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INTRODUCTION TO LESSON

PLANNING
WHAT ARE YOU EXPECTED TO LEARN TODAY?

Warming-up activities
Pre-speaking activities
Types of Speaking Skills
The speaking process
Pre-activities (Reading, Writing, Listening and
Speaking)
While-activities
Post-activities
They are activities to be used at the
beginning of a lesson

to get students' attention,


to help them put aside distracting thoughts.
to get them ready to focus individually and
as groups on the following activities.
PRE-ACTIVITIES

They
By preparting the
can also help
students with the
key words, the the learners to
amount of focus their
information to attention on
be treated the learning
is reduced. item

Pre- activities introduce


the learners to the topic.
They pre-teach
vocabulary or relevant
structures.
WHICH STRATEGIES MAY I USE FOR
READING AND WRITING ?
In this stage the focus is on accuracy. The learners only read or write a word/sentence if they know how
these are pronounced.
WHAT ARE PRE-READING ACTIVITIES USEFUL FOR?

Let’s go
on
learning

Read more at Suite101: Improving ESL Reading Skills: Teaching Strategies: Pre-reading Activities for the ESL Learner | Suite101.com
http://www.suite101.com/content/improving-esl-reading-skills-a13325#ixzz1LneBWxvP
The Speaking Process

The speaking process includes activities that occur prior


to, during, and after the actual speaking event.

Before speaking, the speaker might determine the actual


content of the message, how it should be presented, and
what kind of audience will be hearing the message.

While speaking, the speaker must attend to such things


as presenting a clear message, tone of voice, suitable
vocabulary, possible responses, the environment, and
nonverbal gestures.

Following speaking, the speaker might accept


comments, answer questions, explain concepts not
understood, and/or assess the process.
WHY IS IT NECESSARY TO DEVELOP SPEAKING SKILLS?
WHICH STRATEGIES MAY I USE FOR
LISTENING AND SPEAKING?

The teacher introduces new vocabulary by means of:

realia or flashcards

WHAT DO THE LEARNERS DO THEN?


Students generate and explore ideas for speaking topics
through a variety of pre-speaking activities such as
the following:

Listening to a speaker Constructing thought webs


and graphic organizers
Jotting down ideas
Reading and researching
Reflecting
Viewing a video Listening to music
Types of speaking activities

Leaving telephone messages

Conversations
In
e l f t
s erv
e s
o on ie
lk i ng t w
Ta
WHAT IS THE LEARNERS’ PURPOSE FOR SPEAKING?

Just as pre-writing precedes drafting, pre-speaking begins before


students actually speak.

Students' experiences, observations, and interactions inside and


outside of the classroom have an impact upon what they say and how
they say it.

Pre-speaking activities involve thought


and reflection, and provide opportunities
for students to plan and organize for speaking.
Asking for
clarification

Appropriacy Accuracy

Speaking
Fluency
Skills
Clarity

Turn-taking Organization

Encouragement

Could these skills be transformed into indicators


for assessment?
WHAT ARE WHILE ACTIVITIES?

While activities
help us to monitor
and structure the
learning process.
They give us mbd.scout.com
immediate
feedback.

They allow for


adjustments and
clarification to
complete an activity
successfully.

red6747.pbworks.com
HOW CAN YOU IMPROVE THESE
KIND OF ACTIVITIES?
The students combine the new language elements with familiar
structures or activities.

They may also infer


and summarize
ideas from the text.
Useful tools for learners to
apply...
This a substitution table
This table a serie of columns
This diagram is something with structure
What’s on the board something that can change
its parts

Ask the learners to suggest other phrases or words


that would fit into the different columns.
http://www.tttjournal.co.uk/uploads/File/back_articles/Using_substitution_tables.pdf
RECOMMENDED ACTIVITIES FOR DEVELOPING
READING COMPREHENSION
WHY DO WE USE POST ACTIVITIES?

Post-activities help to develop accuracy and They allow


learners to fluency transferring or
consolidate and applying inew
revise the main learning items to
Issues of the activity to feel more responsible other
for their own learning
or task. tasks/activities.

to develop self-confidence

to create content
to practise
They offer an opportunity to
reflect on the learning process.
HOW CAN YOU IMPROVE POST-ACTIVITIES?
BY REPORTING BY REPORTING
TO THE CLASS TO THE CLASS
THEIR FINDINGS THEIR FINDINGS
BY
ROLEPLAYING,
SHORT
USING THE
DIALOGUES
LANGUAGE
Can you
CREATIVELY
mention any
other ideas?
BY
PRESENTING
A POSTER
Finally, some observations to be considered in the
classroom on a day-to-day basis
• The teacher modelling standard English language usage.

• The teacher using brief mini-lessons to instruct students


about language usage and formats for a variety of
speaking situations (e.g., informal and formal individual,
small group, and large group situations) and purposes
(e.g., to inform, to persuade, to share feelings, to respond,
to entertain)

• The students speaking for a variety of purposes and


situations (e.g., small group discussion, conversation,
formal speeches, drama, debates, storytelling)
• The students developing social skills by interacting in a
variety of small group situations (e.g., reader response
groups, collaborative and co-operative groups)

• The students learning to facilitate and participate in


group discussions

• The students and the teacher assessing speaking


abilities and practices using checklists and anecdotal
notes
Reference
Web sites:

http://www.telt.um.edu.my/2presentation.html

http://www.teachervision.fen.com/lesson-plan/resource/5775.html

http://www.suite101.com/content/improving-esl-reading-skills-a13325

http://esl.about.com/library/lessons/bl_baker2.htm

www.slideshare.net/chela894/the-speaking-process

http://evasimkesyan.edublogs.org/2010/03/13/pre-and-post-activities
/