Anda di halaman 1dari 99

DRUG ADDISTION IN PAKISTANI SOCIETY

By
Fahad Tauheed
Furqan Sajid
Muhammad Irfan Khan
Syeda Urooj Zehra
Tanveer Ahmed Tahir

MASTERS IN CRMINOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY
UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI

2010

1
DRUG ADDISTION IN PAKISTANI SOCIETY

By
Fahad Tauheed
Furqan Sajid
Muhammad Irfan Khan
Syeda Urooj Zehra
Tanveer Ahmed Tahir

MASTERS IN CRMINOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY
UNIVERSITY OF KARACHI

DR. NABEEL AHMED ZUBAIRI


RESEARCH SUPERVISER

2
CONTENT

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION--------------------------------------------------------------1
• Drug-------------------------------------------------------------------------------2
• Etymology------------------------------------------------------------------------4
• Medication-----------------------------------------------------------------------4
• Recreation-----------------------------------------------------------------------5
• Spiritual and Religious use---------------------------------------------------5
• Nootropics-----------------------------------------------------------------------5
• Drug Addiction-----------------------------------------------------------------6
• Types of drugs------------------------------------------------------------------6
• Quranic verses against drug addiction-------------------------------------7
• Narcotics control in Pakistan-------------------------------------------------7
• Drug abuse in Pakistan--------------------------------------------------------8
• Reasons & causes of drug abuse---------------------------------------------9
• Effects of drug abuse-----------------------------------------------------------9
• Drugs vs HIV -------------------------------------------------------------------11
• Injection & infection ----------------------------------------------------------11
• Drug use and unsafe sex------------------------------------------------------12
• Medication and drugs---------------------------------------------------------12
• Objective of study--------------------------------------------------------------13
• Hypothesis of study------------------------------------------------------------13
• Variables for hypothesis------------------------------------------------------14
• Independent Variables--------------------------------------------------------14
• Dependent variables-----------------------------------------------------------14

3
CHAPTER 2 THEORATICAL FRAME WORK & REVIEW OF PREVIOUS
LITERATURE-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15
• History-----------------------------------------------------------------------------16
• Trade of specific drugs---------------------------------------------------------17
• Related theories------------------------------------------------------------------19
• Sociological theory--------------------------------------------------------------20
• Psychological theory------------------------------------------------------------20
• Socio-psychological theory----------------------------------------------------21

CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY--------------------------------------------22


• Type of study---------------------------------------------------------------------23
• Universe---------------------------------------------------------------------------23
• Sample-----------------------------------------------------------------------------24
• Method of data collection------------------------------------------------------24
• Pre-testing------------------------------------------------------------------------24
• Interview process----------------------------------------------------------------24
• Coding-----------------------------------------------------------------------------25
• Tabulation------------------------------------------------------------------------25
• Statistical method of analysis-------------------------------------------------25
• Chi square test-------------------------------------------------------------------25
• Degree of freedom---------------------------------------------------------------26
• Co-efficient of correlation-----------------------------------------------------26

CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION OF DATA--------------------------27


• Testing of hypothesis-----------------------------------------------------------67

4
CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY & CONCLUSION----------------------------------------------71
• Summary--------------------------------------------------------------------------72
• Findings---------------------------------------------------------------------------73
• Conclusion------------------------------------------------------------------------77
• Bibliography----------------------------------------------------------------------80

INTERVIEW SHEDULE -----------------------------------------------------------------------89


QUESTIONAIRE---------------------------------------------------------------------------------90

5
CHAPTER # 01

6
INTRODUCTION

Man’s wish to utilize the congenial prompt or narcotic effects upon the nervous system
has been uttered across the world in ancient as well as in the modern civilization. With
the time passes extreme luxury, in them, measured as deviant or criminal behavior. In
past few years it has come to know that drug addiction is a psychologically,
sociologically and economical problems.

• As the modern world faciliting a lot in the mean while giving tremendous rise to
many social problems for example: Unemployment, Over population, Poverty,
Unjustice, Economic, Emotional and social in securities, frustration, etc, which in
order to increasing the addiction of drugs.

• According to Robin (1975) Psycho active substances were known in almost every
corner of earth from time immemorial

• Drug addiction may be in form of wine, alcohol or lysergic acid diethyl amide,
hemp cannabis, opium derivatives, all or any of which decreases the efficiency
and health of an individual.

DRUG

7
• Drug is very wider term and can be used for medicinal and non medicinal
purposes. Drug in context of phrases like drug problem or drug abuse is really a
short hand for socially disapproved ways (Mir:1997:1)
• Weissman has statement: Drug is any substance (other than food) which by its
chemical nature the structure of living organism (1978:44)

• According to Oxford Dictionary “A substance which when swallowed, inhaled or


human body induces drowsiness, sleep and insensibility according to its potency
and amount taken” (Murry, 1978:687)

• Ausubal defined it as “ any substance that is used to modifify or explore


physiological systems or pathological condition in a living organism”

• WHO (World Health Organization) has defined Drug as “Any substance that
when taken into the living organism may modify one or more of its function.

• A drug, broadly speaking, is any substance that, when absorbed into the body of a
living organism, alters normal bodily function.

• In pharmacology, a drug is "a chemical substance used in the treatment, cure,


prevention, or diagnosis of disease or used to otherwise enhance physical or
mental well-being. Drugs may be prescribed for a limited duration, or on a regular
basis for chronic disorders.

8
ETYMOLOGY
Drug is thought to originate from Old French "drogue", possibly deriving later into
"droge-vate" from Middle Dutch meaning "dry barrels", referring to medicinal plants
preserved in them.

MEDICATION
A medication or medicine is a drug taken to cure and/or ameliorate any symptoms of an
illness or medical condition, or may be used as preventive medicine that has future
benefits but does not treat any existing or pre-existing diseases or symptoms.
Medications are typically produced by pharmaceutical companies and are
often patented to give the developer exclusive rights to produce them, but they can also
be derived from naturally occurring substance in plants called herbal medicine Those that
are not patented (or with expired patents) are called generic drugs since they can be
produced by other companies without restrictions or licenses from the patent holder.
Drugs, both medicinal and recreational, can be administered in a number of ways:

• Orally, as a liquid or solid, that is absorbed through the intestines.


• Sublingually, diffusing into the blood through tissues under the tongue.
• Inhaled, (breathed into the lungs), as an aerosol or dry powder.
• Injected as a solution, suspension or emulsion
either: intramuscular, intravenous, intraperitoneal, intraosseous.
• Rectally as a suppository, that is absorbed by the rectum or colon.
• Vaginally as a suppository, primarily to treat vaginal infections.
• Bolus, a substance into the stomach to dissolve slowly.

9
• Insufflation, or snorted into the nose.
• Topically, usually as a cream or ointment. A drug administered in this manner
may be given to act locally or systemically
Many drugs can be administered in a variety of ways.

RECREATION
Recreational drugs use is the use of psychoactive substances to have fun, for the
experience, or to enhance an already positive experience. National laws prohibit the use
of many different recreational drugs and medicinal drugs that have the potential for
recreational use are heavily regulated. Many other recreational drugs on the other hand
are legal, widely culturally accepted, and at the most have an age restriction on using
and/or purchasing them. These include alcohol, tobacco, betel nut, and caffeine products.

SPIRITUAL AND RELIGIOUS USE


The spiritual and religious use of drugs has been occurring since the dawn of our species.
Drugs that are considered to have spiritual or religious use are called entheogens. Some
religions are based completely on the use of certain drugs.

NOOTROPICS
Nootropics, also commonly referred to as "smart drugs", are drugs that are claimed to
improve human cognitive abilities. Nootropics are used to improve memory,
concentration, thought, mood, learning, and many other things. Some no tropics are now
beginning to be used to treat certain diseases such as attention-deficit hyperactivity
disorder, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. They are also commonly used to
regain brain function lost during aging.

10
DRUG ADDICTION
• According to Encyclopedia Americana the term has been defined as “The
compulsive use of drug is greater than amount is used in ordinary therapeutic or is
acceptable or in social custom, and that is harmful to the individual or society or
to both.”
• The term has been defined in the New Universe Library as “The carving for any
drug which is usually occurs in adequate or abnormal personality the underlying
object of drug taking is usually the desire to withdraw into a world of dreams and
fantasies (Muhammad:2003)
• According to WHO (World Health Organization), “Drug abuse is the
consumption of a drug apart from medical need or in the unnecessary quantity.”

TYPES OF DRUGS
Drugs can be classified into eight
1. Opiods, i.e. opium, morphine, codeine, heroin, methadone and mercridine.
2. Sedative, i.e. alcohol, anti anxiety agents.
3. Cocaine and amphetamine drugs
4. Cannabinoids
5. Nicotine.
6. Psychedelies or hallucinogen including LSD. Mesaline and Psilocybin.
7. Psilocybin
8. Arylcyclohery lamines
9. Inhalants, Including nitrousoxide, other and toluene and miscellaneous group
made up of substances in tea and coffee (caffine), betelnut, kava and other plants
products (smith,1980:411)

11
QURANIC VERSES AGAINST DRUG ADDICTION

All mighty Allah has strictly prohibited drug addiction in The Holy Book Quran, few
verses are as follows

• “O Ye who believe, intoxicants and games of chance and idols and disc inning
arrows are only infamy of Satan’s handwork. So, leave it asise in order that you
may succeeded. Satan seekth only to cast among you enmity and hatred by means
of intoxicants and games of chance, and to turn you away from the remembrance
of Allah, and from prayers. Will you desist?”
(Chapter 5: Verse 90-91)
• “O ye who believe, draw not near un to prayer yr are drunken, till ye know that
which ye lutte.”
(Chapter 4: Verse 43)
• “They question thee about strong drink and game of chance say in both s great sin,
and (some) utility for men, but the sin of them is greater that their usefulness.
(Chapter 11: Verse 219)
.
NARCOTICS CONTROL IN PAKISTAN
The narcotics Control strategy of Pakistan included supply reduction and demand
reduction through law enforcement agencies and alternative development projects and
national and International Corporation. Due to coordinated and concerted efforts, the law
enforcement agencies of Pakistan were successful in seizures of considerable quantities
of drugs. As opium production increased in Afghanistan, heroin/ morphine based seizures

12
in Pakistan have generally kept place. Pakistan made the largest number of seizures of
heroin/ morphine base since 2003 as compared to its neighbors in the Golden Crescent.

