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SHAHJALAL UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE &

TECHNOLOGY

An Assignment
On
“A scenario of tea pest in tea garden of
Bangladesh”

Course Title: Entomology & Tea Pest


Management Sessional
Course no : FTT 319
Submission Date: January 3rd, 2010

Submitted to Submitted by
Dr. Iftekhar Ahmad Md. Saidur Rahman Khan
Assestant Professor Reg. No. 2006337004
Dept. of Food & Tea Semester 3/1
Technology Dept. of Food & Tea
SUST Technology
SUST

Tea production in Bangladesh is greatly hindered due to a number of pests and diseases. Various
insects, mites, nematodes, algae, fungi, and weeds are major yield depressants. So far 29
arthropod pests including 25 insects, 4 mites, and 12 nematodes; and 1 algal and 18 fungal
diseases, and 37 predominant weed species have been recorded. However, these pests become
epidemic in certain year, season or in some gardens. The pest status as major or minor often
depends upon the prevailing climatic and ecological conditions. More than one pest or disease
may invade conjointly or simultaneously to the same bush or same garden in a particular season
or time. Tea pest and tea productivity are two antagonistic factors. Literally the word pest (La.
Pestis, pestillance) is a collective term for a wide range of organism like virus, bacteria, algae,
fungi, insects, mites, birds, rodents, etc. which are noxious, troublesome and destructive to crops,
food supply and human property. In Bangladesh tea, the annual crop loss due to various pests is
estimated to be about 10-15 percent.

What is Tea?
Tea is a cross-pollinated plant. Tea plant is a small tree or shrub which may grow to a height of
about 9m. in nature. The botanical name is Camellia sinensis. Leaves are alternate, elliptical,
lanceolate or ovate, leathery and smooth, 1.5-2.1 cm. in length. Young leaves are more or less
pubescent with point buds. Flower buds originate singly or in cluster from leaf axils. Flower
white and fragrant with 5-7 leathery permanent sepals forming a ring, 5-7 white obviate,
emarginated, internally concave Patel. Stamen is numerous, long, with yellow 2-celled anther.

Pest
The pest is always a living organism. Whether an organism is a pest or not, basically depends on
a value of judgment. It may not be a pest in its natural habitat, but its status can be changed when
it comes into conflict with man. A pest has been defined in number of ways like-

 Any organism that causes trouble, annoyance or discomfort is known as pest.

 Living organism which causes harm to our health, properties or well being are known as pest.

 Organism which attack, feed upon and injure plants parts or belonging and causes economic
losses are known as pest.
eg.Termite, Ants, Mite, Looper caterpillar,etc.

Tea Pest
The pests that create a handicap in the tea population are called the Tea pest.

e.g. Termite, Ants, Mite, Looper caterpillar etc.

Fig: Beetles Fig: Tea Mosquito Bug Fig: Looper Caterpillars

Fig: Flies Fig: Mite Fig: Termite

Types of Tea pest


Based on ecological view pest can be divided into two groups:-

(a) `r` pest

(b) `k` pest.


`r` pest:- These pests are highly reproductive potential that are able to induce sudden and wide
speed attack under favorable conditions.

`k` pest:- These are slowly reproductive potential. They are more stable i.e. they live in stable
habitat and are less migratory in habit and posses prolonged generation time.

According to the view of status pest can be categorized into two types:-

(a) Key pest.

(b) Occasional pest.

Key pest:- These type of pest have highly reproductive potential and prolonged stability in
the habitat. A singal crop may have one or more key pest which may or may not vary between
different seasons and regions. Key pests owe their status to several factors such as their high
reproductive potential and types of induce injury to the host plant. They cause major damage in
every season and sometimes unless control.

Occasional Pest:- The pest that cause damage of plants and animals in the interval seasons is
termed as occasional pest. They do not inhabit but periodically invade crops for a short period
causing colossal damage.These pests are mobile and migratory in habit.They exploit maximum
food intake in short time.Their population growth is characterised as `boom and bust` and
dominated large scale migration.

eg. Locust, Armyworms, Aphid, etc.

Based on importance pest can be divided into four types:-

(a) Vectors.

(b) Benefactors.

(c) Major pest.

(d) Minor pest.

Vectors:The pest that transmit diseases are called vectors. They induce injury to plant and
animals by feeding or sucking the host tissues.

