 50 or 60 Hz operation by
installing program jumpers on the customer connector board.

—? PERMISSIVE SENSE
Use the permissive power input circuit as a safety device or to verify operational
integrity such as: Ground connectors, high level or "dead man" interrupts.

—? DATA ACQUISITION
Two separate digital signals are provided for net and/or gross
outputs. The outputs may be factored from 0.1 to 10.0 for each unit quantity delivered. Pulse
widths (5.0- 25.0 milliseconds) are adjustable and selections are made from the menu.

—? PRESET OPTIONS
Three options are available including conventional numeric, repeat
previous or select from four pre-programmed values. In addition, minimum and maximum
allowable preset values may be programmed.

—? DISPLAY RESET
A programmable internal time counter may be selected to automatically
reset the previous delivered quantity. When the time counter signals a reset, the previous

 
 
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authorized delivery is terminated, the display is returned to zero and the normal operator
prompt is displayed.

—? OPERATOR VIEW GROUP


Up to ten separate user-selectable variables may be configured for
instantaneous operator viewing. These parameters may be viewed but not changed by the
operator and often include:

Flow Rate Relay Status


Temperature Meter Factors
Pressure Delivered Gross
Current Time Delivered Net
Density Status Registers
K-Factor Preset Quantity
Blend Ratio Preset Remaining

—? VIEWING ANGLE ADJUST


Fifteen (15) separate vertical viewing angle set points within the sixty-
degree viewing boundary provides optimum readability of the back-lighted alphanumeric
display.

—? DISPLAY TEST ENABLE


Engage the local display test function as necessary for display segment
checks if required by the local weights and measures authority.

—? OPERATOR I.D. CODES


Operational security controls may be implemented by requiring the
operator to input a numeric access code of eight digits or less.

—? ALARMS
Built in programmable alarm conditions are user-selectable and may be

 
 
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programmed to monitor one or more of the following conditions:

Low Flow Rate Pulse Security Error


High Flow Rate Data Communications Error
Valve Failure Blend Feedback
Preset Over Delivery Quantity Equilibrium Vapor PressurePreset Under Delivery
Quantity

Alarm Actions
An internal menu permits selection of desired responses when an alarm
condition occurs. The responses are:

Off (no response)


Display Only
Display and Close an Alarm Contact
Display, Alarm and Stop the Control Unit Display, Alarm, Stop and Lock
the Control Unit

—? DIGITAL OUTPUT SIGNALS


User programmable output relays provide flexibility for a broad range of
control unit applications. Output relays K-1 through K-10 with Digital Outputs DO-1 and
DO-2 provide a total of twelve configurable outputs which may be assigned for:

Pump Contact Additives 1-6


N.O. Valve Pilot Blend Component A, B, C or D
N.C. Valve Pilot Auxiliary Contacts 1-6
N.O. Valve Stem Switch Data Acquisition Net/Gross
N.C. Valve Stem Switch Alarm Annunciator

—? RELAY OPTIONS
The Control Unit can be ordered with 5 ac, 10 ac or 5 ac/5 dc solid state relays.

—? DIGITAL INPUT SIGNALS


When blending, four digital inputs (D11, DI2, DI3 and DI4) are available. These

 
 
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valve position input circuits permit feedback for automatic confirmation that only the appro-
priate product supply valve is open.

—? PULSE SECURITY
Connect a dual channel pulse signal, 90 degrees out-of phase for Level "B"
pulse integrity.

—? METER PULSE INPUTS


Program the Control Unit to accept the meter pulse signal which suits the
application. The 10 kHz input may be configured for a 5V dc, 12Vdc, and 5mA or 20mA
threshold level.

—? ANALOG INPUTS
Two 4-20mA analog inputs are provided for pressure, density or
temperature. If pressure and density inputs are used, a separate RTD input is available for high
precision temperature sensing.

—? PRESSURE COMPENSATION
If correction for pressure effects on the fluid are desired, the pressure transmitter scaling, i.e.,
upper limit, lower limit and offset are programmed via the keypad. Compressibility (K-
Factor) sources are selectable from API 11.2.1, 11.2.2, 11.2.1.M or 11.2.2.M.

—? DENSITY COMPENSATION
Density inputs either manual or via the analog current loop may be used when the API Table
option is selected for temperature corrections as the fluid's density is a function of the CTL
calculation.