ANNUAL SEIZURES OF NARCOTICS IN PAKISTAN

YEAR OPIUM MORPHINE BASE HEROIN HASHISH


2003 5785.710 27777.550 6363.931 9123.245
2004 2495.112 21256.000 3487.550 135638.674
2005 6447.682 22196.800 2144.497 93994.402
2006 8997.380 32657.600 2819.072 115443.699
2007 15368.594 10989.000 2873.857 109530.456
2008 27242.620 7324.890 1896.465 134620.525
2009 6081.322 1353.000 433.531 124000.295

DRUG ABUSE IN PAKISTAN


According to the National Survey on Drug Abuse 1993, carried out by the Narcotics
Control Board, there were 3 million reported drug addicts in the country. Of these, 51%
were heroin abusers and 72% of the drug addicts were between the ages of 24 & 30 years.
According to UNODC Pakistan Recent figures estimate about 6 million addicts in
Pakistan
OPIATE USE IN PAKISTAN

PREVELENCE OF PREVELENCE OF INJECTING DRUG INJECTING DRUG


OPIATE USE OPIATE USE (In n USERS PREVALENCE USERS (In number
(Percentage of Population) umber of users) (Percentage) of users)
NWFP 0.7 90,000.00 0.06 8,000.00
PUNJAB 0.4 200,000.00 0.2 10,000.00
SINDH 0.4 87,000.00 0.2 44,000.00

13
BALUCHISTAN 1 45,000.00 0.1 4,500.00
PAKISTAN 0.7 628,000.00 0.14 | 125000

Source : Report of the UNODC 2006 National Assessment on Drug Use in Pakistan.

REASONS AND CAUSES OF DRUG ABUSE


There is no single reason for drug abuse. The causes of drug abuse ranges from
pharmacological to the environmental, social and psychological factors. Several reasons
may be behind drug abuse in Pakistan
1. Socio-political disruption
2. Economic Imbalance
3. Easy access due to ineffective law and order system
4. Rigid and outdated curriculum and teaching method
5. Inadequate recreational/community activity/ centers
6. Peer pressure, especially among young school children
7. Attempts to seek false sense of pressure/ relief
8. Weak parental influence / control
9. Addiction to initially prescribed drugs for pain / stress relief
10. Erosion of religious values

EFFECTS OF DRUG ABUSE


• EFFECTS ON INDIVISUAL
People who use drugs experience a wide array of physical effects other than those
expected. The excitement of a cocaine effect, for instance, is followed by a "crash”: a
period of anxiety, fatigue, depression, and a strong desire to use more cocaine to alleviate
the feelings of the crash. Marijuana and alcohol interfere with motor control and are
factors in many automobile accidents. Users of marijuana and hallucinogenic drugs may
experience flashbacks, unwanted recurrences of the drug's effects weeks or months after

14
use. Abrupt abstinence from certain drugs results in withdrawal symptoms. For example,
heroin withdrawal symptoms cause vomiting, muscle cramps, convulsions, and delirium.
With the continued use of a physically addictive drug, tolerance develops; i.e., constantly
increasing amounts of the drug are needed to duplicate the initial effect. Sharing
hypodermic needles used to inject some drugs dramatically increases the risk of
contracting AIDS and some types of hepatitis. In addition, increased sexual activity
among drug users, both in prostitution and from the disinhibiting effect of some drugs,
also puts them at a higher risk of AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. Because
the purity and dosage of illegal drugs such as heroin are uncontrolled, Drug Overdose is a
constant risk. There are over 10,000 deaths directly attributable to drug use in the United
States every year; the substances most frequently involved are cocaine, heroin, and
morphine, often combined with alcohol or other drugs. Many drug users engage in
criminal activity, such as burglary and prostitution, to raise the money to buy drugs, and
some drugs, especially alcohol, are associated with violent behavior.
• EFFECTS ON FAMILY
The user's preoccupation with the substance, plus its effects on mood and performance,
can lead to marital problems and poor work performance or dismissal. Drug use can
disrupt family life and create destructive patterns of codependency, that is, the spouse or
whole family, out of love or fear of consequences, inadvertently enables the user to
continue using drugs by covering up, supplying money, or denying there is a problem.
Pregnant drug users, because of the drugs themselves or poor self-care in general, bear a
much higher rate of low birth-weight babies than the average. Many drugs (e.g., crack
and heroin) cross the placental barrier, resulting in addicted babies who go through
withdrawal soon after birth, and fetal alcohol syndrome can affect children of mothers
who consume alcohol during pregnancy. Pregnant women who acquire the AIDS virus
through intravenous drug use pass the virus to their infant.

15
• EFFECTS ON SOCIETY
Drug Abuse affects society in many ways. In the workplace it is costly in terms of lost
work time and inefficiency. Drug users are more likely than nonusers to have
occupational accidents, endangering themselves and those around them. Over half of the
highway deaths in the United States involve alcohol. Drug-related crime can disrupt
neighborhoods due to violence among drug dealers, threats to residents, and the crimes of
the addicts themselves. In some neighborhoods, younger children are recruited as
lookouts and helpers because of the lighter sentences given to juvenile offenders, and
guns have become commonplace among children and adolescents. The great majority of
homeless people have either a drug or alcohol problem or a mental illness-many have all
three.

DRUGS VS HIV
Drug use is a major factor in the spread of HIV infection. Shared equipment for using
drugs can carry HIV and hepatitis, and drug use is linked with unsafe sexual activity.
Drug use can also be dangerous for people who are taking anti-HIV medications. Drug
users are less likely to take all of their medications, and street drugs may have dangerous
interactions with HIV medications.

INJECTION AND INFECTION


HIV infection spreads easily when people share equipment to use drugs. Sharing
equipment also spreads hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and other serious diseases.
Infected blood can be drawn up into a syringe and then get injected along with the drug
by the next user of the syringe. This is the easiest way to transmit HIV during drug use
because infected blood goes directly into someone's bloodstream.
Even small amounts of blood on cookers, filters, tourniquets, or in rinse water can be
enough to infect another user. Blood on your hands - even small amounts - can also be

16
dangerous when you help someone else find a vein; steady their arm, or when you pass
equipment. To reduce the risk of HIV and hepatitis infection, never share any equipment
used with drugs, and keep washing your hands. Carefully clean your cookers and the site
you will use for injection. A recent study showed that HIV can survive in a used syringe
for at least 4 weeks. If you have to re-use equipment, you can reduce the risk of infection
by cleaning it between users. If possible, re-use your own syringe. It still should be
cleaned because bacteria can grow in it. The most effective way to clean a syringe is to
use water first, then bleach and a final water rinse. Try to get all blood out of the syringe
by shaking vigorously for 30 seconds. Use cold water because hot water can make the
blood form clots. To kill most HIV and hepatitis C virus, leave bleach in the syringe for
two full minutes. Cleaning does not always kill HIV or hepatitis. Always use a new
syringe if possible.

DRUG USE AND UNSAFE SEX


For a lot of people, drugs and sex go together. Drug users might trade sex for drugs.
Some people think that sexual activity is more enjoyable when they are using drugs.
Drug use, including alcohol, increases the chance that people will not protect themselves
during sexual activity. Someone who is trading sex for drugs might find it difficult to set
limits on what they are willing to do. Anyone using drugs is less likely to remember
about using protection, or to care about it.

MEDICATIONS AND DRUGS


It is very important to take every dose of anti-HIV medications. People who are not
adherent (miss doses) are more likely to have higher levels of HIV in their blood, and to
develop resistance to their medications. Drug use is linked with poor adherence, which
can lead to treatment failure.

17
Some street drugs interact with medications. The liver breaks down some medications
used to fight HIV, especially the protease inhibitors and the non-nucleoside analog
reverse transcriptase inhibitors. It also breaks down some recreational drugs, including
alcohol. When drugs and medications are both "in line" to use the liver, they might both
be processed much more slowly. This can lead to a serious overdose of the medication or
of the recreational drug.
An overdose of a medication can cause serious side effects. An overdose of a recreational
drug can be deadly. At least one death of a person with HIV has been blamed on mixing a
protease inhibitor with the recreational drug Ecstasy.
Some antiviral drugs can change the amount of methadone in the bloodstream. It may be
necessary to adjust the dosage of methadone in some cases. See the fact sheets for each of
the medications you are taking.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY


The objective of the study to provide useful analytical knowledge about grounds and
penalties of drug addiction in Pakistani society especially in Karachi.
The specific objectives are as follows
• To identify the pattern of drug addiction
• To find out socio-economic and demographic trait of drug addicts.
• To investigate and establish correlation of factors, personal profile of drug
addicts (sex, age, marital status, occupation, qualification, income, type of
family)

HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY


The following hypothesis have been devised for the present study
• Lower the age of drug abuse, higher will be the desire to give up.