Eg. Insects, Clostridium, etc.

Benefactors :The pests which are directly or indirectly involve in human welfare are called
Benefactors.

eg. Predators/Parasites and many productive insects like Honeybee,Silkworm and Lack
insects,etc.They are useful and denoted as productive insects.
Major pest: They are potential, remain fairly persistent throughout the season in a cropping
system or in a restricted area and inflict a sustantial damage to the crop plants. They live in stable
habitats and less migratory in habit and posses prolonged generation time. They are termed as
major pest because of their basic biology, frequent occurrence and wide range of host plants.

eg. Ants, Codling moth, Tsetes files and some beetles.

Minor pests: They occasionally induce to crop plants but do not cause economic damage. Often
their effect on the plants is invisible. They may be limited to particular crop plants or may prefer
other plants as hosts.

Secondary/Sporadic pest: Sometimes in a particular cropping system a small proportion of


such minor pest become abundant and inflict economic damage, these are then called economic
Secondary or Sporadic pest. The number of these pest are usually controlled by biotic and
abiotic factors which occasionally breakdown , allowing the pest to exceed its economic injury
threshold.

Major Tea
Pest

Sucking Chewing
pest pest

Caterpillar

Bunch
Mites
Insect Looper
Pest Red
scarlet Red slug
Tea
mite
Mosquito Flush worm
Bug Pink mite
Beetle
Thrips
Cockchafer
Beetle

Matalic green

Borer

Termites

Live wood

Scavenging
Helopeltis, Red spider mite

Flushworm

Aphid, Jassid, Thrips

Leaf roller, scale insect

Scarlet, pink and purple mite

Bag worm, Faggot

Termite

Cricket

Termite

Nematode

Fig: Diagrammatic representation of of a tea bush and location of pests on it

Locational characteristics of Bangladesh tea pest


Many pests are cosmopolitan and distributed over a wide range of ecological zones. It is
observed in the world tea that Helopeltis, Red spider mite and Scarlet mite are distributed
between 00 to 270 N latitude. Some pests such as Flush worm, Aphid and Jassid are distributed in
the area between 240 S-110N. High soil PH and clay loams are suitable for some pests like
termites and nematodes. Aspect/topography influences the climates and moisture which
sometimes strictly controls helopeltis survival in Sylhet Zone but restricts in Chittagoan Zone.
Even soil type and geographically isolated area does not face this acute Helopeltis problem. At
very low temperature in cold weather period only termite is activate while during high
temperature and high humidity most of the foliar pests of upper and mid canopy such as Thrips
jassid , Tea seed bug, Red scarlet mite, Pink mite, Purple mite, Caterpillar Looper, Red slug,
Flush worm.

Pest succession in Bangladesh


The overall pest-spectrum of Bangladesh tea is similar to that of the Brahmaputra valley ,
Assam. It seems that most of the major pest and diseases of tea have been introduced initially
from the contiguous areas of Cachar,Assam or from the legacy of forest trees and wild or
cultivated plants in this area. During the last 132 years of Bangladesh only a few of the recorded
53 pests and diseases have become major in status. Most of these pest are still minor and causes
occasionally damage.

The status of a pest in an outcome of the balance between pest regularoty forces in nature
and the intrinsic biological adaptability of the pests. The trend of pest succession and the
attainment of epidemic status reveal a change of pest-status during the last two and a half
decades. Red spider mite, tea mosquito bug and termite predominate and are widely distributed
in all tea valley circles. Other pests like tea flush worm, jassid, aphid, scarlet mite, blister blight
disease are found to be restricted in localized areas or ecological zones.

During 1965-80, an exploratory survey of pests in different valley circles of Sylhet tea
was conducted. It reveals that about that about 60 % out of 163 tea estates of Sylhet are invaded
by pests. About 35% of tea estates in Monu-Doly circles and 82 % of tea tea estates of Luskerpur
circles are invaded, while other circles remain below the average of whole Sylhet zone given
below:

Pests Sporadic Epidemic Status


Red spider mite 1950 1959-74 Major
Tea mosquito bug 1968-70 1975-78 Major

Green caterpillar 1960 1962 Major

Tea seed bug 1960 1962 Major


Flusworm 1960 1963-66 Major
Blister blight 1960 1964, 75 Major
Scarlet mite 1963 1966 Major
Purple & pink mite 1966 1969 Major

Green fly 1970 1985-86 Major


Common tea pests in Bangladesh
In Bangladesh tea, so far 25 insects, 4 mites and 10 species of nematodes have been recorded.
Only few of them have become major pests while most of them are minor and localized and
cause occasional damage. In tea, a major pest of today may be minor of tomorrow. On the
contrary, more than one pest may invade conjointly. Pest of tea and their nature of injury are
presented in table.