—? BATCH BLENDING
Program the Control Unit for custom blended product delivery by selecting
the sequential batch blend feature. Up to six different blends created from as many as four

 
 
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separate components provide for a broad range of blended products. A final line flush
ensures accuracy in subsequent blends. This feature comes complete with individual settings
for:

—? DATA COMMUNICATIONS
Full two-way data communications are provided for remote access
using either computer mode or terminal mode. In communications Port #1, select RS-232
for serial communications or RS-485. Communications Port #2 is dedicated RS-485 for
multi-drop configurations. Program these ports with unique data rates, word size, stop/parity
bits, and communications port time-out settings for customer configuration to suit the host
equipment.

11.4 SOLENOID VALVE

A solenoid valve is an electromechanicalvalve for use with liquid or


gas. The valve is controlled by an electric current through a solenoid: in the case of a two-
port valve the flow is switched on or off; in the case of a three-port valve, the outflow is
switched between the two outlet ports. Multiple solenoid valves can be placed together on a
manifold.

Solenoid valves are the most frequently used control elements in fluidics. Their tasks are to
shut off, release, dose, distribute or mix fluids. They are found in many application areas.
Solenoids offer fast and safe switching, high reliability, long service life, good medium
compatibility of the materials used, low control power and compact design.

Besides the plunger-type actuator which is used most


frequently, pivoted-armature actuators and rocker actuators are also used.

 
 
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A solenoid valve has two main parts: the solenoid and
the valve. The solenoid converts electrical energy into mechanical energy which, in turn,
opens or closes the valve mechanically. A direct acting valve has only a small flow circuit,
shown within section E of this diagram (this section is mentioned below as a pilot valve).
This diaphragm piloted valve multiplies this small flow by using it to control the flow
through a much larger orifice.

Solenoid valves may use metal seals or rubber seals, and may also have
electrical interfaces to allow for easy control. A spring may be used to hold the valve
opened or closed while the valve is not activated.

 
 
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A- Input side
B- Diaphragm
C- Pressure chamber
D- Pressure relief conduit
E- Solenoid
F- Output side

The diagram to the right shows the design of a basic valve. At the top
figure is the valve in its closed state. The water under pressure enters at A. B is an elastic
diaphragm and above it is a weak spring pushing it down. The function of this spring is
irrelevant for now as the valve would stay closed even without it. The diaphragm has a
pinhole through its center which allows a very small amount of water to flow through it.
This water fills the cavity C on the other side of the diaphragm so that pressure is equal on
both sides of the diaphragm. While the pressure is the same on both sides of the diaphragm,
the force is greater on the upper side which forces the valve shut against the incoming
pressure. In the figure, the surface being acted upon is greater on the upper side which
results in greater force. On the upper side the pressure is acting on the entire surface of the
diaphragm while on the lower side it is only acting on the incoming pipe. This results in the
valve being securely shut to any flow and, the greater the input pressure, the greater the
shutting force will be.

In the previous configuration the small conduit D was blocked by a pin


which is the armature of the solenoid E and which is pushed down by a spring. If the
solenoid is activated by drawing the pin upwards via magnetic force from the solenoid
current, the water in chamber C will flow through this conduit D to the output side of the
valve. The pressure in chamber C will drop and the incoming pressure will lift the
diaphragm thus opening the main valve. Water now flows directly from A to F.

 
 
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When the solenoid is again deactivated and the conduit D is
closed again, the spring needs very little force to push the diaphragm down again and the
main valve closes. In practice there is often no separate spring, the elastomer diaphragm is
moulded so that it functions as its own spring, preferring to be in the closed shape.

From this explanation it can be seen that this type of


valve relies on a differential of pressure between input and output as the pressure at the
input must always be greater than the pressure at the output for it to work. Should the
pressure at the output, for any reason, rise above that of the input then the valve would open
regardless of the state of the solenoid and pilot valve.

In some solenoid valves the solenoid acts directly on the main valve. Others use a small,
complete solenoid valve, known as a pilot, to actuate a larger valve. While the second type
is actually a solenoid valve combined with a pneumatically actuated valve, they are sold and
packaged as a single unit referred to as a solenoid valve. Piloted valves require much less
power to control, but they are noticeably slower. Piloted solenoids usually need full power
at all times to open and stay open, where a direct acting solenoid may only need full power
for a short period of time to open it, and only low power to hold it.

 
 
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11.5ENGINEERING WORK
An overall engineering work flow is shown below:

11.5.1 ENGINEERING ENVIRONMENT

There are potentially the following two types of engineering environments:

‡ Engineering on the target system.

‡ Engineering on other than the target system

 
 
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11.5.2DOWNLOADING

There are two types of downloading to the target system

1) Online downloading

2)0ffline downloading.

Ë? Online downloading is just appending the modifications made in the project


to the already existing image of the project in the CPL: of the FCS.