18
• The level of awareness about negative facts of drugs is likely to be related
with the level of education
• There is a relationship between the relationship of spouse and desire to
give up drugs
• Un-cordial relationship more drug abuse.
VARIABLES FOR HYPOTHESIS
In a hypothesis, there are two elements or variables
Independent
Dependent

INDEPENDENT VARIABLES
Age
Nature of family
Level of education
Relationship with spouse
Income

DEPENDENT VARIABLES
Dependency on drugs
Level of awareness about negative effects of drugs
Desire to give up drugs

19
CHAPTER # 02

20
THEORATICAL FRAME WORK AND REVIEW OF PREVIOUS
LITERATURE.

A theoretical framework has great significance while conducting research. A review of


literature for a research project serves essentially the same purpose as a guide book for a
journey. Both provide initial information on which to carry out the respective activity.
“The main goal to achieve in the literature review is developing a knowledge and
understanding of the previous work or activity in regard to the topic being researched,
The literature review also informs the investigator / researcher as to the main finding
trends, areas of debt or controversy, areas of neglect, and suggestions for additional
research” (Adams, 1985: 51-52)

HISTORY
The illegal drugs trade has arisen as a result of drug prohibition laws. In the First Opium
War the Chinese authorities had banned opium but the United Kingdom forced the
country to allow British merchants to trade in opium with the general population.
Smoking opium had become common in the 1800s due to increasing importation via
British merchants. Trading in opium was (as it is today in the heroin trade) extremely
lucrative. As a result of this illegal trade an estimated two million Chinese people became
addicted to the drug. The British Crown (via the treaties of Nanking and Tianjin) took
vast sums of money from the Chinese government through this illegal trade which they
referred to as "reparations”. Mafia groups limited their activities to gambling and theft

21
until 1920, when organized bootlegging manifested in response to the effect of
prohibition. An example of the spectacular rise of the mafia due to Prohibition is Al
Capone's syndicate that "ruled" Chicago in the 1920s. The official rise of drug trade
started in 1954. The peak of drug selling was in 1979.

TRADE OF SPECIFIC DRUGS

• CANNABIS
While the recreational use of, and consequently the distribution of, cannabis is illegal in
most countries throughout the world. It is available by prescription in many more places,
however, including some US states, as well as Canada. Cannabis is also tolerated in some
areas, most notably the Netherlands.
A World Drug Report in 2006 by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
(UNODC) focused on what was termed The New Cannabis, referring to the distribution
of processed cannabis with a higher concentration of THC, and its alleged negative
impact on health.

• ALCOHOL
In some areas of the world, particularly in and around the Arabian Peninsula, the trade of
alcohol is prohibited by law. For example, Pakistan bans the trade because of its large
Muslim population. Similarly, Saudi Arabia forbids the importation of alcohol into its
kingdom. Pure alcohol or liquids with high alcohol concentration, the threshold for which
varying in different jurisdictions, and usually measured as a percentage or proof value,
calculated by either volume or mass, are also restricted in many additional countries.

• TOBACCO

22
While the purchase and use of tobacco is legal for adults in most countries throughout the
world, heavy taxation in some countries such as the United Kingdom has resulted in an
extensive market for its illegal trade. Tobacco products such as name-brand cigarettes
may be sold as low as one third of the retail price because of the lack of taxes which
would be imposed throughout the legal distribution process. It was estimated in 2004 that
smuggling a single truck containing up to 48,000 cartons of cigarettes into the United
States could lead to a profit of around US$2 million. The source of the illegally-traded
tobacco is often the proceeds from other crimes, such as store and transportation
robberies. A notable exception to the legal status of tobacco in most countries
internationally is the kingdom of Bhutan, which made the sale of tobacco illegal in
December 2004, and since this event, a large supply of tobacco has been made available
on the black market. In 2006, tobacco and betel nut were the most commonly seized
illicit drugs in Bhutan.

• HEROIN
Heroin is smuggled into the United States and Europe from areas such as the Golden
Triangle (Southeast Asia); with Afghanistan currently being "the world's largest exporter
of heroin". In 2007, 93% of the opiates on the world market originated in Afghanistan.
This amounts to an export value of about $64 billion, with a quarter being earned by
opium farmers and the rest going to district officials, insurgents, warlords and drug
traffickers.
Heroin is a very easily smuggled drug because a small, quarter-sized vial can contain
hundreds of doses. From the 1930s to the early 1970s, the so-called French
Connection supplied the majority of US demand. Allegedly, during the Vietnam War,
drug lords such as Ike Atkinson used to smuggle hundreds of kilos of heroin to the U.S.
in coffins of dead American soldiers. Since that time it has become more difficult for
drugs to be imported into the United States than it had been in previous decades, but that

23
does not stop the heroin smugglers from getting their product onto U.S. soil. Purity levels
vary greatly by region with, for the most part, Northeastern cities having the most pure
heroin in the United States report by the DEA,Camden, New Jersey and Newark, New
Jersey and Philadelphia, have the purest street grade A heroin in the country.

• METHAMPHETAMINE
Methamphetamine is a favorite amongst many drug distributors. The most common
"street names" for meth are "crystal" and "ice" and "crystal meth". Methamphetamine is
sometimes used in an injectable form; placing users and their partners at risk for
transmission of HIV and hepatitis C. "Meth" can also be inhaled, most commonly
vaporized on aluminum foil, or through a test tube or light bulb fashioned into a pipe.
This method is reported to give "an unnatural high" and a "brief intense rush"

• TEMAZEPAM
Temazepam, which is a strong hypnotic benzodiazepine, is being illicitly manufactured in
clandestine laboratories (called jellie labs) to supply the increasingly high demand for the
hypnotic drug internationally. Most clandestine temazepam labs are in Eastern Europe.
The way in which they manufacture the temazepam is through chemical alteration of
diazepam, oxazepam or lorazepam. Clandestine "jellie labs" have been identified and
shutdown in Russia, Ukraine, Czech Republic, Latvia and Belarus.

RELATED THEORIES

• Harry Elmer Barnes stated in his theory regarding drug addiction in 1939, “It is
now definitely demonstrated that the most serious cases of drug addiction are the
result of neurotic conditions, namely mental and nervous disorders growing out of
deep seated mental conflicts in the individual. The narcotic drug produces a sense

24
of euphoria or well being which temporarily removes the sufferer from this
mental conflicts and fear.”

• According to Becker, “An individual will be able to use marijuana for pleasure
only when he goes through a process of learning to conceive of it as an object
which can be used in the way. No one becomes a user without (1) learning to
smoke the drug in a way which will produce real effects; (2) learning to recognize
the effects and connect them with drug use (learning, in other words, to get high);
and (3) learning to enjoy the sensations he perceives. In the course of this process
he develops a disposition or motivation to use marijuana which was not and could
not have been present when he began to use, for it involves and depends on
conceptions of drug.”(Becker, 1953:235-242)

There are three major explanation of drug addiction


Sociological
Psychological
Socio-Psychological

• This one is offered by psychiatrists, and psychiatrists who note the almost
universal existence of personality defects among addicts which are most often
traits of inadequacy and dependency. At its simplest this view would hold that
there is large reservoir of “addiction-prone” personalities in any population, and
that “when accidental factors make narcotics available to these persons, many
become addicts.
• Sociological studies points out exceptionally high rates of addiction among
minority groups, to the much higher rate for males and to the fact that, in the large
metropolitan areas which have been studied, most cases of addiction come from

25
the poorest, most deprived, most underprivileged areas. The inference is that
social pressure towards addiction must be operating, perhaps producing addicts
among relatively “normal” pressure.
• A socio-psychological approach, focuses on the process of becoming an addict,
the learning involved the gradual withdrawal from the wider culture increased
integration into a deviant subculture, the giving up of old and the formation of
new values and attitudes. (Lurie,1967: 22)

26
CHAPTER # 03

27
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
• According to Sharma: “Methodology refers to a system of principles and methods
of organizing and constructing theoretical and practical activity.” (Sharma,
1992:15-16)

• Collins Dictionary of Sociology (1991) has defined methodology as, “The


techniques and strategies employed within a discipline to manipulate data and
acquire knowledge.”

• The data which provides the relevant collected evidence by researcher is known
as methodology. Methodology consists of Type of study, Universe, Sampling,
Methods of data collection, Pre testing, Coding, Tabulation, Etc.

TYPE OF STUDY
Each research has its own specific nature and objective. The present research is an
exploratory research, which can be defined as, “a preliminary study the major purpose of
which is to become familiar with a phenomenon that is to be investigated, so that the
major study to follow may be designed with greater understanding and precision”
(Sharma,1992: 315)

UNIVERSE
The word universe is used to denote the cumulative from which the sample is chosen.
According to Earl Barbie, “A universe is the theoretical and hypothetical aggregation of
all elements, as defined for a given survey.” (Barbie, 1979:166)

28
Since the topic of present study is “The patterns of Drug abuse in Pakistani Society”, in
selected areas of Karachi the researcher has selected the following areas as universe, after
a preliminary survey of various areas: Liyari, Sohrab Goth, Gulshan-e-Iqbal and DHA.