Fig: Map of Bangladesh showing the existing and proposed Tea growing areas.

Insect order related to tea:


It is establish today that the insect are the dominant group of living organism on the earth. So far
29 orders are clearly identified. Among the 29 order of insects, the following orders are directly
or indirectly harmful to tea plants-

Lepidoptera Coleoptera

Orthoptera Isoptera

Hemiptera Neuroptera

Thyasnoptera Hymenoptera
Diptera

Tea pest in the different parts of a Tea plant:


Lists of Tea pest which attack at different parts of a tea plant are given below:-

Different parts of a Tea plant No of pest % of pest

Foliage 134 58.9

Stem 300 24.1

Root 160 12.8

Flush/Flower 30 2.4

Fruits 9 0.7

Seedlings/Nursery 14 1.1

Crop loss assessment in the tea world:


Importance of pest control is highlighted through cross loss estimation. Severe infestation by
many foliar and soil pest leads not only to crop loss but to capital loss resulting from the death of
the bushes. There have been several assessments of crop loss in the world tea due to pests
presented by different authors:

Table: Crop loss in world tea

Tea growing area and reference report of crop loss

Tea in Asia( Cramer, 1967) 8%


Loss to be anywhere in India(Banerjee, 1976) 6-14%

Overall india(Das, 1960;Jain, 1977) 15%


Overall N-E, India(Banerjee, 1993) 15%
Bangladesh(Sana, 1989) 15%
Common tea pests in Bangladesh:

In Bangladesh tea, so far 25 insects, 4 mites and 10 species of nematodes have been recorded.
Only few they have become major pests while most they are minor and localised and occasional
damage. In tea, major pests of today may be minor of tomorrow. On the contrary, more than one
pest may invade conjointly. Pest of tea and their injury are presented in Table below:

Order Species(Common Pest Pants parts Nature of Status


Name) stage attacked damage
Hemiptera Helopeltis theivora Nymph, Young leaves, Sucking Major
waterhouse(Tea adult shootes
mosquito bug)
Hemiptera Empoasca flavescense Nymph, Young leaves, Sucking Major
Fab(Green fly/jassid) adult shootes
Hemiptera Taxoptera aurantii Nymph, Young leaves, Sucking Major
Bayer( Plant lice/ adult shootes
Aphis)
Hemiptera Poecilocoris latus Nymph, Flower, seed, Sucking Minor
Dall(Tea seed bug) adult buds
Lepidoptera Clania cramerii (Bag Larva Leaves, cutting Minor
worm) shootes, buds
Lepidoptera Clania sikkima (Faggot Larva Leaves, Cutting Minor
worm) shootes,buds
Lepidoptera Clania destructor Larva Leaves, Cutting Minor
shootes, buds
Lepidoptera Biston suppressaria Larva Young and Cutting Minor
Green (Looper mature leaves
caterpillar)
Acarina Oligonychus coffeae Nymph, upper surface Sucking Major
Nietner (Red spider adult of the mature
mite) leaves
Acarina Brevipalpus phoenicis Nymph, upper surface sucking Minor
(scarlet mite) adult of the mature
leaves
Tylenchida Pratylenchus loosi Adult Root sucking Major
(Meadow/root lesion
nematode)
Tylenchida Aphelenchus sp. Adult Root Sucking Minor
(Saprophagous
nematodes)
Tylenchida Helicotylenchus spp. Adult Root Sucking Minor
(spiral nematodes)
Tylenchida Meloidogyne spp. Adult Root Sucking Major
(Root-knot nematodes)
Description of some major pest in Bangladesh:

Tea Thrips:
General description:

Scientific name: Scirtoturips dorsails Hood.


Order: Thripidae
Status: Major pest in nursery, young tea and tea recovering after pruning.
Distribution: Zimbababue, Africa Bangladesh.