Ë? Offline downloading is already existing image in the CPI; of FCS is deleted


completely and replaced by the new image of the project. Offline
downloading is performed when one of the following changes are performed.

ë? When adding an FCS

ë? When the FCS properties have been changed.

In the Tanker Loading Automation System we created the program in the Test Function
mode of Yokogawa¶s software, virtually created the scenario and environment of a Tanker
loading station and put it to Test function and successfully filled the set value of material to
a tanker by provide different criteria¶s viz., Permissiveness, flow rate in pipe, pump start
etc.

In the programming part different configurations are done they are as follow:-

 
 
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11.6 I/O CONFIGURATION

The IOM Configuration of the FCS includes following steps:

1. First Step is to create a New Node to hold the IOM.

2. Second Step is to create new IOM in the newly created Node. This step includes
specifying the category of the IOM type and respective IOM in that particular category.

3. Third Step includes configuration of individual channels of the newly created IOM and
attaching P&ID tag names and Labels to individual channels of the IOM.

The following figure gives the description of the configuring individual channel of
IOM and attaching P&ID Tag Name and Labels to individual channel.

 
 
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11.6.1 CONFIGURATION OF DIGITAL IOM.

1) Create new Digital IOM as shown below.

2) Second step is to configure individual channel of the IOM created. Attach a Tag name to
individual channel.

 
 
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11.7 CONTROL DRAWING

A control drawing represents the control instruments


responsible for overall control of a small section of the plant. And typically contains several
function blocks. A control drawing may be used to implement cascade control or
combustion fuel/air ratio control.

 
 
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11.8 SEQUENCE TABLE

The sequence table function block defines the sequence control function
by the decision table method. To start and create the sequence table, follow the procedure
below.

‡ Set the process timing.

‡ Set the tau, name and data item of the condition signal.

‡ Set the tag name and data item of the operation signal.

‡ Set the data of the condition signal.

‡ Set the data of the operation signal.

‡ Set the comment of the condition signal.

‡ Set the comment of the operation signal.

‡ Set the step label.

‡ Set the condition rules.

‡ Set the operation rules.

‡ Set the next step label.

 
 
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Fig.Sequence table

 
 
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11.9 LOGIC CHART

The Control Drawing Builder is used to edit control


drawings, such as registering or deleting of function blocks and changing of wiring or thy
cintr order. The edit window of the Control Drawing Builder consists o t the function block
list pane and the drawing pane. On the function block list pane. functiµ,n blocks can be
registered and the control order can be changed. On the drawing pane, block symbols
(function blocks and connetion blocks) and wiring diagrams can be created. Drawn function
blocks are autoinatically registered on the function block list pane. The control drawing
shown below is the main program of our Tanker Automation system by gate operations on
different tags.

 
 
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11.10GRAPHICS

To start the Graphic Builder, there are the following methods:

Ë? Specify and start the Graphic Builder file from System View.
Ë? Start the Graphic Builder file from the Windows start menu or short-cut icon

The Graphic window is assumed to have been created in Systen View.

 
 
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Graphically represented the whole Tanker Loading System with the Yokogawa Centum CS-
3000 graphical option and create the outline so the system will be more user friendly.

Fig. Multiple Window Control

Here we can control or view multiple functions done by the DCS.This window also give
details of current running pumps and other details in a overall look of entire process.

 
 
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12. CONCLUSION

DCS is a relatively new entry into the field control system


engineering. A majority of the plants across India still uses the analog electronic and PLC
based control systems. But the DCS technology is widely being accepted by the plants. DCS
can integrate all the control systems of the plant in a single console based control, thus
revolutionizing the way the plant functions.

Only a few companies have so far ventured into the production of


DCS as a feasible and viable product but these include some of the best names in the field
of control systems like YOKOGAWA, TATA HONEYWELL, ABB ETC.

Our project of HINDUSTAN ORGANIC CHEMICALs


Ltd.,Cochin was done in YOKOGAWA CENTUM CS 3000. The aim of our project was to
configure the DCS so as to design a terminal automation system. The excellent team effort
and inspiring atmosphere made working on this project a memorable experience. The hands
on experience of working on plant and interacting with its employees helped to imbibe
certain qualities which will go a long way in helping us in our careers.

 
 
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1 . BIBLIOGRAPHY

¦? YOKOGAWA CENTUM CS 3000 INSTRUCTION MANUAL

¦? INSTRUMENTATION TRAINING MANUAL HOCL

¦? FINISHED PRODUCT HANDLING- TRAINING MANUAL HOCL

¦? www.yokogawa.com

¦? www.google.co.in

¦? www.wikipedia.org

¦? www2.emersonprocess.com

 
 
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