SAMPLE
In the present study, researcher used snow ball sampling technique, Earle Babbie in his
book, the practice of Social Research (1986), defined it as “A non-probability sampling
method often employed in field research. Each person interviewed may be asked to
suggest additional people for interviewing” (Babbie, 1986: 559)
The researcher interviewed 19 willing respondents from Liyari, 57 from Sohrab goth, 16
from Gulshan-e-Iqbal & 8 from DHA. The total size of sample was 100.

METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION


In the present study, the interview schedule method has been used was consisted on 43
questions.

PRE TESTING
Before the finalization of questionnaire, researcher interviewed 20addicted individuals.
According to Muhammad in his research on heroin addicts in Pakistani society, defined
as, ”Pre-testing of questionnaire is prerequisite of data collection. (Muhammad: 2003)

INTERVIEW PROCESS
Before beginning of the actual data collection, the researcher visited many times
respondents through working in field,.

29
CODING
After the data collection each interview was given a specific serial number, which is
known as code number.

TABULATION
Tabulation is an ordinary arrangement of data in columns and rows. “Tabulation is an
initial process in summarizing all the data from the individuals in any single item.”
(Hagood and Price, 1959:30)

STATISTICAL METHOD OF ANALYSIS


For the test of hypothesis either accepted or rejected many statistical methods are used
such as CHI square test, analysis of variance, analysis of correlation and regression. The
selection of a suitable method depends on eminence of data.
The simplest method for research finding is Percentage Distribution, so in the study
percentage distribution are also drawn for each table.

CHI SQUARE TEST


In the present study, Chi square test was implemented to verify the relationship between
two variables.
Therese L Baker has defined it as “An inferential statistic testing the hypothesis of
independence between two variables” (Baker 1994: 473)
The CHI Square test is computed by the formula:
X2 = ∑ (fo-fe) (fo-fe)
Fe
After implementation of the CHI square the computed result are evaluated in the
tabulated degree of freedom. If the value is higher than tabulated figure then null
hypothesis is rejected and alternate hypothesis is accepted.

30
DEGREE OF FREEDOM
The number is must to know before the table is used. The formula for computation of
degree of freedom is:
df = (r-1) (c-1)

CO-EFFICIENT OF CORRELATION
Co-efficient of correlation is tested when null hypothesis is rejected. The formula for
computation of Co-efficient of correlation is:
r = √x²/x²+N

31
CHAPTER # 04

32
PRESENTATION OF DATA IN SIMPLE TABLES AND
GRAPHS
Table-1
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
GENDER
S no. Gender Frequency Percentage
1 Male 93 93%
2 Female 7 7%
100 100%

100
90
80
70
60 Male
50 Female
40
30
20
10
0
Frequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution of the male and female
drug abusers. Out of 100 93% are male drug abusers and 7% are female drug abusers.

33
Table-2
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO NATIVE LANGUAGE

S no. Native Language Frequency Percentage


1 Sindhi 5 5%

2 Punjabi 1 1%

3 Urdu 89 89%

4 Pashto 3 3%

5 Baluchi 2 2%

100 100%

90
80
70
Sindhi
60
Punjabi
50
Urdu
40
Pashto
30 Baluchi
20
10
0
Frequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents
according to their native language. Sindhi speaking are 5%, Punjabi 1%, Urdu 89%,
Pashto 3% and Baluchi speaking 2%.

34
Table-3
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO PLACE OF BIRTH

SNO Place of birth Frequency Percentage


1 Hyderabad 2 2%

2 India 1 1%

3 Islamabad 2 2%

4 Punjab 2 2%

5 Sindh 3 3%

6 Karachi 90 90%

100

90
80
70 Hyderabad
60 india
50 Islamabad
40 punjab
30 Sindh
20 KHI
10
0
Frequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents
according to their place of birth. 2% born in Hyderabad, 1% in India, 2% in Islamabad,
2% in Punjab, 3% in Sindh and 90% born in Karachi.

35
Table-4
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO MARITAL STATUS
Marital
S no Status Frequency Percentage

1 Married 19 19%

2 Unmarried 78 78%

3 Separate 3 3%

100 100%

80%
70%
60%
50% Married
Unmarried
40%
Separate
30%
20%
10%
0%
Percentage

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents
according to their marital status. 19% are married, 78% are Unmarried and 3% are
separated.

36
Table-5
FREQUENCY AND FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION
OF THE RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO TYPE OF FAMILY
Type of
S no Family Frequency Percentage
1 Joint Family 41 41%
Nuclear Family /
2 isolated 59 59%
100 100%

60

50

40
Joint Family
30 Nuclear Family

20

10

0
Frequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents
according to their type of family. 41% respondents lives in joint family and 59
respondents lives in Nuclear family/ isolated.

37
Table-6
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF SIBLINGS
. no Siblings frequency percentage
1 Nil 3 3%
2 1-3 10 10%
3 4-6 39 39%
4 7-9 36 36%
5 10-12 12 12%
100 100%

40

35
30
Nil
25 1-3
20 4-6
7-9
15
10-12
10
5

0
frrequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents
according to their siblings. 3% have nil, 10% respondents have 1-3, 39% 4-6, 36% have
7-9 and 12% have 10-12 siblings.

38
Table-7
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO NUMBER OF CHILDREN
S no Children frequency percentage
1 Nil 85 85%
2 1-3 14 14%
3 4-6 1 1%
4 7-9 0 0%
5 10-12 0 0%
100 100%

90
80
70
Nil
60
1-3
50
4-6
40
7-9
30 10-12
20
10
0
frrequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents
according to their number of children. 85% have nil, 14% respondents have 1-3, 1% 4-6,
0% have 7-9 and 0% have 10-12 children.

39
Table-8
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO LITERACY
S no Literacy frequency percentage
1 Yes 96 96%
2 No 4 4%
100

100
90
80
70
60 Yes
50 No
40
30
20
10
0
frrequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents
according to their literacy. 96% respondents are literate and 4% are illiterate.

40
Table-9
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO LEVEL OF EDUCATION
Classes
S no Studied frequency percentage
1 Primary 4 4%
2 Secondary 21 21%
3 Matric 42 42%
4 Inter 14 14%
5 Degree 14 14%
6 Madarsa 1 1%
96 96%

45
40
35
Primary
30 Secondary
25 Matric
20 Inter
15 Degree

10 Madarsa

5
0
frrequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents
according to their number of classes studied. 4% studied primary, 21% secondary, 42%
matric, 14% Inter, 14% studied till degree class.

41
Table-10
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO THEIR NATURE OF
OCCUPATION
So Occupation Frequency Percentage
1 Employed 24 24%

2 Business 6 6%
3 None 70 70%
100 100%

70

60

50
Employed
40
Bussiness
30 None

20

10

0
Frequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents
according to their occupation. 24% are employed, 6% runs business and 70% do not earn.

42
Table-11
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO THEIR MONTHLY INCOME
Monthly
S no Income Frequency Percentage
1 below or 5000 51 51%

2 5001-10000 10 10%
3 10000 & above 39 42%
100 100%

60

50

40 below or 5000

30 5001-10000
10000 & above
20

10

0
Frequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents
according to their monthly income. 51% earns below or 5000, 10 earns 5001-10000 and
42% earns 10000 and above.

43
Table-12
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH
SPOUSE/ FAMILY
S no Relationship Frequency Percentage

1 Cordial 5 5%
2 Regular 60 60%
3 Un-cordial 35 35%
100 100%

60

50

40 Cordial
Regular
30
Uncordial
20

10

0
Frequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents
according to their relationship with spouse / family. 5% have cordial relationship, 60%
have regular and 35% have un-cordial relationship.

44
Table-13
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO THEIR LIVING PATTERN
S no Living pattern Frequency Percentage

1 Wife & Children 1 1%


2 Parents 48 48%
3 Isolated 51 51%
100 100%

60

50

40
Wife & Children

30 Parents
Isolated
20

10

0
Frequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents
according to their living pattern. 1% lives with wife & children 48 with parents and 51%
lives isolated.

45
Table-14
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING FOLLOWING OF RELIGION
S no Follow religion Frequency Percentage
1 Yes 8 8%
2 No 89 89%
3 Up to some Extend 3 3%
100 100%

90
80
70
60
Yes
50 No
40 Up to some Extend
30
20
10
0
Frequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents
according to following religion. 8% responded yes, 89% responded no and 3% follows
religion up to some extent.

46
Table-15
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO GOT RELIGIOUS EDUCATION
Got religious
S no Education Frequency Percentage
1 Yes 8 8%
2 No 92 92%
100 100%

100
90
80
70
60 Yes
50 No
40
30
20
10
0
Frequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents
according to got religious education. 8% got their religious education, 92% responded not
get their religious education..

47
Table-16
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO THEIR HOBBIES
S no. Hobbies Frequency Percentage
1 Adult films 2 2%
2 Car / Motor Bike Racing 11 11%
3 Outing / traveling 7 7%
4 games 7 7%
5 dogs/ pigeons 3 3%
6 drugs/ drinking 2 2%
7 fishing 6 6%
8 shooting 3 3%
9 games , study 2 2%
10 no 57 57%
100

60
Adult films
50 Car / Motor Racing
Outing / travelling
40
games
30 dogs/ pigeons
drugs/ drinking
20 fishing
shooting
10
games , study

0 no
Frequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution according to their
hobbies. 2% hobby is to see adult movies, 11% car / motor bike racing , 7% Outing/
Traveling, 7% Games, 3% pigeons/dogs, 2% Drugs/Drinking, 6% fishing,3% shooting,
2% games/Study and 57% have no hobbies.

