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QUalemllry lnternationai, Vol. 17, pp. 49-55, 1993. Printed in Great Britain.

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Perla A. Imbellone" and Mario E. Teruggir

"Instituto de Geomorfologia y Suelos, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 3 No 584 (1900), La Plata, Argentina t Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad de La Plata, Argentina

Paleosol studies are in their first stages in Argentina. As far as we know, the soil and paleosols correspond to buried Alfisols and Mollisols with hydromorphic and carbonatic features. The paleosol sequences on loess arc made up of a succession of B or C horizons which, furthermore, are polygenetic as a result of encroachment of each pedogenesis on the underlying loess mantle. Differences in mineral composition are scarce, with the exception of increases in glass shards and phytoliths in some loess mantles. The b-fabric is mostly stipple-speckled or mosaic-speckled, and microlaminatcd day coatings are very common. There are also amorphous features related to voids or to the soil matrix. Evidences of biological activity are present 3S an excremental fabric on which a fissure microstructure is superimposed. The paleosol sequences consist of several loessoid mantles, each corresponding to a depositional pulse followed by a quiescent pulse, during which pedogenesis took place. Truncation is considered to be due to eolian/fluviatile erosion, Also, there probably are A horizons masked by alteration and pedogenesis. A pedogenetic origin of the calcretes with redeposition in the buried paleosols is assumed.


The Argentine Pampa is the largest Ioessic plain in the southern hemisphere. Paleosols are very abundant and the stratigraphic sequence where they occur spans the Pleistocene and Holocene. As far as we know today all these paleosols are buried soils.

With a thickness which exceeds 40 m, the loessic deposits (first recognized as such by Heusser and Claraz, 1866) are made up of superposed layers or mantles of varying thickness, usually one or two meters. Discontinuities separate the various layers, which as early as the twenties (Frenguelli, 1921, 1925) were recognized as primary and secondary or reworked loess (,limos'). Modern research (Mucher , 1986) which has stressed the importance of rainwash and after flow for the formation of rnacrolaminated deposits confirms Frenguelli's pioneer observations. This author offered a list of physical characters for the recognition of primary and secondary loess. As secondary loess deposits vastly predominate over primary ones, most paleosols described occur in reworked loess.


It is no more than 20 years that geologists and afterwards pedologists have become interested in paleosols. Paleosols were first suspected in the Mar del Plata-Miramar coastal cliffs (Kraglievich, 1952; Terug~ et al., 1958), but ascertained identifications on the basis of micromorphological and quantitative data were only made in the seventies. Teruggi and Andreis (1971a,b) recognized paleosols levels in Mesozoic and Cainozoic sequences and Teruggi (1971) drew the attention of geologists to the importance and characteristics of paleosols. Teruggi et al. (1973) made the first detailed textural, mineralogical, structural and chemi-

cal study of three superposed Quaternary paleosols in Sierra Bachicha, some 60 km west of Mar del Plata.

Simultaneously, Fidalgo and coworkers (1973a .b) identified three buried paleosols in the eastern edge of the 'depressed Pampa', of Late Pleistocene and Holocene age. At about the same time, Tricart (1973) mentioned the occurrence of paleosols in the PIa tense Formation (Upper Quaternary). Teruggi et al. (1974) described, in the cliffs 27 krn southeast of Mar del Plata, a sequence of twelve superposed paleosols in a classical Quaternary sequence.

In the eighties, geological contributions came from two groups of workers. The La Plata group worked on paleosols in or near the city. Imbellone and Teruggi (1986) recognized through field and micromorphological studies a sequence of six superposed buried soils under the present soil. Riggi et al. (1986) also determined ten paleosols in the Upper Cainozoic in La Plata. Researches carried out at the Institute of Geomorphology and Soils of La Plata University have resulted in a number of papers (Imbellone and Teruggi, 1987, 1988a,b; Teruggi and Imbellone, 1987, 1988) mostly on paleosols near La Plata. Imbellone and Camilion (1984, 1988), have worked in the western part of the Buenos Aires Province. In the same area, Dillon et aZ. (1985) and Hurtado et al. (1985) have recognized three levels of buried soils (geosols).