Nature of damage:
Thrips prefer unopened or partly opened young leaves and buds. Both adults and nymphs
generally feed on them and cause laceration of the tissue, which appear as large number of
streaks. The leaves surface become uneven and malty as feeding marks on leaves. As a result the
growth of the affected leaves becomes stunted and immature tea leaves may look burnt.

Life cycle:
The adult is dark brown and the egg is laid singly in the tissues of leaf buds and young leaves.
The egg is bean shaped, slightly narrower at one end and colorless. The incubation period varies
from 6-7 days and newly heated nymph is at first white and latter turn to yellow orange in color.
The life cycle consist of egg, nymph, prepupa, pupa and adults. After the second moult a prepupa
is formed. Total duration for nymphal and pupal stage varies from 6-10 days during summer.
Fig: Life cycle of Tea Thrips
Control measure:
(1) Physical control:
(a) Mechanical control:
 Shorten the plucking round during infestation.
 Hard plucking may be practiced during severe causes.
(b) Cultural control:
 Establishment of optimum shade in plantation and overhead shade
in nursery.
 Keeping the selection weed free.
 Improve drainage condition.

(2) Chemical control:

Thrips prune area should be regularly sprayed with Agrothion 50% EC at the rate of 1.25
liters per hectare diluted with enough water to over the affected areas or with Thiodin
35% EC at rate of 1.25 liters per hectare.

(3) Biological control:

 The natural enemies such as lady bird beetles, syrphid larv, lace winged flies
and several types of insects can destroy this pest.

Jassid:
General description:

Tea jassid Empsaca flavescens(Fab)are commonly known as green fly. It is a major pest of
nursery and young tea. It is more pronunced in unshaded areas then shaded areas.

Nature of damage:

The damage is caused by both adult and nymphs,which suck the sap of young leafs and
occasionally tender stem. Nymphs are responsible for greater damage than the adults.The growth
of the affected leaf becomes uneven and the leaves usually curl downwards seeming to be boat
shaped.the leaf margins become recurved and turned brown and dry up (rim blight).This insect is
highly polyphagous.

Identifying characters:
Adult jassids are small yellowish green and 0.5 cm long forewing being pale yellow in
colour.Male is smaller in color.Nymphs are without wing and it can jump quickly when
disturbed.

Life history:

Adult female lays eggs singly inside the soft tissue of petioles, mid rib and veins of young
leaves .The incubation period varies from 6 to 13 days . Nymphal period varies from 10 to 15
days. there are four moults of nymphs before it becomes adult.

Fig: Life cycle of Jassid

Control measure:

1.physical control:

(a) Mechanical control:

 Shortening of plucking round during infestation.

 Hard plucking may be practiced during severe cases.

 Target point especially the top shoot and the under surface of young leaf.

(b) cultural control:

 Establishment of optimum shade in plantation and providing overhead shade in


nurseries.

 Cleaning the section and keeping the section weed free.


 Improvement of drainage condition.

2. Chemical control:

C.QS.S Ekatin 25 E.C in 1.12 litre in 560 litres water/ha

S. Rogor 40 E.C in 1.12 litre in 560 litres water/ha

3. Biological control:

 The natural enemies such as lady bird beetles, syrphid larv, lace winged flies
and several types of insects can destroy this pest.

Aphid:
General description:

Tea aphid Toxoptera aurantii bayer are commonly known as plant lice. It is major pest of tea
nursery and young plantation. It is widely distributed in Bangladesh, India and srilanka .It
generally attack on the plant in December.

Nature of damage:

Nymphs suck the sap. It attacks the tender stem, undersurface of young leaves and buds.
Affected leaves loose their sap and become crinkled and curled and the growth of shoot is
retarded. It is highly reproductive pest and multiplies rapidly resulting in a heavy build up of
colonies within a short time. Aphids secretes sweet honey from its chronicles on the leaf surface.

Life history:

Both the nymph and adult suck the plant juice. They are small dark brown. The nymph are
wingless females, dark brown and 1-2mm long. A reproductive female may give birth to as many
as 100 young during a life time of 2 to 4 week. Sometimes reproduction takes place
parthenogenetically i.e without fertilization by male , female give birth to youngs.
Fig: Life cycle of Aphid

Control measure:

1. Physical control:

(a) Mechanical control:

 Hand pick and kill them.

 Cut the infected part.