48
Table-17
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO THEIR NUMBERS OF FRIENDS
S no. Number of friends Frequency Percentage
1 0-20 83 83%
2 21-40 8 8%
3 41-above 9 9%
100

90
80
70
60 0-20
50 21-40
40 41-above
30
20
10
0
Frequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution according to their
numbers of friends. 83% respondents have 0-20 friends, 8% have 21-40 and 9% 41 and
above friends.

49
Table-18
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO SMOKE HABBIT

S no Smoke cigarette Frequency Percentage

1 Yes 98 98%

2 No 2 2%

100 100%

100
90
80
70
60 Yes
50 No
40
30
20
10
0
Frequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents
according to their smoking habits. 98% respondents said yes and 2% said no.

50
Table-19
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS BY USING MEDIAN ACCORDING TO THEIR
AGE AT STARTED SMOKING
S Age when started
no. smoking Frequency Percentage
1 less than 19 47 47%
2 19 9 9%
3 above than 19 44 44%
100

50
45
40
35
less than 19
30
25 19

20 above than 19
15
10
5
0
Frequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution by using median
according to the starting age of smoking. 47% started smoking less than 19 years, 9% at
19 and 44% above than 19.

51
Table-20
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO DRUG USED FIRST TIME
Drug use
S no first time Frequency Percentage
1 Heroin 0 0%
2 Charas 93 93%
3 Opium 0 0%
4 Beer 7 7%
5 Bhang 1 1%
100 100%

100
90
80
70 Herioin
60 Charas
50 Opium
40 Beer
30 Bhang
20
10
0
Frequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents
according to drug used first time. Heroin 0%, charas 93%, opium0%, beer 7% and bhang
1%

52
Table-21
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO DRUG START AGE
SNO Drug start age Frequency Percentage
1 10-19 28 28%
2 20-29 65 65%
3 30-ABOVE 7 7%
100

70
60
50
10-19
40 20-29
30 30-ABOVE
20
10

0
Frequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents
according to age when respondents started using drugs. 28% started at the age of 10-19,
65% started at the age of 20-29 and 7% started at the age of 30- above.

53
Table-22
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO DRUG USED PRESENTLY
Drug presently
S no using Frequency Percentage

1 Heroin 43 43%
2 Charas 29 29%
3 Opium 0 0%
4 Beer 27 27%
5 Bhang 1 1%

100 100%

45
40
35
30 Herioin
25 Charas

20 Opium
Beer
15
10
5
0
Frequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents
according to drug used presently. Heroin 43%, charas 29%, opium0%, beer 27% and
bhang 1%

54
Table-23
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO FROM WHERE THEY USE
DRUG
S
no. Where you use drug? Frequency Percentage
1 at home 2 2%
2 Foot path 2 2%
3 Friends 86 86%
4 In Mazars 3 3%
5 In my shop 1 1%
6 Sohrabgoth 5 5%
7 Sseaside 1 1%
100

90
80
70 at home
60 Foot path
Friends
50
In Mazars
40
In my shop
30
Sohrabgoth
20 Sseaside
10
0
Frequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution according to where they
use drugs. 2% use at home, 2% on foot path, 86% with friends, 3% In Mazars, 1% In
their shops, 5% at Sohrabgoth and 1% at seaside.

55
Table-24
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO WITH WHOM THEY USE
DRUGS
With whom do you use
S no. drugs? Frequency Percentage
1 alone 2 2%
2 friends 97 97%
3 sister 1 1%
100

100
90
80
70
alone
60
friends
50
sister
40
30
20
10
0
Frequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution according to with whom
they use drugs. 2% uses alone, 97% with friends and 1% with sister.

56
Tables-25
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO FROM WHERE THEY BUY
DRUGS
S no. From where buy drugs Frequency Percentage
1 North Karachi 10 10%
2 Any liquor shop 3 3%
3 Gulshan 23 23%
4 Liyari 5 5%
5 Tower 3 3%
6 Sohrabgoth 56 56%
100

60

50
North Karachi
40 Any liquire shop
Gulshan
30
Liyari
20 Tower
Sohrabgoth
10

0
Frequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution according from where
they buy drugs.10% from north Karachi, 3% from any liquor shop, 23% from Gulshan,
5% from Liyari, 3% from Tower, 56% from Sohrabgoth.

57
Table-26
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO DAILY EXPENDITURE ON
DRUGS
Daily Expenditure
S no on drugs Frequency Percentage

1 100+ 71 71%

2 200+ 23 23%

3 300+ 6 6%

100 100%

80
70
60
50 100+
200+
40
300+
30
20
10
0
Frequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents
according to expenditure on daily basis on drugs. 71% pays 100+, 23% pays 200+ and 6
pays 300+ each day on drugs.

58
Table-27
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO DRUG INTAKE
Daily drug
S no intake Frequency Percentage
1 Once 33 33%

2 Twice 60 60%
3 Thrice or above 7 7%
100 100%

60

50

40 Once

30 Twice
Thrice or above
20

10

0
Frequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents
according to intake of drugs on daily basis. 33% intakes once, 60% twice & 3% Thrice or
above a day.

59
Table-28
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO PATTERN OF USING DRUGS
S no Usage of Drug Frequency Percentage
1 Inhale 15 15%
2 panni with pipe 21 21%
3 drink 26 26%
4 injection 7 7%
5 papper 31 31%
100

35

30

25 Inhale
panni with pipe
20
drink
15 injection
10 papper

0
Frequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution according the usage of
drug. 15% inhales, 21% panni with pipe, 23% drink,7% injection and 31% on paper.

60
Table-29
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS BY USING MEDIAN ACCORDING TO USAGE OF
DRUGS SINCE
S no. Using Drug since Frequency Percentage
1 1-11 yrs 46 46%
2 12 yrs 40 40%
3 12- above yrs 14 14%
100

50
45
40
35
1-11 yrs
30
25 12 yrs

20 12- above yrs


15
10
5
0
Frequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution by using median
according to their usage of drugs since. 46% using since 1-11 yrs, 40% using since 12yrs
and 14% using since 12 and more yrs.

61
Table-30
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO EITHER ANY RELATIVE DRUG
ADDICTED
Addicted
S no Relative Frequency Percentage
1 Yes 6 6%

2 No 94 94%

100 100%

100
90
80
70
60 Yes
50 No
40
30
20
10
0
Frequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents
according to either any relative is drugs addicted. 6% says yes and 94% says no.

62
Table-31
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO BY WHOM DRUGS WERE
INTRODUCED
Who introduced
Sno drugs Frequency Percentage
1 Friends 99 99%
2 relative 1 1%
100 100%

100
90
80
70
60 Friends
50 relative
40
30
20
10
0
Frequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution according to by whom
the drugs were introduced. 1% relative and 99% by friends.

63
Table-32
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
REASON FOR DRUG ADDICTION
Sno. Reason for using Drugs Frequency Percentage
1 For fun 9 9
2 Family issues 10 10
3 Enjoyment 60 60
4 Gathering 3 3
5 Relaxation 3 3
6 Sex 11 11
7 Uncordial married life 4 4
100 100

60

50
For fun
40 Family issues
30 Enjoyment
Gathering
20
Relaxation
10 Sex
uncordial married life
0
Percentage

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution according to the reason
for drug usage: 60% used drugs for enjoyment, 11% used drugs for sex, 10% used drugs
due to family issues, 9% used drugs for fun, 4% used drugs due to un-cordial married life,
3% used drugs due to gathering and 3% used drugs for relaxation.

64
Table-33
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO AWARENESS OF NEGATIVE
EFFECTS OF DRUGS
Awareness of
S no negative effects Frequency Percentage
1 Yes 94 94%
2 No 6 6%
100 100%

100
90
80
70
60 Yes
50 No
40
30
20
10
0
Frequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents
according to awareness of negative effects of drugs. 94% says yes 6% says no.

65
Table-34
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO THEIR SELF IMAGE

S no self image Frequency Percentage


1 bad 14 14%
2 v bad 69 69%
3 no change 12 12%
4 guilt 1 1%
5 good 4 4%
100

70

60

50 bad
v bad
40
no change
30 guilt
20 good

10

0
Frequency

66
The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution according to their self
image.14% says bad, 69% very bad, 12% no change, 1% guilt and 4% good.

Table-35
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO CRIMINAL INVOLMENT

Criminal
S no involvement Frequency Percentage
1 Yes 48 48%
2 No 52 52%
100 100%

52

51

50
Yes
49 No

48

47

46
Frequency

67
The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents
according to involvement in crime. 48% respondents are involved in criminal offences
and 52% are not involved.

Table-36
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO DESIRE TO GIVE UP DRUGS
Desire to give up
S no drugs Frequency Percentage
1 Yes 64 64%

2 No 36 36%

100 100%

70

60
50 Yes
40 No
30

20

10
0
Frequency

68
The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents
according to desire to give up drugs. 64% says yes and 36% say no.

Table-37
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO REHABILITATION
TREATMENT
Rehabilitation
S no treatment Frequency Percentage

1 Yes 2 2%

2 No 98 98%

100 100%

100
90
80
70
60 Yes
50 No
40
30
20
10
0
Frequency

69
The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents
according to rehabilitation treatment. 2% got rehabilitation treatment and 98% said no.