The other group, with base at Mar del Plata, has produced a series of papers dealing with the geology and paleopedology of Pleistocene-Holocene sequences in the coastal area (Osterrieth and Schnack, 1984; Zarate and Fasano, 1984, 1989; Zarate, 1986, 1989; Zarate and Blasi, 1988).

Further contributions from the eighties have come from soil scientists working at INTA, who for the last ten years have been mapping and describing buried soils in several areas of the Buenos Aires Province and



sequences in the interior of the Province have not been studied, as there are scarce well documented drillings, As a result, our present knowledge of the loess deposits is primarily bidimensional with exception of the information gathered at cliffs and bluff outcrops. The inland correlation of the coastal sequences is therefore impossible, as only the upper 2-3 III of the former are visible or can be tapped by hand drillings. Even the old profiles, on which some of the loess stratigraphic knowledge was based, lack the necessary scientific control.

The real extent of loessic deposits and associated paleosols is unknown. In relation to surficial deposits, they become sandier towards the west and southwest, so that the western part of the Province is made up of fine sandy sediments which maintain the color and aspect of loessic materials. Many of these deposits are clearly associated to eroded sand dunes, and others make up extensive sand sheets.

The subsurface older sequences, the pre-Holocene ones, apparently do not follow closely the textural westward coarsening of the surficial modern deposits, but no study has been made on this subject.

P.A. Imbellone and M.E. Teruggi

the adjoining Santa Fe, La Pampa and Cordoba Provinces (INTA-PLP-UNLP, 1980; INTA, 1984, 1985, 1986).

With a few exceptions, the Pampean paleosols have not been investigated in detail, and there tore they are insufficiently known from the mineralogical, textural, structural and pedological points of view. Nevertheless, both geologists and soil scientists, have proved the common occurrence of paleosols in the Pampean loessic sequences, or in the sandy deposits of western Buenos Aires Province (Fig. 1).


As demonstrated in other parts of the world, the study of loessic paleosols is extremely useful to determine a number of important questions concerning the Quaternary and/or earlier surface earth processes. In the case of the Pampas, the greatest hindrance is the lack of absolute age determinations. Another limitation is the insufficient regional representativeness of buried soils recognized so far. Notwithstanding these shortcomings, some general points can be considered about the paleosols and loess deposits.

Occurrence of Loess Deposits

In a sedimentary and physiographical sense the loessic Pampas include Buenos Aires Province (with exception of a coastal belt in the northeast and the area west and south of Bahia Blanca) and neighboring portions of the provinces of Entre Rios, Santa Fe, Cordoba and La Pampa.

Within this vast area there are tracts where loessic sediments are thin or absent, such as the Ventania and Tandilia ranges (the latter with mantles of loess 6-8 m thick) and the Rio Salado Basin, usually known as Depressed Pampas, where fluviatile and paludal Holocene deposits cover the loessoid sequences or intermingle with them. Observations of usually very thin loessoid sequences are limited to coastal cliffs, river or lacunar bluffs and similar outcrops. The subsurficial

Characteristics of Pampean Loess

On the whole, Pampean loess is both similar and different to the northern hemisphere loesses. The differences are due to its derivation from volcanic parental rocks. The similarities derive from a more or less comparable texture and color.

The volcaniclastic ancestry of Pampean loess is reflected in its sand-size mineralogy: abundant medium to basic plagioclase grains, scarce quartz and K. feldspars, abundant litho clasts of volcanic rocks (andesites, basalts, lacites, rare rhyolites) and frequent glass shards (Fig. 2a,b,c), usually unaltered or etched by dissolution. Heavy minerals are mainly ortho- and c1inopyroxenes, amphiboles and titaniferous magnetite. A small proportion of opal particles, derived from plant (phytoliths, diatoms frustules) or animal remains (sponge spicules), is normally present (Fig. 2c). The

FIG. L Areas where buried soils have been mentioned or described. (W) Thapto argic Hapludoll: (E) Typic Argialboll,