 Maintaining the plucking system.

(b) cultural control:

 Establishment of optimum shade in plantation and providing overhead shade in


nurseries.

 Cleaning the section and keeping the section weed free.

 Improvement of drainage condition.

2. Chemical control:

C.QS.S Ekatin 25 E.C in 1.12 litre in 560 litres water/ha

S. Rogor 40 E.C in 1.12 litre in 560 litres water/ha

C.S Roxion 40 E.C in 1.12 litre in 560 litres water /ha


3. Biological control:

 The natural enemies such as lady bird beetles, syrphid larv, lace winged flies
and several types of insects can destroy this pest.

Looper caterpillar:

General description:

It is a minor pest.It`s scientific name is Biston suppressaria (Guen).It is one of the most
destructive pest of tea.The incidence of this pest has been recorded in the district of Doorars and
Cachar since 1900.In Bangladesh tea ,a several outbreak occurred in several tea states of Sylhet
in 1963 and present sporadic and localized incidence is observed in lower valley circles of
Bangladesh Tea.

Nature of damage :

The young caterpillar make hole at the margin of leaf, bite of small pies along the margin and
eventually the whole leaf is completely eaten away.In a several attack, the bushes are completely
stripped of leaf.

Life history:

The moth is grey, finely speckled with black.The fore wing has a yellow antimedial bend and
both wings bear an indistinct sinuous yellow median line and a post median maculated band with
a marginal series of yellow spots. The wing span of male is 40-50 mm. and of female is 60-70
mm.Eggs are laid in heaps,each containing 200-600 eggs covered with buff colour hairs , on the
trunk of shade trees or any other site of tea.The eggs are cylindrical bluish green and turn dark –
brown befoe hatching.Incubation period varies 8-10 days .Newly hatched larvae are dark brown
in colour.The cater pillar has a pro leg at the 6 th segment of the abdomen.The larval period is
about three weeks.Before population they move to the ground and pupated in the soil under the
tea bushes.

Fig: Looper caterpiller

Control masure:

1. Physical control:

(a) Mechanical control:

 Hand pick and kill them.

 May be killed by means of bamboo pole to which a bundle of thatch grass is


used like a broom.

(b) Cultural control:

 Establishment of optimum shade in plantation and providing overhead shade


in nurseries.

 Cleaning the section and keeping the section weed free.


 Improvement of drainage condition.

2. Chemical control:

 Dimecron 100 E.C @ 0.35 lit/ ha or

 Bidrin 87 E.C @ 0.56 lit/ ha.

3.Biological control:

 The natural enemies such as lady bird beetles, syrphid larv, lace winged flies
and several types of insects can destroy this pest.

CRICKET:

General description:

 Scientific name:

Brown cricket : Brachytrypes pertentosus

Mole cricket : Gryllotalpa Africana

 Type : Minor, Nochternal

 Distribution : North-East India, Sri Lanka, Africa , Bangladesh

 Region of attack : leaves & tender shoots , also stem & roots of young seedlings

 Time of infestation : around the year, but mostly in October-February

Nature of damage:

 Come out at night & cut off leaves & tender shoots

 Also cut through the stem & roots of young seedlings

 Cut young plant 2-6 cm above the ground

Life history:

 Adult brown cricket is blackish brown insect


 Length is 1.5-2cm with long antennae

 Nocturnal &live in burrows

 Eggs are laid on the soil surface , at the bottom of the burrow

 Hatching time is 4 weeks

 Young nymphs live for 15 days in maternal burrow

 Development of adult from nymph take several months& adult is seen in June –July

Control measure:

1. Physical control measure

a) Mechanical control :

 Hand picking & killing

 Destruction of specially female insect to reduce the reproduction rate

 Removal of infested plant part

 Burrows should be find out & plucked off

 Pour 1/2 spoonful of waste engine oil / PDB crystal per hole until cricket appear
& then destroy by hand. Then burrows have to pluck off .

b) Cultural control:

 Ensure proper drainage facilities

 Regular weeding should done

 Cleanliness is a major remedy

2. Chemical control:

 In severe infestation , ‘Bran baits’ containing Heptachlor / Dieldrin should be


spread @ 10-20 lbs/acre in 2-3 consecutive night

 Strip spray with Dieldrin 2% dust or Dieldrin 20EC @ 0.5 lbs/acre


 The natural enemies such as lady bird beetles, syrphid larv, lace winged flies
and several types of insects can destroy this pest.