Table-38
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO FROM WHICH NATION OF
PEOPLE THEY BUY DRUGS
From which nation of
people you buy drugs
S no mostly? Frequency Percentage
baloch 11 11%
chiristians 14 14%
hindus 16 16%
pathans 59 59%
100

60

50

40 baloch
chiristians
30
hindus

20 pathans

10

0
Frequency

70
The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution according from which
nation people they buy drugs mostly. 11% buy from Baluch, 14% from Christians, 16%
form Hindus and 59% from Pathans.

Table-39
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO FROM WHICH PLACE THEY
GET QUALITY DRUGS
From which sellers or
place you got quality
S no drugs. Frequency Percentage
1 dha II 8 8%
2 gulshan 16 16%
3 liayari 19 19%
4 sohrab goth 57 57%
100

71
60

50

40 dha II
gulshan
30
liayari

20 sohrab goth

10

0
Frequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution according from which
place they get quality drugs, 8% from DHA II, 16% Gulshan e Iqbal, 19 from Liyari and
57% from Sohrabgoth.

Table-40
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTUION OF THE
RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO THEIR SOURCE OF INCOME
Source of
S no income Frequency Percentage
1 Job 22 22%
2 earning 39 39%
3 begging 39 39%
100

72
40
35
30
25 Job
earning
20
begging
15
10
5
0
Frequency

The above table and graph shows overall percentage distribution according to their source
of income. 22% by doing job, 39% by earning and 19% by begging.

TESTING OF HYPOTHESIS
Contingency Table-1

H o :

There is no relationship between age of abusers and desire to give up

H A:

Lower the age of drug abuser higher will be the desire to give up.

73
Q no. 36 & 21
Table no. 36 & 21

Average age of Drug abuser Total


Desire to give up drugs 10-24 25-29 30-above

Yes 44 12 7 63

No 32 5 0 37

Total 76 17 7 100

Chi square x²OBT = 5.380


The table value of Chi square at 2df and 0.05 level of significance = 5.991

As obtained value of Chi-square ( x²OBT) is less than its table value at 2df and 0.05
level of significance, therefore, the null hypothesis is accepted, that is “There is no
relationship between age of abusers and desire to give up”

Contingency Table-2

H o :

There is no relationship between relationship with spouse/family and desire to give up

H A:

There is a relationship between relationship with spouse/family and desire to give up

74
Q no. 36 & 12
Table no. 36 & 12

Relationship with spouse / family Total


Desire to give up drugs Cordial Regular Un-cordial
Yes 4 42 18 64
No 1 18 17 36
Total 5 60 35 100

Chi square x²OBT = 3.893


The table value of Chi square at 2df and 0.05 level of significance = 5.991

As obtained value of Chi-square ( x²OBT) is less than its table value at 2df and 0.05
level of significance, therefore, the null hypothesis is accepted, that is “There is no
relationship between relationship with spouse/family and desire to give up.”

Contingency Table-3

H o :

There is no relationship between the level of education and the awareness about negative
effects of drugs

H A:

There is a relationship between the level of education and the awareness about negative
effects of drugs

75
Q no.33 & 9
Table no. 33 & 9
Awareness about Negative Level of Education Total
effects of Drugs Lower Average Higher
Yes 5 60 23 88
No 6 3 3 12
Total 11 63 26 100

Chi square x²OBT = 21.986


The table value of Chi square at 2df and 0.05 level of significance = 5.991
Co-efficient of correlation (r)=10.04

As obtained value of Chi-square ( x²OBT) is greater than its table value at 2df and
0.05 level of significance, therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and the alternative
hypothesis is accepted, that is “There is a relationship between the level of education and
the awareness about negative effects of drugs”. The relationship indicated by the value of
co-efficient of correlation is 10.04, which is moderately significant.

76
CHAPTER # 05

77
SUMMARY
Pakistan is today notorious for many things, but in the last 20 years, drug production and
addiction has increasingly become just one of them. The issue of drug addiction is often
overshadowed by the many of the country's other human development problems, such as
poverty, illiteracy and lack of basic health care. But the fact is, drug abuse is rapidly
growing in Pakistan and in South Asia in general. While Bangladesh, India, Nepal and
Maldives all suffer from this, Pakistan is the worst victim of the drug trade in South Asia.
Today, the country has the largest heroin consumer market in the south-west Asia region.
It wasn't always this way. Pakistan became a major exporter of heroin in the 1980s,
following the influx of Afghan refugees escaping the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in
1979.
The major consequence of this has been a significant increase in domestic consumption
of heroin in Pakistan. Heroin was once upon a time a drug which was virtually unknown
in the country until the late 1970s. Today, Pakistan is not only one of the main exporters
of heroin; it has also become a net importer of drugs. It is estimated that about 50 tons of
opium are smuggled into Pakistan for processing heroin for domestic use. Almost 80
percent of the opium processed in Pakistan comes from neighboring countries.
Widespread drug abuse may be indicated by the fact that almost five percent of the adult
population is using drugs in Pakistan. As a proportion of drug abusers, heroin users have
increased from 7.5 percent in 1983 to a shocking 51 percent a decade later in 1993.
Drug production for Pakistan's domestic market is estimated at close to $1.5 billion. It
appears that only three percent of the gross profits from the illegal opium industry remain
within Pakistan.
Like many of the countries other human development problems, the issue of drug abuse
touches the most vulnerable: the majority of drug users in South Asia belong to the

78
poorest strata of society. In addition, the presence of a large drug industry in Pakistan
leads to a redistribution of income from the poor to a few rich individuals who control the
drug trade. This not only makes the gap between the rich and the poor as well as income
inequality even worse, it also erodes Pakistan's social cohesion and stability.
Although almost all South Asian countries have enacted strict laws for fighting drug
trafficking and drug use, these measures have produced very disappointing results.
One problem is that corruption has also touched the fight against drug abuse in Pakistan
and other South Asian countries, since drug traffickers often escape punishment by
giving bribes to get out of being held accountable for their actions. But Pakistan is not
alone in fighting this disease.
With the globalization of the drug abuse problem in the last two decades, the
situation has gone from bad to worse, so much so that the United Nations Commission on
narcotic drugs no longer discusses individual situations. It has argued that the solution
does not lie in the hands of individual countries. It has to be worked out through mutual
efforts by South Asian countries.

FINDINGS
Following the brief summary of the findings revealed from the simple data tables.

1. Shows overall percentage distribution of the male and female drug abusers. Out of
100 93% are male drug abusers and 7% are female drug abusers.
2. Shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents according to their native
language. Sindhi speaking are 5%, Punjabi 1%, Urdu 89%, Pashto 3% and
Baluchi speaking 2%.
3. Shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents according to their place
of birth. 2% born in Hyderabad, 1% in India, 2% in Islamabad, 2% in Punjab, 3%
in Sindh and 90% born in Karachi.

79
4. Shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents according to their
marital status. 19% are married, 78% are Unmarried and 3% are separated.
5. Shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents according to their type
of family. 41% respondents lives in joint family and 59 respondents lives in
Nuclear family/ isolated.
6. Shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents according to their
siblings. 3% have nil, 10% respondents have 1-3, 39% 4-6, 36% have 7-9 and
12% have 10-12 siblings.
7. Shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents according to their
number of children. 85% have nil, 14% respondents have 1-3, 1% 4-6, 0% have 7-
9 and 0% have 10-12 children.
8. Shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents according to their
literacy. 96% respondents are literate and 4% are illiterate.
9. Shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents according to their
number of classes studied. 4% studied primary, 21% secondary, 42% matric, 14%
Inter, 14% studied till degree class.
10. Shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents according to their
occupation. 24% are employed, 6% runs business and 70% do not earn.
11. Shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents according to their
monthly income. 51% earns below or 5000, 10 earns 5001-10000 and 42% earns
10000 and above.
12. Shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents according to their
relationship with spouse / family. 5% have cordial relationship, 60% have regular
and 35% have un-cordial relationship.
13. Shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents according to their living
pattern. 1% lives with wife & children 48 with parents and 51% lives isolated.

80
14. Shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents according to following
religion. 8% responded yes, 89% responded no and 3% follows religion up to
some extent.
15. Shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents according to got
religious education. 8% got their religious education, 92% responded not get their
religious education..
16. Shows overall percentage distribution according to their hobbies. 2% hobby is to
see adult movies, 11% car / motor bike racing , 7% Outing/ Traveling, 7% Games,
3% pigeons/dogs, 2% Drugs/Drinking, 6% fishing,3% shooting, 2% games/Study
and 57% have no hobbies.
17. Shows overall percentage distribution according to their numbers of friends. 83%
respondents have 0-20 friends, 8% have 21-40 and 9% 41 and above friends.
18. Shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents according to their
smoking habits. 98% respondents said yes and 2% said no.
19. Shows overall percentage distribution by using median according to the starting
age of smoking. 47% started smoking less than 19 years, 9% at 19 and 44% above
than 19.
20. Shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents according to drug used
first time. Heroin 0%, charas 93%, opium0%, beer 7% and bhang 1%
21. Shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents according to age when
respondents started using drugs. 28% started at the age of 10-19, 65% started at
the age of 20-29 and 7% started at the age of 30- above.
22. Shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents according to drug used
presently. Heroin 43%, charas 29%, opium0%, beer 27% and bhang 1%
23. Shows overall percentage distribution according to where they use drugs. 2% use
at home, 2% on foot path, 86% with friends, 3% In Mazars, 1% In their shops, 5%
at Sohrabgoth and 1% at seaside.

