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2.5%

GS= 100 KTS

GS= 120 KTS

Usefull flying formulas

Climb and descent gradients

2.5% GS= 100 KTS GS= 120 KTS 3° Usefull flying formulas Climb and descent gradients GS
2.5% GS= 100 KTS GS= 120 KTS 3° Usefull flying formulas Climb and descent gradients GS
2.5% GS= 100 KTS GS= 120 KTS 3° Usefull flying formulas Climb and descent gradients GS
2.5% GS= 100 KTS GS= 120 KTS 3° Usefull flying formulas Climb and descent gradients GS
GS x % = FPM 100 x 2.5 = 250 (GS x 5) + 50 =
GS
x
% = FPM
100 x 2.5 = 250
(GS
x
5) + 50 = FPM
120
x
5 = 600 FPM
600
+ 50 = 650 FPM

In this example the GS is multiplied by 5. The reason is that 3° correspond to 5,2%, Therefore we add 50ftm to compensate.

Determination of the top of decent

TOD *DEC TOD = (ALT DIFF : 1000) x 3 FL330 ALT DIFF ; 33000 -1000
TOD
*DEC
TOD = (ALT DIFF : 1000) x 3
FL330
ALT DIFF ; 33000 -1000 = 32000 ft
32000 :1000 = 32
32 x 3 =96 Nm
X = 96
FL100
ELEV 1000
* Consider to build in a deceleration step. 1 min of
X
level-off at hi speed. Ex; 300 kts : 60 = 5 Nm.
Adapt this calculation to your acft performance!
ALT DIFF

Determination of altitude vs distance

0.0 Nm 1,0 Nm 2.0 Nm 3.0 Nm 600 ft/gnd 800 ft/elev
0.0 Nm
1,0 Nm
2.0 Nm
3.0 Nm
600 ft/gnd
800 ft/elev
DME x 300 = gnd alt 2 x 300 = 600ft/gnd gnd alt + ELEV =
DME
x
300 = gnd alt
2 x 300 = 600ft/gnd
gnd alt + ELEV = indicated alt
600 + 800= 1400ft on altimeter

Speed=180 kts

Determination of rate one turn

360°= 2 min 180°= 1 min
360°= 2 min
180°= 1 min
X = (speed:10) + 7 180 : 10 = 18 18 + 7 = 25 X
X = (speed:10) + 7
180 : 10 = 18
18 + 7 = 25
X = 25°

Only calculating the correct bank angle with the above formula you Will obtain 360° in 2 minutes. In IFR all turns are considered rate one unless specified differently.

X
X

Determination of the distance to the centre line

270° 300° α= 30° DME 12.0 X
270°
300°
α= 30°
DME 12.0
X
Sin 30 = 0,5 X = DME : Sin 30 X = 12 : 0,5 =
Sin 30 = 0,5
X = DME : Sin 30
X = 12 : 0,5 = 6
X = 6 Nm

This formula is very useful but you need to consider the intercept turn. In that case the distance to the centre line may be shorter and therefore you may find your self hi on profile. Extrapolating between 45° and 10° is useful, above 45° and below 10° is useless. Ex: 30° and 12Nm = 6Nm // 15° and 12Nm = 3Nm and so on. To use this formula you need: VOR-DME or VOR + ILS-DME or NDB + DME.