Paleosols in Loess Deposits


FIG. 2. (a) Pumice glass shard with ovoid small vesicles. 63---11S!-t11l fraction. E profile (530 - + em) SElvI 2.000 X. (b) Detail of (a) showing the mainly unaltered surface of the glass shard. SEM 5.000 X. (c) Wall of glass shard altered by etching. Smaller grains are seen in the interior of channels. 88---125 urn fraction. Paleosols near La Plata City. SElvI 5.000 x_ (d) Phytolithic and zoolithic opal as diatoms frustules and sponge spicules in a matrix of soil. Also glass shards. Paleosols near La Plata City.

4Bt3kb6 (725 + em). lvI. Pol. PPL 50X.

clay minerals are mainly illitic and montmorillonitic, with kaolinite as a subordinate constituent (Fig. 3).

As a very minor authigenic constituent, barite is found in some hydromorphic paleohorizons. They occur in pockets, cracks or voids in acicular or tabular crystals (Fig. 4c), and in the micritic mass of calcretes (Fig. 4d).

The composition of Pampean loess is very uniform SlIyein relation to glass shard contents (Table 1). They are extremely useful in correlating loess mantles and paleosols.

The Pampean loessic sequences show small variations in texture (Table 1); their predominant com posilion is that of silty clay loam or silty loam, either primary or reworked. The grain size of the Pampean loess is somewhat coarser - Md» 4.00--5.00 - than the loesses of the northern hemisphere, for example, the 'normal' loess of China which is Mcp: 5.6 (Liu, 1985). Paleosolic levels are somewhat finer in texture, with M$ between 6 and 7. Grain coarseness increases toward the west and southwest, as the source areas of theeoliall parental material are approached. Predominant sediment laden winds blow from the southwest

and west. Parental material are for the most part detritus-producing tuff and tuffaceous deposits typical of the Cainozoic explosive volcanism of Patagonia and western Argentina.

Loess Deposition

The origin of the Pampas seems to be in accordance with the general interpretation that attributes an allochthonous character to the deposits, representing eolian accumulations in the form of Ioessic mantles (layers) which have undergone successive reworkings and pedogeneses. Sedimentation does not seem to be continuous, but episodic, with cumulative events separated by non-cumulative episodes. The result (as described by Teruggi and Imbellone, 1987; Zarate and Blasi, 1988) is a rhythmic sequence of superposed buried soils developed on layers whose thickness is usually under 2 m. This alternation of non aggrading and degrading pulses seems to be as general in the Pampas as in other Ioessic areas of the world.

Reworking of the eolian loessic mantles is mostly due to hydric agents acting in the form of rivers, rivulets, run-off and lacunar or marshy water bodies.


The erosion-deposition cycles have modified the original massive structure and produced macro and microlaminations, clayey or silty phenoclasts in a finer matrix, retransported nodules of calcretes, pebbles from former pedogenetic horizons, etc.

P.A. Imbellone and M.E. Teruggi

Thapfo-argic Hapludoll


Btl et :

BCk Paieosot«

}BA kb} 28Wkb}




2 e{Cu KO()

FIG. 3. X-ray diffraction pattern of less than 2 ,lID fraction. Profile W, Natural Mg oriented (A); saturated with ethylene glycol (B) samples.

Buried Soils

Illimerization is the most important pedological process in the pampas, either in present soils or paleosols. Textural pedological features are similar in the sequences but their degree of development varies with the locality. Textural pedological features are represented in present soils by well or poorly developed clay coatings. Paleosols also contain clay coatings, claysilt microlaminations (Fig. 4a), hypocoatings, and papules distributed in the matrix. Hydromorphic arnorphous features consist of ferruginous and manganiferous mottles and nodules; in some cases they are more evident in the lower paleosols. Present soils have a striated b-Iabric in Bt horizons, whereas paleosols show a predominant stipple-speckled fabric in the same horizons. Calcium carbonate makes up a crystallitic b-fabric.