3. Biological control:

 The natural enemies such as lady bird beetles, syrphid larv, lace winged flies
and several types of insects can destroy this pest.

FLUSH WORM:

General descripion:

 Scientific name : Laspeyresia leuconostoma

 Type : major

 Distribution: North & South India, Bangladesh

 Region of attack : mainly tea flush

 Time of infestation : in Bangladesh , generally March to May

Nature of damage:

 Larvae attack top 2 leaves & a bud of tea

 Larvae roll up the top leaves & tie them together. It remain inside of the fold of
bud or young leaf & feeds by scraping off the tissues of upper surface

 The affected flush becomes distorted , crinkled , rough & brittle with brownish
coloration & internodes become shortened

 Immediately after pruning , newly emerged flushes are severely infested with
flush worm

Life history:

 The insect is very tiny moth , about 10-13cm long

 Head & thorax are brownish


 Abdomen is grayish brown

 Wings color is mixture of dark brown , grey & violet with yellow-white streak

 Egg is minute , oval , & yellowish

 Eggs are laid singly on the under surface of 2nd /3rd leaf

 Newly hatched larvae tie up top leaves with saliva

 Full grown larvae is 9-10mm & greenish or brownish in color

 Larval period is 3-4 weeks

 Pupa is 5-6mm long , greenish-yellow at first & then turned into brown

 They live inside the roll , occasionally outside into leaf petioles

 Pupal period is 10-15 days long

Control measure:

1. Physical control measure:

a) Mechanical control :

 Hand picking & killing

 Destruction of specially female insect to reduce the reproduction rate

 Removal of infested plant part

 Thinning the attacked leaves

 Pluck the janam leaf

b) Cultural control:

 Ensure proper drainage facilities

 Regular weeding should done

 Cleanliness is a major remedy

 Maintaining weekly pruning cycle


1. Chemical control measure:

 Dipterex 50EC @ 2.24 ltr/ha

 Diazinon 60EC @ 0.63 ltr/ha

 Dimecron 100EC @ 0.35ltr/ha

These should apply after plucking

Tea mosquito bug (Helopeltis theivora):


General description:

Tea mosquito bug, Helopeltis theivora is the most serious pest of tea in Bangladesh. There are
several species of Helopeltis attacking tea, cocoa and cinchona in Sri-Lanka, India, Indonesia
and Africa. In Bangladesh, the trend of successive invasion by this pest indicates that sporadic
incidence was observed during 1968-70 but it attained outbreak status during1975-78. About 15-
34 percent of tea estates in Sylhet is still found affected but with a declining trend.

Nature of injury:

A few to innumerable feeding punctures or spots are found on young tea flush. Spots are light-
brown, sunken, translucent, 1-5 mm in diameter, with dark margin and sometimes a drop of
brownish liquid oozing out of the centre of the wound. Within a few hours, the spots turn black
and dry up, later the necrotic leaves curl and become crinkled. Young stems or petioles and buds
become brown.

Fig: Life cycle of Tea mosquito bug


Control measures:

1. Physical control:

(a) Cultural control:

 Establishment of optimum shade in plantation

 Cleaning the section and keeping the section weed free.

 Improvement of drainage system.

(b)Mechanical control:

 Three-year pruning cycle in preference to four-year pruning cycle should be


adopted.

1. Chemical control:

 Of the approved pesticides, Thiodan is found to be superior to others in

reducing the pest population, while Agrothion, Malathion and Sumicidin

are more or less equitoxic and remain effective upto 15 days after spraying.

2. Biological control:

 The population of the pest is kept below the level of economic damage by

various parasites such as Asympieslla India, Bethylus distigma, Angitia sp

Nematode Pests:
Nematodes are widely distributed through the world and are known to live in
widely different habitats. They may be saprophagous spp. Feeding on decaying organic matter
or predaceous spp. Which feed on algae, fungi and other plants. They are commonly called
roundworms, eelworms or nemas. Plant parasites nematodes are important pest on many
cultivated plants including tea, coffee etc. They may attack any part of the plant but most species
limit their attack to roots or underground parts.
Life cycle:

Life cycle is simple and 20-60 days duration. Eggs hatch into larvae and
transfer into adults. There is no definite metamorphosis but moults occur. Eggs may remain

Fig: Life cycle of nematode

dormant in the soil for long period; some chemical substances from the plant being seemingly
needed for hatching. Some nematodes are endoparasitic i.e pass their entire life inside plant
roots, while others are ecto-parasitic or non-sedentary ones which pass a part of their life inside
plant roots and hence via the soil to others plant roots.