81
24. Shows overall percentage distribution according to with whom they use drugs. 2%
uses alone, 97% with friends and 1% with sister.
25. Shows overall percentage distribution according from where they buy drugs.10%
from north Karachi, 3% from any liquor shop, 23% from Gulshan, 5% from
Liyari, 3% from Tower, 56% from Sohrabgoth.
26. Shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents according to expenditure
on daily basis on drugs. 71% pays 100+, 23% pays 200+ and 6 pays 300+ each
day on drugs.
27. Shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents according to intake of
drugs on daily basis. 33% intakes once, 60% twice & 3% Thrice or above a day.
28. Shows overall percentage distribution according the usage of drug. 15% inhales,
21% panni with pipe, 23% drink,7% injection and 31% on paper.
29. Shows overall percentage distribution by using median according to their usage of
drugs since. 46% using since 1-11 yrs, 40% using since 12yrs and 14% using
since 12 and more yrs.
30. Shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents according to either any
relative is drugs addicted. 6% says yes and 94% says no.
31. Shows overall percentage distribution according to by whom the drugs were
introduced. 1% relative and 99% by friends.
32. Shows overall percentage distribution according to the reason for drug usage:
60% used drugs for enjoyment, 11% used drugs for sex, 10% used drugs due to
family issues, 9% used drugs for fun, 4% used drugs due to un-cordial married
life, 3% used drugs due to gathering and 3% used drugs for relaxation.
33. Shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents according to awareness
of negative effects of drugs. 94% says yes 6% says no.
34. Shows overall percentage distribution according to their self image.14% says bad,
69%very bad, 12% no change, 1% guilt and 4% good.

82
35. Shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents according to
involvement in crime. 48% respondents are involved in criminal offences and
52% are not involved.
36. Shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents according to desire to
give up drugs. 64% says yes and 36% say no.
37. Shows overall percentage distribution of the respondents according to
rehabilitation treatment. 2% got rehabilitation treatment and 98% said no.
38. Shows overall percentage distribution according from which nation people they
buy drugs mostly. 11% buy from Baluch, 14% from Christians, 16% form Hindus
and 59% from Pathans.
39. Shows overall percentage distribution according from which place they get
quality drugs, 8% from DHA II, 16% Gulshan e Iqbal, 19 from Liyari and 57%
from Sohrabgoth.
40. Shows overall percentage distribution according to their source of income. 22%
by doing job, 39% by earning and 19% by begging.

CONCLUSION
The present research was planned and conducted to find out the facts about drug
addiction in Pakistani society, included the sample of this study. The data acquires have
been analyzed and following conclusion has been drawn regarding drug addiction in
Pakistani society.
1. Majority of drug users are males
2. Majority of drug abusers are Urdu speaking
3. Majority of drug abusers born in Karachi
4. Majority of drug abusers are unmarried
5. Majority of drug abusers live in nuclear family system or isolated.
6. Majority of drug abusers have 7-9 siblings

83
7. Majority of drug abusers have no off springs
8. Majority of drug abusers are literate
9. Majority of drug abusers educational level is average,
10. Majority of drug abusers donot earn
11. Majority of drug abusers earns below 5000
12. Majority of drug abusers have regular relationship with their family
13. Majority of drug abusers living pattern is to live isolated
14. Majority of drug abusers follows religion
15. Majority of drug abusers did not get their religious education
16. Majority of drug abusers do not have hobbies
17. Majority of drug abusers have 0-20 friends
18. Majority of drug abusers have smoking habits
19. Majority of drug abusers started smoking in the age less than 19 years.
20. Majority of drug abusers used charas for the first time
21. Majority of drug abusers started using drugs in the age of 20-29
22. Majority of drug abusers use Heroin
23. Majority of drug abusers uses drugs with their friends
24. Majority of drug abusers intakes drugs with their friends
25. Majority of drug abusers get drugs from Sohrabgoth
26. Majority of drug abusers pays 100+ per day on drugs
27. Majority of drug abusers intake drugs twice
28. Majority of drug abusers pattern of intake drug is drink & panni with pipe
29. Majority of drug abusers using drugs since 1-11 years
30. Majority of drug abusers do not have any relative drugs addicted
31. Majority of drug abusers were introduced drugs by friends
32. Majority of drug abusers uses drugs for enjoyment
33. Majority of drug abusers have awareness about negative effects of drugs
34. Majority of drug abusers have very bad self image

84
35. Majority of drug abusers are not involved in criminal offences
36. Majority of drug abusers desire to give up drugs
37. Majority of drug abusers did not get treatment for rehabilitation
38. Majority of drug abusers buy the drugs from Pathans
39. Majority of drug abusers get the quality drugs from Sohrabgoth
40. Majority of drug abusers earns

85
BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. ACPO Drugs Committee (2002), A review of drugs policy and proposals for the
future, The Association of Chief Police Officers, London.

2. EMCDDA (2004a), 2004 Annual report on the drugs problem in the European
Union and Norway, European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction,
Lisbon.

3. EMCDDA (2005a), Annual report 2005: the state of the drugs problem in Europe,
European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Lisbon.

4. Reitox national reports (2005) (http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/?nnodeid=435).

5. UNODC (2003a), Global illicit drug trends 2003, United Nations Office on Drugs
and Crime, Vienna.

6. UNODC (2003b), Ecstasy and amphetamines: global survey 2003, United


Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Vienna.

7. Enclyclopedia Americana
8. YesPakistan.com

A. Burger, Drugs and People: Medications, Their History and Origins, and
the Way They Act(rev. 1988);

9. United States Pharmacopeial Staff, The Complete Drug Reference (1995).

10. www.dictionary.com

11. The Quran

12. UNODC Pakistan

13. Encyclopedia Britannica

86
14. National Survey on drugs abuse in Pakistan. Islamabad Narcotics control board,
2003

15. National Survey on drugs abuse in Pakistan. Islamabad Narcotics control board,
2004

16. National Survey on drugs abuse in Pakistan. Islamabad Narcotics control board,
2005

17. National Survey on drugs abuse in Pakistan. Islamabad Narcotics control board,
2006

18. National Survey on drugs abuse in Pakistan. Islamabad Narcotics control board,
2007

19. National Survey on drugs abuse in Pakistan. Islamabad Narcotics control board,
2008

20. National Survey on drugs abuse in Pakistan. Islamabad Narcotics control board,
2009.

21. CND (2006), World drug situation with regard to drug trafficking: Report of the
Secretariat, Commission on Narcotic Drugs, United Nations Economic and Social
Council, Vienna.

22. Naber, D. and Haasen, C. (2006), Das bundesdeutsche Modellprojekt zur


heroingestützten Behandlung Opiatabhängiger – eine multizentrische,
randomisierte, kontrollierte Therapiestudie, Hamburg: Zentrum für
interdisziplinäre Suchtforschung der Universität Hamburg
(http://www.heroinstudie.de/ZIS_H-Bericht_P1_DLR.pdf).

87
23. Poling, J., Oliveto, A., Petry, N. et al. (2006), ‘Six-month trial of bupropion with
contingency management for cocaine dependence in a methadone-maintained
population’, Archives of general psychiatry 63, pp. 219–28.

24. Schäfer, C. and Paoli, L. (2006), Drogenkonsum und Strafverfolgungspraxis,


Duncker & Humblot, Berlin.

25. Vickerman, P., Hickman, M., Rhodes, T. and Watts, C. (2006), ‘Model
projections on the required coverage of syringe distribution to prevent HIV
epidemics among injecting drug users’, Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency
Syndromes (in press).

26. Bossong, M.G., Van Dijk, J.P. and Niesink, R.J.M. (2005), ‘Methylone and
mCPP, two new drugs of abuse?’, Addiction biology 10(4), pp. 321–3.

27. Burrell, K., Jones, L., Sumnall, H. et al. (2005), Tiered approach to drug
prevention and treatment among young people, National Collaborating Centre for
Drug Prevention, Liverpool.

28. Chen, C.-Y., O’Brien, M.S. and Anthony, J.C. (2005), ‘Who becomes cannabis
dependent soon after onset of use? Epidemiological evidence from the United
States: 2000–2001’, Drug and alcohol dependence 79, pp. 11–22.

29. Chivite-Matthews, N., Richardson, A., O’Shea, J. et al. (2005), Drug misuse
declared: findings from the 2003/04 British Crime Survey. Home Office statistical
bulletin 04/05, Home Office, London
(http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs05/hosb0405.pdf).

30. CND (2005), World drug situation with regard to drug trafficking: Report of the
Secretariat, Commission on Narcotic Drugs, United Nations Economic and Social
Council, Vienna.

88
31. EuroHIV (2005), HIV/AIDS surveillance in Europe: End-year report 2004.
Institute de veille sanitaire: Saint-Maurice. No 71.

32. Farrell, M., Gowing, L., Marsden, J. et al. (2005), 'Effectiveness of drug
dependence treatment in HIV prevention', International journal of drug policy
16S, pp. S67–75.

33. Haasen, C., Prinzleve, M., Gossop, M. et al. (2005), 'Relationship between
cocaine use and mental health problems in a sample of European cocaine powder
and crack users', World psychiatry 4(3), pp. 173–6.