On the whole, buried soils of the Pampas are devoid of recognizable eluvial horizons, i.e. they are truncated, and due to the moderate thickness of each loess layer, they consist of illuvial and/or C horizons which have been affected by more than one pedogenesis.

TABLE l. Characteristics of soil-paleosol sequences
Textural composition
Depth Sand Silt Clay O.C. C03Ca Color ash
Properties Horizons (ern) (%) (%) (%) (%) ('Yo) dry (% 88--125 urn)
Al 0-18 50.1 37,1 13.3 0,61 lOYR 512 31.S
Thaplo argic tephra 18-20 40.2 47.2 12.4 080 N8/0 89.9
HapludoU A2 20-26 47,6 33.3 15.5 1.22 10YR 5/2 33.8
(W profile) AC 26----33 54.0 33.7 21.1 0.76 75YR 612 26,8
C 33-43 58.2 28.0 13.9 0.61 7.5YR 713 19.0
2 Btb 43-55 46,4 29.7 23.9 049 7.5YR 5/4 25.0
2 Btkb 55-78 63.9 25.6 10.4 0.20 3.4 7.5YR 6/5 18.0
2 BCkb 78--135 65.3 25,9 7.7 0.07 2.0 7.5YR 715 20.5
2 Ckb 135-194 64.5 27.4 8.2 0.11 5.2 7.5YR 7/3 21.3
Typic Argialboll A 0----23 8.9 78.9 12.3 1.19 10YR 412 30.4
(E profile) E 23--31 8.8 82.7 10.0 1.02 lOYR 612 31,S
Btl 31-57 3.4 43.6 53.1 1.79 7.5YR 5/4 29.2
Bt2 57-87 11,4 37.3 51.2 093 7.5YR 6/2 25.9
BCk 87-145 4.2 57.7 37.5 0.24 7,5YR 6/4 27.3
2 Btkbl 145-160 5.4 6:14 33.2 0.17 0.4 7.5YR 5/4 22.0
2 Ckbl 160-2lO 6.2 66.9 27.0 0.14 0.4 7.SYR 614 23.4
2 BAkb2 210-2S0 10.6 66.0 23.5 0.11 1.3 7.5YR 5/4 15.3
2 Bwkb2 250-330 9.6 48.3 42.1 0.10 2.8 7,5YR 5/4 13.4
3 Bwklb3 330----370 7.7 42.6 46.7 0.10 0.7 7.SYR 6/4 5,5
3 Bwk2b3 370-400 6.5 45.9 47,3 0.09 2,1 7.5YR 6/4 7.9
4 Btkgb4 400----445 8,3 55.1 36.6 0.08 1.8 SY 7/2 20.0
5 Btkbf 445---485 24.9 57.5 17.7 n,d. 4.1 7.5YR 7/3 16.0
5 BCtkbS 485-530 20.9 64,0 15.1 n.d. 1.9 7,5YR 713 15,7
6 Cb6 530----+ 56.6 39.9 4.5 n.d, 0.9 7.5YR 7/3 60.2 Paleosols in Loess Deposits


FIG. 4. (a) Compound layered textural pedofeature infilling a large channel. Silt and microiaminated clay. Paleosols near La Plata City. 2Btkb3. PPL SOX. (b) Sparitic crystal of calcite in calcretes infilling a planar void. La Plata City. SEM 5.000 X. (c) Acicular micro lites of barite in a void in the soil matrix. E profile. 4 Btkgb-l (400-445 em). M.Pel., PPL, SOX. (d) Detail of barite

crystal in calcretes near Mar del Plata City. 'Barranca de los Lobos'. SEM 75 X.

Nevertheless the superposed polygenetic buried soils have been formed by similar pedogenic processes.

The loess mantles correspond to the unstable phase, constituted by a depositional pulse which was followed by a stable phase, a non depositional pulse leading to soil development. The establishment of the subsequent cycle is initiated by a brief erosional activity preceding the loess depositions. Erosion has truncated the soil, prior to its burial under a new loess mantle.

The universal truncation has been ascribed to erosion, but the phenomenon is so perfectly cyclic that this interpretation docs not seem to be entirely correct. More work is needed in this field, and the loessic Pampas are an almost ideal ground for this type of research.