Key to plant parasitic nematode:

3. Sedentary root nematode

a. Cyst-forming nematode………………. Heterodera sp.

b. Root-knot nematodes………………….. Melodogyne sp.

Tea Nematod in Bangladesh:


Nematods are importants pest of tea in the nursery and new clearing and invade tea seedlings
upto 8-9 moths old, in young plantation.Tea in India, Srilanka and Africa are reported to be
attacked by root knote nematode, Meloidogyne sp , Root lesion nematode.(Paratylenchus loosi,
P. brachyrus), False nematode,Xiphenema spp.Sheath nematode,Hemacycliophora
longicoudata.dagger nematode,Xiphinema radicicola,spiral nematode,Hericorylenchus spp. In
bangladeshtea,Root lession nematode,paratylenchus loosi,spiral nematode (Hericorylenchus
spp).Tylenchus spp. And aphelenchus spp. Are mostly associated.Root-knot
nematode,meloidogne spp. is occasionally reported.

A. Root lesion nematode,Paratylenchus loosi loof:

These are migratory and endoparasitic nematodes on the roots of young tea plant.they are
short,cel shaped,0.45-0.75mm. in length,the head is strong witg stout stylet.they usually feed on
feeder roots and gain entrance into plant tissues causing lesions on the epidermal cells.as a con
sequence of feeding ,the tissues of the cortical zone die and leads to the formation of dark
necrotic areas or lesions which are exposed when the bark is peeled.These lesions then gradually
expand and girdle the root,thus cutting off food-food supply to the tip end and leading to the
ultimate death of the storage root. These nematodes may undergo a stage of anabiosis whereby
their feeding actively is markedly reduced.They may viable in this state for as long as 3-4 years
these nematodes are abundant and may pass from old roots to the new young tea.

B. Root –knot nematode, Melodogyne spp. : Both root –lesion and root knot nematodes
are reported from java,West Africa, Belgium Congo, Trinidad, and as a pest of the cacoa plant.
The root knot nematode is a serious pest of tea in Sri Lanka. Young seedling as well as clonal
plants in the tea nursary are attacked.Root-knot nematodes infestation is easily recognizable from
its charecteristics tumor-like galls on the infested plant roots. The female root knot nematode
larvae mature within the root tissue, transform from typical eel-form to a sausage-shaped form
and remain sedentary.

Tea pest management


Tea pest management is a vast topic involving intricate and interwoven matters of relevant
disciplines of bio as well as physical science, health, environment, social and economic aspects
are also dealt with. Tea pest and tea productivity are two antagonistic factors. Literally the word
pest (La. Pestis, pestillance) is a collective term for a wide range of organism like virus, bacteria,
algae, fungi, insects, mites, birds, rodents, etc. which are noxious, troublesome and destructive to
crops, food supply and human property. In Bangladesh tea, the annual crop loss due to various
pests is estimated to be about 10-15 percent.
Some scale for Pest measurement:
There is some scale for the measurement pest injury, such as-

(a) Economic danger.

(b) Economic injury level.

(c) Economic threshold.

(d) Equilibrium position.

Economic danger:

The economic danger is defined as the amount of danger or injury done to a crop which will
financially justify the cost of taking artificial pest control measures. As a general guide for most
agricultural crop pest, it is agreed that an insect species can attain pest status when there is 5-
10% crop yield losses. Obviously a loss of 10% plant stand in a cereal or sugarcane plantation is
not serious, whereas the loss of a single nature tree plant like Mango, Citrus or Mahogany tree is
much great for economic consideration.

Economic Injury Level:

It can be defined as the lowest number of insects that will cause economic danger or the
minimum number of insects that would reduce yield to the gain threshold. However Economic
Injury Level varies depends on crop to crop, seasons to seasons and area to area and human scale
of values.

Economic Threshold (ET): It indicates the number of insects at which the pest management
action should be taken in order to prevent an increasing pest population from reaching the
Economic Injury Level.