34. MacDonald, Z., Tinsley, L., Collingwood, J. et al. (2005), Measuring the harm
from illegal drugs using the drug harm index. Home Office Online Report 24/05.
Home Office, London
(http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs05/rdsolr2405.pdf).

35. Roe, E. and Becker, J (2005), ‘Drug prevention with vulnerable young people: a
review’, Drugs: education, prevention and policy, 12(2), pp. 85–99.

36. Schottenfeld, R.S., Chawarski, M.C., Pakes, J.R. et al. (2005), ‘Methadone versus
buprenorphine with contingency management or performance feedback for
cocaine and opioid dependence’, American journal of psychiatry 162, pp. 340–9.

37. UNODC (2005), Coca cultivation in the Andean region: A survey of Bolivia,
Colombia and Peru – June 2005, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime,
Vienna.

38. Van den Brink, W. (2005), ‘Epidemiology of cocaine and crack: implications for
drug policy and treatment’, Sucht 51(4), pp. 196–8.

39. WHO (2005), Effectiveness of drug dependence treatment in preventing HIV


among injecting drug users. Evidence for action technical papers, World Health
Organization, Geneva.

89
40. Hibell, B., Andersson, B., Bjarnasson, T. et al. (2004), The ESPAD report 2003:
alcohol and other drug use among students in 35 European countries, The
Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN) and
Council of Europe Pompidou Group.

41. Prinzleve, M., Haasen, C., Zurhold, H. et al. (2004), 'Cocaine use in Europe – a
multi-centre study: patterns of use in different groups', European addiction
research 10, pp.147–55.

42. Roozen, H.G., Boulogne, J.J., van Tulder, M.W. et al. (2004), ‘A systematic
review of the effectiveness of the community reinforcement approach in alcohol,
cocaine and opioid addiction,’ Drug and alcohol dependence 74, pp. 1–13.

43. Shearer, J. and Gowing, L.R. (2004), ‘Pharmacotherapies for problematic


psychostimulant use: a review of current research’, Drug and alcohol review 23,
pp. 203–11.

44. WHO/UNODC/UNAIDS (2004), 'Substitution maintenance therapy in the


management of opioid dependence and HIV/AIDS prevention', position paper,
World Health Organization, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, UNAIDS
(http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/publications/treatment/en/index.html).

45. Higgins, S.T., Sigmon, S.C., Wong, C.J. et al. (2003), ‘Community reinforcement
therapy for cocaine-dependent outpatients’, Archives of general psychiatry 60, pp.
1043–52.

46. UNODC and Government of Morocco (2005), Morocco Cannabis Survey 2004.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Vienna.

47. Muhammad (2003)

48. Von Sydow, K., Lieb, R., Pfister, H. et al. (2002), ‘What predicts incident use of
cannabis and progression to abuse and dependence? A 4-year prospective

90
examination of risk factors in a community sample of adolescents and young
adults’, Drug and alcohol dependence 68(1), pp. 49–64.

49. Mir (1997)

50. Kumpfer, K.L., Molgaard, V. and Spoth, R. (1996), 'The Strengthening Families
Program for prevention of delinquency and drug use in special populations', in:
Peters, R. and McMahon, R. J. (eds) Childhood disorders, substance abuse, and
delinquency: prevention and early intervention approaches, Sage Publications,
Newbury Park, CA.

51. Dr. Md. Mir (1996), Drug Addiction, Social Legal Dimension, Book media
Srinagar

52. Kandel, D. and Davis, M. (1992), 'Progression to regular marijuana involvement:


Phenomenology and risk factors fro near daily use', in: Glantz, M. and Pickens, R.
(eds), Vulnerability to Drug Abuse pp. 211–53. American Psychological
Association. Washington.

53. Sharma (1992)

54. Baker Therese L (1994). Doing social research. 2nd California, Jan Mac Graw.
Hill, INC.

55. Babbie, Earl (1992), The practice of social research. WADA Worth publishing
Co. Incl. Balmont California.

56. Collin dictionary of Sociology (1991)

57. Earle Babbie (1986)

58. Adams (1985)

59. Gabriel, G.N. (1981) A pharmacological classification od Drugs of abuse.

91
60. Smith (1980)

61. Barbie (1979)

62. Wiiessman (1978)

63. Murry (1978)

64. ONS (2006), Health Statistics Quarterly 29, Office for National Statistics,
London.

65. Robin (1975)

66. B. Barber, Drugs and Society (1967); C. B. Clayman, ed.,American Medical


Association Guide to Prescription and Over-the-Counter Drugs (1988);

67. Lurie (1967)

68. Becker, W. C. (1964), consequences of different kinds of parental discipline. In


M.L. Hoffman & L.W. Hoffman (Eds). Review of child development research.
New York : Russell Sage Foundation.

69. Hagood and Price (1959)

70. Becker (1953)

71. Harry Elmer Barness (1939)

72. WCO (2005), Customs and drugs 2004, World Customs Organization, Brussels.

73. UNODC (2006), 2006 world drug report, United Nations Office on Drugs and
Crime, Vienna.

74. Europol (2006), 'Drugs 2006' (communication to the EMCDDA of 16 January


2006, file no. 158448), Europol, The Hague.

92
75. EMCDDA (2002a), Prosecution of drug users in Europe – varying pathways to
similar objectives, European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction,
Lisbon.

76. EMCDDA (2002b), 'Mortality of drug users in the EU: coordination of


implementation of new cohort studies, follow-up and analysis of existing cohorts
and development of new methods and outputs', Project CT.00.EP.13, European
Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Lisbon.

77. EMCDDA (2004b), An overview of cannabis potency in Europe, Insights no. 6,


European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Lisbon.

78. EMCDDA (2004c), European report on drug consumption rooms, European


Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Lisbon.

79. EMCDDA (2004d), 'Overdose: a major cause of avoidable death among young
people', Drugs in Focus No. 13, European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug
Addiction, Lisbon.

80. EMCDDA (2005b),'Assistance to EMCDDA for the analysis of drug profiles


from EMCDDA Databank on surveys of drug use', final report, project
CT.03.P1.200, European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction,
Lisbon.

81. EMCDDA (2005c), 'Data collection to develop an inventory of social and health
policies, measures and actions concerning drug users in prison in the recently
incorporated Member States to the EU', final report, project CT.04.P2.329,
European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Lisbon.

82. INCB (2006a), Report of the International Narcotics Control Board for 2005,
United Nations International Narcotics Control Board, New York.

93
83. INCB (2006b), Precursors and chemicals frequently used in the illicit
manufacture of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, United Nations
International Narcotics Control Board, New York.

94
INTERVIEW SHEDULE

95
INTERVIEW SCHEDULE
Masters in Criminology
Department of Sociology
University of Karachi
Karachi
DRUG ADDISTION IN PAKISTANI SOCIETY
Researcher’s Name:
Research Supervisor’s Name: Dr. Nabeel Ahmed Zubairi

CODE NO.__________ AREA:__________________

PERSONAL PROFILE:
1. Name: ___________________________________________________________
2. Age: _____________________________________________________
3. Gender: _____________________________________________________
4. Native Language____________________________________________________
5. Place of Birth ______________________________________________________
6. Marital Status
a) Married b) Un married c) Separate
7. In which type family u live
a) Joint Family b) Nuclear Family
8. How many siblings you have?
a)Nil b)1-3 c)4-6 d)7-9 e)10-12
9. How many children you have?
a)Nil b)1-3 c)4-6 d)7-9 e)10-12
10. Are you literate?
a) yes b) No

96
11. Level of education
a)Nil b) Madarsa c)Primary d)Secondary
e)Matric f)Inter g)Degree
12. What is your occupation?
a)Employed b) Business c)None
13. What is your Monthly income?
a)1-5000 b)5001-1000 c)1000 above
14. How is your relationship between you and your spouse and family?
a)Cordial b)Regular c)Un-cordial
15. With whom you are presently living?
a)Wife & children b) Parents c)Isolated
16. Do you follow your religion?
a)Yes b)No c)Up to some extent
17. Did you get your religious education?
a)Yes b)No
18. What are your Hobbies?______________________________________________
19. Number of friends?__________________________________________________
DRUGS PROFILE:
20. Do you smoke cigarette?
a) Yes b) No
21. Age at started smoking:______________________________________________

22. Which drug you used first time?


a)Heroin b)Charas c)Opium d)Beer e)Bhang
23.Age when you started taking drugs?____________________________________
24.Which type of drugs you are using presently?
a)Heroin b)Charas c)Opium d)Beer e)Bhang
25. Where do you use drugs?_____________________________________________

97
26. With whom you use drug?____________________________________________
27. From where you buy drugs?__________________________________________
28. Expenditure on drugs per day?
` a)100+ b)200+ c)300+
29)How many times you use drugs per day?
a)Once b)Twice c)Thrice or more
30. Pattern of using drugs? _______________________________________________
31. How long you have been using drugs? __________________________________
32.Had your any relative drug addicted?
a)Yes b)No
33. Who introduced drugs to you?_________________________________________
34. Reason for using drugs?______________________________________________
35. Were you aware of negative effects of drugs?
a)Yes b)No
36. What is your self image after using drugs?_______________________________
38. Are u ever been involved in criminal offences?
a)Yes b)No
39. Do you desire to give up drugs?
a) Yes b)No
40.Had you got the treatment for the drug addiction?
a) Yes b)No
41.From which nation of people you buy drugs mostly?________________________
42.From where you get quality drugs?______________________________________
43. What is your source of Income?________________________________________

98
99