Truncation is then as cyclic as sedimentation and pedogenesis, and all together they have caused the superposition of at least ten buried soils in the Pampas (Riggi et ai., 19K6; Teruggi et al., 1974), and thirty in loess exposures in Tipcng. China (Guo and Fednroff, 1990).

The Pampean paleosols contain on the whole a small proportion of calcium carbonate in the groundmass (less than 10%), but carbonate forms are common as

coatings, nodules, veins, laminae and crusts associated to cracks, voids and discontinuity surfaces. Entrapped carbonate, usually soft and fluffy. as micritic calcite is more common in Holocene snits. while the hard calcretes as typic and septaric micrite nodules are typical of buried soils in Pleistocene sequences.

In the eastern Pampean region calcretes are neither laminae nor continuous. III contrast with typical crust of southern and western Buenos Aires Province. Calcretes are made lip 01 \·cry fine micrite with crystal sizes less than 4 urn. The micrite is massive, but sometimes presents an ill-defined clotted structure. In the micrite mass there arc embedded argillans. Voids and fissure infillings arc made up of sparitic calcite (Fig. 4b).

Replacement of the finer fraction of loess was intensive, so that at least 80% of the calcretes is calcium carbonate, and this content may be as high as 99%. No organic structure is preserved in the rhizoconcretions, which are internally massive. A descriptive interpretation of the carbonate forms, locally known as 'toscas' has been made by Imbellone and Teruggi (1987). It is assumed that the carbonate forms are secondary and derived from bicarbonate circulation and impregnation of Ioessic groundmass, or infilling. In Pleistocene


Guo, ZT, and Fedoroff, N, (1990). Genesis of calcium carbonate in loess and in paleosols in central China. In: Douglas, L.A. (ed.), Soil Micromorphology: A Basic and Applied Science. Developments in Soil Science, pp, 355--359. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 716 pp,

Heusser, J. and Claraz, G. (1866). Essais pour servir a line description physique et geognostique de la Province Argentine de Buenos Ayres. Memoires Socieu: Helvetique des Sciences Naiurelles, Zurich, 21, 139 pp.

Hurtado, M., Dillon, A" Gimenez, 1. and Castillo, R. (1985), Incidencia de facto res pedogeneticos en los suelos del Partido de Carlos Tejedor. Provincia de Buenos Aires. Actas Primeras Jornadas Geologicas Bonaerenses, 751-763.

Irnbellone, P. and Camilion, M. (1984). Aplicacion de diferentes criterios para identificar discontinuidades litologicas. Partido de Carlos Tcjedor. Provincia de Buenos Aires, Ciencia del Suelo, 2, 149-158.

Imbellone , P. and Camili6n, M. (1988). Characterization of the buried tephra layer in soils in Argentina. Pedologic, XXXVlll, I 55-IT!.

Imbellone , P. and Teruggi, IVI. (1986). Morfologia y micromorfologia de toscas de algunos paleosuelos en el area de La Plata. Ciencia del Suelo, 4, 209--215.

Irnbeilone , P. and Teruggi, M. (1987). Discontinuous calcretes in loessic paleosols near La Plata, Argentina. In: Federoff, N" Bresson, L. and Courty, M. (eels), Soil Micromorphology, pp. 625- 630. Ass. Fr. l'Et. du SoL France.

Imbcllone, P. and Teruggi, M. (1988a). Micromorphological interpretations of buried loessic paleosols of Late Quaternary and Holocene age. Argentina. Abs. Jilt. Work. Meet, Soil Micromorphology, p. 60.

Imbellone , P. and Teruggi, M. (1988b). Secuencia suelo-paleosuelo en el Cuaternario Superior bonaerense de la zona de La Plata. Provincia de Buenos Aires. Resumen XII Congreso Argentino. Ciencia del Suela, p. 35.

T.N.T.A., Provincia de La Pampa - Universidad Nacional de La Plata (1980), lnventario lntegrado de los Recursos Naturales de I~ Provincia de La Pampa, Clima, Geomorjologia, Suelos y Vegem· don. Buenos Aires, 493 pp.