Equilibrium position: Equilibrium is the average population density of a pest over a long
period of time. The pest population will fluctuate above this equilibrium according to the
influence of density depended factors.

Integrated Pest Management:


In 1967 the integrated pest control strategy is defined as Pest Management by the experts of FAO
panel.The concept of pest management is now internationally accepted as Integrated Pest
Management (IPM).Pest management implies the regulation of pest activity by adopting of
suitable methods so as to minimize their injurious effect and to maximize the activities of
biocontrol agents without jeopardizing the natural balance.

IPM is a multidimentional cohesive system of selection,integration and implementation of pest


control strategies based on the predicted ecological and socio-economic consequence. The
underlaying concepts and methods of IPM aim at developing and economically viable and
environmentally accepted system of crop protection.

IPM is virtually concept a of pest population management system which utilizes almost all types
of proven pest control tactics to reduce and maintain the pest population density below the level
of economic threshold of crop damage while maintaining the environmental equality.

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) component:


-The agroecosystem.

-The plants.

-The pest.

-Preventive control-resistant varieties, cultural management, plant spacing and sanitation,


etc.

-Suppressive control –Parasitoids and predators, microbial agent, pesticides, etc.

Steps or methods of IPM:-


(1) Identification of target diseases and pest.

(2) Identification of management unit.

(a) Agroecosystem.

(b) Operational area.

(3) Developmental strategies:-

(a)Study of ecology and epidemiology of pest to establish the biotic inter links.

(b)To reach a dynamic equilibrium at a higher plant.

(4) Establishment of economic threshold.

(5) Development of pest monitoring technique.

(6) Descriptive, predictive system i.e. analytical modeling.

(7) Optimization of management decision:


(a) Pest attack.

(b) Economy of farming system and

(c) Crop protection technology.

Pest Forcasting and Pest Monitoring:


The object of forcasting is to provide information in advene of pest attack on what the pest
simasion is likely to be. The main purpose of forcasting is the region. Incontrast,pest scouting,or
monitoring, is concerned with obtaining real time information on the current level and obten in
association with a pre-determined action threshold population level.If pest scouting provides
information at the time decitions are made,it may further reduce uncertainly and improve pest
control be known and the natural controls maximized.

The methodology of pest monitoring scheme depends upon the crop or other resources,the type
of pests involved, environmental conditions, and the economic resources. In tea culture, several
pest scouting techniques have been designed by using Pest Survey Card and Pest Status Reticule-
1,11,and nematode and Weed Density Sampling Techniques.

Conclusion:
Tea a popular beverage made from the leaves of evergreen shrub or tree Camellia sinensis,
family Theaceae. It is predominantly an agro-based export-oriented evergreen crop in
Bangladesh and a perennial crop grown as a monoculture on large contiguous areas. Under
natural conditions, a tea plant grows to a small tree but it is configured into a bush by sequential
pruning and other silvicultural practices, viz tipping, plucking and by harvesting the optimum
vegetative produce. Generally the insect which attack the tea crops are known as tea pest. About
15% tea production could be lost per year by various tea pest particularly insects, mites and
nematodes. Scientists and researchers contributed to estimate the tea pests worldwide and
according to them 1034 species of arthropods and 82 species of nematodes infest tea plants.
These pests are enable them to attack in all parts of a tea plants .Among different parts of a tea
plant, foliage pests are in the highest number. Mainly the importance of tea pest is found in the
destruction of tea crop and in the rare case in the beneficial effect.
Reference:

1. Abbasi F.H. and K.A. Akbar. 1962. Studies on the control of eelworm in The tea
nurseries.
2. Sana, D.L. 1974 – 1989. Researches on Pest Management. Pest Management
div. Annual reports. BTRI. Srimangal
3. Hajra. Ghosh. N. Tea cultivation: Comprehensive Treatise
4. Banerjee, B. 1976b. Pestiside and Pesticides Residues in Tea
5. Das, G.M. and Das S.C. 1959. Problems of pest control in Tea. Science and
Culture, 24: 493 -498
6. Ahmed, Mainuddin. Dr. Tea Pest Management
7. Sana, D.L. Tea Science (90 – 155)
8. “Tea” Encyclopedia Britannica. 1971

Note: the following of the information of this assignment are collected from many of these references
area through online services from Internet.