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American University of Sharjah

College of Engineering

Chemical Engineering Department

Transport Phenomena Lab II (CHE 451)

Writing Assignment

Effects of Temperature and Concentration on Diffusivity Coefficient

AbdulahIbraheem Al Hamadi

@29371

October 21st 2010c

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Diffusivity or diffusion coefficient is the proportionality constant between the molar


flux (J) due to molecular diffusion and the concentration gradient (which is the driving force
of mass transfer) of certain species in a mixture. The diffusion coefficient depends upon
temperature, pressure, and concentration (composition) of the system [1]. In this paper, the
effects of temperature and concentration on the diffusion coefficient will be discussed.

First of all, as one might expect from the consideration of the mobility of the molecules,
the diffusion coefficients are generally higher for gases than for liquids which are higher than
the values reported for solids. For example, Carbon dioxide in air has a diffusion coefficient
of (16×10-6 m²/s), and in water its coefficient is (16×10-10 m²/s)[2].Based on this the effect of
temperature on the diffusion coefficient is not the same for the three phases. In general, as the
temperature increases the diffusion coefficient increases. The dependence of the diffusion
coefficient on temperature for gases can be expressed using the following equation [3]:

  

    
*  
  

Where:i: Temperature (K), : molar mass (g/mol), : pressure (atm), ȍ: a temperature-


dependent collision integral (dimensionless), DAB: diffusion coefficient (cm2/s),

and       which is the average collision diameter (Å).

So it can be seen that for gases the relation between diffusion coefficient and temperature is
given by:

*  

An approximate dependence of the diffusion coefficient on temperature in liquids can often


be found using Stokes-Einstein equation, which predicts that:

Where: T1 and T2 denote temperatures 1 and 2, respectively, D is the diffusion coefficient


(cm²/s), T is the absolute temperature (K), and ȝ is the dynamic viscosity of the solvent (Pa·s)
So it can be seen that for liquid the relation between diffusion coefficient and temperature is
given by:
*  

Finally The diffusion coefficient in solids at different temperatures is related to temperature


by the following equation:

Where: D is the diffusion coefficient, Dois the maximum diffusion coefficient (at infinite
temperature), EAis the activation energy for diffusion in dimensions of (energy per amount of
substance), T is the temperature (K or oR), and R is the gas constant in dimensions of (energy
per temperature per amount of substance).

The effect of concentration on the diffusion coefficient can be seen from the equation:

 
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From this equation it can be seen that as the concentration gradient increases the diffusion
coefficient increases. Also, the values of liquid diffusion coefficients reveals that they depend
on concentration due to the changes in viscosity with concentration and the changes in the
degree of ideality of the solution.
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[1]Welty, J. R., Wicks, C.E. (1969). Fundamentals of Momentum, Heat, and Mass
Transfer.USA: Wiley.

[2] http://www.cco.caltech.edu/~brokawc/Bi145/Diffusion.html

[3] E.L. Cussler, "Diffusion. Mass Transfer in Fluid Systems", 2nd edition, Cambridge
University Press, 1997