LN.T.A. (1984). Carta de Suelos de la Republica Argentina. Hoja 3563-6, Villa Canas, Cordoba, 118 pp.

LNT.A. (1985). Carla de Suelos de /a Republica Argentina. Hoja 3563-5, Sancti .Spfritu, Santa Fe, IU8 pp.

[N,T.A. (1986). Carta de Suelos de la Republica Argentina. HOj8 3363-29, Arias, COrdoba. 84 pp.

Kraglievich, J. (1952). EI perf I geologico de Chapadmalal )' Miramar, Provincia de Buenos Aires. Revista Museo de Mar del Plata, Argentina, 1, 8-37.

Liu, T. (ed.) (1985), Loess and the Environment. China Ocean Press, Beijing, China, 251 pp.

Mucher, H. (1986). Aspects of loess and derived slope deposits: an experimental and micromorphological approach. Nederlandse Geografische Studies, 23, 263 pp.

Osterrieth, M. and Schnack, E. (1984). EI perfil de Mar de Cobo (Partido de Mar Chiquita, Provincia de Buenos Aires). Caracteristicas de sus paleosuelos y posibles correlaciones. Aetas Simposio Oscilaciones del Nivel del mar Durante el Ultimo Hemidclo Deglacial en la Argentina, 101-107.

Pazos, M.S. (1.990). Some features and processes associated with the caliche under humid climate, Balcarce. Argentina. Pedologic, XL, 141-154.

Riggi, J., Fidalgo, P., Martinez, O. and Porro, N. (J986). Geologia de los "Sedimentos Pampeanos" en el Partido de La Plata. Asociacion Geologica. Argentina. Revista, XLI, 316-333,

Teruggi, M, (1971), Criterios para el rcconocimiento y estudio de los paleosuelos y recornendaciones del Grupo de trabajo sobre el origen y la naturaleza de los paleosuelos. Asociacion Geologica Argentina. Revista, 26, 485-490.

Teruggi, M. and Andreis, R. (1971a). Micromorphological rccognition of paleosolic features in sedimentary rocks. In: Yaalon, H. (ed.), Paleopedology, pp. 161-17. Jerusalen,

Teruggi, M. and Andreis, R. (1971b). Microcstructura pedologica; caractertsticas, distribucion en sedimentos argentinos y posible aplicacion en sedimentologta. Asociacion Geologica Argentina. Revista, 26, 491-502.

Teruggi.rlvl. and Imbellone, P. (1987), Paleosuelos loessicos super· puestos en el Pleistocene Superior Holoceno de la region de La Plata. Provincia de Buenos Aires. Ciencia del Suelo, 5, 175-188, Teruggi, M. and Imbellone, P. (1988). Paleosuelos de la Region Parnpeana. Relato Segundas Iornadas de Suelos de la RegiOn Pampeana. La Plata, 41-66.

P,A. Imbellone and M,E. Te(uggi

paleosols, mobilization of calcium carbonate has almost depleted the soil mass, so that it is concentrated in fractures as infillings. Most calcretes in the Pampas are a part of a sedimentary and pedogenic cycle. More information on the toscas of SE Buenos Aires Province is available from Pazos (1990).


The mineralogical and textural similarities of the Pampean loesses (Table 1), both in the present soils and in the paleosols, have complicated the stratigraphical relationships of the deposits. Table 1 shows that soils and paleosols are sandy loams in the west Pampas and silty or clay loams in the eastern Pampas, but in both cases differences are minimal in the surface and buried soils. Paleosols are then very important for loessic correlations and) of course, for paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental interpretations.

Micromorphology has been instrumental for identification of buried paleosols. In this point, recognition of paleopedological features has been fundamental for: (1) identification of paleosol levels in otherwise homogeneous sequences; (2) establishment of successive pedogenesis with stratigraphical value; and (3) characterization of soil of the past and their environmental significance. Concerning the latter point, it is to be noted, that, so far, no evidences have been found of paleosols formed under totally different conditions to those of today. Mollisols and Alfisols are the dominant present soils, and textural features are represented in them by clay coatings. Paleosols also contain clay and clay-silt microlaminations. Papules as well as detrital calcretes, with abrupt limits, and cut-across internal fabrics, emphasize the reworked character of some paleosol levels.

