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Transition of Teaching English Focusing Reading

in Philippine Educational System

1. 1898 – 1925 – The Speak, Read and Write English Movement

 Total immersion of the Filipino child in the learning of English in schools.
 Experimentation in the use of textbooks and reading materials in the early
 English was used in the classroom and premises.
 Children were fined or punished or chided if they spoke native language.
 Methods of teaching were meant to have a feel for the rhythm of the English
1. Direct Method – did not allow translation
2. Grammar Analysis – parts of speech and diagramming.
3. Standard’s for Oral Reading
2. 1925 – 1935 – Indigenization of English Movement
 Search for teaching and learning materials that expressed Filipino culture,
sentiments, ideals and aspirations (recommended by Monroe Survey
1. Silent Reading (thought – getting)
2. Unit Method or Morisonian Technique teachers, write their own units to fit the
ability of their classes (most important contribution was the idea that subject
matter for teaching need not follow strictly what was in the textbook.
3. Demonstration Lessons most favored method of making teachers learn how to
3. 1935 – 1950 – The Vernacular and Wikang Pambansa Movement
 Profoundly changed the status of the English language and ELT in the Philippines
due to the establishment of the transition government (Commonwealth of the
Philippines – 1935 – 1945), Japanese occupation during WW II – 1941 – 1945) and
the change of status from being a colony of US to political independence with the
establishment of the Republic of the Philippines.
 Characterized by a neglect of the classroom, emphasizing more on teacher
development in higher degree – seminars, workshops, and seminar – workshops.
4. 1950 – 1974 – English as a Second Language Movement
 was marked by three overlapping phrases.
 Dominance of the teaching of English as a second language movement (1957 – 1974)
 Use of vernacular languages as media of instruction in the first 2 grades of
elementary school, hence the Vernacular Movement.
 Movement for the Advancement of Nationalism (MAN) which presented a program for
the eventual replacement of English by the national language, Filipino as the main
medium of instruction.
 Teaching method was based on Skinnerian verbal conditioning formation of habits
through positive or negative reinforcement.