Climatic variations, with the exception of hydromorphic intercalations, have only produced minor variations in the characteristics of the Mollisol sequences formed under udiclaquic conditions. Hydromorphic features, particularly in the northern exposures, increase with increasing age of the deposits, without changing the udic/aquic regime of the soii.


Dillon, A" Hurtado, M., Gimenez, J. and Castillo, R. (1985).

Consideraciones geomortologicas y estratigraficas como base del carteo de suelos de lin sector de la pampa arenosa, Provincia de Buenos Aires. Aetas Primeras Iornadas Geoiogicas Bonaerenses, 737-749.

Fidalgo, F., De Francesco, F. and Colado, U. (1973a). Geologia superficial en las Hojas Castelli, J .M. Cobo y Monasterio. Provincia de Buenos Aires. Aetas V Congreso Geologico Argen· tino , IV, 27-39.

Fidalgo, F., Colado , U. and De Francesco, F. (1973b), Sobre ingresiones marinas cuaternarias en los partidos de Castelli, Chascornus y Magdalena. Provincia de Buenos Aires. AClas V Congreso Geologico Argentino, 111, 227-240.

Frenguelli, J. (1921). Los terrenos de I" costa atlantica en los alrededores de Miramar y sus correlacioncs. Boletin Academia Nacional Ciencias, Cordoba, XXVI, 325-385.

Frenguelli, J. (1925), Loess y limos parnpeanos. Anales Sociedad Argentina de Estudios Geograficos Gaea, 1, 1-88.

Paleosols in Loess Deposits


Teruggl, M., Etchichury and Remiro, J. (l958). Estudio sedimeruologico de los terrenos de las Barrancos de la zona de Mar del PlataMiramar. Revista Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Geologia, 4, 107-250.

Teruggi, M., Spalletti, L. and Dalla Salda , L. ('1973). Paleosuelos en la Sierra de Bachicha, Partido de Balcarce, Provincia de Buenos Aires. Revista Museo de La Pima, VIII, 227-256.

Tcruggi, M., Andreis, R., Dalla Salda, L. and Spalletti , L. (1974).

Nuevos criterios para la estratigraffa del Cuaternario de las Barrancas de Mar del Plata-Miramar. Anales LEMITSerie Il , 268, 135-149.

Tricart, J. (1973). Geomorfologia de la pampa deprimida. Coleccion Oenlifiea. INTA, XII. Buenos Aires, 202 pp

Zarate, M. (1986). Perfiles de calcrete y dinarnica sedimentaria.

Resumen Prim era Reunion A rgentina sobrc Sedimentologia, 85-88.

Zarate, M. (1989). Estratigrafia y Geologia del Cenozoico tardio

aflorante ell los acantilados marines comprendidcs entre playa San Carlos y Arroyo Chapadrnalal. Partido de General Pueyrredon, Provincia de Buenos Aires. Tesis Doctoral Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Univcrsidad Nacional de La Plata, lamina, 221 pp.

Zarate, M. and Fasano, J. (1984). Caracterfsticas de Ia sedimentacion pleistocena en III zona de Chapadmalai. Provincia de Buenos Aires. Significado de los paleosuelos y costras calcareas IX Congreso Geologico Argentino. Aetas, IV, 57-75.

Zarate, M. and Fasano, J. (1989). Pleistocene disrupted sedirnentalion in the Pampas plain. Argentina: The Chapadmalal case of study. Abstracts XII INQUA Congress, 294 pp.

Zarate, M. and Blasi, A. (1988). Depositos Ioessicos Pleistoceno rardto-Holoceno del flanco sudoccidental del Sistema de Tandilia Resumen Simposio lntemacional Holocene America de! Sur. CADll\iQUA, 27 pp.